Interface and Hardware Component Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S
MPLS VPN over mGRE
Downloads: This chapterpdf (PDF - 1.37MB) The complete bookPDF (PDF - 4.63MB) | The complete bookePub (ePub - 1.33MB) | Feedback

MPLS VPN over mGRE

MPLS VPN over mGRE

The MPLS VPN over mGRE feature overcomes the requirement that a carrier support multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) by allowing you to provide MPLS connectivity between networks that are connected by IP-only networks. This allows MPLS label switched paths (LSPs) to use generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnels to cross routing areas, autonomous systems, and internet service providers (ISPs). when MPLS VPNs are configured over multipoint GRE (mGRE) you can deploy layer-3 (L3) provider edge (PE) based virtual private network (VPN) services using a standards-based IP core. This allows you to provision the VPN services without using the overlay method.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Prerequisites for MPLS VPN over mGRE

Before you configure MPLS VPN with mGRE tunnels, ensure that the MPLS VPN is configured and working properly. See the "Configuring MPLS Layer 3 VPNs" module for information about setting up MPLS VPNs.

Restrictions for MPLS VPN over mGRE

  • Tunnelled tag traffic must enter the router through a line card that supports MPLS VPN over mGRE.
  • Each PE router supports one tunnel configuration only.
  • MPLS VPN over mGRE does not support the transportation of multicast traffic between VPNs.
  • When a GRE tunnel has the same destination address and source address as the mGRE, the tunnel gets route-cache switched.
  • The packets that require fragmentation get route cache-switched.
  • When an L3VPN profile is removed and added back, then you should clear the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) using the clear ip bgp softcommand.
  • When an mGRE tunnel is created, a dummy tunnel is also created.
  • The loopback or IP address used in the update source of the BGP configuration should be the same as that of the transport source of the L3VPN profile.
  • mGRE is not stateful switchover (SSO) compliant. However, both mGRE and SSO coexist.
  • mGRE and multicast distribution tree (MDT) tunnel should not be configured with the same loopback address.

The limitations for MPLS VPN over mGRE feature are as follows:

    • Not all GRE options are supported in the hardware (for example, GRE extended header and GRE key).
    • Checking identical VLANs (Internet Control Message Protocol [ICMP] redirect) is not supported on the tunnels.
    • Features such as unicast reverse path forwarding (uRPF) and BGP policy accounting are not supported on the tunnels.

Information About MPLS VPN over mGRE

You can configure mGRE tunnels to create a multipoint tunnel network that overlays an IP backbone. This overlay connects PE routers to transport VPN traffic.

In addition, when MPLS VPNs are configured over mGRE you can deploy L3 PE-based VPN services using a standards-based IP core. This allows you to provision the VPN services without using the overlay method. When MPLS VPN over mGRE is configured, the system uses IPv4-based mGRE tunnels to encapsulate VPN-labeled IPv4 and IPv6 packets between PEs. To deploy MPLS VPN over mGRE tunnels, you create a VRF instance, enable and configure L3 VPN encapsulation, link the route map to the application template, and set up the BGP VPNv4 and VPNv6 exchange so that updates are filtered through the route map.

MPLS VPN over mGRE

GRE is a point-to-point tunneling protocol where two peers form the endpoints of the tunnel. It is designed to encapsulate network-layer packets inside IP tunneling packets. mGRE is a similar protocol with a single endpoint at one side of the tunnel connected to multiple endpoints at the other side of the tunnel. The mGRE tunnel provides a common link between branch offices that connect to the same VPN. Because mGRE is a point-to-multipoint model, fully meshed GRE tunnels are not required to interconnect MPLS VPN PE devices.

MPLS is a widely deployed VPN internet architecture. MPLS requires that all core routers in the network support MPLS. This feature is useful in networks where the service provider uses a backbone carrier to provide connectivity.

The MPLS VPN over mGRE feature overcomes the requirement of carrier support MPLS by allowing you to provide MPLS connectivity between networks that are connected by IP-only networks. This allows MPLS LSPs to use GRE tunnels to cross routing areas, autonomous systems, and ISPs.

When MPLS VPNs are configured over mGRE you can deploy L3 PE-based VPN services using a standards-based IP core. This allows you to provision the VPN services without using LSP or a Label Distribution Protocol (LDP). The system uses IPv4-based mGRE tunnels to encapsulate VPN-labeled IPv4 and IPv6 packets between PEs.

