Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide, Release 7.0.172.0
Chapter 10: Managing Clients
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Managing Clients

Table Of Contents

Managing Clients

Client Tab

Client Distribution

Client Protocol Distribution

Client Count

Client

Client Traffic

Client Authentication Type Distribution

AP Join Taken Time

AP Threats/Attacks

Monitoring Clients

Monitoring Clients Summary

Client Detail Page

Configuring the Search Results Display

Filtering the Client Summary

Client Properties

Client Association History

Client Statistics

Client Event Information

Client Location Information

Client CCXv5 Information

Enabling Automatic Client Troubleshooting

Viewing Client Details in the Access Point Page

Running Client Reports

Client Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting from the Client Tab Dashboard

Troubleshooting Using the Search Feature

Receiving Radio Measurements for a Client

Radio Measurement Results for a Client

Viewing Client V5 Statistics

Viewing Client Operational Parameters

Viewing Client Profiles

Disabling a Current Client

Removing a Current Client

Enabling Mirror Mode

Viewing a Map (High Resolution) of a Client Recent Location

Viewing a Map (High Resolution) of a Client Current Location

Viewing a Client Sessions Report for the Client

Viewing a Roam Reason Report for the Client

Viewing Detecting Access Point Details

Viewing Client Location History

Viewing Voice Metrics for a Client


Managing Clients


You can look at the client's association history and statistical information in several ways on the Cisco WCS GUI. With WCS 7.0, you can view client session related information and determine client presence, usage patterns, and historical session data. You can also use these tools to analyze and troubleshoot client issues. The information can be used in addition to maps to assess which areas experience inconsistent coverage and which areas have the potential to drop coverage.

This chapter contains the following sections:

Client Tab

Monitoring Clients

Enabling Automatic Client Troubleshooting

Viewing Client Details in the Access Point Page

Running Client Reports

Client Troubleshooting

Receiving Radio Measurements for a Client

Viewing Client V5 Statistics

Viewing Client Operational Parameters

Viewing Client Profiles

Disabling a Current Client

Removing a Current Client

Enabling Mirror Mode

Viewing a Map (High Resolution) of a Client Recent Location

Viewing a Map (High Resolution) of a Client Current Location

Viewing a Client Sessions Report for the Client

Viewing a Roam Reason Report for the Client

Viewing Detecting Access Point Details

Viewing Client Location History

Viewing Voice Metrics for a Client

Client Tab

Use the Client tab (see Figure 10-1) on the WCS home page as the main client health monitor. Unlike the historical data retrieved from the device periodically and stored in the WCS Client Detail page, this trend data can be collected whenever you chose to refresh the dashboard with the current network status. It can be customized and acts as a main client health monitor where you can get overall client information. You can see how many client devices are connected to your network as well as where and how these devices have accessed your network. You can also see which clients are authenticated or excluded.


Note When you click the Client tab from the WCS home page, it takes longer than average to load the data.


Figure 10-1 Client Tab

Click the Edit Content link to choose the panes you want to have appear on the Client tab. You can choose the pane from the Available Components list and then click to add it to the left or right column. For more information on using the Edit Content link, see the "Editing Content" section. For example, if you wanted to see the client count in both the General and Client dashboards, you could add the same pane to both.

To return to the original client tab before customization, click Edit Tabs and click Reset to Factory Default.

Client Distribution

This pane (see Figure 10-2) shows how many clients are on your network presently. You can see how clients are distributed by protocol, EAP type, and authentication type.

Protocol—Represents radio bands such as 802.11a/n, 802.11b/g/n, and so on

EAP-Type—Represents Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) types such as EAP-FAST, PEAP, and so on

Authentication Type—Represents types such as WPA (TKIP), WPA2 (AES), open, and so on

You can choose to display this information in table form or in a pie chart. The pie charts are clickable. If you hover your mouse cursor over a particular portion of the pie chart, a heading and percentage appears, and you can then click the pie chart piece to open a filtered list. When you click the number represented by Client Distribution, you get a list of clients represented by this number (the same page that you see when you choose Monitor > Clients). You can filter the data that is displayed in client distribution by clicking the Component Options icon and choosing either controller IP, SSID, or floor area.

Figure 10-2 Client Distribution


Note The asterisk next to the Client Distribution count indicates that the component has been customized. If you reset to the default page, the asterisk is cleared.


Client Protocol Distribution

This pane (see Figure 10-3) shows the current client count distribution by protocols. It shows the subtotal of each radio band (802.11a/n and 802.11b/g/n) distribution and the total client count. You can choose to display this information in table form or in a pie chart. When you click the number represented by Total Clients, you get a list of clients represented by this number (the same page that you see when you choose Monitor > Clients). You can filter the data that is displayed in client count by clicking the Component Options icon and choosing either controller IP, SSID, or floor area.

Figure 10-3 Client Protocol Distribution

Client Count

This pane (see Figure 10-4) shows the trend of associated and authenticated client counts in a given period of time. You can choose to display the information in table form or in a pie chart. It shows the minimum, average, and maximum number of clients. You can filter the data that is displayed in client count by clicking the Component Options icon and choosing either controller IP, SSID, or floor area.

Figure 10-4 Client Count

If you click View History, the Client Count Historical Charts pane appears for the various time frames (see Figure 10-5). The Client Count Historical Charts pane shows the client count over the last hour, last 6 hours, last day, last week, last month, and last year. The blue line shows the authenticated client count and the orange line shows the associated client count. The upper right-hand corner shows when the chart was last updated.

Figure 10-5 View History

Client

This pane (see Figure 10-6) shows the five most recent client alarms providing the following data:

Client Association Failure

Client Authentication Failure

Client WEP Key Decryption Error

Client WPA MIC Error Counter Activated

Client Excluded

Click the number in the Total column to open the Events page (the same page that you see when you choose Monitor > Events).

