This document provides answers to the most frequently asked questions
(FAQ) about Cisco Aironet Access Points (APs).
Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document
What is the default user name and password for Cisco IOS® Software-based
A. Cisco IOS Software-based APs have a default configuration that includes
a user name and password combination, both of which are Cisco
(case sensitive). After you reset to factory defaults, be ready to give Cisco
as both the username and password when either the GUI or the command-line
interface (CLI) prompts you.
What cable should I use for a console
A. Use a straight-through cable with nine-pin male to nine-pin female
connectors in order to connect the COM1 or COM2 port on your computer to the
RS-232 port on the AP. Use a terminal emulation program on your computer, such
Use these port settings:
9600 bits per second (bps)
Note: If the flow control Xon/Xoff does not work, try using the flow
I have an Aironet 1231 AP. Does Cisco make a 50-foot extension cable so
that I can have the AP in one area and the antenna in
A. Yes, the part number of the 50-foot cable is AIR-CAB050LL-R. You can
use this cable to connect your AP to the antenna.
How do you check the radio type on autonomous AP?
A. You can use the show controllers command
from the privileged EXEC mode on the AP to get information on the radio
How do you set up an IP address on the AP?
A. By default, the AP requests an IP address through DHCP.
Cisco IOS Releases 12.3(2)JA and later change the default behavior of
APs requesting an IP address from a DHCP server:
When you connect a 1200 or 1230 series AP with a default
configuration to your LAN, the AP requests an IP address from your DHCP server.
If it does not receive an address, it continues to send requests
When you connect an 1100 series AP with a default configuration to
your LAN, the 1100 series AP makes several attempts to get an IP address from
the DHCP server. If it does not receive an address, it assigns itself the IP
address 10.0.0.1 for five minutes. During this five minute window, you can
browse to the default IP address and configure a static address. If after five
minutes the AP is not reconfigured, it discards the 10.0.0.1 address and
reverts to requesting an address from the DHCP server. If it does not receive
an address, it sends requests indefinitely. If you miss the five minute window
for browsing to the AP at 10.0.0.1, you can power-cycle the AP to repeat the
You can also manually set the IP address of the AP. On a Microsoft
Windows PC that is connected to the Ethernet segment, from the DOS prompt,
issue this command:
arp -s a.b.c.d 00-12-34-56-78-90
Note: The term
represents the IP address that is to be set on the AP, and
is the MAC
address. This address appears on the panel on the bottom of the AP.
Issue this command in order to verify the address:
Note: This procedure does not work if the AP has already been assigned an
IP address by another method.
How do you enable HTTPS access on the AP?
A. In order to enable HTTPS, you must add this command to your AP:
AP(config)#ip http secure-server
When you add the ip http secure-server
command, you see the RSA keys required for secure communication regenerated on
How does a client choose an access point (AP) to get
point (AP) choice is done on the machine radio of the client. Based on
the manufacturer, driver, type of card, and so forth, it can use different
metrics to make the choice. The most common AP affiliation mechanism used in
most clients is based on signal strength received by the client from the APs.
The 802.11 standard requires only that the wireless client card reports signal
strength with a simple metric called Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).
The client then associates with the AP with the strongest signal. It is well
known that these algorithms can lead to poor performance. The main reason is
due to its lack of knowledge of the load on different APs.
Can a wireless client roam between LWAPP APs and autonomous
A. No, roaming between LAPs and autonomous APs is NOT supported. The
reason is that, when connected to LWAPP APs, traffic is passed through an LWAPP
tunnel. Since there is no mobility tunnel between the Wireless LAN Controller
and the autonomous APs, the roam does not work.
How do you extend the coverage of the AP?
A. There are several ways to extend the coverage area for an AP. These are
the most important methods:
Use APs in repeater mode.
Use a secondary AP in AP mode with nonoverlapping
Change the transmitter power level parameter of the existent AP in
order to extend the coverage.
Position the APs optimally.
Radio Coverage Area Extension Methods for a complete description of how
to implement these methods.
What are the implications if your AP is in repeater
A. The Ethernet port is disabled in repeater mode. The effective
throughput is cut in half once for each hop away from the parent AP.
In order to set up repeaters, you must enable Aironet extensions on
both the parent (root) access point and the repeater access points. Aironet
extensions, which are enabled by default, improve the ability of the access
point to understand the capabilities of Cisco Aironet client devices associated
with the access point. If you disable Aironet extensions, you can sometimes
improve the interoperability between the access point and non-Cisco client
devices. Non-Cisco client devices can find communication difficult with
repeater access points and the root access point to which repeaters are
The infrastructure SSID must be assigned to the native VLAN. If more
than one VLAN is created on an access point or wireless bridge, an
infrastructure SSID cannot be assigned to a non-native VLAN. This message
appears when the infrastructure SSID is configured on non-native VLAN:
SSID [xxx] must be configured as native-vlan before enabling
Because access points create a virtual interface for each radio
interface, repeater access points associate to the root access point twice:
once for the actual interface and once for the virtual interface.
Note: You cannot configure multiple VLANs on repeater access points.
Repeater access points support only the native VLAN.
What are the features supported by the Aironet Extension option?
A. The Aironet extension is a proprietary feature implemented by Cisco.
Aironet extensions contains information elements that support these
Load Balancing: The access point uses Aironet
extensions to direct client devices to an access point that provides the best
connection to the network based on factors such as the number of users, bit
error rates, load and signal strength.
