High Availability Command Reference Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3SE (Cisco WLC 5700 Series)
Using the Command-Line Interface
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Using the Command-Line Interface

Using the Command-Line Interface

This chapter contains the following topics:

Using the Command-Line Interface

This chapter describes the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) and how to use it to configure your switch.

Understanding Command Modes

The Cisco IOS user interface is divided into many different modes. The commands available to you depend on which mode you are currently in. Enter a question mark (?) at the system prompt to obtain a list of commands available for each command mode.

When you start a session on the switch, you begin in user mode, often called user EXEC mode. Only a limited subset of the commands are available in user EXEC mode. For example, most of the user EXEC commands are one-time commands, such as show commands, which show the current configuration status, and clear commands, which clear counters or interfaces. The user EXEC commands are not saved when the switch reboots.

To have access to all commands, you must enter privileged EXEC mode. Normally, you must enter a password to enter privileged EXEC mode. From this mode, you can enter any privileged EXEC command or enter global configuration mode.

Using the configuration modes (global, interface, and line), you can make changes to the running configuration. If you save the configuration, these commands are stored and used when the switch reboots. To access the various configuration modes, you must start at global configuration mode. From global configuration mode, you can enter interface configuration mode and line configuration mode.

This table describes the main command modes, how to access each one, the prompt you see in that mode, and how to exit the mode. The examples in the table use the hostname Switch.

Table 1 Command Mode Summary

Mode

Access Method

Prompt

Exit Method

About This Mode

User EXEC

Begin a session with your switch.

Switch>

Enter logout or quit.

Use this mode to

  • Change terminal settings.
  • Perform basic tests.
  • Display system information.

Privileged EXEC

While in user EXEC mode, enter the enable command.

Controller#

Enter disable to exit.

Use this mode to verify commands that you have entered. Use a password to protect access to this mode.

Global configuration

While in privileged EXEC mode, enter the configure command.

Controller(config)#

To exit to privileged EXEC mode, enter exit or end, or press Ctrl-Z.

Use this mode to configure parameters that apply to the entire switch.

VLAN configuration

While in global configuration mode, enter the vlan vlan-id command.

Controller(config-vlan)#

To exit to global configuration mode, enter the exit command.

To return to privileged EXEC mode, press Ctrl-Z or enter end.

Use this mode to configure VLAN parameters. When VTP mode is transparent, you can create extended-range VLANs (VLAN IDs greater than 1005) and save configurations in the switch startup configuration file.

Interface configuration

While in global configuration mode, enter the interface command (with a specific interface).

Controller(config-if)#

To exit to global configuration mode, enter exit.

To return to privileged EXEC mode, press Ctrl-Z or enter end.

Use this mode to configure parameters for the Ethernet ports.

Line configuration

While in global configuration mode, specify a line with the line vty or line console command.

Controller(config-line)#

To exit to global configuration mode, enter exit.

To return to privileged EXEC mode, press Ctrl-Z or enter end.

Use this mode to configure parameters for the terminal line.

For more detailed information on the command modes, see the command reference guide for this release.

Understanding the Help System

You can enter a question mark (?) at the system prompt to display a list of commands available for each command mode. You can also obtain a list of associated keywords and arguments for any command.

Table 2 Help Summary

Command

Purpose

help

Obtains a brief description of the help system in any command mode.

abbreviated-command-entry ?

Controller# di?
dir disable disconnect 

Obtains a list of commands that begin with a particular character string.

abbreviated-command-entry <Tab>

Controller# sh conf<tab>
Controller# show configuration

Completes a partial command name.

?
Switch> ?

Lists all commands available for a particular command mode.

command ?

Switch> show ?

Lists the associated keywords for a command.

command keyword ?

Controller(config)# cdp holdtime ?
  <10-255> Length of time (in sec) that receiver must keep this packet 

Lists the associated arguments for a keyword.

Understanding Abbreviated Commands

You need to enter only enough characters for the switch to recognize the command as unique.

This example shows how to enter the show configuration privileged EXEC command in an abbreviated form:

Controller# show conf

Understanding no and default Forms of Commands

Almost every configuration command also has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a feature or function or reverse the action of a command. For example, the no shutdown interface configuration command reverses the shutdown of an interface. Use the command without the keyword no to re-enable a disabled feature or to enable a feature that is disabled by default.

Configuration commands can also have a default form. The default form of a command returns the command setting to its default. Most commands are disabled by default, so the default form is the same as the no form. However, some commands are enabled by default and have variables set to certain default values. In these cases, the default command enables the command and sets variables to their default values.

Understanding CLI Error Messages

This table lists some error messages that you might encounter while using the CLI to configure your switch.