Figure 10-6 Client

Client Traffic

Controllers keep counters for the number of bytes transferred and received for each client. WCS reads the number every 15 minutes and then calculates the difference, comparing the prior polling. This client traffic data is then aggregated every hour, every day, and every week (see Figure 10-7). It shows the average and maximum values in megabytes per second for both downstream and upstream traffic. You can display the information in table form or in a pie chart. When generating the chart based on the floor, WCS adds up all client traffic on this floor. You can filter the data that is displayed in client traffic by clicking the Component Options icon and choosing either controller IP, SSID, or floor area.

Figure 10-7 Client Traffic

If you click View History, the Client Traffic Historical Charts pane appears for the various time frames (see Figure 10-5). The Client Traffic Historical Charts pane shows the client traffic over the last 6 hours, last day, last week, last month, and last year. The blue line shows the authenticated client count and the orange line shows the associated client count. The upper right-hand corner shows when the chart was last updated.

Client Authentication Type Distribution

This pane (see Figure 10-8) shows the number of clients for each authentication type. You can choose to display this information in table form or in a pie chart.When you click the number represented by Total Clients, you get a list of clients represented by this number (the same page that you see when you choose Monitor > Clients). You can filter the data that is displayed in client authentication type distribution by clicking the Component Options icon and choosing either controller IP, SSID, or floor area.


Note Only the current authentication types are shown. Obsolete types are not displayed.


Figure 10-8 Client Authentication Type Distribution

AP Join Taken Time

This pane (see Figure 10-9) shows how long it took each access point to join the controller. You can restrict the number of access points to display by clicking the Component Options icon and choosing the items per page.

Figure 10-9 AP Join Taken Time

AP Threats/Attacks

This pane (see Figure 10-10) shows the type and number of attacks and threats that have occurred in the last hour, last 24 hours, and the total active.

Figure 10-10 AP Threats/Attacks

Monitoring Clients

The Monitor Client information assists in identifying, diagnosing, and resolving client issues.

Using the Monitor Clients feature, you can view a client association history and statistical information. You can also troubleshoot client historical issues. These tools are useful when users complain of network performance as they move throughout a building with their laptops. The information may help you assess what areas experience inconsistent coverage and which areas have the potential to drop coverage.

This section contains the following topics:

Client Detail Page

Configuring the Search Results Display

Configuring the Search Results Display

Filtering the Client Summary

Client Association History

Client Statistics

Client Event Information

Client Location Information

Client CCXv5 Information

Monitoring Clients Summary

Choose Monitor > Clients to view access point client information.


Note You can use the advanced search feature to narrow the client list based on specific categories and filters. See the "Using the Search Feature" section section or the "Advanced Search" section for more information.
You can also filter the current list using the Show drop-down list. See the "Filtering the Client Summary" sectionfor more information.



Note See the "Configuring the Search Results Display" section for other available client parameters. See the "Filtering the Client Summary" section for information on filtering this client list.


The following default information is displayed on the Monitor > Clients page:

Client Username—User-defined client username, or <none>. Click a username to view client details. See the "Client Detail Page" section for more information.

Client IP Address—Client access point address, or 0.0.0.0 if unknown.

Client MAC Address—Click the icon to the right of the client MAC address to launch the Client Troubleshooting page. See the "Client Troubleshooting" section for more information.

Vendor Name—Client manufacturer.

AP Name—Current or most recent access point to which this client was associated. Click the access point name to view access point details.

Controller Name—Click to view the Controller > Summary page.

Map Location—Campus, building, and floor location.

SSID—Current WLAN SSID or WLAN SSID where previously seen.

Profile Name—Indicates the name of the profile to which the client is associated.

VLAN—Indicates the access VLAN ID for this client.

Protocol—802.11a, 802.11b/g, or 802.11n.


Note If an 802.11n client associates to an 802.11a radio that has 802.11n enabled, then the client type shows as 802.11n(5GHz). If the 802.11n client associates to an 802.11b/g radio with 802.11n enabled, then the client type shows as 802.11n(2.4GHz).


EAP Type—Type of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) used. For example, TLS, TTLS, LEAP, EAP-FAST, or PEAP.

Association

Idle—Normal operation; no rejections of client association requests.

AAAPending—Completing an AAA transaction.

Authenticated—802.11 authentication complete.

Associated—802.11 association complete.

Power Save—Client is in power save mode.

Disassociated—802.11 disassociation complete.

To Be Deleted—The client will deleted after disassociation.

Probing—Client is not currently associated or authorized.

Blacklisted—Automatically disabled by system due to perceived security threat.

Association Time—Date and time the client began association.

Session Length—Amount of time of the association.

Authentication Type—Which 802.11 authentication algorithm is in use.

Traffic (MB)—The amount of inbound and outbound client traffic in MB.

Avg. Session Throughput (kbps)—The average statistics of throughput across a session.

Link Test—Click this option to have WCS test the link from the AP to the client.

Automated Test Ran—The Automated Test Ran column is populated with Yes if the test is ran for this client. Otherwise, the column has the value No.

Client Detail Page

This section describes how to view client properties, client association history, client statistics, client session information, and so on. The Client Detail page shows the association history graph to represent the time-based data. The information will help you identify, diagnose, and resolve client issues.

To open the Client Detail page, follow these steps:


Note To view complete details in the Monitor > Client details page and to perform operations such as Radio Measurement, users in User Defined groups need permission for Monitor Clients, View Alerts & Events, Configure Controllers, and Client Location.



Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a hyperlink from the Client Username column to view client details. The Monitor > Client > Client Details page appears (see Figure 10-11). This data is displayed in both table and chart form.

Figure 10-11 Client Details Page

The Client Details page includes the following information:

Client Identity and Device Information—Username, Client MAC address, Client IP address, Client host name, Vendor, H-REAP Local Authentication, CCX Version, and power save.

Association Information—Protocol, SSID, Profile, VLAN ID, Interface, Associated AP name, Associated AP MAC address, Associated AP IP address, Associated controller name, Associated controller IP, First seen time, Last seen time, and Current associated status.

Security Information—Security policy, 802.11 authentication, Cipher, and EAP type.

