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IP Multicast

Cisco IOS IPv4 Multicast Technologies

DATA SHEET

Companies now require the ability to maximize Network investment. IP Multicast applications enable efficient use of existing network infrastructure.

Cisco IOS® Software is the foundation networking software that allows customers to deliver Cisco IP Network Services on a flexible infrastructure that is scalable, reliable, and secure. It provides industry-leading, standards-based technologies proven in use across the broadest and largest networks in operation today.
IP Multicast technologies enable scalable distribution of data, voice, and video streams efficiently to hundreds, thousands, even millions of users. Cisco IOS Multicast enables corporate communications, financial trading, Hoot & Holler, video conferencing, E-learning, commercial Television and Radio over IP, streaming media applications, and Multicast enabled VPN services.

MULTICAST ARCHITECTURES

Multicast deployments require three elements: the application, the network infrastructure, and client devices. Cisco IOS Multicast technologies reside in the network infrastructure within Cisco routers and switches. IP Multicast utilizes a single data stream, which is replicated by routers at branch points throughout the network. This mechanism uses bandwidth much more efficiently and greatly decreases load on content servers, reaching more users at a lower cost per user.

BENEFITS OF IP MULTICAST

Cisco IOS Multicast technologies make it easier for enterprises and service providers to leverage their network resources for massively scalable content distribution applications. Cisco IOS Multicast enables customers to:

• Efficiently deploy and scale distributed group applications across the network

• Create a ubiquitous, enterprise-wide content distribution model

• Solve traffic congestion problems

• Allow service providers to deploy value-added services that leverage their existing infrastructure

Figure 1

Multicast Components

Table 1. Cisco IOS Multicast Features

Feature

Description

Protocol Independent Multicast v2 (PIMv2)

Provides intradomain multicast forwarding for all underlying unicast routing protocols

Independent from any underlying unicast protocol such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Supports explicit join (sparse mode), flood-and-prune (dense mode), or hybrid sparse-dense modes

Sparse Mode: relies upon an explicit joining method before attempting to send multicast data to receivers of a multicast group

Dense Mode: actively attempts to send multicast data to all potential receivers (flooding) and relies upon their self-pruning (removal from group) to achieve desired distribution

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Versions 1, 2, and 3

Protocol used by IPv4 hosts to communicate multicast group membership states to local multicast routers

Version 3 of IGMP adds source awareness to the protocol. This allows the inclusion or exclusion of Sources. IGMPv3 is the basis for Source Specific Multicast (SSM)

PIM Source Specific Multicast

SSM forwarding uses only source-based forwarding trees. SSM range is defined for inter domain use, and Cisco IOS Software allows other groups to be configured using the SSM forwarding model

Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP)

Multiprotocol extensions to the BGP unicast inter-domain protocol that carry multicast specific routing information

Adds capabilities to BGP to enable multicast routing policy throughout the Internet and connect multicast topologies within and between BGP autonomous systems

Carries IP Multicast routes. MP-BGP carries multiple instances of routes for unicast routing, multicast routing, and VPNv4

PIM uses routes associated with multicast routing to join Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) decisions at the inter domain borders

Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Allows multiple PIM sparse-mode domains to share information about active sources

Announces active sources to MSDP peers

Interacts with MP-BGP for inter domain operation

Used for Anycast Rendezvous Point redundancy solution

Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM)

Reliable multicast transport protocol for applications that require ordered, duplicate-free multicast data delivery

Guarantees that a receiver in a multicast group either receives all data packets from transmissions and retransmissions or can detect unrecoverable data packet loss

Manages retransmission of lost packets in a scalable fashion.

Multicast-VPN (MVPN)

Multicast-VPN feature in Cisco IOS Software provides the ability to support the multicast feature over a Layer 3 VPN

MVPN uses a static default Multicast Distribution Tree (MDT) for each multicast domain. This default MDT can be used to transmit both data and control messages to other members of the VPN

Cisco MVPN also supports the dynamic creation of MDTs for high-bandwidth transmission. These are only transmitted to those members of the VPN who explicitly request the data

PIM Bi-dir

A variant of the PIM, whereby data flows both up and down the same distribution tree

Bi-directional PIM uses only shared tree forwarding, thereby reducing state creation

Boot Strap Router(BSR)

BSR is a mechanism where a PIM router learns the set of group-to-RP mappings required for PIM SM

Auto-RP

Auto-RP is a mechanism where a PIM router learns the set of group-to-RP mappings required for PIM SM

Heartbeat

IP Multicast stream monitoring and notification, if delivery fails to meet configured parameters, via a SNMP trap

Mtrace

Mtrace is the same as Unix command used to discover the path between a receiver back and a source

Multicast Routing Monitor (MRM)

MRM is a management diagnostic tool that provides network fault detection and isolation

Load splitting across equal paths

Per source, group load splitting enables efficient utilization of multiple equal cost paths