Load balancing is proprietary between devices that understand the
Aironet extensions. Load balancing is implemented by extensions in AP beacons
and/or probe-responses, which provide information on these:
Base-station signal strength
Base station loading (% transmitter busy)
Number of hops to the backbone
Number of client associations
The client evaluates these and associates to the "best" one.
Non-Cisco clients do not understand these extensions.
MIC: Cisco Proprietary Message Integrity Check (MIC)
— MIC is an additional WEP security feature that prevents attacks on encrypted
packets called bit-flip attacks. The MIC is implemented on both the access
point and all associated client devices.
Cisco Proprietary Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(CKIP), also known as WEP key hashing, is an additional WEP security
feature that defends against an attack on WEP, in which the intruder uses an
unencrypted segment called the initialization vector (IV) in encrypted packets
to calculate the WEP key.
In addition to these, Aironet extensions carry more information that
Load that the AP currently handles
Number of hops from the Wired network
Device type, which helps identify the product under the Cisco
system for management
Number of associated clients
Radio type, a feature used to determine certain characteristics
about the radio, such as datarate, radio type (1310, 1200, 352 or 342),
security type (WEP/802.1x), etc.
Devices that are CCX compatible also can take advantage of some of the
Aironet Extension features. Here is a list of the features available with the
different versions of Cisco Compatible Extensions:
Compatible Extensions - Versions and Features
Can you connect two computers together without an AP through wireless
A. Yes. From the Aironet Client Utility (ACU), you can configure the
clients to run in ad hoc mode. This connection is only a peer-to-peer
connection. One PC becomes the parent and controls the connection. The other
PCs in ad hoc mode are child stations.
Do you need special hardware to support
A. The specific hardware model determines the level of encryption for the
The 341 and 351 models only support 40-bit
The 342 and 352 models support both 40- and 128-bit
All 1100, 1200, and 1300 series models support both 40- and 128-bit
Is it possible to view all the APs and their associated clients that
belong to that particular network/infrastructure just from a single
A. This is possible from a VxWorks AP. A single VxWorks AP can display all
the clients and their APs in a network. This can be achieved if you click
Association > Entire Network > Apply. In an IOS-based
AP, it does not display all the associated clients in that network without the
help of a management device, such as WLSE, with one AP as WDS or a controller
if the image in AP is an LWAPP image.
I use CCKM in my network, but still the entire authentication process
occurs whenever the client device roams. In short, fast secure roaming does not
function as expected. Why?
A. This is possibly because of the bug CSCsg10128. This bug is fixed in
Do Cisco Access Points support the UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD)
feature in order to shutdown the Ethernet connection to switches if there is a
Layer 1/Layer 2 cable failure?
A. No, Cisco Access Points do not support the UDLD feature.
How do you supply power to an Aironet AP?
A. The power options for your AP depend on the AP model that you have.
Aironet and WLAN Controller Product Power Options for more
I have an AP1010, AP1030, and an AIR-LAP-1232AG. Are they able to use a
WS-PWR-PANEL for Power over Ethernet (PoE)?
A. The WS-PWR-PANEL only supports access points with a single radio. Refer
to the compatibility matrix available in the
PoE and Cisco Intelligent Power Management
Aironet Power Over Ethernet Application Note for more information.
How do you save the configuration of the AP?
A. Modifications to the configuration are saved immediately. You can dump
the current configuration in a text format from the Setup
menu. Then, choose Cisco Services > Manage System
Configuration and download the system configuration.
How do I determine the specific frequency or channel that my AP or bridge
A. Use the show controllers dot11Radio0 command
in order to show the frequency and channel that the AP or bridge is on. This
example output shows where to find the information:
ap#show controllers dot11Radio0
Radio AIR-AP1242GA, Base Address 0014.1b58.08f
Serial number: GAM09200992
Number of supported simultaneous BSSID on Dot1
Carrier Set: Americas (US )
DFS Required: No
Current Frequency: 2412 MHzChannel 1
How do I make my AP work with other IEEE 802.11b
A. In order to enable the AP to communicate with another 802.11b device,
turn off Aironet extensions. Check the Non-Aironet 802.11
check box in the Express Setup window. Alternatively, you can click the
Use Aironet Extension radio button in the Advanced AP Radio
Which devices can associate with an AP?
At what frequency does an AP communicate?
A. In the United States, IEEE 802.11b APs transmit and receive in one of
11 channels within the 2.4 GHz frequency. The IEEE 802.11a APs transmit and
receive in one of eight channels in the 5 GHz frequency. The IEEE 802.11g APs
transmit and receive in one of 11 channels within the 2.4 GHz frequency. These
are public frequency ranges and are unlicensed by the FCC.
How do you secure the data across an AP radio
A. There are several methods to secure your data across an AP wireless
link. In order to learn more about the different security methods, refer to
on Cisco Aironet Wireless Security.
How many clients can associate to the AP?
A. The AP has the physical capacity to handle 2048 MAC addresses, but,
because the AP is a shared medium and acts as a wireless hub, the performance
of each user decreases as the number of users increases on an individual AP.
Ideally, not more than 24 clients can associate with the AP because the
throughput of the AP is reduced with each client that associates to the
Is there a limitation on the number of MAC address filters that can be
configured on the AP?
A. You can use the CLI in order to configure up to 2,048 MAC addresses for
filtering, but, with the use of the web-browser interface, you can configure
only up to 43 MAC addresses for filtering.