Statistic Information—RF quality, SNR, RSSI, Throughput, Data rate, Bytes sent and received, Packets sent and received, and retries.

Historical Charts—Client association chart and RF quality, SNR and RSSI, Bytes sent and received, Packets sent and received.

Events—Client association failure, Client authentication failure, Client WEP key decryption error, client WPA MIC error counter activated, Client decrypt error occurred, Client excluded, AP disassociated from controller, and AP crash.

Client Location—A small map showing the current client location.

CCXv5—Basic CCXv5 client information if appropriate.

Client Sessions—The details of the client session stated during the selected time range.


Configuring the Search Results Display

The Edit View page allows you to add, remove, or reorder columns in the clients table.

To edit the available columns in the clients table, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Click the Edit View link.

Step 3 To add an additional column to the clients table, click to highlight the column heading in the left column. Click Show to move the heading to the right column. All items in the right column are displayed in the clients table.

Step 4 To remove a column from the clients table, click to highlight the column heading in the right column. Click Hide to move the heading to the left column. All items in the left column are not displayed in the clients table.

Step 5 Use the Up/Down buttons to specify the order in which the information appears in the table. Highlight the desired column heading and click Up or Down to move it higher or lower in the current list.

Step 6 Click Reset to restore the default view.

Step 7 Click Submit to confirm the changes.


Note Additional client parameters include: AP MAC Address, Anchor Controller, Authenticated, CCX, Client Host Name, Controller IP Address, Controller Port, E2E, Encryption Cipher, MSE, RSSI, SNR, and H-REAP Local Authentication.



Filtering the Client Summary

You can filter the Monitor Clients list page according to client type.

From the Monitor > Clients page, use the Show drop-down list to filter the current client list. Choose a client type, then click Go.

Client type filters include:

2.4 GHz Clients

5 GHz Clients

All Clients

Associated Clients

Authenticated Clients

Clients Detected by MSE

Clients Detected in last 24 hours

Excluded Clients

H-REAP Locally Authenticated

New Clients Detected in last 24 hours

Probing Clients

Unauthenticated Clients

Workgroup Bridge (WGB) Clients


Note See the "Monitoring Clients" section or the "Client Detail Page" section for more information.


2.4 GHz Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose 2.4 GHz Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all 2.4 GHz clients.

5 GHz Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose 5 GHz Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all 5 GHz clients.

All Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose All Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all clients.

Associated Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Associated Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all associated clients.

Authenticated Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Authenticated Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all authenticated clients.

Clients Detected by MSE

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Clients Detected by MSE, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all clients stored on the mobility services engine that were detected by the mobility services engine through controller polling.

Clients Detected in last 24 hours

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Clients Detected in last 24 hours, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all clients that were detected in the last 24 hours.

Excluded Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Excluded Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all excluded clients.

H-REAP Locally Authenticated

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose H-REAP Locally Authenticated, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all locally authenticated clients.

New Clients Detected in last 24 hours

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose New Clients Detected in last 24 hours, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all new clients that were detected in the last 24 hours.

Probing Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Probing Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all probing clients.


Note Probing clients are clients that are associated to another controller but whose probing activity causes them to be seen by another controller and counted as an element by the "probed" controller as well as its primary controller.


Unauthenticated Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose Unauthenticated Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all unauthenticated clients.

Workgroup Bridge (WGB) Clients

From the Show drop-down list on the Monitor Clients list page, choose WGB Clients, then click Go. When filtered, the Monitor Clients page displays all wired clients detected as WGB clients.

A workgroup bridge (WGB) is a mode that can be configured on an autonomous IOS access point to provide wireless connectivity to a lightweight access point on behalf of clients that are connected by Ethernet to the WGB access point. A WGB connects a wired network over a single wireless segment by learning the MAC addresses of its wired clients on the Ethernet interface and reporting them to the lightweight access point using Internet Access Point Protocol (IAPP) messaging. The WGB provides wireless access connectivity to wired clients by establishing a single wireless connection to the lightweight access point. The lightweight access point treats the WGB as a wireless client.


Note The WCS provides WGB client information for the autonomous access point whether or not it is managed by the WCS. If the WGB access point is also managed by the WCS, WCS provides basic monitoring functions for the access point similar to other autonomous access points.


See the "Guidelines for Using WGBs" section for more information on work group bridges.

Guidelines for Using WGBs

Follow these guidelines for using WGBs on your network:

The WGB can be any autonomous access point that supports the workgroup bridge mode and is running Cisco IOS Release 12.4(3g)JA or later (on 32-MB access points) or Cisco IOS Release 12.3(8)JEB or later (on 16-MB access points). These access points include the AP1120, AP1121, AP1130, AP1231, AP1240, and AP1310. Cisco IOS Releases prior to 12.4(3g)JA and 12.3(8)JEB are not supported.


Note If your access point has two radios, you can configure only one for workgroup bridge mode. This radio is used to connect to the lightweight access point. We recommend that you disable the second radio.


The WGB can associate only to lightweight access points.

Only WGBs in client mode (which is the default value) are supported. Those in infrastructure mode are not supported. Perform one of the following to enable client mode on the WGB:

On the WGB access point GUI, choose Disabled for the Reliable Multicast to WGB parameter.

On the WGB access point CLI, enter this command: no infrastructure client.


Note VLANs are not supported for use with WGBs.


These features are supported for use with a WGB:

Guest N+1 redundancy

Local EAP

Open, WEP 40, WEP 128, CKIP, WPA+TKIP, WPA2+AES, LEAP, EAP-FAST, and EAP-TLS authentication modes

These features are not supported for use with a WGB:

Cisco Centralized Key Management (CCKM)

Hybrid REAP

Idle timeout

Web authentication


Note If a WGB associates to a web-authentication WLAN, the WGB is added to the exclusion list, and all of the WGB wired clients are deleted.


The WGB supports a maximum of 20 wired clients. If you have more than 20 wired clients, use a bridge or another device.