STUB multicast routing

Stub multicast routing allows IGMP messages to be forwarded through a non PIM enabled router towards a PIM enabled router

SSM mapping

SSM mapping allows SSM routing to occur without IGMPv3 being present. SSM mapping uses statically configured tables or dynamic Domain Name System (DNS) discovery of the source address for a SSM channel

Cisco Multicast MIB

Adds additional functionality to Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Multicast MIB

Cisco PIM MIB

Adds additional functionality to IETF PIM MIB

MSDP MIB

Allows the monitoring of MSDP activity using SNMP

IGMP MIB

Allows the monitoring of IGMP activity

PIM MIB

IETF Standard PIM MIB

Multicast Network Address Translation (NAT)

Allows the Unicast Source address to be translated

Router-Port Group Management Protocol (RGMP)

RGMP constrains IP multicast on switches that have only routers attached

Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)

Cisco developed protocol between routers and switches that allows Layer 2 switches to forward multicast traffic to only those ports that have host joined to the group

Used in low-end or older versions of Cisco Catalyst® Series Switches that do not support IGMP snooping

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Snooping

A method by which a switch can constrain Multicast to only those ports that have requested the stream. Used in higher-end, hardware-enabled hardware

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

For more information about Cisco IOS Multicast, contact your Cisco account manager or global service manager, or visit:
Text Box:  Corporate HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-1706USAwww.cisco.comTel:   408 526-4000    800 553-NETS (6387)Fax: 408 526-4100    European HeadquartersCisco Systems International BVHaarlerbergparkHaarlerbergweg 13-191101 CH AmsterdamThe Netherlandswww-europe.cisco.comTel:  31 0 20 357 1000Fax:    31 0 20 357 1100    Americas HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-1706USAwww.cisco.comTel:    408 526-7660Fax:    408 527-0883    Asia Pacific HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.168 Robinson Road#28-01 Capital TowerSingapore 068912www.cisco.comTel: +65 6317 7777Fax: +65 6317 7799Cisco Systems has more than 200 offices in the following countries and regions. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed onthe Cisco Web site at www.cisco.com/go/offices.Argentina · Australia · Austria · Belgium · Brazil · Bulgaria · Canada · Chile · China PRC · Colombia · Costa Rica · Croatia · Cyprus Czech Republic · Denmark · Dubai, UAE · Finland · France · Germany · Greece · Hong Kong SAR · Hungary · India · Indonesia · Ireland Israel · Italy · Japan · Korea · Luxembourg · Malaysia · Mexico · The Netherlands · New Zealand · Norway · Peru · Philippines · Poland Portugal · Puerto Rico · Romania · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Scotland · Singapore · Slovakia · Slovenia · South Africa · Spain · Sweden Switzerland · Taiwan · Thailand · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom · United States · Venezuela · Vietnam · Zimbabwe                     Copyright  2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco, Cisco IOS, Cisco Systems, and the Cisco Systems logo are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries.All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Web site are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0402R)    204025_ETMG_AE_08.04Printed in the USA Text Box:  Corporate HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-1706USAwww.cisco.comTel:    408 526-4000    800 553-NETS (6387)Fax: 408 526-4100    European HeadquartersCisco Systems International BVHaarlerbergparkHaarlerbergweg 13-191101 CH AmsterdamThe Netherlandswww-europe.cisco.comTel:  31 0 20 357 1000Fax:    31 0 20 357 1100    Americas HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.170 West Tasman DriveSan Jose, CA 95134-1706USAwww.cisco.comTel:    408 526-7660Fax:    408 527-0883    Asia Pacific HeadquartersCisco Systems, Inc.168 Robinson Road#28-01 Capital TowerSingapore 068912www.cisco.comTel: +65 6317 7777Fax: +65 6317 7799Cisco Systems has more than 200 offices in the following countries and regions. Addresses, phone numbers, and fax numbers are listed onthe Cisco Web site at www.cisco.com/go/offices.Argentina · Australia · Austria · Belgium · Brazil · Bulgaria · Canada · Chile · China PRC · Colombia · Costa Rica · Croatia · Cyprus Czech Republic · Denmark · Dubai, UAE · Finland · France · Germany · Greece · Hong Kong SAR · Hungary · India · Indonesia · Ireland Israel · Italy · Japan · Korea · Luxembourg · Malaysia · Mexico · The Netherlands · New Zealand · Norway · Peru · Philippines · Poland Portugal · Puerto Rico · Romania · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Scotland · Singapore · Slovakia · Slovenia · South Africa · Spain · Sweden Switzerland · Taiwan · Thailand · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom · United States · Venezuela · Vietnam · Zimbabwe                     Copyright  2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco, Cisco IOS, Cisco Systems, and the Cisco Systems logo are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries.All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Web site are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0402R)    204025_ETMG_AE_08.04Printed in the USA