What is the typical range for an AP?
A. The answer to this question depends on many factors, which include
In an optimal installation, the range can be up to 300 feet.
What are the available transmit power level settings for a 1200
A. The transmit power settings are different and depend on the radio that
is used. Refer to
Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Data Sheet for the complete list of
power setting levels. Because the power settings vary on the basis of the
channel, perform a site survey. The site survey is important in order to get
accurate information on the setting to use. Refer to
Site Survey FAQ for details on site surveys.
How can I set the AP so that only IEEE 802.11g clients can connect? I do
not want the IEEE 802.11b clients to connect and slow down the wireless
network. There is a second, parallel 802.11b network for unsecured clients.
A. In order for the AP to receive only 802.11g clients, complete these
steps in the GUI:
Go to the Network Interfaces section and click Radio
Click the Settings tab at the top of the Radio
Choose Disable for these data
Choose Require for all the other data
These are the other data rates:
Click Apply at the bottom of the
This window provides an example:
Is it true that if I only allow IEEE 802.11g clients on a wireless
network, they cannot interfere with a parallel IEEE 802.11b network because
they use different modulation schemes?
A. No, this is not true. These 802.11g clients can interfere if they use
the same frequency. Make sure to use different channels. The three
nonoverlapping channels are 1, 6, and 11.
What is the speed of the AP Ethernet port?
A. The AP Ethernet port supports either 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps over an RJ-45
connector, in either half or full duplex. Hard set the speed and duplex to the
same settings as your switch or hub.
Is there a mechanism for failover or redundancy for my
A. Yes, you can configure hot standby in order to provide redundancy in
the event that the primary AP fails. Refer to the
Notes for Cisco Aironet Access Points for more information.
What is a WEP key?
A. WEP stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy. You can use WEP to encrypt
and decrypt data signals that transmit between wireless LAN (WLAN) devices. WEP
is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature that prevents disclosure and modification of
packets in transit and also provides access control for the use of the network.
WEP makes a WLAN link as secure as a wired link. As the standard specifies, WEP
uses the RC4 algorithm with a 40-bit or 10-bit key. RC4 is a symmetric
algorithm because RC4 uses the same key for the encryption and the decryption
of data. When WEP is enabled, each radio station has a key. The key is used to
scramble the data before transmission of the data through the airwaves. If a
station receives a packet that is not scrambled with the appropriate key, the
station discards the packet and never delivers such a packet to the host. Refer
Equivalent Privacy (WEP) on Aironet Access Points and Bridges Configuration
Example for information on how to configure WEP.
When you use Light Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP), what port
number do you specify in order to communicate with your Cisco Secure Access
Control Server (ACS)?
A. By default, the ACS listens to an authentication request on port 1645
and accounting on port 1646, but you can configure port 1812 for authentication
and 1813 for accounting. Confirm that these ports are correctly set on the
Authentication Server Setup page on the AP.
In Cisco IOS Software-based APs, can you run static Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP) keys and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) together on the
same AP for authentication? This has worked with VxWorks-based
A. No, you cannot run static WEP keys for encryption and EAP for
authentication in the same service set identifier (SSID). VxWorks has allowed
this configuration because of software vulnerability, but this ability is not a
feature. What you can do is create two SSIDs and two VLANs (one per SSID).
Then, configure open authentication with WEP for one SSID and EAP
authentication for the other SSID.
Do you really need to have a site survey done?
A. Yes. Because of the sensitive nature of radio frequency (RF)
transmissions, you must know the other types of RF traffic that can be in your
environment, even without your knowledge of the traffic presence. A site survey
enables a better understanding of this invisible threat to the good performance
of your wireless devices. The site survey also helps your professional
installer ensure the desired RF coverage. Refer to the
Site Survey FAQ.
If you attempt to modify the AP and you are prompted for a username and
password, what do you enter?
A. A prompt for username and password indicates that the User Manager has
been enabled. Refer to your AP administrator in order to find out the username
and password to use. If you are the AP administrator and do not know what these
user accounts are, you need to perform a password recovery. Refer to
Recovery Procedure for the Cisco Aironet Equipment.
Can you use two external antennas in order to cover two radio cells (for
example, antenna 1 for cell 1 and antenna 2 for cell
A. You cannot use two antennas on an AP in order to cover two radio cells.
Attempts to use the antennas to cover two radio cells can result in
connectivity problems. The purpose of the two antennas is to enhance the
coverage of a cell in an effort to overcome issues that arise with multipath
distortion and signal nulls. Refer to
and Diversity for more information on diversity and multipath
What is the use of the mobility network-id
command on an AP?
A. You use the mobility network-id command in
order to configure Layer 3 mobility in a wireless network. You use the
mobility network-id ssid
command in order to associate a service set identifier (SSID) to a Layer 3
mobility network ID. With Layer 3 mobility, clients can roam to different APs
that reside in different subnets. The roaming clients stay connected to your
network and do not change IP addresses.
You must use a wireless LAN (WLAN) services module (WLSM) as your
wireless domain services (WDS) device in order to properly configure Layer 3
mobility. Layer 3 mobility is not supported when you use an AP as your WDS
device. For more information on Layer 3 mobility, refer to the
Layer 3 Mobility
WDS, Fast Secure Roaming, and Radio Management.