The MPLS VPN over mGRE feature also allows you to deploy existing MPLS VPN LSP-encapsulated technology concurrently with MPLS VPN over mGRE and enables the system to determine which encapsulation method is used to route specific traffic. The ingress PE router determines which encapsulation technology to use when a packet is sent to the remote PE router.

This section includes information on the following topics on MPLS VPN over mGRE feature:

Route Maps

By default, VPN traffic is sent using an LSP. The MPLS VPN over mGRE feature uses user-defined route maps to determine which VPN prefixes are reachable over an mGRE tunnel and which VPN prefixes are reachable using an LSP. The route map is applied to advertisements for VPNv4 and VPNv6 address families. The route map uses a next hop tunnel table to determine the encapsulation method for the VPN traffic.

To route traffic over the mGRE tunnel, the system creates an alternative address space that shows that all next hops are reached by encapsulating the traffic in an mGRE tunnel. To configure a specific route to use an mGRE tunnel, the user adds an entry for that route to the route map. The new entry remaps the Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) of the route to the alternative address space. If there is no remap entry in the route map for a route, then traffic on that route is forwarded over an LSP.

When the user configures MPLS VPN over mGRE, the system automatically provisions the alternative address space, normally held in the tunnel-encapsulated virtual routing and forwarding (VRF) instance. To ensure that all traffic reachable through the address space is encapsulated in an mGRE tunnel, the system installs a single default route out of a tunnel. The system also creates a default tunnel on the route map. The user can attach this default route map to the appropriate BGP updates.

Tunnel Endpoint Discovery and Forwarding

In order for the MPLS VPN over mGRE feature to function correctly, the system must be able to discover the remote PEs in the system and construct tunnel forwarding information for these remote PEs. In addition the system must be able to detect when a remote PE is no longer valid and remove the tunnel forwarding information for that PE.

If an ingress PE receives a VPN advertisement over BGP, it uses the route target attributes (which it inserts into the VRF) and the MPLS VPN label from the advertisement, to associate the prefixes with the appropriate customer. The next hop of the inserted route is set to the NLRI of the advertisement.

The advertised prefixes contain information about remote PEs in the system (in the form of NLRIs), and the PE uses this information to notify the system when an NLRI becomes active or inactive. The system uses this notification to update the PE forwarding information.

When the system receives notification of a new remote PE, it adds the information to the tunnel endpoint database, which causes the system to create an adjacency associated with the tunnel interface. The adjacency description includes information on the encapsulation and other processing that the system must perform to send encapsulated packets to the new remote PE.

The adjacency information is placed into the tunnel encapsulated VRF. When a user remaps a VPN NLRI to a route in the VRF (using the route map), the system links the NLRI to the adjacency; therefore the VPN is linked to a tunnel.

Tunnel Decapsulation

When the egress PE receives a packet from a tunnel interface that uses the MPLS VPN over mGRE feature, the PE decapsulates the packet to create a VPN label tagged packet, and sends the packet to the MPLS forwarding (MFI) code.

Tunnel Source

The MPLS VPN over mGRE feature uses a single tunnel configured as an mGRE tunnel to configure a system with a large number of endpoints (remote PEs). To identify the origin of tunnel-encapsulated packets, the system uses the tunnel source information.

At the transmitting (ingress) PE, when a VPN packet is sent to a tunnel, the tunnel destination is the NLRI. At a receiving (egress) PE, the tunnel source is the address that the packets encapsulated in the mGRE tunnel are received on. Therefore, at the egress PE the packet destination must match the NLRI from the local PE.

IPv6 VPN

If the advertising PE router has an IPv6 address then the NLRI must also be an IPv6 address (regardless of the network between the PEs). If the network between the PEs is IPv4 based, the system creates the IPv6 address of the advertising PE using an IPv4 mapped address in the following form: ::FFFF:IPv4-PE-address. The receiving PE sets the next hop for the VPN tag IPv6 prefixes to the IPv4 address embedded in the IPv6 NLRI. This enables the PE to link VPNv6 traffic to an LSP or an mGRE tunnel in the same way it maps VPNv4 traffic.

