Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 4.2
Chapter 5 - Configuring Security Solutions
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Configuring Security Solutions

Table Of Contents

Configuring Security Solutions

Cisco UWN Solution Security

Security Overview

Layer 1 Solutions

Layer 2 Solutions

Layer 3 Solutions

Rogue Access Point Solutions

Rogue Access Point Challenges

Tagging and Containing Rogue Access Points

Integrated Security Solutions

Configuring TACACS+

Configuring TACACS+ on the ACS

Using the GUI to Configure TACACS+

Using the CLI to Configure TACACS+

Viewing the TACACS+ Administration Server Logs

Configuring Local Network Users

Using the GUI to Configure Local Network Users

Using the CLI to Configure Local Network Users

Configuring LDAP

Using the GUI to Configure LDAP

Using the CLI to Configure LDAP

Configuring Local EAP

Using the GUI to Configure Local EAP

Using the CLI to Configure Local EAP

Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones

Using the GUI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the CLI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the CLI to Configure Enhanced Distributed Channel Access

Using Management over Wireless

Using the GUI to Enable Management over Wireless

Using the CLI to Enable Management over Wireless

Configuring DHCP Option 82

Validating SSIDs

Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists

Using the GUI to Configure Access Control Lists

Using the GUI to Apply Access Control Lists

Applying an Access Control List to an Interface

Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU

Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN

Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN

Using the CLI to Configure Access Control Lists

Using the CLI to Apply Access Control Lists

Configuring Management Frame Protection

Guidelines for Using MFP

Using the GUI to Configure MFP

Using the GUI to View MFP Settings

Using the CLI to Configure MFP

Using the CLI to View MFP Settings

Using the CLI to Debug MFP Issues

Configuring Client Exclusion Policies

Configuring Identity Networking

Identity Networking Overview

RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking

QoS-Level

ACL-Name

Interface-Name

VLAN-Tag

Tunnel Attributes

Configuring AAA Override

Updating the RADIUS Server Dictionary File for Proper QoS Values

Using the GUI to Configure AAA Override

Using the CLI to Configure AAA Override

Managing Rogue Devices

Challenges

Detecting Rogue Devices

Classifying Rogue Access Points

WCS Interaction

Configuring RLDP

Prerequisites for Rogue AP Detection

Using the GUI to Configure RLDP

Using the CLI to Configure RLDP

Configuring Rogue Classification Rules

Using the GUI to Configure Rogue Classification Rules

Using the CLI to Configure Rogue Classification Rules

Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices

Using the GUI to View and Classify Rogue Devices

Using the CLI to View and Classify Rogue Devices

Configuring IDS

Configuring IDS Sensors

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Sensors

Using the CLI to Configure IDS Sensors

Viewing Shunned Clients

Configuring IDS Signatures

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Signatures

Using the CLI to Configure IDS Signatures

Using the CLI to View IDS Signature Events

Configuring AES Key Wrap

Using the GUI to Configure AES Key Wrap

Using the CLI to Configure AES Key Wrap

Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries

Using the GUI to Configure Maximum Local Database Entries

Using the CLI to Specify the Maximum Number of Local Database Entries


Configuring Security Solutions


This chapter describes security solutions for wireless LANs. It contains these sections:

Cisco UWN Solution Security

Configuring TACACS+

Configuring Local Network Users

Configuring LDAP

Configuring Local EAP

Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones

Using Management over Wireless

Configuring DHCP Option 82

Validating SSIDs

Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists

Configuring Management Frame Protection

Configuring Client Exclusion Policies

Configuring Identity Networking

Configuring IDS

Configuring AES Key Wrap

Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries

Cisco UWN Solution Security

Cisco UWN Solution security includes the following sections:

Security Overview

Layer 1 Solutions

Layer 2 Solutions

Layer 3 Solutions

Rogue Access Point Solutions

Integrated Security Solutions

Security Overview

The Cisco UWN security solution bundles potentially complicated Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3 802.11 Access Point security components into a simple policy manager that customizes system-wide security policies on a per-WLAN basis. The Cisco UWN security solution provides simple, unified, and systematic security management tools.

One of the biggest hurdles to WLAN deployment in the enterprise is WEP encryption, which is a weak standalone encryption method. A newer problem is the availability of low-cost access points, which can be connected to the enterprise network and used to mount man-in-the-middle and denial-of-service attacks. Also, the complexity of add-on security solutions has prevented many IT managers from embracing the benefits of the latest advances in WLAN security.

Layer 1 Solutions

The Cisco UWN security solution ensures that all clients gain access within an operator-set number of attempts. Should a client fail to gain access within that limit, it is automatically excluded (blocked from access) until the operator-set timer expires. The operating system can also disable SSID broadcasts on a per-WLAN basis.

Layer 2 Solutions

If a higher level of security and encryption is required, the network administrator can also implement industry-standard security solutions such as Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), Wi-Fi protected access (WPA), and WPA2. The Cisco UWN Solution WPA implementation includes AES (advanced encryption standard), TKIP + Michael (temporal key integrity protocol + message integrity code checksum) dynamic keys, or WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) static keys. Disabling is also used to automatically block Layer 2 access after an operator-set number of failed authentication attempts.

Regardless of the wireless security solution selected, all Layer 2 wired communications between controllers and lightweight access points are secured by passing data through LWAPP tunnels.

Layer 3 Solutions

The WEP problem can be further solved using industry-standard Layer 3 security solutions such as passthrough VPNs (virtual private networks).

The Cisco UWN Solution supports local and RADIUS MAC (media access control) filtering. This filtering is best suited to smaller client groups with a known list of 802.11 access card MAC addresses.

Finally, the Cisco UWN Solution supports local and RADIUS user/password authentication. This authentication is best suited to small to medium client groups.

Rogue Access Point Solutions

This section describes security solutions for rogue access points.

Rogue Access Point Challenges

Rogue access points can disrupt WLAN operations by hijacking legitimate clients and using plaintext or other denial-of-service or man-in-the-middle attacks. That is, a hacker can use a rogue access point to capture sensitive information, such as passwords and username. The hacker can then transmit a series of clear-to-send (CTS) frames, which mimics an access point informing a particular NIC to transmit and instructing all others to wait, which results in legitimate clients being unable to access the WLAN resources. WLAN service providers thus have a strong interest in banning rogue access points from the air space.

The operating system security solution uses the radio resource management (RRM) function to continuously monitor all nearby access points, automatically discover rogue access points, and locate them as described in the "Tagging and Containing Rogue Access Points" section.

Tagging and Containing Rogue Access Points

When the Cisco UWN Solution is monitored using WCS. WCS generates the flags as rogue access point traps, and displays the known rogue access points by MAC address. The operator can then display a map showing the location of the lightweight access points closest to each rogue access point, allowing Known or Acknowledged rogue access points (no further action), marking them as Alert rogue access points (watch for and notify when active), or marking them as contained rogue access points. Between one and four lightweight access points discourage rogue access point clients by sending the clients deauthenticate and disassociate messages whenever they associate with the rogue access point.

When the Cisco UWN Solution is monitored using a GUI or a CLI, the interface displays the known rogue access points by MAC address. The operator then has the option of marking them as Known or Acknowledged rogue access points (no further action), marking them as Alert rogue access points (watch for and notify when active), or marking them as Contained rogue access points (have between one and four lightweight access points discourage rogue access point clients by sending the clients deauthenticate and disassociate messages whenever they associate with the rogue access point).

Integrated Security Solutions

Cisco UWN Solution operating system security is built around a robust 802.1X AAA (authorization, authentication and accounting) engine, which allows operators to rapidly configure and enforce a variety of security policies across the Cisco UWN Solution.

The controllers and lightweight access points are equipped with system-wide authentication and authorization protocols across all ports and interfaces, maximizing system security.

Operating system security policies are assigned to individual WLANs, and lightweight access points simultaneously broadcast all (up to 16) configured WLANs. This can eliminate the need for additional access points, which can increase interference and degrade system throughput.

Operating system security uses the RRM function to continually monitor the air space for interference and security breaches, and notify the operator when they are detected.

Operating system security works with industry-standard authorization, authentication, and accounting (AAA) servers, making system integration simple and easy.

Configuring TACACS+

Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+) is a client/server protocol that provides centralized security for users attempting to gain management access to a controller. It serves as a backend database similar to local and RADIUS. However, local and RADIUS provide only authentication support and limited authorization support while TACACS+ provides three services:

Authentication—The process of verifying users when they attempt to log into the controller.

Users must enter a valid username and password in order for the controller to authenticate users to the TACACS+ server. The authentication and authorization services are tied to one another. For example, if authentication is performed using the local or RADIUS database, then authorization would use the permissions associated with the user in the local or RADIUS database (which are read-only, read-write, and lobby-admin) and not use TACACS+. Similarly, when authentication is performed using TACACS+, authorization is tied to TACACS+.


Note When multiple databases are configured, you can use the controller GUI or CLI to specify the sequence in which the backend databases should be tried.


Authorization—The process of determining the actions that users are allowed to take on the controller based on their level of access.

For TACACS+, authorization is based on privilege (or role) rather than specific actions. The available roles correspond to the seven menu options on the controller GUI: MONITOR, WLAN, CONTROLLER, WIRELESS, SECURITY, MANAGEMENT, and COMMANDS. An additional role, LOBBY, is available for users who require only lobby ambassador privileges. The roles to which users are assigned are configured on the TACACS+ server. Users can be authorized for one or more roles. The minimum authorization is MONITOR only, and the maximum is ALL, which authorizes the user to execute the functionality associated with all seven menu options. For example, a user who is assigned the role of SECURITY can make changes to any items appearing on the Security menu (or designated as security commands in the case of the CLI). If users are not authorized for a particular role (such as WLAN), they can still access that menu option in read-only mode (or the associated CLI show commands). If the TACACS+ authorization server becomes unreachable or unable to authorize, users are unable to log into the controller.


Note If users attempt to make changes on a controller GUI page that are not permitted for their assigned role, a message appears indicating that they do not have sufficient privilege. If users enter a controller CLI command that is not permitted for their assigned role, a message may appear indicating that the command was successfully executed although it was not. In this case, the following additional message appears to inform users that they lack sufficient privileges to successfully execute the command: "Insufficient Privilege! Cannot execute command!"


Accounting—The process of recording user actions and changes.

Whenever a user successfully executes an action, the TACACS+ accounting server logs the changed attributes, the user ID of the person who made the change, the remote host where the user is logged in, the date and time when the command was executed, the authorization level of the user, and a description of the action performed and the values provided. If the TACACS+ accounting server becomes unreachable, users are able to continue their sessions uninterrupted.

TACACS+ uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for its transport, unlike RADIUS which uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It maintains a database and listens on TCP port 49 for incoming requests. The controller, which requires access control, acts as the client and requests AAA services from the server. The traffic between the controller and the server is encrypted by an algorithm defined in the protocol and a shared secret key configured on both devices.

You can configure up to three TACACS+ authentication, authorization, and accounting servers each. For example, you may want to have one central TACACS+ authentication server but several TACACS+ authorization servers in different regions. If you configure multiple servers of the same type and the first one fails or becomes unreachable, the controller automatically tries the second one and then the third one if necessary.


Note If multiple TACACS+ servers are configured for redundancy, the user database must be identical in all the servers for the backup to work properly.


You must configure TACACS+ on both your CiscoSecure Access Control Server (ACS) and your controller. You can configure the controller through either the GUI or the CLI.

Configuring TACACS+ on the ACS

Follow these steps to configure TACACS+ on the ACS.


Note TACACS+ is supported on CiscoSecure ACS version 3.2 and greater. The instructions and illustrations in this section pertain to ACS version 4.1 and may vary for other versions. Refer to the CiscoSecure ACS documentation for the version you are running.



Step 1 Click Network Configuration on the ACS main page.

Step 2 Click Add Entry under AAA Clients to add your controller to the server. The Add AAA Client page appears (see Figure 5-1).

Figure 5-1 Add AAA Client Page on CiscoSecure ACS

Step 3 In the AAA Client Hostname field, enter the name of your controller.

Step 4 In the AAA Client IP Address field, enter the IP address of your controller.

Step 5 In the Shared Secret field, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication between the server and the controller.


Note The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.


Step 6 Choose TACACS+ (Cisco IOS) from the Authenticate Using drop-down box.

Step 7 Click Submit + Apply to save your changes.

Step 8 Click Interface Configuration on the ACS main page.

Step 9 Click TACACS+ (Cisco IOS). The TACACS+ (Cisco) page appears (see Figure 5-2).

Figure 5-2 TACACS+ (Cisco) Page on CiscoSecure ACS

Step 10 Under TACACS+ Services, check the Shell (exec) check box.

Step 11 Under New Services, check the first check box and enter ciscowlc in the Service field and common in the Protocol field.

Step 12 Under Advanced Configuration Options, check the Advanced TACACS+ Features check box.

Step 13 Click Submit to save your changes.

Step 14 Click System Configuration on the ACS main page.

Step 15 Click Logging.

Step 16 When the Logging Configuration page appears, enable all of the events that you want to be logged and save your changes.

Step 17 Click Group Setup on the ACS main page.

Step 18 Choose a previously created group from the Group drop-down box.


Note This step assumes that you have already assigned users to groups on the ACS according to the roles to which they will be assigned.


Step 19 Click Edit Settings. The Group Setup page appears (see Figure 5-3).

Figure 5-3 Group Setup Page on CiscoSecure ACS

Step 20 Under TACACS+ Settings, check the ciscowlc common check box.

Step 21 Check the Custom Attributes check box.

Step 22 In the text box below Custom Attributes, specify the roles that you want to assign to this group. The available roles are MONITOR, WLAN, CONTROLLER, WIRELESS, SECURITY, MANAGEMENT, COMMANDS, ALL, and LOBBY. As mentioned previously, the first seven correspond to the menu options on the controller GUI and allow access to those particular controller features. You can enter one or multiple roles, depending on the group's needs. Use ALL to specify all seven roles or LOBBY to specify the lobby ambassador role. Enter the roles using this format:

rolex=ROLE

For example, to specify the WLAN, CONTROLLER, and SECURITY roles for a particular user group, you would enter the following text:

role1=WLAN
role2=CONTROLLER
role3=SECURITY 

To give a user group access to all seven roles, you would enter the following text:

role1=ALL 


Note Make sure to enter the roles using the format shown above. The roles must be in all uppercase letters, and there can be no spaces within the text.