The command is meant to be used when the AP participates in a WDS
infrastructure with a WLSM module (that acts as the WDS device) where there is
Layer 3 mobility. If you use this command incorrectly, connectivity problems in
the WLAN network result, such as these:
Clients do not get IP addresses from the DHCP.
In some cases, the clients cannot associate with the
Wireless clients cannot associate with the AP.
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication does not
happen. With the mobility network-id command
configured, the AP tries to build a generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnel
for the forwarding of the EAP packets. If no tunnel is established, the packets
cannot go anywhere.
The AP that is configured as a WDS device does not function as
expected, and the WDS configuration does not
How many service set identifiers (SSIDs) can you have per
A. You can have only one SSID per VLAN. The use of multiple SSIDs over a
single VLAN is not supported with Aironet APs.
What is the BSSID value when multiple ESSIDs are assigned to APs?
A. If the AP is running in lightweight mode, then each ESSID on an AP will
be handled via a different BSSID (where each BSSID is based upon the radio base
MAC, and differs only in the low-order nibble.)
If the AP is running an IOS, then all ESSIDs on the AP will be handled
via the same BSSID (unless MBSSID is configured, in which case they will be
handled via different BSSIDs).
Is it possible to set up my A radio for bridge and the G radio for AP
functionality? If yes, how can I do this?
A. Yes, it is possible to set up each radio in your AP for different
functionality. In your scenario, this can be done if you set up different
service set identifiers (SSIDs) for the G and A radio. Then, set up the role in
a radio network parameter for the G radio to AP and for the A radio to root
When two clients associate to two different APs that are connected on the
same subnet, does the communication happen through the wired network or happen
A. For this scenario, if the two APs are set to root mode, the
communication between the two APs is through the wired network. If one of the
APs is set to repeater mode and the other AP is set to root mode, the
communication between the APs happens wirelessly.
Can you enable routing or Network Address Translation (NAT) on Cisco
A. No, routing and NAT features are not supported on APs.
Is there a way to schedule a time when the Cisco IOS Software-based AP is
available? I want to provide time-based access to clients that connect to the
A. You can configure time-based access control lists (ACLs) with use of
time ranges. Time-based ACLs help you to make sure that users are able to
access the wireless network within a particular time period, for example, 9:00
a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (0900 to 1700). The use of time-based ACLs does not shut down
the AP or radio. Time-based ACLs stop the passing of traffic on the AP so that
users cannot access the network. For information on how to configure this
feature, refer to the
ACLs Using Time Ranges
IP Access Lists.
Can APs have multiple DHCP pools across different
A. When you configure the AP as a DHCP server, IP addresses are assigned
to devices that are on the same subnet as the DHCP server. The devices
communicate with other devices on the subnet, but do not communicate beyond the
subnet. If you need to pass data beyond the subnet, you must assign a default
router. The IP address of the default router should be on the same subnet as
the AP that you configured as the DHCP server.
What is the dBm measurement? How do I determine the equivalent dBm values
for the signal strength (in mW) listed on my Aironet access point
A. The unit dB measures the power of a signal as a function of its ratio
to another standardized value. This abbreviation dB is often combined with
other abbreviations in order to represent the values that are compared. Hence,
dBm is the value which results from comparing dB with a standardized reference
value of 1 mW.
The formula to calculate this dBm value from the given signal strength
in mW is:
Power (in dB) = 10 * log10 (Signal/Reference)
This list defines the terms in the formula. log10 is logarithm base 10.
Signal is the power of the signal (for example, 50
Reference is the reference power (for example, 1
If you want to calculate the power in dB of 50 mW signal strength,
apply this formula:
Power (in dB) = 10 * log10 (50/1) = 10 * log10 (50) = 10 * 1.7 = 17 dBm
This formula results in a common rule that says:
For every increase of 3 dB (dBm here), it leads to a double increase
in the current transmit power (mW). For every decrease of 3 dB, this reduces
the transmit power to half its current value.
For every increase of 10 dB (dBm), it leads to a ten times increase
in the current transmit power (mW). For every decrease of 10 dB, this reduces
the transmit power to ten times its current value.
For every increase of 30 dB (dBm), it leads to a 1000 times increase
in the current transmit power. For every decrease of 30 dB, this reduces the
transmit power to 1000 times its current
This table provides approximate dBm to mW values:
Power Values for more information.
How do I change the date and time settings on the Cisco 1231
A. Go to the web interface (GUI), choose Services >
SNTP, select Time Settings and then change the
If CCKM is NOT configured on the client, but is configured on APs, will
the client be able to associate with the AP? Can the clients do normal
A. The behavior depends on the configuration of the AP. If CCKM is NOT
configured/supported on the client, the client does not associate with an AP
that is set to CCKM "mandatory." If the infrastructure (AP) is set to CCKM
"optional," the client does associate and does its non-CCKM handshake.
Dependent upon the clients deployed, it is typically recommended to set
CCKM to "optional" on infrastructure that permits the association of all
devices but supports fast roaming ONLY for capable/CCKM-associated
What is the difference in memory capacity between AP 1240 and
A. These are the memory capacities of the AP 1240 and 1230:
I have two AP 1240s that support link role flexibility. I would like to
bridge between them with 802.11a, with clients joined on the 802.11b/g bands.
Are there any restrictions to do this?