Wired clients connected to the WGB are not authenticated for security. Instead, the WGB is authenticated against the access point to which it associates. Therefore, We recommend that you physically secure the wired side of the WGB.

With Layer 3 roaming, if you plug a wired client into the WGB network after the WGB has roamed to another controller (for example, to a foreign controller), the wired client's IP address appears only on the anchor controller, not on the foreign controller.

If a wired client does not send traffic for an extended period of time, the WGB removes the client from its bridge table, even if traffic is continuously being sent to the wired client. As a result, the traffic flow to the wired client fails. To avoid the traffic loss, prevent the wired client from being removed from the bridge table by configuring the aging-out timer on the WGB to a large value using the following Cisco IOS commands on the WGB:

configure terminal
bridge bridge-group-number aging-time seconds
exit
end 
 
   

where bridge-group-number is a value between 1 and 255, and seconds is a value between 10 and 1,000,000 seconds. We recommend configuring the seconds parameter to a value greater than the wired client's idle period.

When you delete a WGB record from the controller, all of the WGB wired clients records are also deleted.

Wired clients connected to a WGB inherit the WGB QoS and AAA override attributes.

These features are not supported for wired clients connected to a WGB:

MAC filtering

Link tests

Idle timeout

To enable the WGB to communicate with the lightweight access point, create a WLAN and make sure that Aironet IE is enabled.

Client Properties

The Properties section displays client details and properties of the access point with which the client is associated.


Note At the bottom of the Properties area, click More to view additional client properties. Once clicked, you can click Less to hide these additional properties.


These details include the following:

Client Identity and Device Information including: Username, client MAC address, client IP address, client host name, vendor, H-REAP Local Authentication information, CCX version (or not supported), and power save status.

Controller—Client controller. Click to view controller parameters. See the "Monitoring System Summary" section for more information.

Port—Controller port to which the client is attached.

Protocol—802.11a, 802.11b/g, or 802.11n. Click to view On Demand Statistics for the radio. See the "Monitoring On Demand Statistics" section for more information.


Note If an 802.11n client associates to an 802.11a radio that has 802.11n enabled, then the client type shows as 802.11n(5 GHz). If the 802.11n client associates to an 802.11b/g radio with 802.11n enabled, then the client type shows as 802.11n(2.4 GHz).


SSID—WLAN Service Set ID.

Profile Name

Access point information including:

AP Name—Click the AP name to view details regarding the associated access point. See the "Monitoring Access Points Details" section for more information.

AP IP Address—Click the AP IP address to view details regarding the associated access point. See the "Monitoring Access Points Details" section for more information.

AP Type

AP Base Radio MAC address

Interface—The name of the interface to which the client is connected.

VLAN ID—The client has successfully joined an access point for the given SSID. VLAN ID is the reverse lookup of the interface used by the WLAN on the controller side.

802.11 State—802.11 state may be one of the following:

Idle (0) -- normal operation: no rejections of client association requests.

AAAPending (1) -- completing an aaa transaction.

Authenticated (2) -- 802.11 authentication completed.

Associated (3) -- 802.11 association completed.

Power Save (4) -- client in power save mode.

Disassociated (5) -- 802.11 disassociation completed.

To Be Deleted (6) -- to be deleted after disassociation.

Probing (7) -- client not associated or authorized yet.

Blacklisted (8) -- automatically disabled by system due to perceived security threats.

Security information including:

Security Policy—The security policy used by the client.

802.11 Authentication—Which 802.11 authentication algorithm is in force.

Encryption Cipher—Encryption settings.

EAP Type—Type of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) used.

Statistical information including:

RSSI

SNR (dB)—Signal to noise ratio of the client RF session as detected by the access point with which the client is associated.

Retries

Packets Tx/Rx

Bytes Tx/Rx

Policy Errors

Uptime (Sec)—Time duration (in seconds) of the association.

Current TxRateSet

Data RateSet


Note Click More to view the following parameters.


Mobility Role—Local, Anchor, Foreign, Export Anchor, Export Foreign.

Policy Manager State—Internal state of the client WLAN. Client is working properly when the state is RUN.

Mobility Peer IP Address

Mirror Mode—Disable or enable.

E2E—Indicates if E2E is supported.

Client Type

AP Mode—The access point operational mode (Local, Monitor, H-REAP, Rogue Detector, Sniffer, or Bridge).

Association ID—Client access point association identification number.

NAC State—Network Access Control state (Quarantine, Access, Invalid, or Not Applicable).

Reason Code—The client reason code may be one of the following:

Normal (0)—Normal operation.

Unspecified reason (1)—Client associated but no longer authorized.

PreviousAuthNotValid (2)—Client associated but not authorized.

DeauthenticationLeaving (3)—The access point went offline, deauthenticating the client.

DisassociationDueToInactivity (4)—Client session timeout exceeded.

DisassociationAPBusy (5)—The access point is busy, performing load balancing, for example.

Class2FrameFromNonAuthStation (6)—Client attempted to transfer data before it was authenticated.

Class2FrameFromNonAssStation (7)—Client attempted to transfer data before it was associated.

DisassociationStnHasLeft (8)—Controller moved the client to another access point using non-aggressive load balancing.

StaReqAssociationWithoutAuth (9)—Client not authorized yet, still attempting to associate with an Cisco WLAN Solution WLAN.

Missing Reason Code (99)—Client momentarily in an unknown state.

Authenticated—Yes or No.

Anchor Address

N/A when the client is Local (has not roamed from its original subnet).

Anchor IP Address (the IP address of the original controller) when the client is Foreign (has roamed to another controller on a different subnet).

Foreign IP Address (the IP address of the original controller) when the client is Anchor (has roamed back to another controller on a different subnet).

Client Association History

The Association History section displays information regarding the last ten association times for the selected client. This information can help in troubleshooting the client.

Client Association History includes the following information:

Date and time of association

Duration of association

Username

IP address

Access point and controller name

Map location

SSID

Protocol

Amount of traffic (MB)

Hostname

Roam reason (such as No longer seen from controller or New association detected)


Note Click the Edit View link to add, remove or reorder columns in the Current Associated Clients table. See the "Configuring the Search Results Display" section for adding a new parameters than can be added through Edit View.