Note You should not combine the MONITOR role or the LOBBY role with any other roles. If you specify one of these two roles in the Custom Attributes text box, users will have MONITOR or LOBBY privileges only, even if additional roles are specified.


Step 23 Click Submit to save your changes.


Using the GUI to Configure TACACS+

Follow these steps to configure TACACS+ through the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > TACACS+.

Step 2 Perform one of the following:

If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for authentication, click Authentication.

If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for authorization, click Authorization.

If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for accounting, click Accounting.


Note The GUI pages used to configure authentication, authorization, and accounting all contain the same fields. Therefore, these instructions walk through the configuration only once, using the Authentication pages as examples. You would follow the same steps to configure multiple services and/or multiple servers.


The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers page appears (see Figure 5-4).

Figure 5-4 TACACS+ Authentication Servers Page

This page lists any TACACS+ servers that have already been configured.

If you want to delete an existing server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server and choose Remove.

If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server and choose Ping.

Step 3 Perform one of the following:

To edit an existing TACACS+ server, click the server index number for that server. The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers > Edit page appears.

To add a TACACS+ server, click New. The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers > New page appears (see Figure 5-5).

Figure 5-5 TACACS+ Authentication Servers > New Page

Step 4 If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down box to specify the priority order of this server in relation to any other configured TACACS+ servers providing the same service. You can configure up to three servers. If the controller cannot reach the first server, it tries the second one in the list and then the third if necessary.

Step 5 If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the TACACS+ server in the Server IP Address field.

Step 6 From the Shared Secret Format drop-down box, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared secret key to be used between the controller and the TACACS+ server. The default value is ASCII.

Step 7 In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret fields, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication between the controller and the server.


Note The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.


Step 8 If you are adding a new server, enter the TACACS+ server's TCP port number for the interface protocols in the Port Number field. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 49.

Step 9 From the Server Status field, choose Enabled to enable this TACACS+ server or choose Disabled to disable it. The default value is Enabled.

Step 10 In the Server Timeout field, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 5 to 30 seconds, and the default value is 5 seconds.


Note Cisco recommends that you increase the timeout value if you experience repeated reauthentication attempts or the controller falls back to the backup server when the primary server is active and reachable.


Step 11 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 12 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 13 Repeat the previous steps if you want to configure any additional services on the same server or any additional TACACS+ servers.

Step 14 To specify the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured, click Security > Priority Order > Management User. The Priority Order > Management User page appears (see Figure 5-6).

Figure 5-6 Priority Order > Management User Page

Step 15 For Authentication Priority, choose either Radius or TACACS+ to specify which server has priority over the other when the controller attempts to authenticate management users. By default, the local database is always queried first. If the username is not found, the controller switches to the TACACS+ server if configured for TACACS+ or to the RADIUS server if configured for Radius. The default setting is local and then Radius.

Step 16 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 17 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure TACACS+

Use the commands in this section to configure TACACS+ through the controller CLI.


Note Refer to the "Using the GUI to Configure TACACS+" section for the valid ranges and default values of the parameters used in the CLI commands.


1. Use these commands to configure a TACACS+ authentication server:

config tacacs auth add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a TACACS+ authentication server.

config tacacs auth delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ authentication server.

config tacacs auth (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ authentication server.

config tacacs auth server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value for a TACACS+ authentication server.

2. Use these commands to configure a TACACS+ authorization server:

config tacacs athr add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a TACACS+ authorization server.

config tacacs athr delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ authorization server.

config tacacs athr (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ authorization server.

config tacacs athr server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value for a TACACS+ authorization server.

3. Use these commands to configure a TACACS+ accounting server:

config tacacs acct add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a TACACS+ accounting server.

config tacacs acct delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ accounting server.

config tacacs acct (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ accounting server.

config tacacs acct server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value for a TACACS+ accounting server.

4. Use these commands to see TACACS+ statistics:

show tacacs summary—Shows a summary of TACACS+ servers and statistics.

show tacacs auth stats—Shows the TACACS+ authentication server statistics.

show tacacs athr stats—Shows the TACACS+ authorization server statistics.

show tacacs acct stats—Shows the TACACS+ accounting server statistics.

For example, information similar to the following appears for the show tacacs summary command:

Authentication Servers
 
Idx  Server Address    Port    State     Tout
---  ----------------  ------  --------  ----
1    11.11.12.2        49      Enabled   5 
2    11.11.13.2        49      Enabled   5 
3    11.11.14.2        49      Enabled   5 
 
Authorization Servers
 
Idx  Server Address    Port    State     Tout
---  ----------------  ------  --------  ----
1    11.11.12.2        49      Enabled   5 
2    11.11.13.2        49      Enabled   5 
3    11.11.14.2        49      Enabled   5 
 
Accounting Servers
 
Idx  Server Address    Port    State     Tout
---  ----------------  ------  --------  ----
1    11.11.12.2        49      Enabled   5 
2    11.11.13.2        49      Enabled   5 
3    11.11.14.2        49      Enabled   5

Information similar to the following appears for the show tacacs auth stats command:

Server Index..................................... 1
Server Address................................... 10.10.10.10
Msg Round Trip Time.............................. 0 (1/100 second)
First Requests................................... 0
Retry Requests................................... 0
Accept Responses................................. 0
Reject Responses................................. 0
Error Responses.................................. 0
Restart Responses................................ 0
Follow Responses................................. 0
GetData Responses................................ 0
Encrypt no secret Responses...................... 0
Challenge Responses.............................. 0
Malformed Msgs................................... 0
Bad Authenticator Msgs........................... 0
Pending Requests................................. 0
Timeout Requests................................. 0
Unknowntype Msgs................................. 0

Other Drops....................................0

5. To clear the statistics for one or more TACACS+ servers, enter this command:

clear stats tacacs [auth | athr | acct] {index | all}

6. To configure the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured, enter this command. The default setting is local and then radius.

config aaa auth mgmt [radius | tacacs]

To see the current management authentication server order, enter this command:

show aaa auth

Information similar to the following appears:

Management authentication server order:
   1............................................ local
   2......................................... tacacs 

7. To make sure the controller can reach the TACACS+ server, enter this command:

ping server_ip_address

8. To enable or disable TACACS+ debugging, enter this command:

debug aaa tacacs {enable | disable}

9. To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Viewing the TACACS+ Administration Server Logs

Follow these steps to view the TACACS+ administration server logs, if you have a TACACS+ accounting server configured on the controller.


Step 1 Click Reports and Activity on the ACS main page.

Step 2 Click TACACS+ Administration.

Step 3 Click the .csv file corresponding to the date of the logs you wish to view. The TACACS+ Administration .csv page appears (see Figure 5-7).

Figure 5-7 TACACS+ Administration .csv Page on CiscoSecure ACS

This page provides the following information:

The date and time the action was taken

The name and assigned role of the user who took the action

The group to which the user belongs

The specific action that the user took

The privilege level of the user who executed the action

The IP address of the controller

The IP address of the laptop or workstation from which the action was executed

Sometimes a single action (or command) is logged multiple times, once for each parameter in the command. For example, if the user enters the snmp community ipaddr ip_address subnet_mask community_name command, the IP address may be logged on one line while the subnet mask and community name are logged as "E." On another line, the subnet mask maybe logged while the IP address and community name are logged as "E." See the first and third lines in the example in Figure 5-8.

Figure 5-8 TACACS+ Administration .csv Page on CiscoSecure ACS


Note You can click Refresh at any time to refresh this page.



Configuring Local Network Users

This section explains how to add local network users to the local user database on the controller. The local user database stores the credentials (username and password) of all the local network users. These credentials are then used to authenticate the users. For example, local EAP may use the local user database as its backend database to retrieve user credentials. Refer to the "Configuring Local EAP" section for more information.


Note The controller passes client information to the RADIUS authentication server first. If the client information does not match a RADIUS database entry, the local user database is polled. Clients located in this database are granted access to network services if the RADIUS authentication fails or does not exist.


You can configure local network users through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Local Network Users

Follow these steps to configure local network users using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Follow these steps to specify the maximum number of local network users that can exist on the local user database:

a. Click Security > AAA > General to open the General page (see Figure 5-9).

Figure 5-9 General Page

b. In the Maximum Local Database Entries field, enter a value for the maximum number of local network users that can be added to the local user database the next time the controller reboots. The currently configured value appears in parentheses to the right of the field. The valid range is 512 to 2048, and the default setting is 512.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 2 Click Security > AAA > Local Net Users to open the Local Net Users page (see Figure 5-10).

Figure 5-10 Local Net Users Page

This page lists any local network users that have already been configured. It also specifies any guest users and the QoS role to which they are assigned (if applicable). See the "Configuring Quality of Service Roles" section for information on configuring QoS roles.


Note If you want to delete an existing user, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that user and choose Remove.


Step 3 Perform one of the following:

To edit an existing local network user, click the username for that user. The Local Net Users > Edit page appears.

To add a local network user, click New. The Local Net Users > New page appears (see Figure 5-11).

Figure 5-11 Local Net Users > New Page

Step 4 If you are adding a new user, enter a username for the local user in the User Name field. You can enter up to 24 alphanumeric characters.


Note Local network usernames must be unique because they are all stored in the same database.


Step 5 In the Password and Confirm Password fields, enter a password for the local user. You can enter up to 24 alphanumeric characters.

Step 6 If you are adding a new user, check the Guest User check box if you want to limit the amount of time that the user has access to the local network. The default setting is unchecked.

Step 7 If you are adding a new user and you checked the Guest User check box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the guest user account is to remain active in the Lifetime field. The valid range is 60 to 2,592,000 seconds (30 days) inclusive, and the default setting is 86,400 seconds.

Step 8 If you are adding a new user, you checked the Guest User check box, and you want to assign a QoS role to this guest user, check the Guest User Role check box. The default setting is unchecked.


Note If you do not assign a QoS role to a guest user, the bandwidth contracts for this user are defined in the QoS profile for the WLAN.


Step 9 If you are adding a new user and you checked the Guest User Role check box, choose the QoS role that you want to assign to this guest user from the Role drop-down box.


Note If you want to create a new QoS role, see the "Configuring Quality of Service Roles" section for instructions.


Step 10 From the WLAN Profile drop-down box, choose the name of the WLAN that is to be accessed by the local user. If you choose Any WLAN, which is the default setting, the user can access any of the configured WLANs.

Step 11 In the Description field, enter a descriptive title for the local user (such as "User 1").

Step 12 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 13 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Local Network Users

Use the commands in this section to configure local network users using the controller CLI.


Note Refer to the "Using the GUI to Configure Local Network Users" section for the valid ranges and default values of the parameters used in the CLI commands.


1. Use these commands to configure a local network user:

config netuser add username password wlan wlan_id userType permanent description description—Adds a permanent user to the local user database on the controller.

config netuser add username password {wlan | guestlan} {wlan_id | guest_lan_id} userType guest lifetime seconds description description—Adds a guest user on a WLAN or wired guest LAN to the local user database on the controller.


Note Instead of adding a permanent user or a guest user to the local user database from the controller, you can choose to create an entry on the RADIUS server for the user and enable RADIUS authentication for the WLAN on which web authentication is performed.


config netuser delete username—Deletes a user from the local user database on the controller.


Note Local network usernames must be unique because they are all stored in the same database.


2. Use these commands to see information related to the local network users configured on the controller.

show netuser detail username—Shows the configuration of a particular user in the local user database.

show netuser summary—Lists all the users in the local user database.

For example, information similar to the following appears for the show netuser detail username command:

User Name............................... abc
WLAN Id................................. Any
Lifetime................................ Permanent
Description........................... test user 

3. To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Configuring LDAP

This section explains how to configure a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server as a backend database, similar to a RADIUS or local user database. An LDAP backend database allows the controller to query an LDAP server for the credentials (username and password) of a particular user. These credentials are then used to authenticate the user. For example, local EAP may use an LDAP server as its backend database to retrieve user credentials. Refer to the "Configuring Local EAP" section for more information.


Note The LDAP backend database supports these local EAP methods: EAP-TLS, EAP-FAST/GTC, and PEAPv1/GTC. LEAP, EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 are also supported but only if the LDAP server is set up to return a clear-text password. For example, Microsoft Active Directory is not supported because it does not return a clear-text password. If the LDAP server cannot be configured to return a clear-text password, LEAP, EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 are not supported.


You can configure LDAP through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure LDAP

Follow these steps to configure LDAP using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > LDAP to open the LDAP Servers page (see Figure 5-12).

Figure 5-12 LDAP Servers Page

This page lists any LDAP servers that have already been configured.

If you want to delete an existing LDAP server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server and choose Remove.

If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server and choose Ping.

Step 2 Perform one of the following:

To edit an existing LDAP server, click the index number for that server. The LDAP Servers > Edit page appears.

To add an LDAP server, click New. The LDAP Servers > New page appears (see Figure 5-13).

Figure 5-13 LDAP Servers > New Page

Step 3 If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down box to specify the priority order of this server in relation to any other configured LDAP servers. You can configure up to seventeen servers. If the controller cannot reach the first server, it tries the second one in the list and so on.

Step 4 If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the LDAP server in the Server IP Address field.

Step 5 If you are adding a new server, enter the LDAP server's TCP port number in the Port Number field. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 389.

Step 6 In the User Base DN field, enter the distinguished name (DN) of the subtree in the LDAP server that contains a list of all the users. For example, ou=organizational unit, .ou=next organizational unit, and o=corporation.com. If the tree containing users is the base DN, type o=corporation.com or dc=corporation,dc=com.

Step 7 In the User Attribute field, enter the name of the attribute in the user record that contains the username. You can obtain this attribute from your directory server.

Step 8 In the User Object Type field, enter the value of the LDAP objectType attribute that identifies the record as a user. Often, user records have several values for the objectType attribute, some of which are unique to the user and some of which are shared with other object types.

Step 9 If you are adding a new server, choose Secure from the Server Mode drop-down box if you want all LDAP transactions to use a secure TLS tunnel. Otherwise, choose None, which is the default setting.

Step 10 In the Server Timeout field, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 2 to 30 seconds, and the default value is 2 seconds.

Step 11 Check the Enable Server Status check box to enable this LDAP server or uncheck it to disable it. The default value is disabled.