A. Access point link role flexibility provides bridge mode functionality
support for access points that have dual-band capability (1200, 1230, and
1240AG Series). In the target configuration, the 802.11a radio runs in bridge
mode, while the 802.11g radio is in the access point mode.
The requirement is that when you configure an AP with link role
flexibility, one of the radios of the AP must be configured as a root AP, and
the second AP that bridges back must be in repeater or WGB mode to the root
How many wireless IP telephony handsets are recommended per
A. IP telephony network sizing is essential to ensure that adequate
bandwidth and resources are available to carry mission-critical voice traffic.
In addition to the usual IP telephony design guidelines for sizing components,
such as PSTN gateway ports, transcoders, WAN bandwidth, and so forth, also
consider these 802.11b issues when sizing your wireless IP telephony
Before any discussion about network plans can take place, it helps to
understand the basics of the overall network capacity. These network capacity
guidelines apply to sizing the Wireless IP Telephony network:
Note: These design recommendations assume that Voice Activity Detection
(VAD) has been disabled on the Cisco 7920 Wireless IP Phones.
Use of VAD on the Cisco 7920 phones can conserve bandwidth, but Cisco
recommends that you disable VAD on all Cisco CallManager servers to provide
better overall voice quality. In addition to the determination of how much
bandwidth is needed for an 802.11b VoIP call, you must also consider overall
radio contention for a particular RF channel. The general rule is that you
should not deploy any more than 20 to 25 802.11b endpoints per AP. The more
endpoints you add to an AP, the more you reduce the amount of overall bandwidth
and potentially increase transmission delays. The maximum number of phones per
AP depends on the calling patterns of individual users (based on Erlang
ratios). Cisco recommends that no more than seven concurrent calls use G.711 or
eight concurrent calls use G.729. Beyond that number of calls, when excessive
background data is present, the voice quality of all calls becomes
unacceptable. Packetization rates for these recommendations are based on 20-ms
sample rates with VAD disabled. This rate generates 50 packets per second (pps)
in each direction. A larger sample size (such as 40 ms) can result in a larger
number of simultaneous calls, but it also increases the end-to-end delay of the
The number of 802.11b phones you can deploy per Layer-2 subnet or VLAN
depends on these factors:
Use no more than seven G.711 or eight G.729 active calls per
The calling ratio is used to determine the number of active and
non-active calls. This ratio is often determined with Erlang calculators. Based
on these factors and normal business-class Erlang ratios (between 3:1 and 5:1),
Cisco recommends that you deploy no more than 450 to 600 Cisco 7920 phones per
Layer-2 subnet or VLAN.
Refer to the
Network Infrastructure, as well as
Your WLAN Ready for Voice? for more detailed information.
How can I stop an AP 1200 from processing authentication requests after a
set number of tries?
A. You can use the maximum retries option on the AAA server to limit the
number of times the clients can try to access a network. The value of the
maximum retries can be configured manually on the AAA server, or you can use
the default number of retries, which depends upon the AAA server that is used.
Where can I find information on the differences in the various platforms
of APs and LAPs?
A. Refer to the
Wireless Hardware Frequently Asked Questions. This document contains
useful information that compares the different AP and LAP models.
Is Point-to-Point-Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) supported in Cisco
Aironet Access Points?
A. No, PPPoE is not supported in Cisco Aironet Access Points.
Is VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) supported in Cisco Aironet Access
A. No, VTP is not supported in Cisco Aironet Access Points.
Does the Cisco Aironet AP support 802.11f standard Inter-Access Point
A. No, the Cisco Aironet AP does not support 802.11f based IAPP. The Cisco
Access Points offer their own robust, feature-rich, and proven inter-Access
What is the use of the bridge-group 1
block-unknown-source and bridge-group 1
source-learning commands in an AP?
A. Use the bridge-group block-unknown-source
configuration interface command to block traffic from unknown MAC addresses on
a specific interface. Use the no form of the command
to disable unknown source blocking on a specific interface.
In order for STP to function properly,
block-unknown-source must be disabled for interfaces that
participate in STP.
bridge-group group block-unknown-source
When you enable STP on an interface,
block-unknown-source is disabled by default.
The bridge-group 1 source-learning command
makes the AP learn the source address of the client. Use the
no form of the command to disable AP from learning the source
address of the client.
Is there a way to prioritize the traffic that flows through the AP so
that traffic from a particular SSID configured on the AP utilizes a higher
bandwidth than the other SSIDs on the same AP?
A. This can be achieved with Quality of Service (QoS) implementation on
Create QoS policies and apply the policies to the VLANs configured on
your access point. These documents explain QoS and how to configure QoS
policies on AP.
Then, map the SSIDs configured on the AP to individual VLANs
mentioned. In this way, if you prioritize the traffic based on VLAN, you can,
in turn, prioritize traffic based on SSID.
Is there a way to limit the maximum number of client devices that can
connect to a single Autonomous Access point?
A. The default behavior of a Cisco client device is that it connects to
the AP that has best signal strength available. But you can limit the clients
that can connect to any particular AP through MAC authentication. You need to
provide the MAC address of the client to the AP so that the AP can allow only
those clients and restrict all the other clients that are not part of the
allowed MAC address list from connecting to that particular AP.
From where can you download the latest software?
A. Cisco Aironet equipment operates best when you load all the components
with the most current version of software. Refer to the
Cisco Wireless Software Center
registered customers only)
in order to download
the latest software and drivers.
Is it necessary to shut off all laptops and other wireless devices during
an AP upgrade?