Client Statistics

The Statistics includes the following information for the selected client:

Client AP Association History

Client RSSI History (dBm)—History of RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) as detected by the access point with which the client is associated.

Client SNR History—History of SNR (signal-to-noise ratio of the client RF session) as detected by the access point with which the client is associated

Bytes Sent and Received (Kbps)—Bytes sent and received with the associated access point.

Packets Sent and Received (per second)—Packets sent and received with the associated access point.


Note Hover your mouse cursor over points on the graph for additional statistical information.



Note This information is presented in interactive graphs. See the "Interactive Graphs" section for more information.


Client Event Information

The Event section of the Client Details page displays all events for this client including the event type as well as the date and time of the event.

Click an event type to view its details. See the "Monitoring Failure Objects" section for more information.

Client Location Information

The following location parameters display (if available) for the selected client.

Map

Asset Information

Name

Group

Category

Location Debug


Note This displays access point RSSI information on the map.


Location Notifications—Displays the number of location notifications logged against the client.

Absence—The location server generates absence events when the location server cannot see the asset in the WLAN for the specified time.

Containment—The location server generates containment events when an asset is moved inside or outside of a designated area.

Distance—The location server generates movement events when an asset is moved beyond a specified distance from a designated marker you define on a map.

All—The total of absence, containment, and distance notifications.


Note Click the number to view applicable notification details.


Client CCXv5 Information

CCXv5 clients are client devices that support Cisco Compatible Extensions version 5 (CCXv5). Reports specific to CCXv5 clients provide client details that enhance client diagnostics and troubleshooting.


Note The CCXv5 manufacturing information is displayed for CCXv5 clients only.


To view specific client details, perform a client search using the applicable search parameters. For more information on performing a client search, see the "Monitoring Clients" section or the "Advanced Search" section.

CCXv5 information displays in the Monitor Clients > Client Details page. CCXv5 information includes the following:

CCXv5 Manufacturing Information:

Organizationally Unique Identifier—The IEEE assigned organizational unique identifier, for example the first 3 bytes of the MAC address of the wireless network connected device.

ID—The manufacturer identifier of the wireless network adapter.

Model—Model of the wireless network adapter.

Serial Number—Serial number of the wireless network adapter.

Radio—Radio type of the client.

MAC Address—MAC address assigned to the client.

Antenna Type—Type of antenna connected to the wireless network adapter.

Antenna Gain—The peak gain of the dBi of the antenna for directional antennas and the average gain in dBi for omni-directional antennas connected to the wireless network adapter. The gain is in multiples of 0.5 dBm. An integer value 4 means 4 x 0.5 = 2 dBm of gain.


Note Click More to view the following additional CCXv5 parameters.


Automated Troubleshooting Report—If the automated test runs, this pane displays the location of automated troubleshooting log AUTO_TS_LOG<ClientMac>.txt. If no automated test runs, Not Exists appears.

Click Export to save the .zip file. The file contains three logs: automated troubleshoot report, frame log, and watch list log.


Note The Settings > Client page allows you to enable automatic client troubleshooting on a diagnostic channel. This feature is only available for Cisco Compatible Extension clients version 5. See the "Processing Diagnostic Trap" section for more information.


Radio Receiver Sensitivity—Displays receiver sensitivity of the wireless network adapter including:

Radio

Data Rate

Minimum and Maximum RSSI

CCXV5 Capability Information—Displays the Capability Information parameters for CCXv5 clients only.

Radio

Client Status—Success or failure.

Service Capability—Service capabilities such as voice, streaming (uni-directional) video, interactive (bi-directional) video.

Radio Channels—Identifies the channels for each applicable radio.

Transmit Data Rates—Identifies the transmission data rates (Mbps) for each radio.

Transmit Power Values—Identifies the transmission power values including:

Power mode

Radio

Power (dBm)

Enabling Automatic Client Troubleshooting

In the Settings > Client page, you can enable automatic client troubleshooting on a diagnostic channel. This feature is available only for Cisco Compatible Extension clients version 5.

To enable automatic client troubleshooting, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Administration > Settings.

Step 2 From the left sidebar menu, choose Client.

Step 3 Select the Automatically troubleshoot client on diagnostic channel check box.


Note When the check box is selected, WCS processes the diagnostic association trap. When it is not selected, WCS raises the trap, but automated troubleshooting is not initiated.


Step 4 Click Save.


Viewing Client Details in the Access Point Page

You can also view the client information from the access point page. Choose Monitor > Access Points. Click an access point URL from the column to see details about that access point. Click the Current Associated Clients tab.

Running Client Reports

You can run client reports such as busiest clients, client count, client sessions, client summary, throughput, unique clients and v5 clients statistics from the Report Launch pad. See the "Creating and Running a New Report" section.

Client Troubleshooting

You can begin troubleshooting several ways: by entering a MAC address in the Client tab dashboard, by using the search function, or by clicking the Troubleshooting icon within the Client MAC Address column in the Monitor > Clients page. Any method provides all the information necessary to troubleshoot historical client issues. You can monitor the status of the connection, verify the user's current and past locations, and troubleshoot client connectivity problems. You may want to use the client troubleshooting option if a user experiences repeated connectivity issues. The Client Details page shows SNR over time, RSSI over time, client reassociations, client reauthentications, and any RRM events. An administrator can correlate reassociations and reauthentications and determine if the problem was with the network or client.

Troubleshooting from the Client Tab Dashboard

If you enter a client MAC address and click Troubleshoot (see Figure 10-12), the same Client Details page as shown in Figure 10-1 appears.

Figure 10-12 Client Tab Troubleshooting

The following client MAC address formats are supported:

0123.45ab.cdef

01:23:45:ab:cd:ef

012345abcdef

01-23-45-ab-cd-ef

01.23.45.ab.cd.ef

Partial MACAddress(00:aa,22:dd:aa)


Note If the client is not currently associated, most of the information will not appear.