Step 12 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 13 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 14 Follow these steps to specify LDAP as the priority backend database server for local EAP authentication:

a. Click Security > Local EAP > Authentication Priority to open the Priority Order > Local-Auth page (see Figure 5-17).

Figure 5-14 Priority Order > Local-Auth Page

b. Highlight LOCAL and click < to move it to the left User Credentials box.

c. Highlight LDAP and click > to move it to the right User Credentials box. The database that appears at the top of the right User Credentials box is used when retrieving user credentials.


Note If both LDAP and LOCAL appear in the right User Credentials box with LDAP on the top and LOCAL on the bottom, local EAP attempts to authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to the local user database if the LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication attempt is rejected. If LOCAL is on the top, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.


d. Click Apply to commit your changes.

e. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 15 (Optional) Follow these steps if you wish to assign specific LDAP servers to a WLAN:

a. Click WLANs to open the WLANs page.

b. Click the profile name of the desired WLAN.

c. When the WLANs > Edit page appears, click the Security > AAA Servers tabs to open the WLANs > Edit (Security > AAA Servers) page (see Figure 5-15).

Figure 5-15 WLANs > Edit (Security > AAA Servers) Page

d. From the LDAP Servers drop-down boxes, choose the LDAP server(s) that you want to use with this WLAN. You can choose up to three LDAP servers, which are tried in priority order.

e. Click Apply to commit your changes.

f. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure LDAP

Use the commands in this section to configure LDAP using the controller CLI.


Note Refer to the "Using the GUI to Configure LDAP" section for the valid ranges and default values of the parameters used in the CLI commands.


1. Use these commands to configure an LDAP server:

config ldap add index server_ip_address port# user_dn password base_dn {secure}—Adds an LDAP server.

config ldap delete index—Deletes a previously added LDAP server.

config ldap {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables an LDAP server.

config ldap retransmit-timeout index timeout—Configures the number of seconds between retransmissions for an LDAP server.

2. Use this command to specify LDAP as the priority backend database server:

config local-auth user-credentials ldap


Note If you enter config local-auth user-credentials ldap local, local EAP attempts to authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to the local user database if the LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication attempt is rejected. If you enter config local-auth user-credentials local ldap, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.


3. (Optional) Use these commands if you wish to assign specific LDAP servers to a WLAN:

config wlan ldap add wlan_id index—Links a configured LDAP server to a WLAN.

config wlan ldap delete wlan_id {all | index}—Deletes a specific or all configured LDAP server(s) from a WLAN.

4. Use these commands to view information pertaining to configured LDAP servers:

show ldap summary—Shows a summary of the configured LDAP servers.

show ldap detailed index—Shows detailed LDAP server information.

show ldap statistics—Shows LDAP server statistics.

show wlan wlan_id—Shows the LDAP servers that are applied to a WLAN.

For example, information similar to the following appears for the show ldap summary command:

LDAP Servers 
Idx Host IP addr    Port  Enabled 
--- --------------- ----- ------- 
1   10.10.10.10 	 	 	 389    Yes 

Information similar to the following appears for the show ldap statistics command:

LDAP Servers 
    Server 1........................ 10.10.10.10 389 

5. To make sure the controller can reach the LDAP server, enter this command:

ping server_ip_address

6. To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

7. To enable or disable debugging for LDAP, enter this command:

debug aaa ldap {enable | disable}

Configuring Local EAP

Local EAP is an authentication method that allows users and wireless clients to be authenticated locally. It is designed for use in remote offices that want to maintain connectivity to wireless clients when the backend system becomes disrupted or the external authentication server goes down. When you enable local EAP, the controller serves as the authentication server and the local user database, thereby removing dependence on an external authentication server. Local EAP retrieves user credentials from the local user database or the LDAP backend database to authenticate users. Local EAP supports LEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC authentication between the controller and wireless clients.


Note The LDAP backend database supports these local EAP methods: EAP-TLS, EAP-FAST/GTC, and PEAPv1/GTC. LEAP, EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 are also supported but only if the LDAP server is set up to return a clear-text password. For example, Microsoft Active Directory is not supported because it does not return a clear-text password. If the LDAP server cannot be configured to return a clear-text password, LEAP, EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 are not supported.



Note If any RADIUS servers are configured on the controller, the controller tries to authenticate the wireless clients using the RADIUS servers first. Local EAP is attempted only if no RADIUS servers are found, either because the RADIUS servers timed out or no RADIUS servers were configured. If four RADIUS servers are configured, the controller attempts to authenticate the client with the first RADIUS server, then the second RADIUS server, and then local EAP. If the client attempts to then reauthenticate manually, the controller tries the third RADIUS server, then the fourth RADIUS server, and then local EAP. If you never want the controller to try to authenticate clients using an external RADIUS server, enter these CLI commands in this order:
config wlan disable wlan_id
config wlan radius_server auth disable wlan_id
config wlan enable wlan_id


Figure 5-16 provides an example of a remote office using local EAP.

Figure 5-16 Local EAP Example

You can configure local EAP through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Local EAP

Follow these steps to configure local EAP using the controller GUI.


Step 1 EAP-TLS, P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC use certificates for authentication, and EAP-FAST uses either certificates or PACs. The controller is shipped with Cisco-installed device and Certificate Authority (CA) certificates. However, if you wish to use your own vendor-specific certificates, they must be imported on the controller. If you are configuring local EAP to use one of these EAP types, make sure that the appropriate certificates and PACs (if you will use manual PAC provisioning) have been imported on the controller. Refer to Chapter 8, for instructions on importing certificates and PACs.

Step 2 If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from the local user database, make sure that you have properly configured the local network users on the controller. See the "Configuring Local Network Users" section for instructions.

Step 3 If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from an LDAP backend database, make sure that you have properly configured an LDAP server on the controller. See the "Configuring LDAP" section for instructions.

Step 4 Follow these steps to specify the order in which user credentials are retrieved from the backend database servers:

a. Click Security > Local EAP > Authentication Priority to open the Priority Order > Local-Auth page (see Figure 5-17).

Figure 5-17 Priority Order > Local-Auth Page

b. Determine the priority order in which user credentials are to be retrieved from the local and/or LDAP databases. For example, you may want the LDAP database to be given priority over the local user database, or you may not want the LDAP database to be considered at all.

c. When you have decided on a priority order, highlight the desired database. Then use the left and right arrows and the Up and Down buttons to move the desired database to the top of the right User Credentials box.


Note If both LDAP and LOCAL appear in the right User Credentials box with LDAP on the top and LOCAL on the bottom, local EAP attempts to authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to the local user database if the LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication attempt is rejected. If LOCAL is on the top, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.


d. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 Follow these steps to specify a timeout value for local EAP:

a. Click Security > Local EAP > General to open the General page.

b. In the Local Auth Active Timeout field, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the controller attempts to authenticate wireless clients using local EAP after any pair of configured RADIUS servers fail. The valid range is 1 to 3600 seconds, and the default setting is 1000 seconds.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Follow these steps to create a local EAP profile, which specifies the EAP authentication types that are supported on the wireless clients:

a. Click Security > Local EAP > Profiles to open the Local EAP Profiles page (see Figure 5-18).

Figure 5-18 Local EAP Profiles Page

This page lists any local EAP profiles that have already been configured and specifies their EAP types. You can create up to 16 local EAP profiles.


Note If you want to delete an existing profile, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that profile and choose Remove.


b. Click New to open the Local EAP Profiles > New page.

c. In the Profile Name field, enter a name your new profile and then click Apply.


Note You can enter up to 63 alphanumeric characters for the profile name. Make sure not to include spaces.


d. When the Local EAP Profiles page reappears, click the name of your new profile. The Local EAP Profiles > Edit page appears (see Figure 5-19).

Figure 5-19 Local EAP Profiles > Edit Page

e. Check the LEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, and/or PEAP check boxes to specify the EAP type(s) that can be used for local authentication.


Note You can specify more than one EAP type per profile. However, if you choose multiple EAP types that use certificates (such as EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC), all of the EAP types must use the same certificate (from either Cisco or another vendor).



Note If you check the PEAP check box, both P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2 or PEAPv1/GTC are enabled on the controller.


f. If you chose EAP-FAST and want the device certificate on the controller to be used for authentication, check the Local Certificate Required check box. If you want to use EAP-FAST with PACs instead of certificates, leave this check box unchecked, which is the default setting.


Note This option applies only to EAP-FAST because device certificates are not used with LEAP and are mandatory for EAP-TLS and PEAP.


g. If you chose EAP-FAST and want the wireless clients to send their device certificates to the controller in order to authenticate, check the Client Certificate Required check box. If you want to use EAP-FAST with PACs instead of certificates, leave this check box unchecked, which is the default setting.


Note This option applies only to EAP-FAST because client certificates are not used with LEAP or PEAP and are mandatory for EAP-TLS.


h. If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, or PEAP, choose which certificates will be sent to the client, the ones from Cisco or the ones from another Vendor, from the Certificate Issuer drop-down box. The default setting is Cisco.

i. If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS and want the incoming certificate from the client to be validated against the CA certificates on the controller, check the Check Against CA Certificates check box. The default setting is enabled.

j. If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS and want the common name (CN) in the incoming certificate to be validated against the CA certificates' CN on the controller, check the Verify Certificate CN Identity check box. The default setting is disabled.

k. If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS and want the controller to verify that the incoming device certificate is still valid and has not expired, check the Check Certificate Date Validity check box. The default setting is enabled.

l. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 7 If you created an EAP-FAST profile, follow these steps to configure the EAP-FAST parameters:

a. Click Security > Local EAP > EAP-FAST Parameters to open the EAP-FAST Method Parameters page (see Figure 5-20).

Figure 5-20 EAP-FAST Method Parameters Page

b. In the Server Key and Confirm Server Key fields, enter the key (in hexadecimal characters) used to encrypt and decrypt PACs.

c. In the Time to Live for the PAC field, enter the number of days for the PAC to remain viable. The valid range is 1 to 1000 days, and the default setting is 10 days.

d. In the Authority ID field, enter the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server in hexadecimal characters. You can enter up to 32 hexadecimal characters, but you must enter an even number of characters.

e. In the Authority ID Information field, enter the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server in text format.

f. If you want to enable anonymous provisioning, check the Anonymous Provision check box. This feature allows PACs to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning. If you disable this feature, PACS must be manually provisioned. The default setting is enabled.


Note If the local and/or client certificates are required and you want to force all EAP-FAST clients to use certificates, uncheck the Anonymous Provision check box.


g. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 8 Follow these steps to enable local EAP on a WLAN:

a. Click WLANs to open the WLANs page.

b. Click the profile name of the desired WLAN.

c. When the WLANs > Edit page appears, click the Security > AAA Servers tabs to open the WLANs > Edit (Security > AAA Servers) page (see Figure 5-21).

Figure 5-21 WLANs > Edit (Security > AAA Servers) Page

d. Check the Local EAP Authentication check box to enable local EAP for this WLAN.

e. From the EAP Profile Name drop-down box, choose the EAP profile that you want to use for this WLAN.

f. If desired, choose the LDAP server(s) that you want to use with local EAP on this WLAN from the LDAP Servers drop-down boxes.

g. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 9 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Local EAP

Follow these steps to configure local EAP using the controller CLI.


Note Refer to the "Using the GUI to Configure Local EAP" section for the valid ranges and default values of the parameters used in the CLI commands.



Step 1 EAP-TLS, P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC use certificates for authentication, and EAP-FAST uses either certificates or PACs. The controller is shipped with Cisco-installed device and Certificate Authority (CA) certificates. However, if you wish to use your own vendor-specific certificates, they must be imported on the controller. If you are configuring local EAP to use one of these EAP types, make sure that the appropriate certificates and PACs (if you will use manual PAC provisioning) have been imported on the controller. Refer to Chapter 8, for instructions on importing certificates and PACs.

Step 2 If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from the local user database, make sure that you have properly configured the local network users on the controller. See the "Configuring Local Network Users" section for instructions.

Step 3 If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from an LDAP backend database, make sure that you have properly configured an LDAP server on the controller. See the "Configuring LDAP" section for instructions.

Step 4 To specify the order in which user credentials are retrieved from the local and/or LDAP databases, enter this command:

config local-auth user-credentials {local | ldap}


Note If you enter config local-auth user-credentials ldap local, local EAP attempts to authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to the local user database if the LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication attempt is rejected. If you enter config local-auth user-credentials local ldap, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.


Step 5 To specify the amount of time (in seconds) that the controller attempts to authenticate the wireless clients using local EAP after any pair of configured RADIUS servers fail.

config local-auth active-timeout timeout

Step 6 To create a local EAP profile, enter this command:

config local-auth eap-profile add profile_name


Note Do not include spaces within the profile name.



Note To delete a local EAP profile, enter this command: config local-auth eap-profile delete profile_name.


Step 7 To add an EAP method to a local EAP profile, enter this command:

config local-auth eap-profile method add method profile_name

The supported methods are leap, fast, tls, and peap.


Note If you choose peap, both P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2 or PEAPv1/GTC are enabled on the controller.



Note You can specify more than one EAP type per profile. However, if you create a profile with multiple EAP types that use certificates (such as EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC), all of the EAP types must use the same certificate (from either Cisco or another vendor).



Note To delete an EAP method from a local EAP profile, enter this command: config local-auth eap-profile method delete method profile_name.


Step 8 To configure EAP-FAST parameters if you created an EAP-FAST profile, enter this command:

config local-auth method fast ?

where ? is one of the following:

anon-prov {enable | disable}—Configures the controller to allow anonymous provisioning, which allows PACs to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning.

authority-id auth_id—Specifies the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server.

pac-ttl days—Specifies the number of days for the PAC to remain viable.

server-key key—Specifies the server key used to encrypt and decrypt PACs.

Step 9 To configure certificate parameters per profile, enter these commands:

config local-auth eap-profile method fast local-cert {enable | disable} profile_name
Specifies whether the device certificate on the controller is required for authentication.


Note This command applies only to EAP-FAST because device certificates are not used with LEAP and are mandatory for EAP-TLS and PEAP.


config local-auth eap-profile method fast client-cert {enable | disable} profile_name
Specifies whether wireless clients are required to send their device certificates to the controller in order to authenticate.