When a PE receives VPNv6 updates, it applies the IPv6 route map. The MPLS VPN over mGRE feature uses the IPv6 route map to set the next hop information in the Tunnel_Encap VRF.

How to Configure MPLS VPN over mGRE

Configuring an L3VPN Encapsulation Profile

This section describes how to configure an L3VPN encapsulation profile.


Note


Transport protocols such as IPv6, MPLS, IP, and Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol version 3 (L2TPv3) can also be used in this configuration.


SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    enable

    2.    configure terminal

    3.    l3vpn encapsulation ip profile-name

    4.    transport ipv4 [source interface-type interface-number ]

    5.    protocol gre [ key gre-key ]

    6.    end

    7.    show l3vpn encapsulation ip profile-name


DETAILED STEPS
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1 enable


    Example:
    Router> enable
     

    Enables privileged EXEC mode.

    • Enter your password if prompted.
     
    Step 2 configure terminal


    Example:
    Router# configure terminal
     

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 l3vpn encapsulation ip profile-name


    Example:
    Router(config)# l3vpn encapsulation ip tunnel encap
     

    Enters L3 VPN encapsulation configuration mode to create the tunnel.

     
    Step 4 transport ipv4 [source interface-type interface-number ]


    Example:
    Router(config-l3vpn-encap-ip)# transport ipv4 source loopback 0
     

    (Optional) Specifies IPv4 transport source mode and defines the transport source interface.

    • If you use the transport ipv4 source interface-type interface-number command, make sure that the specified source address is used as the next hop in BGP updates advertised by the PE.
    • If you do not use this command, the bgp update sourceor bgp next-hop command is automatically used as the tunnel source.
     
    Step 5 protocol gre [ key gre-key ]


    Example:
    Router(config-l3vpn-encap-ip)# protocol gre key 1234
     

    Specifies GRE as the tunnel mode and sets the GRE key.

     
    Step 6 end


    Example:
    Router(config-l3vpn-encap-ip)# end
     

    Exits L3 VPN encapsulation configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     
    Step 7 show l3vpn encapsulation ip profile-name


    Example:
    Router# show l3vpn encapsulation ip tunnel encap
     

    (Optional) Displays the profile health and the underlying tunnel interface.

     

    Configuring BGP and Route Maps

    Perform this task to configure BGP and route maps. The following steps also enable you to link the route map to the application template and set up the BGP VPNv4 and VPNv6 exchange so that the updates are filtered through the route map.

    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    router bgp as-number

      4.    bgp log-neighbor-changes

      5.    neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number

      6.    neighbor ip-address update-source interface name

      7.    address-family ipv4

      8.    no synchronization

      9.    redistribute connected

      10.    neighbor ip-address activate

      11.    no auto-summary

      12.    exit

      13.    address-family vpnv4

      14.    neighbor ip-address activate

      15.    neighbor ip-address send-community both

      16.    neighbor ip-address route-map map-name in

      17.    exit

      18.    address-family vpnv6

      19.    neighbor ip-address activate

      20.    neighbor ip-address send-community both

      21.    neighbor ip-address route-map map-name in

      22.    exit

      23.    route-map map-tag permit position

      24.    set ip next-hop encapsulate l3vpn profile-name

      25.    set ipv6 next-hop encapsulate l3vpn profile-name

      26.    exit

      27.    exit


    DETAILED STEPS
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Router> enable
       

      Enables privileged EXEC mode.

      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Router# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 router bgp as-number


      Example:
      Router(config)# router bgp 100
       

      Specifies the number of an autonomous system that identifies the router to other BGP routers and tags the routing information passed along, and enters router configuration mode.

       
      Step 4 bgp log-neighbor-changes


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
       

      Enables logging of BGP neighbor resets.

       
      Step 5 neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# neighbor 209.165.200.225 remote-as 100
       

      Adds an entry to the BGP or multiprotocol BGP neighbor table.

       
      Step 6 neighbor ip-address update-source interface name


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# neighbor 209.165.200.225 update-source loopback 0
       

      Allows BGP sessions to use any operational interface for TCP connections.

       
      Step 7 address-family ipv4


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# address-family ipv4
       

      Enters address family configuration mode to configure routing sessions that use IPv4 address prefixes.