A. No, there is no need to shut off the devices. An AP upgrade is a safe
process, and everything can remain on. Make sure that you are connected to a
Where can I find instructions on how to upgrade Cisco IOS® on Cisco
A. Refer to
with Software images for instructions on how to upgrade the Cisco IOS on
Note: Use the force-reload option with the
archive download-sw command.
Note: When you upgrade the AP or bridge system software by entering the
archive download-sw command on the CLI, you must use
the force-reload option. If the AP or bridge does not reload
the flash memory after the upgrade, the pages in the web-browser interface
might not reflect the upgrade. This example shows how to upgrade system
software by using the archive download-sw
AP#archive download-sw /force-reload /
I have an 1100 AP. I want to upgrade the AP radio from IEEE 802.11b to
IEEE 802.11g. If I upgrade the radio in the AP, can I use the existing PC
cards? Or do I need to upgrade the PC cards as well? The cards are currently
A. An upgrade of the 802.11b radio to 802.11g does not result in any
performance enhancement if you only use 802.11b clients. An advantage of a
radio upgrade to 802.11g is that you can connect 802.11b and 802.11g clients
with the AP. With the upgrade, the 802.11b clients connect at 11 Mbps and
802.11g clients connect at 54 Mbps.
How do you set the AP back to its factory default
A. Refer to
Recovery Procedure for the Cisco Aironet Equipment.
I have made some configuration changes to the AP. When I try to save the
changes, I get this message on the AP: "Error writing new config
file "flash:/config.txt.new" nv_done: unable to open "flash:/config.txt.new"
nv_done: unable to open "flash:/private-multiple-fs.new"[OK]".
What does the message mean?
A. This error message indicates that there is no space in the Flash to
store the new configuration. Try to delete any old crash files that exist. Or,
if there is more than one Cisco IOS Software version, delete the one that you
do not use. This can free some space on the Flash. Issue the dir
flash command in order to determine if there are any old
exception crashinfo files that you can delete or old images that are not in
use. Issue the write memory command in order to free
up space so that you can write the configuration into memory.
I use Aironet Client Utility (ACU) 6.3 and Cisco 1200 Access Points (APs)
that run Cisco IOS Software Release 12.3(8)JA. When the wireless client is
associated to the AP, the AP name is not displayed on the ACU. Why?
AP Name is the hostname for the AP. If Aironet
extensions are enabled on the AP, then the AP name is displayed on the ACU.
If you do not wish to see the AP name, you can disable Cisco Aironet
extensions to the IEEE 802.11b standard (no dot11 extensions
aironet under the radio interface). Cisco Aironet extensions are
enabled by default in the AP.
If previously disabled, you can enable Cisco Aironet extensions with
AP(config-if)#dot11 extension aironet
In a beacon, the AP includes an information element that is
Cisco-proprietary that contains the AP name. If you turn off Aironet extensions
on the AP, the AP does not beacon its name. Refer to
and Enabling Aironet Extensions for more information on Aironet
My access point (AP) accepts and connects to only one client at a time.
What could be the reason?
A. One possible reason could be that the
max-associations parameter is set to
1 under the service-set identifier (SSID) configuration. Use
the max-associations SSID configuration mode command
in order to configure the maximum number of associations supported by the radio
interface (for the specified SSID). Use the no form
of the command in order to reset the parameter to the default value. This
default maximum is 255.
How can you recover forgotten passwords?
A. Refer to
Recovery Procedure for the Cisco Aironet Equipment.
Serial numbers do not show up on any of the BR350 or AP350s we have by
commands. These are VxWorks and have not been converted to IOS. How do I
retrieve this information from the devices?
A. The 350 Series APs and Bridges that run VxWorks do not display the
serial number in software. The only way to identify the serial number on these
units is to physically inspect the label on the hardware itself.
What are possible sources of interference for the radio frequency (RF)
link of the AP?
A. Interference can come from a number of sources, such as:
Electrical motors and the moving metal parts of machinery can also
cause interference. Refer to these documents for more information:
I see the error message : %C4K_EBM-4-HOSTFLAPPING:Host [mac-addr] in vlan
[num] is flapping between port [num] and port [num] connected to the Access
Points. How do we resolve this?
A. This error message occurs when switch learns the same MAC address
through multiple ports. This can be due to one of these reasons
When a client roams from one AP to another AP, the new AP informs the
client of the MAC address to the switch. If both the APs are connected to the
same switch, the MAC address of the client is associated to both the switch
ports connected to the APs. This creates a duplicate entry for the client and
generates this error message until the time that the switch synchronizes its
CAM table. This error message is quite normal in a wireless environment, but,
if too much roaming occurs, this can overload the CPU of the switch. Check the
client driver and firmware. In addition, ensure that coverage is good so that
the client does not roam often.
When there is a loop, the switch can learn the same MAC address
through multiple ports connected to other switches. Ensure that the TP is
enabled on the switch.