Note This command applies only to EAP-FAST because client certificates are not used with LEAP or PEAP and are mandatory for EAP-TLS.


config local-auth eap-profile cert-issuer {cisco | vendor} profile_name—If you specified EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, or PEAP, specifies whether the certificates that will be sent to the client are from Cisco or another vendor.

config local-auth eap-profile cert-verify ca-issuer {enable | disable} profile_name—If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS, specifies whether the incoming certificate from the client is to be validated against the CA certificates on the controller.

config local-auth eap-profile cert-verify cn-verify {enable | disable} profile_name—If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS, specifies whether the common name (CN) in the incoming certificate is to be validated against the CA certificates' CN on the controller.

config local-auth eap-profile cert-verify date-valid {enable | disable} profile_name—If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS, specifies whether the controller is to verify that the incoming device certificate is still valid and has not expired.

Step 10 To enable local EAP and attach an EAP profile to a WLAN, enter this command:

config wlan local-auth enable profile_name wlan_id


Note To disable local EAP for a WLAN, enter this command: config wlan local-auth disable wlan_id.


Step 11 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 12 To view information pertaining to local EAP, enter these commands:

show local-auth config—Shows the local EAP configuration on the controller.

show local-auth statistics—Shows the local EAP statistics.

show local-auth certificates—Shows the certificates available for local EAP.

show local-auth user-credentials—Shows the priority order that the controller uses when retrieving user credentials from the local and/or LDAP databases.

show wlan wlan_id—Shows the status of local EAP on a particular WLAN.

For example, information similar to the following appears for the show local-auth config command:

User credentials database search order:
   Primary ..................................... Local DB
 
   
Configured EAP profiles:
   Name ........................................ fast-cert
     Certificate issuer ........................ vendor
     Peer verification options:
       Check against CA certificates ........... Enabled
       Verify certificate CN identity .......... Disabled
       Check certificate date validity ......... Enabled
     EAP-FAST configuration:
       Local certificate required .............. Yes
       Client certificate required ............. Yes
     Enabled methods ........................... fast
     Configured on WLANs ....................... 1
 
   
   Name ........................................ tls
     Certificate issuer ........................ vendor
     Peer verification options:
       Check against CA certificates ........... Enabled
       Verify certificate CN identity .......... Disabled
       Check certificate date validity ......... Enabled
     EAP-FAST configuration:
       Local certificate required .............. No
       Client certificate required ............. No
     Enabled methods ........................... tls
     Configured on WLANs ....................... 2
 
   
EAP Method configuration:
   EAP-FAST:
     Server key ................................ <hidden>
     TTL for the PAC ........................... 10
     Anonymous provision allowed ............... Yes
     Accept client on auth prov ................ No
     Authority ID .............................. 436973636f0000000000000000000000
     Authority Information ..................... Cisco A-ID
 
   

Step 13 If necessary, you can use these commands to troubleshoot local EAP sessions:

debug aaa local-auth eap method {all | errors | events | packets | sm} {enable | disable}—
Enables or disables debugging of local EAP methods.

debug aaa local-auth eap framework {all | errors | events | packets | sm} {enable | disable}—
Enables or disables debugging of the local EAP framework.


Note In these two debug commands, sm is the state machine.


clear stats local-auth—Clears the local EAP counters.


Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones

For best integration with the Cisco UWN Solution, SpectraLink NetLink Telephones require an extra operating system configuration step: enable long preambles. The radio preamble (sometimes called a header) is a section of data at the head of a packet that contains information that wireless devices need when sending and receiving packets. Short preambles improve throughput performance, so they are enabled by default. However, some wireless devices, such as SpectraLink NetLink phones, require long preambles.

Use one of these methods to enable long preambles:

Using the GUI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the CLI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the GUI to Enable Long Preambles

Use this procedure to use the GUI to enable long preambles to optimize the operation of SpectraLink NetLink phones on your wireless LAN.


Step 1 Click Wireless > 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11b/g Global Parameters page.

Step 2 If the Short Preamble check box is checked, continue with this procedure. However, if the Short Preamble check box is unchecked (which means that long preambles are enabled), the controller is already optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones and you do not need to continue this procedure.

Step 3 Uncheck the Short Preamble check box to enable long preambles.

Step 4 Click Apply to update the controller configuration.


Note If you do not already have an active CLI session to the controller, Cisco recommends that you start a CLI session to reboot the controller and watch the reboot process. A CLI session is also useful because the GUI loses its connection when the controller reboots.


Step 5 Click Commands > Reboot > Reboot > Save and Reboot to reboot the controller. Click OK in response to this prompt:

Configuration will be saved and the controller will be rebooted. Click ok to confirm.
 
   

The controller reboots.

Step 6 Log back into the controller GUI to verify that the controller is properly configured.

Step 7 Click Wireless > 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11b/g Global Parameters page. If the Short Preamble check box is unchecked, the controller is optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones.


Using the CLI to Enable Long Preambles

Use this procedure to use the CLI to enable long preambles to optimize the operation of SpectraLink NetLink phones on your wireless LAN.


Step 1 Log into the controller CLI.

Step 2 Enter show 802.11b and check the Short preamble mandatory parameter. If the parameter indicates that short preambles are enabled, continue with this procedure. This example shows that short preambles are enabled:

Short Preamble mandatory....................... Enabled
 
   

However, if the parameter shows that short preambles are disabled (which means that long preambles are enabled), the controller is already optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones and you do not need to continue this procedure. This example shows that short preambles are disabled:

Short Preamble mandatory....................... Disabled
 
   

Step 3 Enter config 802.11b disable network to disable the 802.11b/g network. (You cannot enable long preambles on the 802.11a network.)

Step 4 Enter config 802.11b preamble long to enable long preambles.

Step 5 Enter config 802.11b enable network to re-enable the 802.11b/g network.

Step 6 Enter reset system to reboot the controller. Enter y when this prompt appears:

The system has unsaved changes. Would you like to save them now? (y/n)
 
   

The controller reboots.

Step 7 To verify that the controller is properly configured, log back into the CLI and enter show 802.11b to view these parameters:

802.11b Network................................ Enabled
Short Preamble mandatory....................... Disabled
 
   

These parameters show that the 802.11b/g network is enabled and that short preambles are disabled.


Using the CLI to Configure Enhanced Distributed Channel Access

Use this CLI command to configure 802.11 enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) parameters to support SpectraLink phones:

config advanced edca-parameters {svp-voice | wmm-default}

where

svp-voice enables SpectraLink voice priority (SVP) parameters and wmm-default enables wireless multimedia (WMM) default parameters.


Note To propagate this command to all access points connected to the controller, make sure to disable and then re-enable the 802.11b/g network after entering this command.


Using Management over Wireless

The Cisco UWN Solution Management over Wireless feature allows operators to monitor and configure local controllers using a wireless client. This feature is supported for all management tasks except uploads to and downloads from (transfers to and from) the controller.

Before you can use the Management over Wireless feature, you must properly configure the controller using one of these sections:

Using the GUI to Enable Management over Wireless

Using the CLI to Enable Management over Wireless

Using the GUI to Enable Management over Wireless


Step 1 Click Management > Mgmt Via Wireless to open the Management Via Wireless page.

Step 2 Check the Enable Controller Management to be accessible from Wireless Clients check box to enable management over wireless for the WLAN or uncheck it to disable this feature. The default value is unchecked.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 5 Use a wireless client web browser to connect to the controller management port or distribution system port IP address, and log into the controller GUI to verify that you can manage the WLAN using a wireless client.


Using the CLI to Enable Management over Wireless


Step 1 In the CLI, use the show network command to verify whether the Mgmt Via Wireless Interface is Enabled or Disabled. If Mgmt Via Wireless Interface is Disabled, continue with Step 2. Otherwise, continue with Step 3.

Step 2 To Enable Management over Wireless, enter config network mgmt-via-wireless enable.

Step 3 Use a wireless client to associate with an access point connected to the controller that you want to manage.

Step 4 Enter telnet controller-ip-address and log into the CLI to verify that you can manage the WLAN using a wireless client.


Configuring DHCP Option 82

DHCP option 82 provides additional security when DHCP is used to allocate network addresses. Specifically, it enables the controller to act as a DHCP relay agent to prevent DHCP client requests from untrusted sources. The controller can be configured to add option 82 information to DHCP requests from clients before forwarding the requests to the DHCP server. See Figure 5-22 for an illustration of this process.

Figure 5-22 DHCP Option 82

The access point forwards all DHCP requests from a client to the controller. The controller adds the DHCP option 82 payload and forwards the request to the DHCP server. The payload can contain the MAC address or the MAC address and SSID of the access point, depending on how you configure this option.


Note In order for DHCP option 82 to operate correctly, you must enable DHCP proxy, which is disabled by default. Refer to the "Configuring DHCP Proxy" section for instructions on configuring DHCP proxy.



Note Any DHCP packets that already include a relay agent option are dropped at the controller.



Note DHCP option 82 is not supported for use with auto-anchor mobility, which is described in Chapter 11, .


Use these commands to configure DHCP option 82 on the controller.

1. To configure the format of the DHCP option 82 payload, enter one of these commands:

config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap_mac

This command adds the MAC address of the access point to the DHCP option 82 payload.

config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap_mac:ssid

This command adds the MAC address and SSID of the access point to the DHCP option 82 payload.

2. To enable or disable DHCP option 82 on the controller, enter this command:

config interface dhcp ap-manager opt-82 {enable | disable}

3. To see the status of DHCP option 82 on the controller, enter this command:

show interface detailed ap-manager

Information similar to the following appears:

Interface Name................................... ap-manager
IP Address....................................... 10.30.16.13
IP Netmask....................................... 255.255.248.0
IP Gateway....................................... 10.30.16.1
VLAN............................................. untagged
Active Physical Port............................. LAG (29)
Primary Physical Port............................ LAG (29)
Backup Physical Port............................. Unconfigured
Primary DHCP Server.............................. 10.1.0.10
Secondary DHCP Server............................ Unconfigured
DHCP Option 82................................... Enabled
ACL.............................................. Unconfigured
AP Manager....................................... Yes

Validating SSIDs

You can configure the controller to validate a rogue SSID against the SSIDs configured on the controller. If a rogue SSID matches one of the controller's SSIDs, the controller raises an alarm. Follow these steps to validate SSIDs using the controller GUI.


Note You cannot configure SSID validation from the controller CLI. However, you can use the show wps summary command to see whether SSID validation has been enabled.



Step 1 Click Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Trusted AP Policies to open the Trusted AP Policies page.

Step 2 Check the Validate SSID check box to enable SSID validation or uncheck it to disable this feature.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists

An access control list (ACL) is a set of rules used to limit access to a particular interface (for example, if you want to restrict a wireless client from pinging the management interface of the controller). After ACLs are configured on the controller, they can be applied to the management interface, the AP-manager interface, any of the dynamic interfaces, or a WLAN to control data traffic to and from wireless clients or to the controller central processing unit (CPU) to control all traffic destined for the CPU.

You may also want to create a preauthentication ACL for web authentication. Such an ACL could be used to allow certain types of traffic before authentication is complete.


Note If you are using an external web server with a 2000 or 2100 series controller or the controller network module within a Cisco 28/37/38xx Series Integrated Services Router, you must configure a preauthentication ACL on the WLAN for the external web server.


You can define up to 64 ACLs, each with up to 64 rules (or filters). Each rule has parameters that affect its action. When a packet matches all of the parameters for a rule, the action set for that rule is applied to the packet.


Note All ACLs have an implicit "deny all rule" as the last rule. If a packet does not match any of the rules, it is dropped by the controller.


You can configure and apply ACLs through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Access Control Lists

Follow these steps to configure ACLs using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Access Control Lists > Access Control Lists to open the Access Control Lists page (see Figure 5-23).

Figure 5-23 Access Control Lists Page

This page lists all of the ACLs that have been configured for this controller.


Note If you want to delete an existing ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that ACL and choose Remove.


Step 2 If you want to see if packets are hitting any of the ACLs configured on your controller, check the Enable Counters check box and click Apply. Otherwise, leave the check box unchecked, which is the default value. This feature is useful when troubleshooting your system.


Note If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that ACL and choose Clear Counters.



Note ACL counters are available only on the following controllers: 4400 series, Cisco WiSM, and Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch.


Step 3 To add a new ACL, click New. The Access Control Lists > New page appears (see Figure 5-24).

Figure 5-24 Access Control Lists > New Page

Step 4 In the Access Control List Name field, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters.

Step 5 Click Apply. When the Access Control Lists page reappears, click the name of the new ACL.

Step 6 When the Access Control Lists > Edit page appears, click Add New Rule. The Access Control Lists > Rules > New page appears (see Figure 5-25).

Figure 5-25 Access Control Lists > Rules > New Page

Step 7 Follow these steps to configure a rule for this ACL:

a. The controller supports up to 64 rules for each ACL. These rules are listed in order from 1 to 64. In the Sequence field, enter a value (between 1 and 64) to determine the order of this rule in relation to any other rules defined for this ACL.


Note If rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 29, it is added as rule 5. If you add or change a sequence number for a rule, the sequence numbers for other rules adjust to maintain a contiguous sequence. For instance, if you change a rule's sequence number from 7 to 5, the rules with sequence numbers 5 and 6 are automatically reassigned as 6 and 7, respectively.


b. From the Source drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the source of the packets to which this ACL applies:

Any—Any source (This is the default value.)

IP Address—A specific source. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the source in the edit boxes.

c. From the Destination drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the destination of the packets to which this ACL applies:

Any—Any destination (This is the default value.)

IP Address—A specific destination. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the destination in the edit boxes.

d. From the Protocol drop-down box, choose the protocol ID of the IP packets to be used for this ACL. These are the protocol options:

Any—Any protocol (This is the default value.)

TCP—Transmission Control Protocol

UDP—User Datagram Protocol

ICMP—Internet Control Message Protocol

ESP—IP Encapsulating Security Payload

AH—Authentication Header

GRE—Generic Routing Encapsulation

IP in IP—Internet Protocol (IP) in IP. Permits or denies IP-in-IP packets.

Eth Over IP—Ethernet-over-Internet Protocol

OSPF—Open Shortest Path First

Other—Any other Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) protocol


Note If you choose Other, enter the number of the desired protocol in the Protocol edit box. You can find the list of available protocols and their corresponding numbers here:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/protocol-numbers.xml



Note The controller can permit or deny only IP packets in an ACL. Other types of packets (such as ARP packets) cannot be specified.


e. If you chose TCP or UDP in the previous step, two additional parameters appear: Source Port and Destination Port. These parameters enable you to choose a specific source port and destination port or port ranges. The port options are used by applications that send and receive data to and from the networking stack. Some ports are designated for certain applications such as telnet, ssh, http, and so on.

f. From the DSCP drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value of this ACL. DSCP is an IP header field that can be used to define the quality of service across the Internet.