Troubleshooting Using the Search Feature

Client search is the primary method for you to locate clients. For a detailed description of the search feature, refer to the "Using the Search Feature" section.

To troubleshoot a client using the search feature, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 In the Quick Search area, type the MAC address of the client, and click Search. The Search Results page appears (see Figure 10-13).

Figure 10-13 Search Results Page

Step 3 Click View List to see the clients that matched the search criteria in the Clients page. The Monitor > Clients page appears (see Figure 10-14).

Figure 10-14 Clients Page

Table 10-1 Clients Page Information  

Table Column
Description

Client Username

The username of the client used for authentication. Clicking the client username displays detailed information about the client such as client properties, association history, and client status and performance statistics.

Client IP Address

The IP address of the client.

Client MAC Address

The MAC address of the client. The following MAC address formats are supported:

0123.45ab.cdef

01:23:45:ab:cd:ef

012345abcdef

01-23-45-ab-cd-ef

01.23.45.ab.cd.ef

Partial MACAddress(00:aa,22:dd:aa)

Vendor Name

The client's vendor information.

AP Name

The name of the access point to which the client is associated. Clicking the AP name displays information in the Monitor > Access Points page.

Controller Name

The IP address of the controller to which the client is registered. Clicking the controller name displays information in the Monitor > Controllers > System > Summary page.

Map Location

The physical location of the client (such as building, floor, and so on). Clicking the map location displays information in the Monitor > Maps page.

SSID

The SSID assigned to this WLAN. The access points broadcast the SSID on this WLAN. Different WLANs can use the same SSID as long as the Layer 2 security has a different value.

Profile Name

The profile name of the WLAN that the client is associated to or is trying to associate to.

VLAN

The client has successfully joined an access point for the given SSID. VLAN is the reverse lookup of the interface used by the WLAN on the controller side.

Protocol

Indicates whether the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n protocol is being used.

Association

The state of the client. May be one of the following:

Idle—completing an AAA transaction

AAA Pending—completing an AAA transaction

Authenticated—802.11 authentication completed

Associated—802.11 association completed

Power Save—client in power save mode

Disassociated—802.11 disassociation completed

To Be Deleted—to be deleted after disassociation

Probing—client not associated or authorized yet

Association Time

The date and time that the status of the client last changed.

Session Length

The length of time the client has been in the current state.

Authentication Type

The 802.11authentication algorithm that is in use.

Traffic (MB)

The amount of client traffic (in MBs) for both inbound and outbound.

Avg Session Throughput (kbps)

The throughput averages across a session.

Automated Test Ran

Indicates whether or not an automated test has been run.

Authenticated

Indicates whether the client has been authenticated.

CCX

Indicates the Cisco Compatible Extension version, if the client supports it.

Client Host Name

Specifies the client host name.

Controller IP Address

Clicking a controller IP address displays information from the Monitor > Controllers > System > Summary page.

Port

The port on the controller to which the client is connected.

E2E

Indicates whether E2E is supported.

Encryption Cipher

Encryption settings.

Client IP Address

The IP address of the client.


The Monitor > Clients Page displays the following information (see Table 10-1).

Step 4 Click the icon to the right of the Client MAC Address that you want to troubleshoot. The Troubleshooting Client page appears (see Figure 10-15). If you are troubleshooting a Cisco Compatible Extension v5 client, your Troubleshooting Client page has additional tabs like the page referenced in Figure 10-19.


Note If you receive a message that the client does not seem to be connected to any access point, you must reconnect the client and click Refresh.


Figure 10-15 Troubleshooting Client Page

The summary page briefly describes the problem and recommends a course of action.


Note Some Cisco Compatible Extension features do not function properly when you use a web browser other than Mozilla Firefox 3.0 or later or Internet Explorer 7.0 or later on a Windows workstation.


Step 5 To view log messages logged against the client, click the Log Analysis tab (see Figure 10-16).

Step 6 To begin capturing log messages about the client from the controller, click Start. To stop log message capture, click Stop. To clear all log messages, click Clear.


Note Log messages are captured for ten minutes and then stopped automatically. You must click Start to continue.


Step 7 To select log messages to display, click one of the links under Select Log Messages (the number between parentheses indicates the number of messages). The messages appear in the box. The message includes the following information:

A status message

The controller time

A severity level of info or error (errors are displayed in red)

The controller to which the client is connected

Figure 10-16 Log Analysis Tab

Step 8 To display a summary of the client's event history, click the Event History tab (see Figure 10-17).


Note If an access point that the client is associated to has Media Session Snooping enabled within the WLAN configuration, any Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) errors that are detected appear in the AP Events list.


This page displays client and access point events that occurred within the last 24 hours.

Figure 10-17 Event History Tab

Step 9 If you click the ACS View Server tab, you can interact with the Cisco Access Control (ACS) System View Server (see Figure 10-18). You must have View Server credentials established before you can access this tab. (The tab will show the server list as empty if no view servers are configured.) See the "Configuring ACS View Server Credentials" section for steps on establishing credentials.

This server provides WCS with aggregated client status information from multiple ACS servers. The client status information allows you to further troubleshoot client issues and determine whether they are related to authentication or authorization. Enter the date and time ranges to retrieve the historical authentication and authorization information, and click Submit. The results of the query are displayed in the Authentication Records portion of the page and is used as a filter for the userid logged into the client.

Figure 10-18 ACS View Server Page

Step 10 You can click the CleanAir tab to view information about the air quality parameters and the active interferers for the CleanAir enabled access point. This tab provides the following information about the air quality detected by the CleanAir enabled access point.

AP Name—Click to view the access point details. See the "Monitoring Access Points Details" section for more information.

AP MAC Address

Radio

CleanAir Capable—Indicates if the access point is CleanAir Capable.

CleanAir Enabled—Indicates if CleanAir is enabled on this access point.

Admin Status—Enabled or disabled.

Operational Status—Displays the operational status of the Cisco Radios (Up or Down).