       
      Step 8 no synchronization


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# no synchronization
       

      Enables the Cisco software to advertise a network route without waiting for an IGP.

       
      Step 9 redistribute connected


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# redistribute connected
       

      Redistributes routes from one routing domain into another routing domain and allows the target protocol to redistribute routes learned by the source protocol and connected prefixes on those interfaces over which the source protocol is running.

       
      Step 10 neighbor ip-address activate


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.225 activate
       

      Enables the exchange of information with a BGP neighbor.

       
      Step 11 no auto-summary


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# no auto-summary
       

      Disables automatic summarization and sends subprefix routing information across classful network boundaries.

       
      Step 12 exit


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# exit
       

      Exits address family configuration mode.

       
      Step 13 address-family vpnv4


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# address-family vpnv4
       

      Enters address family configuration mode to configure routing sessions, such as BGP, that use standard VPNv4 address prefixes.

       
      Step 14 neighbor ip-address activate


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.225 activate
       

      Enables the exchange of information with a BGP neighbor.

       
      Step 15 neighbor ip-address send-community both


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.225 send-community both
       

      Specifies that a communities attribute, for both standard and extended communities, should be sent to a BGP neighbor.

       
      Step 16 neighbor ip-address route-map map-name in


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.225 route-map SELECT_UPDATE_FOR_L3VPN in
       

      Applies the named route map to the incoming route.

       
      Step 17 exit


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# exit
       

      Exits address family configuration mode.

       
      Step 18 address-family vpnv6


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# address-family vpnv6
       

      Enters address family configuration mode to configure routing sessions, such as BGP, that use VPNv6 address prefixes.

       
      Step 19 neighbor ip-address activate


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.252 activate
       

      Enables the exchange of information with a BGP neighbor.

       
      Step 20 neighbor ip-address send-community both


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.252 send-community both
       

      Specifies that a communities attribute, for both standard and extended communities, should be sent to a BGP neighbor.

       
      Step 21 neighbor ip-address route-map map-name in


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# neighbor 209.165.200.252 route-map SELECT_UPDATE_FOR_L3VPN in
       

      Applies the named route map to the incoming route.

       
      Step 22 exit


      Example:
      Router(config-router-af)# exit
       

      Exits address family configuration mode.

       
      Step 23 route-map map-tag permit position


      Example:
      Router(config-router)# route-map SELECT_UPDATE_FOR_L3VPN permit 10
       

      Enters route-map configuration mode and defines the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another.

      • The redistribute router configuration command uses the specified map tag to reference this route map. Multiple route maps may share the same map tag name.
      • If the match criteria are met for this route map, the route is redistributed as controlled by the set actions.
      • If the match criteria are not met, the next route map with the same map tag is tested. If a route passes none of the match criteria for the set of route maps sharing the same name, it is not redistributed by that set.
      • The position argument indicates the position a new route map will have in the list of route maps already configured with the same name.
       
      Step 24 set ip next-hop encapsulate l3vpn profile-name


      Example:
      Router(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop encapsulate l3vpn my profile
       

      Indicates that output IPv4 packets that pass a match clause of the route map are sent to the VRF for tunnel encapsulation.

       
      Step 25 set ipv6 next-hop encapsulate l3vpn profile-name


      Example:
      Router(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop encapsulate l3vpn tunnel encap
      
       

      Indicates that output IPv6 packets that pass a match clause of the route map are sent to the VRF for tunnel encapsulation.

       
      Step 26 exit


      Example:
      Router(config-route-map)# exit
       

      Exits route-map configuration mode and enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 27 exit


      Example:
      Router(config)# exit
       

      Exits global configuration mode.

       

      Configuration Examples for MPLS VPN over mGRE

      Example Verifying the MPLS VPN over mGRE Configuration

      Use the following examples to verify that the configuration is working properly:

      Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) Switching

      You can verify that CEF switching is working as expected:

      Router# show ip cef vrf Customer_A tunnel 0
      
      209.165.200.250
      /24
          nexthop 209.165.200.251 Tunnel0 label 16

      Endpoint Creation

      You can verify the tunnel endpoint that has been created:

      Router# show tunnel endpoints tunnel 0 
                   
       Tunnel0 running in multi-GRE/IP mode
       Endpoint transport 209.165.200.251 Refcount 3 Base 0x2AE93F0 Create Time 00:00:42
         overlay 209.165.200.254 Refcount 2 Parent 0x2AE93F0 Create Time 00:00:42

      Adjacency

      You can verify that the corresponding adjacency has been created:

      Router# show adjacency tunnel 0
         Protocol Interface                 Address
        IP       Tunnel0                   209.165.200.251(4)
        TAG      Tunnel0                   209.165.200.251(3)

      Profile Health

      You can use show l3vpn encapsulation profile-name command to get information on the basic state of the application. The output of this command provides you details on the references to the underlying tunnel.