Any—Any DSCP (This is the default value.)

Specific—A specific DSCP from 0 to 63, which you enter in the DSCP edit box

g. From the Direction drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the direction of the traffic to which this ACL applies:

Any—Any direction (This is the default value.)

Inbound—From the client

Outbound—To the client


Note If you are planning to apply this ACL to the controller CPU, choose Any or Inbound because a CPU ACL applies only to packets that are sent to the CPU, not packets from the CPU.


h. From the Action drop-down box, choose Deny to cause this ACL to block packets or Permit to cause this ACL to allow packets. The default value is Deny.

i. Click Apply to commit your changes. The Access Control Lists > Edit page reappears, showing the rules for this ACL. See Figure 5-26.

Figure 5-26 Access Control Lists > Edit Page

The Deny Counters field shows the number of times that packets have matched the explicit deny ACL rule. The Number of Hits field shows the number of times that packets have matched an ACL rule. You must enable ACL counters on the Access Control Lists page to enable these fields.


Note If you want to edit a rule, click the sequence number of the desired rule to open the Access Control Lists > Rules > Edit page. If you ever want to delete a rule, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired rule and choose Remove.


j. Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules for this ACL.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 9 Repeat this procedure to add any additional ACLs.


Using the GUI to Apply Access Control Lists

Follow the instructions in these sections to apply ACLs using the controller GUI:

Applying an Access Control List to an Interface

Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU

Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN

Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN


Note If you apply an ACL to an interface or a WLAN, wireless throughput is degraded when downloading from a 1-Gbps file server. To improve throughput, remove the ACL from the interface or WLAN, move the ACL to a neighboring wired device with a policy rate-limiting restriction, or connect the file server using 100 Mbps rather than 1 Gbps.


Applying an Access Control List to an Interface

Follow these steps to apply an ACL to a management, AP-manager, or dynamic interface using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller > Interfaces.

Step 2 Click the name of the desired interface. The Interfaces > Edit page for that interface appears (see Figure 5-27).

Figure 5-27 Interfaces > Edit Page

Step 3 Choose the desired ACL from the ACL Name drop-down box and click Apply. None is the default value.


Note See Chapter 3, for more information on configuring controller interfaces.


Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU

Follow these steps to apply an ACL to the controller CPU to control traffic to the CPU using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Choose Security > Access Control Lists > CPU Access Control Lists. The CPU Access Control Lists page appears (see Figure 5-28).

Figure 5-28 CPU Access Control Lists Page

Step 2 Check the Enable CPU ACL check box to enable a designated ACL to control the traffic to the controller CPU or uncheck the check box to disable the CPU ACL feature and remove any ACL that had been applied to the CPU. The default value is unchecked.

Step 3 From the ACL Name drop-down box, choose the ACL that will control the traffic to the controller CPU. None is the default value when the CPU ACL feature is disabled. If you choose None while the CPU ACL Enable check box is checked, an error message appears indicating that you must choose an ACL.


Note This parameter is available only if you checked the CPU ACL Enable check box.


Step 4 From the CPU ACL Mode drop-down box, choose the type of traffic (wired, wireless, or both) that will be restricted from reaching the controller CPU. Wired is the default value.


Note This parameter is available only if you checked the CPU ACL Enable check box.


Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN

Follow these steps to apply an ACL to a WLAN using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click WLANs to open the WLANs page.

Step 2 Click the profile name of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.

Step 3 Click the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page (see Figure 5-29).

Figure 5-29 WLANs > Edit (Advanced) Page

Step 4 From the Override Interface ACL drop-down box, choose the ACL that you want to apply to this WLAN. The ACL that you choose overrides any ACL that is configured for the interface. None is the default value.


Note See Chapter 6, for more information on configuring WLANs.


Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN

Follow these steps to apply a preauthentication ACL to a WLAN using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click WLANs to open the WLANs page.

Step 2 Click the profile name of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.

Step 3 Click the Security and Layer 3 tabs to open the WLANs > Edit (Security > Layer 3) page (see Figure 5-30).

Figure 5-30 WLANs > Edit (Security > Layer 3) Page

Step 4 Check the Web Policy check box.

Step 5 From the Preauthentication ACL drop-down box, choose the desired ACL and click Apply. None is the default value.


Note See Chapter 6, for more information on configuring WLANs.


Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Access Control Lists

Follow these steps to configure ACLs using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see all of the ACLs that are configured on the controller, enter this command:

show acl summary

Information similar to the following appears:

ACL Counter Status						 	Enabled
-------------------------------------
ACL Name                   Applied
------------------------- -----------
acl1                         Yes
acl2                         Yes
acl3							 Yes 

Step 2 To see detailed information for a particular ACL, enter this command:

show acl detailed acl_name

Information similar to the following appears:

 
   
	 	 	 Source 	 	 	 	 Destination 	 	 	 	 	 Source Port Dest Port
I Dir 	IP Address/Netmask IP Address/Netmask Prot    Range 	Range 	 	 	DSCP 	Action Counter
- --- ------------------ ------------------ ---- ----------- -------- ----- ------ -------
1 Any 	0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 	 	 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 	 	 Any 	 	 	 0-65535 		 0-65535 	 0   	 Deny 	 	 	 0
2 In 	 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 	 	 200.200.200.0/	 	 	 	 	 6 	 	 	 	 80-80 	 	 	 0-65535  Any 	 Permit 	 0 
						 255.255.255.0
 
   
DenyCounter :     0


The Counter field increments each time a packet matches an ACL rule, and the DenyCounter field increments each time a packet does not match any of the rules.

Step 3 To enable or disable ACL counters for your controller, enter this command:

config acl counter {start | stop}


Note If you want to clear the current counters for an ACL, enter this command:
clear acl counters acl_name



Note ACL counters are available only on the following controllers: 4400 series, Cisco WiSM, and Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch.


Step 4 To add a new ACL, enter this command:

config acl create acl_name

You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the acl_name parameter.

Step 5 To add a rule for an ACL, enter this command:

config acl rule add acl_name rule_index

Step 6 To configure an ACL rule, enter this command:

config acl rule {

action acl_name rule_index {permit | deny} |

change index acl_name old_index new_index |

destination address acl_name rule_index ip_address netmask |

destination port range acl_name rule_index start_port end_port |

direction acl_name rule_index {in | out | any} |

dscp acl_name rule_index dscp |

protocol acl_name rule_index protocol |

source address acl_name rule_index ip_address netmask |

source port range acl_name rule_index start_port end_port |

swap index acl_name index_1 index_2}

Refer to Step 7 of the "Using the GUI to Configure Access Control Lists" section for explanations of the rule parameters.

Step 7 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Note To delete an ACL, enter config acl delete acl_name. To delete an ACL rule, enter config acl rule delete acl_name rule_index.



Using the CLI to Apply Access Control Lists

Follow these steps to apply ACLs using the controller CLI.


Step 1 Perform any of the following:

To apply an ACL to a management, AP-manager, or dynamic interface, enter this command:

config interface acl {management | ap-manager | dynamic_interface_name} acl_name


Note To see the ACL that is applied to an interface, enter show interface detailed {management | ap-manager | dynamic_interface_name}. To remove an ACL that is applied to an interface, enter config interface acl {management | ap-manager | dynamic_interface_name} none.


See Chapter 3, for more information on configuring controller interfaces.

To apply an ACL to the data path, enter this command:

config acl apply acl_name

To apply an ACL to the controller CPU to restrict the type of traffic (wired, wireless, or both) reaching the CPU, enter this command:

config acl cpu acl_name {wired | wireless | both}


Note To see the ACL that is applied to the controller CPU, enter show acl cpu. To remove the ACL that is applied to the controller CPU, enter config acl cpu none.


To apply an ACL to a WLAN, enter this command:

config wlan acl wlan_id acl_name


Note To see the ACL that is applied to a WLAN, enter show wlan wlan_id. To remove the ACL that is applied to a WLAN, enter config wlan acl wlan_id none.


To apply a preauthentication ACL to a WLAN, enter this command:

config wlan security web-auth acl wlan_id acl_name

See Chapter 6, for more information on configuring WLANs.

Step 2 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Configuring Management Frame Protection

Management frame protection (MFP) provides security for the otherwise unprotected and unencrypted 802.11 management messages passed between access points and clients. MFP provides both infrastructure and client support. Controller software release 4.1 or later supports both infrastructure and client MFP while controller software release 4.0 supports only infrastructure MFP.

Infrastructure MFP—Protects management frames by detecting adversaries that are invoking denial-of-service attacks, flooding the network with associations and probes, interjecting as rogue access points, and affecting network performance by attacking the QoS and radio measurement frames. It also provides a quick and effective means to detect and report phishing incidents.

Specifically, infrastructure MFP protects 802.11 session management functions by adding message integrity check information elements (MIC IEs) to the management frames emitted by access points (and not those emitted by clients), which are then validated by other access points in the network. Infrastructure MFP is passive. It can detect and report intrusions but has no means to stop them.

Client MFP—Shields authenticated clients from spoofed frames, preventing many of the common attacks against wireless LANs from becoming effective. Most attacks, such as deauthentication attacks, revert to simply degrading performance by contending with valid clients.

Specifically, client MFP encrypts management frames sent between access points and CCXv5 clients so that both the access points and clients can take preventative action by dropping spoofed class 3 management frames (that is, management frames passed between an access point and a client that is authenticated and associated). Client MFP leverages the security mechanisms defined by IEEE 802.11i to protect the following types of class 3 unicast management frames: disassociation, deauthentication, and QoS (WMM) action. Client MFP protects a client-access point session from the most common type of denial-of-service attack. It protects class 3 management frames by using the same encryption method used for the session's data frames. If a frame received by the access point or client fails decryption, it is dropped, and the event is reported to the controller.

To use client MFP, clients must support CCXv5 MFP and must negotiate WPA2 using either TKIP or AES-CCMP. EAP or PSK may be used to obtain the PMK. CCKM and controller mobility management are used to distribute session keys between access points for Layer 2 and Layer 3 fast roaming.


Note To prevent attacks using broadcast frames, access points supporting CCXv5 will not emit any broadcast class 3 management frames (such as disassociation, deauthentication, or action). CCXv5 clients and access points must discard broadcast class 3 management frames.


Client MFP supplements infrastructure MFP rather than replaces it because infrastructure MFP continues to detect and report invalid unicast frames sent to clients that are not client-MFP capable as well as invalid class 1 and 2 management frames. Infrastructure MFP is applied only to management frames that are not protected by client MFP.

Infrastructure MFP consists of three main components:

Management frame protection—The access point protects the management frames it transmits by adding a MIC IE to each frame. Any attempt to copy, alter, or replay the frame invalidates the MIC, causing any receiving access point configured to detect MFP frames to report the discrepancy.

Management frame validation—In infrastructure MFP, the access point validates every management frame that it receives from other access points in the network. It ensures that the MIC IE is present (when the originator is configured to transmit MFP frames) and matches the content of the management frame. If it receives any frame that does not contain a valid MIC IE from a BSSID belonging to an access point that is configured to transmit MFP frames, it reports the discrepancy to the network management system. In order for the timestamps to operate properly, all controllers must be Network Transfer Protocol (NTP) synchronized.

Event reporting—The access point notifies the controller when it detects an anomaly, and the controller aggregates the received anomaly events and can report the results through SNMP traps to the network management system.


Note Error reports generated on a hybrid-REAP access point in stand-alone mode cannot be forwarded to the controller and are dropped.



Note Client MFP uses the same event reporting mechanisms as infrastructure MFP.


Infrastructure MFP is enabled by default and can be disabled globally. When you upgrade from a previous software release, infrastructure MFP is disabled globally if access point authentication is enabled because the two features are mutually exclusive. Once infrastructure MFP is enabled globally, signature generation (adding MICs to outbound frames) can be disabled for selected WLANs, and validation can be disabled for selected access points.

Client MFP is enabled by default on WLANs that are configured for WPA2. It can be disabled, or it can be made mandatory (in which case only clients that negotiate MFP are allowed to associate) on selected WLANs.

You can configure MFP through either the GUI or the CLI.

Guidelines for Using MFP

Follow these guidelines for using MFP:

MFP is supported for use with Cisco Aironet lightweight access points, except for the 1500 series mesh access points.

Lightweight access points support infrastructure MFP in local and monitor modes and in hybrid-REAP mode when the access point is connected to a controller. They support Client MFP in local, hybrid-REAP, and bridge modes.

Client MFP is supported for use only with CCXv5 clients using WPA2 with TKIP or AES-CCMP.

Non-CCXv5 clients may associate to a WLAN if client MFP is disabled or optional.

Using the GUI to Configure MFP

Follow these steps to configure MFP using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Wireless Protection Policies > AP Authentication/MFP. The AP Authentication Policy page appears (see Figure 5-31).

Figure 5-31 AP Authentication Policy Page

Step 2 To enable infrastructure MFP globally for the controller, choose Management Frame Protection from the Protection Type drop-down box.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.


Note If more than one controller is included in the mobility group, you must configure a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server on all controllers in the mobility group that are configured for infrastructure MFP.


Step 4 Follow these steps if you want to disable or re-enable infrastructure MFP for a particular WLAN after MFP has been enabled globally for the controller:

a. Click WLANs.

b. Click the profile name of the desired WLAN. The WLANs > Edit page appears.

c. Click Advanced. The WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page appears (see Figure 5-32).

Figure 5-32 WLANs > Edit (Advanced) Page

d. Uncheck the Infrastructure MFP Protection check box to disable MFP for this WLAN or check this check box to enable infrastructure MFP for this WLAN. The default value is enabled. If global MFP is disabled, a note appears in parentheses to the right of the check box.

e. Choose Disabled, Optional, or Required from the MFP Client Protection drop-down box. The default value is Optional. If you choose Required, clients are allowed to associate only if MFP is negotiated (that is, if WPA2 is configured on the controller and the client supports CCXv5 MFP and is also configured for WPA2).

f. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 Follow these steps if you want to disable or re-enable infrastructure MFP validation for a particular access point after infrastructure MFP has been enabled globally for the controller:

a. Click Wireless > Access Points to open the All APs page.

b. Click the name of the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears.

c. Under General, uncheck the MFP Frame Validation check box to disable MFP for this access point or check this check box to enable MFP for this access point. The default value is enabled. If global MFP is disabled, a note appears in parentheses to the right of the check box.

d. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.