Why is it that the client card does not associate to the closest
A. If there are multiple APs in your wireless topology, your client
maintains an association with the AP with which the client originally
associated, until the client loses keepalive beacons from that AP. If contact
is lost and if attempts to regain contact with the original AP continue to
fail, the client then seeks out another AP. The client attempts to associate to
this new AP if the client has sufficient rights and authorization on the new
I have a Cisco AP and Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS) 3.2. I
have Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) implemented in the network. Users
are not authenticated by the RADIUS server. When I issue
debug commands on the AP, I get this output:
"Jun 2 15:58:13.553: %RADIUS-4-RADIUS_DEAD: RADIUS server
10.10.1.172:1645,1646 is not responding. Jun 2 15:58:13.553:
%RADIUS-4-RADIUS_ALIVE: RADIUS server 10.10.1.172:1645,1646 has returned. Jun 2
15:58:23.664: %DOT11-7-AUTH_FAILED: Station 0040.96a0.3758 Authentication
failed." Why do I see these error messages on the AP?
A. One of the reasons why these error messages appear is that the shared
secret is not the same in the AP and the ACS. This mistake is common when you
configure EAP. If there is a shared-secret mismatch between the AP and the ACS
3.2, EAP does not work. The RADIUS server does not accept packets that the AP
forwards. Ensure that the shared secret on the AP matches with that configured
on the ACS server. For information on how to debug, refer to
When I viewed the logs on the AP, I found this error: "Mar
9 11:05:26.225 Information Group rad_acct: Radius server 10.10.1.172:1645,1646
is responding again (previously dead). Mar 9 11:03:09.361 Error Group rad_acct:
No active radius servers found." What is the cause of this
error and how can I resolve the problem?
A. It is normal to see this log when the setting
radius-server deadtime is configured on the AP. It
is an information log and not a major problem. Use the
radius-server deadtime command in order to set an
interval during which the AP does not attempt to use servers that do not
respond, thus avoiding the wait for a request to time out before trying the
next configured server. A server marked as dead is skipped by additional
requests for the duration of minutes that you specify, up to 1440 (24 hours).
I have an AP 1230 with Cisco IOS Software Release 12.3(4)JA. When I
update the access control list (ACL), I receive this message:"%
Warning: Saving this config to nvram may corrupt any network management or
security files stored at the end of nvram. Continue? [no]:"
A. This is a warning message and not an error. If you select [no] then it
does not save on the access points (APs). The configurations are not saved on
the non-volatile RAM (NVRAM), they are saved on the Flash.
Even though it is a warning, you do have a memory issue on this AP. You
have numerous .rcore files that take up a lot of space on your memory. This
output shows an example:
3 -rwx 262144 Mar 3 2002 22:40:04 +00:00 r13_5705_9760_1EA7A81E.rcore
4 -rwx 262144 Mar 1 2002 17:21:44 +00:00 r13_5705_9760_709D16F4.rcore
5 -rwx 262144 Mar 7 2002 20:19:12 +00:00 r13_5705_9760_9D2DE9CD.rcore
6 -rwx 262144 Mar 26 2002 23:42:22 +00:00 r13_5705_9760_AAE78172.rcore
151-rwx 262144 Mar 1 2002 17:22:00 +00:00 r13_5705_9760_7187935C.rcore
In order to clean the memory, erase all of the .rcore files from Flash.
This is an example of the command you need to enter in enable
Note: Issue this delete flash: command for every
.rcore file on your Flash.
I have a Wireless LAN Services Module (WLSM) with Cisco IOS Software
Release 12.4(4)T1 installed. Connections to clients are dropping. After I look
up logs, I see a number of messages such as "Previous authentication no longer
valid"and "Disassociated because sending station is leaving (or has left) BSS".
What is the issue?
A. Both of these messages point towards an RF issue. Assign different
channels on the AP in order to fix this issue.
The Cisco Aironet APs in my WLAN network do not broadcast the service set
identifiers (SSIDs). What could be the reason? Do I need to enable a particular
feature on the AP?
A. As long as you do not enable Guest mode under the SSID Manager, the AP
does not broadcast the SSID in its beacons. You can verify with a client and
scan for SSIDs in order to make sure it is not listed.
In order to enable guest mode on an SSID, type this command on the AP
in global configuration mode:
Ap<config>#dot11 ssid ssid-string
I have my AIR-AP1231G-A-K9 AP. Why do I not see an option to turn on the
A radio on this AP and am only able to see the option for G radios? Am I not
able to associate 802.11b clients with it?
A. The AIR-AP1231G-A-K9 AP has a G radio. The part number AP1231G implies
it has only G radio with it. G radios are backwards compatible with B radios
because they work on the same frequency. There is no A radio on this unit and
that is why you cannot turn it on. You might need to add the A radio module.
The A radio works on a different frequency (at 5 GHZ) than radios G and B (at
I have a Cisco Wireless IP Phone 7920 that is connected to a Cisco AP. I
see that the 7920 is associated with the AP, but no IP address is assigned. I
use Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). I see the message
"Info Station [SEP001121ceb9a4]001121ceb9a4
Authenticated", which is followed by "Info
Station [SEP001121ceb9a4]001121ceb9a4 Reassociated" and
"Warning EAP retry limit reached for Station
[SEP001121ceb9a4]001121ceb9a4". Then I see "Info
Deauthenticating [SEP001121ceb9a4]001121ceb9a4, reason 'Previous Authentication
No Longer Valid' ". What is the
A. The reason that you get these messages is that the shared secret in the
AP is different than the shared secret from the RADIUS server. Make sure that
the shared-secret keys for EAP are identical on both. You must retype the
shared-secret key in both the AP and the RADIUS server.
I have a problem with my AP. It continues to send too many RTS messages
in bursts which cause the unexpected disassociation of associated clients.
