Used in router-to-radio communications, the Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI) interface provides services that map outgoing packets to the appropriate Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) sessions based on the next-hop forwarding address for that packet. The VMI interface also provides a broadcast service that emulates a set of point-to-point connections as a point-to-multipoint interface with broadcast ability. When a packet with a multicast address is forwarded through the VMI interface, VMI replicates the packet and unicasts it to each of its neighbors.
Directional radios are frequently used in applications that require greater bandwidth, increased power-to-transmission range, or reduced probability of detection. These radios operate in a point-to-point mode, and generally have no broadcast capability. However, the routing processes in Cisco’s Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) solution operate most efficiently when viewing the network link as point-to-multipoint, with broadcast capability. For the router, modeling the MANET as a collection of point-to-point nodes would have a dramatic impact on the size of its internal database.
The VMI within the router aggregates all of the per-neighbor PPPoE sessions from the Radio Ethernet connection. The VMI maps the sessions to appear to Layer 3 routing protocols and applications as a single point-to-multipoint, multiaccess, broadcast-capable network. However, the VMI preserves the integrity of the PPPoE sessions on the radio side, so that each point-to-point connection can have its own quality of service (QoS) queue.
The VMI also relays the link quality metric and neighbor up/down signaling from the radio to the routing protocols. Currently, VMI signals are used by enhanced interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP) (for IPv4 and IPv6 neighbors) and OSPFv3 (for IPv6 neighbors).
For more details about the VMI interface, see the " Mobile Adhoc Networks for Router-to-Radio Communiations" module in the Cisco IOS IP Mobility Configuration Guide.