Using the GUI to View MFP Settings

To see the controller's current global MFP settings, click Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Management Frame Protection. The Management Frame Protection Settings page appears (see Figure 5-33).

Figure 5-33 Management Frame Protection Settings Page

On this page, you can see the following MFP settings:

The Management Frame Protection field shows if infrastructure MFP is enabled globally for the controller.

The Controller Time Source Valid field indicates whether the controller time is set locally (by manually entering the time) or through an external source (such as NTP server). If the time is set by an external source, the value of this field is "True." If the time is set locally, the value is "False." The time source is used for validating the timestamp on management frames between access points of different controllers within a mobility group.

The Infrastructure Protection field shows if infrastructure MFP is enabled for individual WLANs.

The Client Protection field shows if client MFP is enabled for individual WLANs and whether it is optional or required.

The Infrastructure Validation field shows if infrastructure MFP is enabled for individual access points.

Using the CLI to Configure MFP

Use these commands to configure MFP using the controller CLI.

1. To enable or disable infrastructure MFP globally for the controller, enter this command:

config wps mfp infrastructure {enable | disable}

2. To enable or disable infrastructure MFP signature generation on a WLAN, enter this command:

config wlan mfp infrastructure protection {enable | disable} wlan_id


Note Signature generation is activated only if infrastructure MFP is globally enabled.


3. To enable or disable infrastructure MFP validation on an access point, enter this command:

config ap mfp infrastructure validation {enable | disable} Cisco_AP


Note MFP validation is activated only if infrastructure MFP is globally enabled.


4. To enable or disable client MFP on a specific WLAN, enter this command:

config wlan mfp client {enable | disable} wlan_id [required]

If you enable client MFP and use the optional required parameter, clients are allowed to associate only if MFP is negotiated.

Using the CLI to View MFP Settings

Use these commands to view MFP settings using the controller CLI.

1. To see a summary of the controller's current wireless protection policies (including infrastructure MFP), enter this command:

show wps summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Client Exclusion Policy
  Excessive 802.11-association failures.......... Enabled
  Excessive 802.11-authentication failures....... Enabled
  Excessive 802.1x-authentication................ Enabled
  IP-theft....................................... Enabled
  Excessive Web authentication failure........... Enabled
 
   
Trusted AP Policy
  Management Frame Protection.................... Enabled
  Mis-configured AP Action....................... Alarm Only
    Enforced encryption policy................... none
    Enforced preamble policy..................... none
    Enforced radio type policy................... none
    Validate SSID................................ Disabled
  Alert if Trusted AP is missing................. Disabled
  Trusted AP timeout............................. 120
 
   
Untrusted AP Policy
  Rogue Location Discovery Protocol.............. Disabled
    RLDP Action.................................. Alarm Only
  Rogue APs
    Rogues AP advertising my SSID................ Alarm
...
 
   

2. To see the controller's current MFP settings, enter this command:

show wps mfp summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Global Infrastructure MFP state.... Enabled
Controller Time Source Valid....... False
 
   
					 WLAN       Infra.      Client
WLAN ID  WLAN Name 	Status     Protection  Protection
-------  ---------- -------- 	----------  -----------
1        test1 		 	 	 	 Enabled 		 	Disabled 		 	Disabled
2        open 	 	 	 	 	 Enabled 		 	Enabled    			Required
3        testpsk 	 	 	 Enabled   *Enabled 	 	 Optional but inactive (WPA2 not configured)
 
   
	 	 Infra.             Operational     --Infra. Capability--
AP Name 		 Validation  Radio  State           Protection  Validation
-------- ----------- -----  ----------- 	 	----------- 	-----------
mapAP 	 	 Disabled 	 	 	 a 	 	 Up              Full        Full
	 	 	 	 	 b/g 	 	 Up              Full        Full
rootAP2 	 Enabled    		a 		 	 	 Up              Full        Full
	 	 	 	 	 b/g 	 	 Up              Full        Full
HReap 	 	 *Enabled 		 	 b/g 	 	 Up 	 	 	 	 Full        Full
	 	 	 	 	 a      Down 	 	 	 		 	 Full        Full
 
   

3. To see the current MFP configuration for a particular WLAN, enter this command:

show wlan wlan_id

Information similar to the following appears:

WLAN Identifier........................... 1
Profile Name.............................. test1
Network Name (SSID)....................... test1
Status.................................... Enabled
MAC Filtering............................. Disabled
Broadcast SSID............................ Enabled
...
Local EAP Authentication.................. Enabled (Profile 'test')
Diagnostics Channel....................... Disabled
Security
 
   
   802.11 Authentication:................. Open System
   Static WEP Keys........................ Disabled
   802.1X................................. Enabled
        Encryption:.............................. 104-bit WEP
   Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2)...... Disabled
   CKIP .................................. Disabled
   IP Security............................ Disabled
   IP Security Passthru................... Disabled
   Web Based Authentication............... Disabled
   Web-Passthrough........................ Disabled
   Conditional Web Redirect............... Disabled
   Auto Anchor............................ Enabled
   Cranite Passthru....................... Disabled
   H-REAP Local Switching................. Disabled
   Infrastructure MFP protection.......... Enabled
   Client MFP............................. Required
...
 
   

4. To see the current MFP configuration for a particular access point, enter this command:

show ap config general AP_name

Information similar to the following appears:

Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 0
Cisco AP Name.................................... ap:52:c5:c0
AP Regulatory Domain............................. 80211bg: -N 80211a: -N
Switch Port Number .............................. 1
MAC Address...................................... 00:0b:85:52:c5:c0
IP Address Configuration......................... Static IP assigned
IP Address....................................... 10.67.73.33
IP NetMask....................................... 255.255.255.192
...
AP Mode ......................................... Local
Remote AP Debug ................................. Disabled
S/W  Version .................................... 4.0.2.0
Boot  Version ................................... 2.1.78.0
Mini IOS Version ................................      --
Stats Reporting Period .......................... 180
LED State........................................ Enabled
ILP Pre Standard Switch.......................... Disabled
ILP Power Injector............................... Disabled
Number Of Slots.................................. 2
AP Model......................................... AP1020
AP Serial Number................................. WCN09260057
AP Certificate Type.............................. Manufacture Installed
Management Frame Protection Validation .......... Enabled

5. To see whether client MFP is enabled for a specific client, enter this command:

show client detail client_mac

Client MAC Address............................... 00:14:1c:ed:34:72
...
Policy Type...................................... WPA2
Authentication Key Management.................... PSK
Encryption Cipher................................ CCMP (AES)
Management Frame Protection...................... Yes
... 

6. To see MFP statistics for the controller, enter this command:

show wps mfp statistics

Information similar to the following appears:


Note This report contains no data unless an active attack is in progress. Examples of various error types are shown for illustration only. This table is cleared every 5 minutes when the data is forwarded to any network management stations.


BSSID             Radio Validator AP 	Last Source Addr  Found  Error Type 	Count 	Frame Types
----------------- ----- ------------- ------------------ ------ ------------ ----- -------
00:0b:85:56:c1:a0  a    jamesh-1000b 	00:01:02:03:04:05 Infra  Invalid MIC 	183 		 Assoc Req 
																					Probe Req 
																					Beacon 
														 Infra  Out of seq	 	 	 	 	 4	 	Assoc Req 
														 Infra  Unexpected MIC 	85 	Reassoc Req
														 Client Decrypt err 	 1974 Reassoc Req
																					Disassoc
														 Client Replay err	 	 	 	 	 74 Assoc Req
																					Probe Req
																					Beacon
														 Client Invalid ICV 	 	 174 Reassoc Req 
										 											Disassoc
														 Client Invalid header	174 Assoc Req 
																					Probe Req 
																					Beacon
														 Client Brdcst disass	 174 Reassoc Req 
																					Disassoc
00:0b:85:56:c1:a0  b/g  jamesh-1000b 	00:01:02:03:04:05 Infra  Out of seq	 	 	185 	Reassoc Resp
														 Client Not encrypted 	174 Assoc Resp 
																					Probe Resp

Using the CLI to Debug MFP Issues

Use these commands if you experience any problems with MFP:

debug wps mfp ? {enable | disable}

where ? is one of the following:

client—Configures debugging for client MFP messages.

lwapp—Configures debugging for MFP messages between the controller and access points.

detail—Configures detailed debugging for MFP messages.

report—Configures debugging for MFP reporting.

mm—Configures debugging for MFP mobility (inter-controller) messages.

Configuring Client Exclusion Policies

Follow these steps to configure the controller to exclude clients under certain conditions using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Client Exclusion Policies to open the Client Exclusion Policies page.

Step 2 Check any of these check boxes if you want the controller to exclude clients for the condition specified. The default value for each exclusion policy is enabled.

Excessive 802.11 Association Failures—Clients are excluded on the sixth 802.11 association attempt, after five consecutive failures.

Excessive 802.11 Authentication Failures—Clients are excluded on the sixth 802.11 authentication attempt, after five consecutive failures.

Excessive 802.1X Authentication Failures—Clients are excluded on the fourth 802.1X authentication attempt, after three consecutive failures.

IP Theft or IP Reuse—Clients are excluded if the IP address is already assigned to another device.

Excessive Web Authentication Failures—Clients are excluded on the fourth web authentication attempt, after three consecutive failures.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Configuring Identity Networking

These sections explain the identity networking feature, how it is configured, and the expected behavior for various security policies:

Identity Networking Overview

RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking

Configuring AAA Override

Identity Networking Overview

In most wireless LAN systems, each WLAN has a static policy that applies to all clients associated with an SSID. Although powerful, this method has limitations since it requires clients to associate with different SSIDs to inherit different QoS and security policies.

However, the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution supports identity networking, which allows the network to advertise a single SSID but allows specific users to inherit different QoS or security policies based on their user profiles. The specific policies that you can control using identity networking include:

Quality of Service. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the QoS-Level value overrides the QoS value specified in the WLAN profile.

ACL. When the ACL attribute is present in the RADIUS Access Accept, the system applies the ACL-Name to the client station after it authenticates. This overrides any ACLs that are assigned to the interface.

VLAN. When a VLAN Interface-Name or VLAN-Tag is present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the system places the client on a specific interface.


Note The VLAN feature only supports MAC filtering, 802.1X, and WPA. The VLAN feature does not support web authentication or IPSec.


Tunnel Attributes.


Note When any of the other RADIUS attributes (QoS-Level, ACL-Name, Interface-Name, or VLAN-Tag), which are described later in this section, are returned, the Tunnel Attributes must also be returned.


The operating system's local MAC filter database has been extended to include the interface name, allowing local MAC filters to specify to which interface the client should be assigned. A separate RADIUS server can also be used, but the RADIUS server must be defined using the Security menus.

RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking

This section explains the RADIUS attributes used in identity networking.

QoS-Level

This attribute indicates the Quality of Service level to be applied to the mobile client's traffic within the switching fabric, as well as over the air. This example shows a summary of the QoS-Level Attribute format. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|     Type      |  Length       |            Vendor-Id 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     Vendor-Id (cont.)          | Vendor type   | Vendor length | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|                           QoS Level                           | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 

Type - 26 for Vendor-Specific

Length - 10

Vendor-Id - 14179

Vendor type - 2

Vendor length - 4

Value - Three octets:

3 - Bronze (Background)

0 - Silver (Best Effort)

1 - Gold (Video)

2 - Platinum (Voice)

ACL-Name

This attribute indicates the ACL name to be applied to the client. A summary of the ACL-Name Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|     Type      |  Length       |            Vendor-Id 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     Vendor-Id (cont.)          | Vendor type   | Vendor length | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|        ACL Name... 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- 

Type - 26 for Vendor-Specific

Length - >7

Vendor-Id - 14179

Vendor type - 6

Vendor length - >0

Value - A string that includes the name of the ACL to use for the client

Interface-Name

This attribute indicates the VLAN Interface a client is to be associated to. A summary of the Interface-Name Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|     Type      |  Length       |            Vendor-Id 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     Vendor-Id (cont.)          |  Vendor type  | Vendor length | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|    Interface Name... 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- 

Type - 26 for Vendor-Specific

Length - >7

Vendor-Id - 14179

Vendor type - 5

Vendor length - >0

Value - A string that includes the name of the interface the client is to be assigned to.


Note This Attribute only works when MAC filtering is enabled or if 802.1X or WPA is used as the security policy.


VLAN-Tag

This attribute indicates the group ID for a particular tunneled session, and is also known as the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attribute.

This attribute might be included in the Access-Request packet if the tunnel initiator can predetermine the group resulting from a particular connection and should be included in the Access-Accept packet if this tunnel session is to be treated as belonging to a particular private group. Private groups may be used to associate a tunneled session with a particular group of users. For example, it may be used to facilitate routing of unregistered IP addresses through a particular interface. It should be included in Accounting-Request packets which contain Acct-Status-Type attributes with values of either Start or Stop and which pertain to a tunneled session.

A summary of the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|      Type     |    Length     |     Tag       |   String... 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 

Type - 81 for Tunnel-Private-Group-ID.

Length - >= 3

Tag - The Tag field is one octet in length and is intended to provide a means of grouping attributes in the same packet which refer to the same tunnel. If the value of the Tag field is greater than 0x00 and less than or equal to 0x1F, it should be interpreted as indicating which tunnel (of several alternatives) this attribute pertains. If the Tag field is greater than 0x1F, it should be interpreted as the first byte of the following String field.

String - This field must be present. The group is represented by the String field. There is no restriction on the format of group IDs.

Tunnel Attributes


Note When any of the other RADIUS attributes (QoS-Level, ACL-Name, Interface-Name, or VLAN-Tag) are returned, the Tunnel Attributes must also be returned.


Reference RFC2868 defines RADIUS tunnel attributes used for authentication and authorization, and RFC2867 defines tunnel attributes used for accounting. Where the IEEE 802.1X Authenticator supports tunneling, a compulsory tunnel may be set up for the Supplicant as a result of the authentication.