      Router# show l3vpn encapsulation ip tunnel encap
      	Profile: tunnel encap
      	transport ipv4 source Auto: Loopback0
      	protocol gre
        	Tunnel Tunnel0 Created [OK]
        	Tunnel Linestate [OK]
        	Tunnel Transport Source (Auto) Loopback0 [OK]

      Example Configuration Sequence for MPLS VPN over mGRE

      This example shows the configuration sequence for MPLS VPN over mGRE:

      vrf definition Customer A
       rd 100:110
       route-target export 100:1000
       route-target import 100:1000
       !
       address-family ipv4
       exit-address-family
       !
       address-family ipv6
       exit-address-family
      !
      !
      ip cef
      !
      ipv6 unicast-routing
      ipv6 cef
      !
      !
      l3vpn encapsulation ip sample profile name 
       transport source loopback 0 
       protocol gre key 1234 
      !
      !
       interface Loopback0
        ip address 209.165.200.252 255.255.255.224
        ip router isis 
      !
      interface Serial2/0
       vrf forwarding Customer A
       ip address 209.165.200.253 255.255.255.224
       ipv6 address 3FFE:1001::/64 eui-64
       no fair-queue
       serial restart-delay 0
      ! 
      router bgp 100
       bgp log-neighbor-changes
       neighbor 209.165.200.254 remote-as 100
       neighbor 209.165.200.254 update-source Loopback0
       !
       address-family ipv4
        no synchronization
        redistribute connected
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 activate
        no auto-summary
       exit-address-family
       !
       address-family vpnv4
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 activate
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 send-community both
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 route-map SELECT_UPDATE_FOR_L3VPN in
       exit-address-family
       !
       address-family vpnv6
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 activate
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 send-community both
        neighbor 209.165.200.254 route-map SELECT_UPDATE_FOR_L3VPN in
       exit-address-family
       !
       address-family ipv4 vrf Customer A
        no synchronization
        redistribute connected
       exit-address-family
       !
       address-family ipv6 vrf Customer A
        redistribute connected
        no synchronization
       exit-address-family
      !
      !
      route-map SELECT_UPDATE_FOR_L3VPN permit 10
      set ip next-hop encapsulate sample profile name 
      set ipv6 next-hop encapsulate sample profile name 

      Additional References

      Related Documents

      Related Topic

      Document Title

      Configuring MPLS Layer 3 VPNs

      Cisco IOS XE Multiprotocol Label Switching Configuration Guide

      Cisco Express Forwarding

      Cisco IOS XE IP Switching Configuration Guide

      Generic routing encapsulation

      Cisco IOS XE Interface and Hardware Component Configuration Guide

      Standards

      Standard

      Title

      None

      --

      MIBs

      MIB

      MIBs Link

      IETF-PPVPN-MPLS-VPN-MIB

      To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco software releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

      http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

      RFCs

      RFC

      Title

      RFC 2547

      BGP/MPLS VPNs

      RFC 2784

      Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)

      RFC 2890

      Key Sequence Number Extensions to GRE

      RFC 4023

      Encapsulating MPLS in IP or Generic Routing Encapsulation

      RFC 4364

      BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

      Technical Assistance

      Description

      Link

      The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

      http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

      Feature Information for MPLS VPN over mGRE

      The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

      Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

      Table 1 Feature Information for MPLS VPN over mGRE

      Feature Name

      Releases

      Feature Information

      MPLS VPN over mGRE

      Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S

      This feature provides support to carry MPLS Layer 3 VPN traffic over mGRE.

      The following commands were introduced or modified by this feature: l3vpn encapsulation ip, protocol gre, show l3vpn encapsulation ip, transport ipv4, set ip next-hop, set ipv6 next-hop.