Table 3 Common CLI Error Messages

Error Message

Meaning

How to Get Help

% Ambiguous command: "show con"

You did not enter enough characters for your switch to recognize the command.

Re-enter the command followed by a question mark (?) with a space between the command and the question mark.

The possible keywords that you can enter with the command appear.

% Incomplete command.

You did not enter all the keywords or values required by this command.

Re-enter the command followed by a question mark (?) with a space between the command and the question mark.

The possible keywords that you can enter with the command appear.

% Invalid input detected at ‘^’ marker.

You entered the command incorrectly. The caret (^) marks the point of the error.

Enter a question mark (?) to display all the commands that are available in this command mode.

The possible keywords that you can enter with the command appear.

Using Configuration Logging

You can log and view changes to the switch configuration. You can use the Configuration Change Logging and Notification feature to track changes on a per-session and per-user basis. The logger tracks each configuration command that is applied, the user who entered the command, the time that the command was entered, and the parser return code for the command. This feature includes a mechanism for asynchronous notification to registered applications whenever the configuration changes. You can choose to have the notifications sent to the syslog.


Note


Only CLI or HTTP changes are logged.


Using Command History

The software provides a history or record of commands that you have entered. The command history feature is particularly useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists. You can customize this feature to suit your needs.

Changing the Command History Buffer Size

By default, the switch records ten command lines in its history buffer. You can alter this number for a current terminal session or for all sessions on a particular line. These procedures are optional.

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, enter this command to change the number of command lines that the switch records during the current terminal session:

Controller# terminal history [size number-of-lines]

The range is from 0 to 256.

Beginning in line configuration mode, enter this command to configure the number of command lines the switch records for all sessions on a particular line:

Controller(config-line)# history [size number-of-lines]

The range is from 0 to 256.

Recalling Commands

To recall commands from the history buffer, perform one of the actions listed in this table. These actions are optional.


Note


The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.


Table 4 Recalling Commands

Action

Result

Press Ctrl-P or the up arrow key.

Recalls commands in the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands.

Press Ctrl-N or the down arrow key.

Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands with Ctrl-P or the up arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively more recent commands.

show history

Controller(config)# help

While in privileged EXEC mode, lists the last several commands that you just entered. The number of commands that appear is controlled by the setting of the terminal history global configuration command and the history line configuration command.

Disabling the Command History Feature

The command history feature is automatically enabled. You can disable it for the current terminal session or for the command line. These procedures are optional.

To disable the feature during the current terminal session, enter the terminal no history privileged EXEC command.

To disable command history for the line, enter the no history line configuration command.

Using Editing Features

This section describes the editing features that can help you manipulate the command line.

Enabling and Disabling Editing Features

Although enhanced editing mode is automatically enabled, you can disable it, re-enable it, or configure a specific line to have enhanced editing. These procedures are optional.

To globally disable enhanced editing mode, enter this command in line configuration mode:

Switch (config-line)# no editing

To re-enable the enhanced editing mode for the current terminal session, enter this command in privileged EXEC mode:

Controller# terminal editing

To reconfigure a specific line to have enhanced editing mode, enter this command in line configuration mode:

Controller(config-line)# editing

Editing Commands through Keystrokes

This table shows the keystrokes that you need to edit command lines. These keystrokes are optional.


Note


The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.


Table 5 Editing Commands through Keystrokes

Capability

Keystroke

Purpose

Move around the command line to make changes or corrections.

Press Ctrl-B, or press the left arrow key.

Moves the cursor back one character.

 

Press Ctrl-F, or press the right arrow key.

Moves the cursor forward one character.

Press Ctrl-A.

Moves the cursor to the beginning of the command line.

Press Ctrl-E.

Moves the cursor to the end of the command line.

Press Esc B.

Moves the cursor back one word.

Press Esc F.

Moves the cursor forward one word.

Press Ctrl-T.

Transposes the character to the left of the cursor with the character located at the cursor.

Recall commands from the buffer and paste them in the command line. The switch provides a buffer with the last ten items that you deleted.

Press Ctrl-Y.

Recalls the most recent entry in the buffer.

 

Press Esc Y.

Recalls the next buffer entry.

The buffer contains only the last 10 items that you have deleted or cut. If you press Esc Y more than ten times, you cycle to the first buffer entry.

Delete entries if you make a mistake or change your mind.

Press the Delete or Backspace key.

Erases the character to the left of the cursor.

 

Press Ctrl-D.

Deletes the character at the cursor.

Press Ctrl-K.

Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the command line.

Press Ctrl-U or Ctrl-X.

Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line.

Press Ctrl-W.

Deletes the word to the left of the cursor.

Press Esc D.

Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.

Capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters.

Press Esc C.

Capitalizes at the cursor.

 

Press Esc L.

Changes the word at the cursor to lowercase.