In particular, it may be desirable to allow a port to be placed into a particular Virtual LAN (VLAN), defined in IEEE8021Q, based on the result of the authentication. This can be used, for example, to allow a wireless host to remain on the same VLAN as it moves within a campus network.

The RADIUS server typically indicates the desired VLAN by including tunnel attributes within the Access-Accept. However, the IEEE 802.1X Authenticator may also provide a hint as to the VLAN to be assigned to the Supplicant by including Tunnel attributes within the Access- Request.

For use in VLAN assignment, the following tunnel attributes are used:

Tunnel-Type=VLAN (13)

Tunnel-Medium-Type=802

Tunnel-Private-Group-ID=VLANID

Note that the VLANID is 12-bits, taking a value between 1 and 4094, inclusive. Since the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID is of type String as defined in RFC2868, for use with IEEE 802.1X, the VLANID integer value is encoded as a string.

When Tunnel attributes are sent, it is necessary to fill in the Tag field. As noted in RFC2868, section 3.1:

The Tag field is one octet in length and is intended to provide a means of grouping attributes in the same packet which refer to the same tunnel. Valid values for this field are 0x01 through 0x1F, inclusive. If the Tag field is unused, it must be zero (0x00).

For use with Tunnel-Client-Endpoint, Tunnel-Server-Endpoint, Tunnel-Private-Group-ID, Tunnel-Assignment-ID, Tunnel-Client-Auth-ID or Tunnel-Server-Auth-ID attributes (but not Tunnel-Type, Tunnel-Medium-Type, Tunnel-Password, or Tunnel-Preference), a tag field of greater than 0x1F is interpreted as the first octet of the following field.

Unless alternative tunnel types are provided, (e.g. for IEEE 802.1X Authenticators that may support tunneling but not VLANs), it is only necessary for tunnel attributes to specify a single tunnel. As a result, where it is only desired to specify the VLANID, the tag field should be set to zero (0x00) in all tunnel attributes. Where alternative tunnel types are to be provided, tag values between 0x01 and 0x1F should be chosen.

Configuring AAA Override

The Allow AAA Override option of a WLAN allows you to configure the WLAN for identity networking. It allows you to apply VLAN tagging, QoS, and ACLs to individual clients based on the returned RADIUS attributes from the AAA server.


Note If a client moves to a new interface due to the AAA override and then you apply an ACL to that interface, the ACL does not take effect until the client reauthenticates. To work around this issue, apply the ACL and then enable the WLAN so that all clients connect to the ACL already configured on the interface, or disable and then re-enable the WLAN after you apply the interface so that the clients can reauthenticate.


Most of the configuration for allowing AAA override is done at the RADIUS server, where you should configure the Access Control Server (ACS) with the override properties you would like it to return to the controller (for example, Interface-Name, QoS-Level, and VLAN-Tag).

On the controller, simply enable the Allow AAA Override configuration parameter using the GUI or CLI. Enabling this parameter allows the controller to accept the attributes returned by the RADIUS server. The controller then applies these attributes to its clients.

Updating the RADIUS Server Dictionary File for Proper QoS Values

If you are using a Steel-Belted RADIUS (SBR), FreeRadius, or similar RADIUS server, clients may not obtain the correct QoS values after the AAA override feature is enabled. For these servers, which allow you to edit the dictionary file, you need to update the file to reflect the proper QoS values: Silver = 0, Gold = 1, Platinum = 2, and Bronze = 3. Follow the steps below to do so.


Note This issue does not apply to the Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS).



Step 1 Stop the SBR service (or other RADIUS service).

Step 2 Save the following text to the Radius_Install_Directory\Service folder as ciscowlan.dct:

################################################################################
# CiscoWLAN.dct- Cisco Wireless Lan Controllers
# 
# (See README.DCT for more details on the format of this file)
################################################################################
 
   
# Dictionary - Cisco WLAN Controllers
#
# Start with the standard Radius specification attributes
#
@radius.dct
#
# Standard attributes supported by Airespace
#
# Define additional vendor specific attributes (VSAs)
#
 
   
MACRO Airespace-VSA(t,s) 26 [vid=14179 type1=%t% len1=+2 data=%s%]
 
   
ATTRIBUTE   WLAN-Id                 Airespace-VSA(1, integer)     cr
ATTRIBUTE   Aire-QoS-Level 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 Airespace-VSA(2, integer)     r
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Bronze 	 		3
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Silver   0
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Gold     1
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Platinum 2
 
   
ATTRIBUTE   DSCP                    Airespace-VSA(3, integer)     r
ATTRIBUTE   802.1P-Tag              Airespace-VSA(4, integer)     r
ATTRIBUTE   Interface-Name          Airespace-VSA(5, string)      r
ATTRIBUTE   ACL-Name                Airespace-VSA(6, string)      r
 
   
# This should be last.
 
   
################################################################################
# CiscoWLAN.dct - Cisco WLC dictionary
############################################################################## 

Step 3 Open the dictiona.dcm file (in the same directory) and add the line "@ciscowlan.dct."

Step 4 Save and close the dictiona.dcm file.

Step 5 Open the vendor.ini file (in the same directory) and add the following text:

vendor-product       = Cisco WLAN Controller
dictionary           = ciscowlan
ignore-ports         = no
port-number-usage    = per-port-type
help-id 		 	 	 	 =

Step 6 Save and close the vendor.ini file.

Step 7 Start the SBR service (or other RADIUS service).

Step 8 Launch the SBR Administrator (or other RADIUS Administrator).

Step 9 Add a RADIUS client (if not already added). Choose Cisco WLAN Controller from the Make/Model drop-down box.


Using the GUI to Configure AAA Override

Follow these steps to configure AAA override using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click WLANs to open the WLANs page.

Step 2 Click the profile name of the WLAN that you want to configure. The WLANs > Edit page appears.

Step 3 Click the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page (see Figure 5-34).

Figure 5-34 WLANs > Edit (Advanced) Page

Step 4 Check the Allow AAA Override check box to enable AAA override or uncheck it to disable this feature. The default value is disabled.

Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure AAA Override

Use this command to enable or disable AAA override using the controller CLI:

config wlan aaa-override {enable | disable} wlan_id

For wlan_id, enter an ID from 1 to 16.

Managing Rogue Devices

This section describes security solutions for rogue devices. A rogue device is an unknown access point or client that is detected by managed access points in your network as not belonging to your system.

Challenges

Rogue access points can disrupt wireless LAN operations by hijacking legitimate clients and using plain-text or other denial-of-service or man-in-the-middle attacks. That is, a hacker can use a rogue access point to capture sensitive information, such as usernames and passwords. The hacker can then transmit a series of clear-to-send (CTS) frames. This action mimics an access point informing a particular client to transmit and instructing all others to wait, which results in legitimate clients being unable to access network resources. Wireless LAN service providers have a strong interest in banning rogue access points from the air space.

Because rogue access points are inexpensive and readily available, employees sometimes plug unauthorized rogue access points into existing LANs and build ad-hoc wireless networks without IT department knowledge or consent. These rogue access points can be a serious breach of network security because they can be plugged into a network port behind the corporate firewall. Because employees generally do not enable any security settings on the rogue access point, it is easy for unauthorized users to use the access point to intercept network traffic and hijack client sessions. Even more alarming, wireless users frequently publish unsecure access point locations, increasing the odds of having enterprise security breached.

Detecting Rogue Devices

The controller continuously monitors all nearby access points and automatically discovers and collects information on rogue access points and clients. When the controller discovers a rogue access point, it uses the Rogue Location Discovery Protocol (RLDP) to determine if the rogue is attached to your network.

You can configure the controller to use RLDP on all access points or only on access points configured for monitor (listen-only) mode. The latter option facilitates automated rogue access point detection in a crowded RF space, allowing monitoring without creating unnecessary interference and without affecting regular data access point functionality. If you configure the controller to use RLDP on all access points, the controller always chooses the monitor access point for RLDP operation if a monitor access point and a local (data) access point are both nearby. If RLDP determines that the rogue is on your network, you can choose to either manually or automatically contain the detected rogue.

Classifying Rogue Access Points

Controller software release 5.0 or later releases improve the classification and reporting of rogue access points through the use of rogue states and user-defined classification rules that enable rogues to automatically move between states. In previous releases, the controller listed all rogue access points on one page sorted by MAC address or BSSID. Now you can create rules that enable the controller to organize and display rogue access points as Friendly, Malicious, or Unclassified.

By default, none of the classification rules are enabled. Therefore, all unknown access points are categorized as Unclassified. When you create a rule, configure conditions for it, and enable the rule, the unclassified access points are reclassified. Whenever you change a rule, it is applied to all access points (friendly, malicious, and unclassified) in the Alert state only.


Note Rule-based rogue classification does not apply to ad-hoc rogues and rogue clients.



Note The Cisco 5500 Series Controllers support up to 2000 rogues (including acknowledged rogues); the 4400 series controllers, Cisco WiSM, and Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch support up to 625 rogues; and the Cisco 2100 Series Controller and Controller Network Module for Integrated Services Routers support up to 125 rogues. Each controller limits the number of rogue containments to three per radio (or six per radio for access points in monitor mode).


When the controller receives a rogue report from one of its managed access points, it responds as follows:

1. The controller verifies that the unknown access point is in the friendly MAC address list. If it is, the controller classifies the access point as Friendly.

2. If the unknown access point is not in the friendly MAC address list, the controller starts applying rogue classification rules.

3. If the rogue is already classified as Malicious, Alert or Friendly, Internal or External, the controller does not reclassify it automatically. If the rogue is classified differently, the controller reclassifies it automatically only if the rogue is in the Alert state.

4. The controller applies the first rule based on priority. If the rogue access point matches the criteria specified by the rule, the controller classifies the rogue according to the classification type configured for the rule.

5. If the rogue access point does not match any of the configured rules, the controller classifies the rogue as Unclassified.

6. The controller repeats the previous steps for all rogue access points.

7. If RLDP determines that the rogue access point is on the network, the controller marks the rogue state as Threat and classifies it as Malicious automatically, even if no rules are configured. You can then manually contain the rogue (unless you have configured RLDP to automatically contain the rogue), which would change the rogue state to Contained. If the rogue access point is not on the network, the controller marks the rogue state as Alert, and you can manually contain the rogue.

8. If desired, you can manually move the access point to a different classification type and rogue state.

Table 5-1 shows the rogue states that can be adopted by a rogue access point in a particular classification type.

Table 5-1 Classification Mapping 

Rule-Based Classification Type
Rogue States

Friendly

Internal—If the unknown access point is inside the network and poses no threat to WLAN security, you would manually configure it as Friendly, Internal. An example is the access points in your lab network.

External—If the unknown access point is outside the network and poses no threat to WLAN security, you would manually configure it as Friendly, External. An example is an access point that belongs to a neighboring coffee shop.

Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.

Malicious

Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.

Threat—The unknown access point is found to be on the network and poses a threat to WLAN security.

Contained—The unknown access point is contained.

Contained Pending—The unknown access point is marked Contained, but the action is delayed due to unavailable resources.

Unclassified

Pending—On first detection, the unknown access point is put in the Pending state for 3 minutes. During this time, the managed access points determine if the unknown access point is a neighbor access point.

Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.

Contained—The unknown access point is contained.

Contained Pending—The unknown access point is marked Contained, but the action is delayed due to unavailable resources.


If you upgrade to controller software release 5.0 or later releases, the classification and state of the rogue access points are reconfigured as follows:

From Known to Friendly, Internal

From Acknowledged to Friendly, External

From Contained to Malicious, Contained

As mentioned previously, the controller can automatically change the classification type and rogue state of an unknown access point based on user-defined rules, or you can manually move the unknown access point to a different classification type and rogue state. Table 5-2 shows the allowable classification types and rogue states from and to which an unknown access point can be configured.

Table 5-2 Allowable Classification Type and Rogue State Transitions

From
To

Friendly (Internal, External, Alert)

Malicious (Alert)

Friendly (Internal, External, Alert)

Unclassified (Alert)

Friendly (Alert)

Friendly (Internal, External)

Malicious (Alert, Threat)

Friendly (Internal, External)

Malicious (Contained, Contained Pending)

Malicious (Alert)

Unclassified (Alert, Threat)

Friendly (Internal, External)

Unclassified (Contained, Contained Pending)

Unclassified (Alert)

Unclassified (Alert)

Malicious (Alert)


If the rogue state is Contained, you have to uncontain the rogue access point before you can change the classification type. If you want to move a rogue access point from Malicious to Unclassified, you must delete the access point and allow the controller to reclassify it.

WCS Interaction

WCS software release 5.0 or later releases also support rule-based classification. WCS uses the classification rules configured on the controller. The controller sends traps to WCS after the following events:

If an unknown access point moves to Friendly for the first time, the controller sends a trap to WCS only if the rogue state is Alert. It does not send a trap if the rogue state is Internal or External.

If a rogue entry is removed after the timeout expires, the controller sends a trap to WCS for rogue access points categorized as Malicious (Alert, Threat) or Unclassified (Alert). The controller does not remove rogue entries with the following rogue states: Contained, Contained Pending, Internal, and External.

Configuring RLDP

You can configure RLDP to automatically detect and contain rogue devices using the controller GUI or CLI.

Prerequisites for Rogue AP Detection

There are few important prerequisites for successful on network rogue detection:

1. The rogue AP must be configured as an absolutely unencrypted wireless network without Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or MAC filters. Only then the detected AP will be allowed to associate to the rogue as a client.

2. The client should be able to associate with a rogue AP to obtain an IP address by DHCP using wireless connection through the rogue AP.

3. The detecting AP should be able to ping its own wired interface using the wireless connection established through the rogue AP. In other words clients connected to the rogue AP should be able to ping the valid detecting AP as follows:

Client (detecting AP) --> wireless interface --> rogue AP --> wired network --> detecting AP

4. The rogue AP should be using channels other than 802.11a for transmission. This is because the RLDP is disabled on 802.11a channels which consist of UNII-2 band channels 52-64 and 100-140.

Using the GUI to Configure RLDP

To configure RLDP using the controller GUI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Make sure that rogue detection is enabled on the desired access points. Rogue detection is enabled by default for all access points joined to the controller (except for OfficeExtend access points). However, in controller software release 6.0 or later releases, you can enable or disable it for individual access points by selecting or unselecting the Rogue Detection check box on the All APs > Details for (Advanced) page.