These clients were associated with this AP at a signal level between -91 and
-95 dBm. What is the reason for this unexpected disassociation? Is this an
expected behavior of the AP?
A. Yes, this is an expected behavior. Your client is at the very edge of
the 1 Mbps cell. Since you see it at -91 to -95 dBm, the erratic behavior is
Install more APs in order to address this issue. Or, if your desired
coverage is in a focused area rather than omni-directional, use directional
RTS is caused by the retry mechanisms kicking in. The client should
respond to an RTS with a CTS, but if the client sees them in a sniffer as a
group of around eight RTS frames with no corresponding CTS, then the client
does not hear the AP, or the client is so far away that the AP cannot hear it.
Both devices have to hear each other, not just your AP hearing the client. So,
if the antenna on the client is not of great design (probable), or their
transmitter does not transmit at 100 mW (very probable), or their receiver is
nowhere near -90 to -95 dBm sensitivity (almost guaranteed if it is not a Cisco
client), then you get the operation that you describe.
We use Cisco LWAPP Wireless APs. Although I have seen many TCP
retransmissions and duplicate ACKs at clients, I do not see those in our wired
enviroment. Is that normal for wireless?
A. Corrupted packets and retransmitted packets are two of the fundamental
metrics of an 802.11 WLAN. Analysis of corrupted and retransmitted packets in
802.11 differs from analysis in a wired LAN for three reasons:
First, 802.11 WLANs typically have many more corrupted packets than
do wired LANs, so the importance of corrupted frames in an 802.11 WLAN is
Second, 802.11 defines a reliable data-link layer, which means that
every corrupted packet must result in a retransmission. Wired LANs typically do
not define a reliable data-link layer, so a retransmission only occurs if a
reliable upper-layer protocol is in use.
Finally, upper-layer reliability is typically end-to-end, which means
that a corrupted packet anywhere between the source and destination causes a
retransmission. An 802.11 retransmission, since it occurs at layer 2, is
implemented between wireless interfaces, so an 802.11 retransmission can only
be caused by corruption on the local "segment." This makes it much easier to
identify the location of corruption in an 802.11 WLAN than in a traditional
wired LAN. Let us explore the implications of these
One of the challenges of a wireless environment is that it is difficult
to determine whether the analyzer sees the same things as do the clients.
Differences between the analyzer and the client–different radios, antennae, or
physical locations–can cause the analyzer to see different things than does the
client. For example, if the analyzer is far from the AP, but the wireless
client is close to the AP, the analyzer can see a corrupted frame, while the
station sees an uncorrupted frame. Since we know that every corrupted frame
results in a retransmission, we can use the relative numbers of retransmissions
and corrupted frames to evaluate the degree to which the analyzer sees what the
station(s) on the network see.
We see this syslog message broadcast on our network. Why does this occur,
and how do we stop it?
AP:001f.ca26.bfb4: %LWAPP-3-CLIENTERRORLOG: Decode Msg: could not match WLAN <id>
A. These messages are warning messages and are seen when WLAN Override is
enabled and the particular WLAN ID is not selected or advertised on a
I have problems when I upgrade my AP using the TFTP server. Every time I
try to upgrade, it adds a .tar extension to the upgrade image file
c1200-k9w7-tar.default, which cause the AP not to recognize the file. I could
not find a way to get rid of the additional .tar extension. (I downloaded and
tried both solarwind and tftpd32.) What should I do to eliminate this
A. The problem could be that the Operating System is hiding the known
file type. Go to My Computer. Click Tools > Folder
Options > View, scroll down until you find the parameter
Hide extensions for known file types, and uncheck the box.
This should eliminate the issue.
My Access Points often encounter a "high CPU utilization" alarm message.
In such cases, a hardware reboot gets the Access Point back into working
condition. How can I overcome this issue?
A. There are several reasons for Access Points to reach "high CPU
If the Cisco Access Point (AP) is connected to the network through a
switch, sometimes "high CPU utilization" is observed on the AP. This is
because, by default, all the VLANs are allowed onto the AP from the switch to
which the AP is connected. This can create a problem, especially when applied
to a huge network. If all the VLANs are allowed onto the AP, it can result in
high CPU utilization, and the connectivity can be affected.
Clients associated to the Access Point face throughput issues, and sometimes
high CPU utilization can also bring the Wireless network down.
In order to avoid this problem, prune the VLANs at the switch so that
only the VLAN traffic in which the AP is interested is passed through the AP.
If the Access Points are configured with loopback interfaces,
sometimes "high CPU utilization" is observed on the AP. Although loopback
interfaces can be configured on the Cisco AP, they are not supported on the AP,
so they must not be configured. It is advised to remove the loopback interfaces
if they are configured on the AP.
Note: APs and bridges do not support the interface loopback
As a first step in troubleshooting this issue, issue the
show process cpu command in the AP. This gives you
an idea of what processes use the CPU.
Also, if the AP runs a version earlier than 12.3(2)JA2, upgrade it to
version 12.3(2)JA2 because there is a known issue in earlier versions where
service requests killed the CPU.
The 871W Wi-Fi Router drops wi-fi established sessions so that the user's
VPN session needs to be reestablished all the time. What is the
A. There are several possible reasons that can cause this issue. Connect
both the antennas to the 871W Router. Change the channel to 1, 6 or 11 and
verify which channel receives the best performance. Also, you might have other
APs in the neighborhood which can be causing interference. This is just one