Press Esc U.

Capitalizes letters from the cursor to the end of the word.

Designate a particular keystroke as an executable command, perhaps as a shortcut.

Press Ctrl-V or Esc Q.

 

Scroll down a line or screen on displays that are longer than the terminal screen can display.

Note   

The More prompt is used for any output that has more lines than can be displayed on the terminal screen, including show command output. You can use the Return and Space bar keystrokes whenever you see the More prompt.

Press the Return key.

Scrolls down one line.

 

Press the Space bar.

Scrolls down one screen.

Redisplay the current command line if the switch suddenly sends a message to your screen.

Press Ctrl-L or Ctrl-R.

Redisplays the current command line.

Editing Command Lines that Wrap

You can use a wraparound feature for commands that extend beyond a single line on the screen. When the cursor reaches the right margin, the command line shifts ten spaces to the left. You cannot see the first ten characters of the line, but you can scroll back and check the syntax at the beginning of the command. The keystroke actions are optional.

To scroll back to the beginning of the command entry, press Ctrl-B or the left arrow key repeatedly. You can also press Ctrl-A to immediately move to the beginning of the line.


Note


The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.


In this example, the access-list global configuration command entry extends beyond one line. When the cursor first reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted ten spaces to the left and redisplayed. The dollar sign ($) shows that the line has been scrolled to the left. Each time the cursor reaches the end of the line, the line is again shifted ten spaces to the left.

Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1
Controller(config)# $ 101 permit tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1.20 255.25
Controller(config)# $t tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1.20 255.255.255.0 eq
Controller(config)# $108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1.20 255.255.255.0 eq 45 

After you complete the entry, press Ctrl-A to check the complete syntax before pressing the Return key to execute the command. The dollar sign ($) appears at the end of the line to show that the line has been scrolled to the right:

Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1$

The software assumes that you have a terminal screen that is 80 columns wide. If you have a width other than that, use the terminal width privileged EXEC command to set the width of your terminal.

Use line wrapping with the command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command entries.

Searching and Filtering Output of show and more Commands

You can search and filter the output for show and more commands. This is useful when you need to sort through large amounts of output or if you want to exclude output that you do not need to see. Using these commands is optional.

To use this functionality, enter a show or more command followed by the pipe character (|), one of the keywords begin, include, or exclude, and an expression that you want to search for or filter out:

command | {begin | include | exclude} regular-expression

Expressions are case sensitive. For example, if you enter | exclude output, the lines that contain output are not displayed, but the lines that contain Output appear.

This example shows how to include in the output display only lines where the expression protocol appears:

Controller# show interfaces | include protocol
Vlan1 is up, line protocol is up
Vlan10 is up, line protocol is down
GigabitEthernet1/0/1 is up, line protocol is down
GigabitEthernet1/0/2 is up, line protocol is up

Accessing the CLI

You can access the CLI through a console connection, through Telnet, or by using the browser.

You manage the switch stack and the stack member interfaces through the active switch. You cannot manage stack members on an individual switch basis. You can connect to the through the console port or the Ethernet management port of one or more stack members. Be careful with using multiple CLI sessions to the . Commands you enter in one session are not displayed in the other sessions. Therefore, it is possible to lose track of the session from which you entered commands.


Note


We recommend using one CLI session when managing the switch stack.


If you want to configure a specific stack member port, you must include the stack member number in the CLI command interface notation.

To debug a specific stack member, you can access it from the by using the session stack-member-number privileged EXEC command. The stack member number is appended to the system prompt. For example, Switch-2# is the prompt in privileged EXEC mode for stack member 2, and where the system prompt for the is Switch. Only the show and debug commands are available in a CLI session to a specific stack member.

Accessing the CLI through a Console Connection or through Telnet

Before you can access the CLI, you must connect a terminal or a PC to the switch console or connect a PC to the Ethernet management port and then power on the switch, as described in the hardware installation guide that shipped with your switch.

CLI access is available before switch setup. After your switch is configured, you can access the CLI through a remote Telnet session or SSH client.

You can use one of these methods to establish a connection with the switch:

  • Connect the switch console port to a management station or dial-up modem, or connect the Ethernet management port to a PC. For information about connecting to the console or Ethernet management port, see the switch hardware installation guide.
  • Use any Telnet TCP/IP or encrypted Secure Shell (SSH) package from a remote management station. The switch must have network connectivity with the Telnet or SSH client, and the switch must have an enable secret password configured. The switch supports up to 16 simultaneous Telnet sessions. Changes made by one Telnet user are reflected in all other Telnet sessions. The switch supports up to five simultaneous secure SSH sessions.

After you connect through the console port, through the Ethernet management port, through a Telnet session or through an SSH session, the user EXEC prompt appears on the management station.