Channel—The channel upon which the Cisco Radio is broadcasting.

Extension Channel—Indicates the secondary channel on which Cisco radio is broadcasting.

Channel Width—Indicates the channel bandwidth for this radio interface. See the "Configuring 802.11a/n RRM Dynamic Channel Allocation" section for more information on configuring channel bandwidth.

Power Level—Access Point transmit power level: 1 = Maximum power allowed per Country Code setting, 2 = 50% power, 3 = 25% power, 4 = 6.25 to 12.5% power, and 5 = 0.195 to 6.25% power.

The power levels and available channels are defined by the Country Code setting, and are regulated on a country by country basis.

Average AQ Index—Average air quality index.

Minimum AQ Index—Minimum air quality index.

The following information about the active interferers is displayed:

Interferer Name—The name of the interfering device.

Affected Channels—The channel the interfering device is affecting.

Detected Time—The time at which the interference was detected.

Severity—The severity index of the interfering device.

Duty Cycle(%)—The duty cycle (in percentage) of the interfering device.

RSSI(dBm)—The Received Signal Strength Indicator of the interfering device.

Click CleanAir Details to know more about the air quality index.

Step 11 (Optional) If Cisco Compatible Extension Version 5 clients are available, you can click a Test Analysis tab as shown in Figure 10-19.

Figure 10-19 Test Analysis Tab

The Test Analysis tab allows you to run a variety of diagnostic tests on the client. Select the check box for the applicable diagnostic test, enter any appropriate input information, and click Start. The following diagnostic tests are available:

DHCP—Executes a complete DHCP Discover/Offer/Request/ACK exchange to determine that the DHCP is operating properly between the controller and the client.

IP Connectivity—Causes the client to execute a ping test of the default gateway obtained in the DHCP test to verify that IP connectivity exists on the local subnet.

DNS Ping—Causes the client to execute a ping test of the DNS server obtained in the DHCP test to verify that IP connectivity exists to the DNS server.

DNS Resolution—Causes the DNS client to attempt to resolve a network name known to be resolvable to verify that name resolution is functioning correctly.

802.11 Association—Directs an association to be completed with a specific access point to to verify that the client is able to associate properly with a designated WLAN.

802.1X Authentication—Directs an association and 802.1X authentication to be completed with a specific access point to verify that the client is able to properly complete an 802.1x authentication.

Profile Redirect—At any time, the diagnostic system may direct the client to activate one of the client's configured WLAN profiles and to continue operation under that profile.


Note To run the profile diagnostic test, the client must be on the diagnostic channel. This test uses the profile number as an input. To indicate a wildcard redirect, enter 0. With this redirect, the client is asked to disassociate from the diagnostic channel and to associate with any profile. You can also enter a valid profile ID. Because the client is on the diagnostic channel when the test is run, only one profile is returned in the profile list. You should use this profile ID in the profile redirect test (when wildcard redirecting is not desired).


Step 12 (Optional) If Cisco Compatible Extension Version 5 clients are available, a Messaging tab as shown in Figure 10-20 appears. Use this tab to send an instant text message to the user of this client. From the Message Category drop-down list, choose a message, and click Send.

Figure 10-20 Messaging Tab

Step 13 Close the Troubleshooting Client page.


Receiving Radio Measurements for a Client

In the client page, you can receive radio measurements only if the client is Cisco Compatible Extensions v2 (or higher) and is in the associated state (with a valid IP address). If the client is busy when asked to do the measurement, it determines whether to honor the measurement or not. If it declines to make the measurement, it shows no data from the client.

To receive radio measurements, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.


Note You can also perform a search for a specific client using the WCS Search feature. See the "Using the Search Feature" section or the "Advanced Search" section for more information.


Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Radio Measurement.


Note The Radio Measurement option only appears if the client is Cisco Compatible Extensions v2 (or higher) and is in the associated state (with a valid IP address).


Step 4 Select the check box to indicate if you want to specify beacon measurement, frame measurement, channel load, or noise histogram.

Step 5 Click Initiate. The different measurements produce differing results. See the "Radio Measurement Results for a Client" section for more information.


Note The measurements take about 5 msec to perform. A message from WCS indicates the progress. If the client chooses not to perform the measurement, that will also be communicated.



Radio Measurement Results for a Client

Depending on the measurement type requested, the following information may appear:

Beacon Response

Channel—The channel number for this measurement

BSSID—6-byte BSSID of the station that sent the beacon or probe response

PHY—Physical Medium Type (FH, DSS, OFDM, high rate DSS or ERP)

Received Signal Power—The strength of the beacon or probe response frame in dBm

Parent TSF—The lower 4 bytes of serving access point TSF value

Target TSF—The 8-byte TSF value contained in the beacon or probe response

Beacon Interval—The 2-byte beacon interval in the received beacon or probe response

Capability information—As present in the beacon or probe response

Frame Measurement

Channel—Channel number for this measurement

BSSID—BSSID contained in the MAC header of the data frames received

Number of frames—Number of frames received from the transmit address

Received Signal Power—The signal strength of 802.11 frames in dBm

Channel Load

Channel—The channel number for this measurement

CCA busy fraction—The fractional duration over which CCA indicated the channel was busy during the measurement duration defined as ceiling (255 times the duration the CCA indicated channel was busy divided by measurement duration)

Noise Histogram

Channel—The channel number for this measurement

RPI density in each of the eight power ranges

Viewing Client V5 Statistics

To access the Statistics request page, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose V5 Statistics.


Note This menu will be shown only for CCX v5 and later clients.


Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 Select the desired type of stats (Dot11 Measurement or Security Measurement).

Step 6 Click Initiate to initiate the measurements.


Note The duration of measurement is five seconds.


Step 7 Depending on the V5 Statistics request type, the following counters are displayed in the results page:

Dot11 Measurement

Transmitted Fragment Count

Multicast Transmitted Frame Count

Failed Count

Retry Count

Multiple Retry Count

Frame Duplicate Count

Rts Success Count

Rts Failure Count

Ack Failure Count

Received Fragment Count

Multicast Received Frame Count

FCS Error Count—This counter increments when an FCS error is detected in a received MPDU.

Transmitted Frame Count

Security

Pairwise Cipher

Tkip ICV Errors

Tkip Local Mic Failures

Tkip Replays

Ccmp Replays

Ccmp Decryp Errors

Mgmt Stats Tkip ICV Errors

Mgmt Stats Tkip Local Mic Failures

Mgmt Stats Tkip Replays

Mgmt Stats Ccmp Replays

Mgmt Stats Ccmp Decrypt Errors

Mgmt Stats Tkip MHDR Errors

Mgmt Stats Ccmp MHDR Errors

Mgmt Stats Broadcast Disassociate Count

Mgmt Stats Broadcast Deauthenticate Count

Mgmt Stats Broadcast Action Frame Count


Viewing Client Operational Parameters

To view specific client operational parameters, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Operational Parameters.

Step 4 Click Go.

The following information is displayed:

Operational Parameters:

Device Name—User-defined name for device.

Client Type—Client type can be any of the following:

laptop(0)

pc(1)

pda(2)

dot11mobilephone(3)

dualmodephone(4)

wgb(5)

scanner(6)

tabletpc(7)

printer(8)

projector(9)

videoconfsystem(10)

camera(11)

gamingsystem(12)

dot11deskphone(13)

cashregister(14)

radiotag(15)

rfidsensor(16)

server(17)

Transmit Power Mode—Power mode of the client.

Data Rate—Data rates that the client will use for transmissions.

SSID—SSID being used by the client.

IP Address—IP address assigned to the client.

Subnet Mask—The mask for the IP address assigned to the client.

Default Gateway—The default gateway chosen for the client.

Operating System—Identifies the operating system that is using the wireless network adaptor.

Operating System Version—Identifies the version of the operating system that is using the wireless network adaptor.

WNA Firmware Version—Version of the firmware currently installed on the client.

Enterprise Phone Number—Enterprise phone number for the client.

Cell Phone Number—Cell phone number for the client.

Power Save Mode—Will display any of the following power save modes: awake, normal, or maxPower.

Radio Information:

Radio Type—The following radio types are available:

unused(0)

fhss(1)

dsss(2)

irbaseband(3)

ofdm(4)

hrdss(5)

erp(6)

Radio Channel—Radio channel in use.

DNS/WNS Information:

DNS Servers—IP address for DNS server.

WNS Servers—IP address for WNS server.

Security Information:

Credential Type—Indicates how the credentials are configured for the client.

Authentication Method—Method of authentication used by the client.

EAP Method—Method of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) used by the client.

Encryption Method—Encryption method used by the client.

Key Management Method—Key management method used by the client.


Viewing Client Profiles

To view specific client profile information, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Profiles.

Step 4 Click Go.

The following information is displayed:

Profile Name—List of profile names as hyperlinks. Click to display the profile details.

SSID—SSID of the WLAN to which the client is associated.


Disabling a Current Client

To disable a current client, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Disable.

Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 Enter a description in the Description text box.

Step 6 Click OK.


Removing a Current Client

To remove a current client, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Remove.

Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 Click OK to confirm the deletion.


Enabling Mirror Mode

When enabled, mirror mode enables you to duplicate (to another port) all of the traffic originating from or terminating at a single client device or access point.


Note Mirror mode is useful in diagnosing specific network problems but should only be enabled on an unused port as any connections to this port become unresponsive.


To enable mirror mode, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Enable Mirror Mode.

Step 4 Click Go.


Viewing a Map (High Resolution) of a Client Recent Location

To display a high-resolution map of the client recent location, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Recent Map (High Resolution).

Step 4 Click Go.


Viewing a Map (High Resolution) of a Client Current Location

To display a high-resolution map of the client present location, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Present Map (High Resolution).

Step 4 Click Go.


Viewing a Client Sessions Report for the Client

To view the most recent client session report results for this client, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Client Sessions Report.

Step 4 Click Go. The Client Session report details display. See the "Client Sessions" section for more information.


Viewing a Roam Reason Report for the Client

To view the most recent roam report for this client, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Roam Reason.

Step 4 Click Go.

This page displays the most recent roam report for the client. Each roam report has the following information:

New AP MAC address

Old (previous) AP MAC address

Previous AP SSID

Previous AP channel

Transition time—Time that it took the client to associate to a new access point.

Roam reason—Reason for the client roam.


Viewing Detecting Access Point Details

To display details of access points that can hear the client including at which signal strength/SNR, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Detecting APs.

Step 4 Click Go.


Viewing Client Location History

To display the history of the client location based on RF fingerprinting, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Location History.

Step 4 Click Go.


Viewing Voice Metrics for a Client

To view traffic stream metrics for this client, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Clients.

Step 2 Choose a client from the Client Username column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Voice Metrics.

Step 4 Click Go.

The following information appears:

Time—Time that the statistics were gathered from the access point(s).

QoS

AP Ethernet MAC

Radio

% PLR (Downlink)—Percentage of packets lost on the downlink (access point to client) during the 90 second interval.

% PLR (Uplink)—Percentage of packets lost on the uplink (client to access point) during the 90 second interval.

Avg Queuing Delay (ms) (Uplink)—Average queuing delay in milliseconds for the uplink. Average packet queuing delay is the average delay of voice packets traversing the voice queue. Packet queue delay is measured beginning when a packet is queued for transmission and ending when the packet is successfully transmitted. It includes time for re-tries, if needed.

% Packets > 40 ms Queuing Delay (Downlink)——Percentage of queuing delay packets greater than 40 ms.

% Packets 20ms—40ms Queuing Delay (Downlink)—Percentage of queuing delay packets greater than 20 ms.

Roaming Delay—Roaming delay in milliseconds. Roaming delay, which is measured by clients, is measured beginning when the last packet is received from the old access point and ending when the first packet is received from the new access point after a successful roam.