Note Rogue detection is disabled by default for OfficeExtend access points because these access points, which are deployed in a home environment, are likely to detect a large number of rogue devices.


Step 2 Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Rogue Policies > General to open the Rogue Policies page (see Figure 5-35).

Figure 5-35 Rogue Policies Page

Step 3 Choose one of the following options from the Rogue Location Discovery Protocol drop-down list:

Disable—Disables RLDP on all access points. This is the default value.

All APs—Enables RLDP on all access points.

Monitor Mode APs—Enables RLDP only on access points in monitor mode.

Step 4 In the Expiration Timeout for Rogue AP and Rogue Client Entries text box, enter the number of seconds after which the rogue access point and client entries expire and are removed from the list. The valid range is 240 to 3600 seconds, and the default value is 1200 seconds.


Note If a rogue access point or client entry times out, it is removed from the controller only if its rogue state is Alert or Threat for any classification type.


Step 5 If desired, select the Validate Rogue Clients Against AAA check box to use the AAA server or local database to validate if rogue clients are valid clients. The default value is unselected.

Step 6 If desired, select the Detect and Report Ad-Hoc Networks check box to enable ad-hoc rogue detection and reporting. The default value is selected.

Step 7 If you want the controller to automatically contain certain rogue devices, select the following check boxes. Otherwise, leave the check boxes unselected, which is the default value.


Caution When you enable any of these parameters, the following warning appears: "Using this feature may have legal consequences. Do you want to continue?" The 2.4- and 5-GHz frequencies in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band are open to the public and can be used without a license. As such, containing devices on another party's network could have legal consequences.

Rogue on Wire—Automatically contains rogues that are detected on the wired network.

Using Our SSID—Automatically contains rogues that are advertising your network's SSID. If you leave this parameter unselected, the controller only generates an alarm when such a rogue is detected.

Valid Client on Rogue AP—Automatically contains a rogue access point to which trusted clients are associated. If you leave this parameter unselected, the controller only generates an alarm when such a rogue is detected.

AdHoc Rogue AP—Automatically contains ad-hoc networks detected by the controller. If you leave this parameter unselected, the controller only generates an alarm when such a network is detected.

Step 8 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 9 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure RLDP

To configure RLDP using the controller CLI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Make sure that rogue detection is enabled on the desired access points. Rogue detection is enabled by default for all access points joined to the controller (except for OfficeExtend access points). However, in controller software release 6.0 or later releases, you can enable or disable it for individual access points by entering the config rogue detection {enable | disable} Cisco_AP command.


Note To see the current rogue detection configuration for a specific access point, enter the show ap config general Cisco_AP command.



Note Rogue detection is disabled by default for OfficeExtend access points because these access points, which are deployed in a home environment, are likely to detect a large number of rogue devices.


Step 2 Enable, disable, or initiate RLDP by entering these commands:

config rogue ap rldp enable alarm-only—Enables RLDP on all access points.

config rogue ap rldp enable alarm-only monitor_ap_only—Enables RLDP only on access points in monitor mode.

config rogue ap rldp initiate rogue_mac_address—Initiates RLDP on a specific rogue access point.

config rogue ap rldp disable—Disables RLDP on all access points.

Step 3 Specify the number of seconds after which the rogue access point and client entries expire and are removed from the list by entering this command:

config rogue ap timeout seconds

The valid range for the seconds parameter is 240 to 3600 seconds (inclusive), and the default value is 1200 seconds.


Note If a rogue access point or client entry times out, it is removed from the controller only if its rogue state is Alert or Threat for any classification type.


Step 4 Enable or disable ad-hoc rogue detection and reporting by entering this command:

config rogue adhoc {enable | disable}

Step 5 Enable or disable the AAA server or local database to validate if rogue clients are valid clients by entering this command:

config rogue client aaa {enable | disable}

Step 6 If you want the controller to automatically contain certain rogue devices, enter these commands.


Caution When you enter any of these commands, the following warning appears: "Using this feature may have legal consequences. Do you want to continue?" The 2.4- and 5-GHz frequencies in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band are open to the public and can be used without a license. As such, containing devices on another party's network could have legal consequences.

config rogue ap rldp enable auto-contain—Automatically contains rogues that are detected on the wired network.

config rogue ap ssid auto-contain—Automatically contains rogues that are advertising your network's SSID.


Note If you want the controller to only generate an alarm when such a rogue is detected, enter the config rogue ap ssid alarm command.


config rogue ap valid-client auto-contain—Automatically contains a rogue access point to which trusted clients are associated.


Note If you want the controller to only generate an alarm when such a rogue is detected, enter the config rogue ap valid-client alarm command.


config rogue adhoc auto-contain—Automatically contains adhoc networks detected by the controller.


Note If you want the controller to only generate an alarm when such a network is detected, enter the config rogue adhoc alert command:


Step 7 Save your changes by entering this command:

save config


Configuring Rogue Classification Rules

You can configure up to 64 rogue classification rules per controller using the controller GUI or CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Rogue Classification Rules

To configure rogue classification rules using the controller GUI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Rogue Policies > Rogue Rules to open the Rogue Rules page (see Figure 5-36).

Figure 5-36 Rogue Rules Page

Any rules that have already been created are listed in priority order. The name, type, and status of each rule is provided.


Note If you ever want to delete a rule, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that rule and click Remove.


Step 2 Create a new rule as follows:

a. Click Add Rule. An Add Rule section appears at the top of the page.

b. In the Rule Name text box, enter a name for the new rule. Make sure that the name does not contain any spaces.

c. From the Rule Type drop-down list, choose Friendly or Malicious to classify rogue access points matching this rule as friendly or malicious.

d. Click Add to add this rule to the list of existing rules, or click Cancel to discard this new rule.

Step 3 Edit a rule as follows:

a. Click the name of the rule that you want to edit. The Rogue Rule > Edit page appears (see Figure 5-37).

Figure 5-37 Rogue Rule > Edit Page

b. From the Type drop-down list, choose Friendly or Malicious to classify rogue access points matching this rule as friendly or malicious.

c. From the Match Operation text box, choose one of the following:

Match All—If this rule is enabled, a detected rogue access point must meet all of the conditions specified by the rule in order for the rule to be matched and the rogue to adopt the classification type of the rule.

Match Any—If this rule is enabled, a detected rogue access point must meet any of the conditions specified by the rule in order for the rule to be matched and the rogue to adopt the classification type of the rule. This is the default value.

d. To enable this rule, select the Enable Rule check box. The default value is unselected.

e. From the Add Condition drop-down list, choose one or more of the following conditions that the rogue access point must meet and click Add Condition:

SSID—Requires that the rogue access point have a specific user-configured SSID. If you choose this option, enter the SSID in the User Configured SSID text box, and click Add SSID.


Note To delete an SSID, highlight the SSID and click Remove.


RSSI—Requires that the rogue access point have a minimum received signal strength indication (RSSI) value. For example, if the rogue access point has an RSSI that is greater than the configured value, then the access point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum RSSI value in the Minimum RSSI text box. The valid range is -95 to -50 dBm (inclusive), and the default value is 0 dBm.

Duration—Requires that the rogue access point be detected for a minimum period of time. If you choose this option, enter a value for the minimum detection period in the Time Duration text box. The valid range is 0 to 3600 seconds (inclusive), and the default value is 0 seconds.

Client Count—Requires that a minimum number of clients be associated to the rogue access point. For example, if the number of clients associated to the rogue access point is greater than or equal to the configured value, then the access point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum number of clients to be associated to the rogue access point in the Minimum Number of Rogue Clients text box. The valid range is 1 to 10 (inclusive), and the default value is 0.

No Encryption—Requires that the rogue access point's advertised WLAN does not have encryption enabled. If a rogue access point has encryption disabled, it is likely that more clients will try to associate to it. No further configuration is required for this option.


Note WCS refers to this option as "Open Authentication."


Managed SSID—Requires that the rogue access point's managed SSID (the SSID configured for the WLAN) be known to the controller. No further configuration is required for this option.


Note The SSID and Managed SSID conditions cannot be used with the Match All operation because these two SSID lists are mutually exclusive. If you define a rule with Match All and have these two conditions configured, the rogue access points are never classified as friendly or malicious because one of the conditions can never be met.


You can add up to six conditions per rule. When you add a condition, it appears under the Conditions section (see Figure 5-38).

Figure 5-38 Rogue Rule > Edit Page


Note If you ever want to delete a condition from this rule, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that condition and click Remove.


f. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 5 If you want to change the order in which rogue classification rules are applied, follow these steps:

a. Click Back to return to the Rogue Rules page.

b. Click Change Priority to access the Rogue Rules > Priority page (see Figure 5-39).

Figure 5-39 Rogue Rules > Priority Page

The rogue rules are listed in priority order in the Change Rules Priority text box.

c. Highlight the rule for which you want to change the priority, and click Up to raise its priority in the list or Down to lower its priority in the list.

d. Continue to move the rules up or down until the rules are in the desired order.

e. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Classify any rogue access points as friendly and add them to the friendly MAC address list as follows:

a. Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Rogue Policies > Friendly Rogue to open the Friendly Rogue > Create page (see Figure 5-40).

Figure 5-40 Friendly Rogue > Create Page

b. In the MAC Address text box, enter the MAC address of the friendly rogue access point.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Click Save Configuration to save your changes. This access point is added to the controller's list of friendly access points and should now appear on the Friendly Rogue APs page.


Using the CLI to Configure Rogue Classification Rules

To configure rogue classification rules using the controller CLI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Create a rule by entering this command:

config rogue rule add ap priority priority classify {friendly | malicious} rule_name


Note If you later want to change the priority of this rule and shift others in the list accordingly, enter the config rogue rule priority priority rule_name command. If you later want to change the classification of this rule, enter the config rogue rule classify {friendly | malicious} rule_name command.



Note If you ever want to delete all of the rogue classification rules or a specific rule, enter the config rogue rule delete {all | rule_name} command.


Step 2 Disable all rules or a specific rule by entering this command:

config rogue rule disable {all | rule_name}


Note A rule must be disabled before you can modify its attributes.


Step 3 Add conditions to a rule that the rogue access point must meet by entering this command:

config rogue rule condition ap set condition_type condition_value rule_name

where condition_type is one of the following:

ssid—Requires that the rogue access point have a specific SSID. You should add SSIDs that are not managed by the controller. If you choose this option, enter the SSID for the condition_value parameter. The SSID is added to the user-configured SSID list.


Note If you ever want to delete all of the SSIDs or a specific SSID from the user-configured SSID list, enter the config rogue rule condition ap delete ssid {all | ssid} rule_name command.


rssi—Requires that the rogue access point have a minimum RSSI value. For example, if the rogue access point has an RSSI that is greater than the configured value, then the access point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum RSSI value for the condition_value parameter. The valid range is -95 to -50 dBm (inclusive), and the default value is 0 dBm.

duration—Requires that the rogue access point be detected for a minimum period of time. If you choose this option, enter a value for the minimum detection period for the condition_value parameter. The valid range is 0 to 3600 seconds (inclusive), and the default value is 0 seconds.

client-count—Requires that a minimum number of clients be associated to the rogue access point. For example, if the number of clients associated to the rogue access point is greater than or equal to the configured value, then the access point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum number of clients to be associated to the rogue access point for the condition_value parameter. The valid range is 1 to 10 (inclusive), and the default value is 0.

no-encryption—Requires that the rogue access point's advertised WLAN does not have encryption enabled. A condition_value parameter is not required for this option.

managed-ssid—Requires that the rogue access point's SSID be known to the controller. A condition_value parameter is not required for this option.


Note You can add up to six conditions per rule. If you ever want to delete all of the conditions or a specific condition from a rule, enter the config rogue rule condition ap delete {all | condition_type} condition_value rule_name command.


Step 4 Specify whether a detected rogue access point must meet all or any of the conditions specified by the rule in order for the rule to be matched and the rogue access point to adopt the classification type of the rule by entering this command:

config rogue rule match {all | any} rule_name

Step 5 Enable all rules or a specific rule by entering this command:

config rogue rule enable {all | rule_name}


Note For your changes to become effective, you must enable the rule.


Step 6 Add a new friendly access point entry to the friendly MAC address list or delete an existing friendly access point entry from the list by entering this command:

config rogue ap friendly {add | delete} ap_mac_address

Step 7 Save your changes by entering this command:

save config

Step 8 View the rogue classification rules that are configured on the controller by entering this command:

show rogue rule summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Priority Rule Name 	 State    		 	 Type 	 	 	 	 	 	 Match 	 Hit Count
-------- ----------- -------- 	------------ ------ ---------
1        Rule1 	 	 	 	 	 Disabled 	 	 Friendly      Any   0
2        Rule2 	 	 	 	 	 Enabled 	 	 	 Malicious     Any 	 339
3 	 	 Rule3 	 	 	 Disabled 	 	 Friendly 	 	 	 	 Any   0 

Step 9 View detailed information for a specific rogue classification rule by entering this command:

show rogue rule detailed rule_name

Information similar to the following appears:

Priority......................................... 2
Rule Name........................................ Rule2
State............................................ Enabled
Type............................................. Malicious
Match Operation.................................. Any
Hit Count........................................ 352
Total Conditions................................. 6
Condition 1
    type......................................... Client-count
    value........................................ 10
Condition 2
    type......................................... Duration
    value (seconds).............................. 2000
Condition 3
    type......................................... Managed-ssid
    value........................................ Enabled
Condition 4
    type......................................... No-encryption
    value........................................ Enabled
Condition 5
    type......................................... Rssi
    value (dBm).................................. -50
Condition 6
    type......................................... Ssid
    SSID Count................................... 1
    SSID 1.................................... test 


Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices

Using the controller GUI or CLI, you can view rogue devices and determine the action that the controller should take.


Caution When you choose to contain a rogue device, the following warning appears: "There may be legal issues following this containment. Are you sure you want to continue?" The 2.4- and 5-GHz frequencies in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band are open to the public and can be used without a license. As such, containing devices on another party's network could have legal consequences.

Using the GUI to View and Classify Rogue Devices

To view and classify rogue devices using the controller GUI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Rogues.

Step 2 Choose the following options to view the different types of rogue access points detected by the controller:

Friendly APs

Malicious APs

Unclassified APs

A page similar to the following appears (see Figure 5-41).

Figure 5-41 Friendly Rogue APs Page

The Friendly Rogue APs page, Malicious Rogue APs page, and Unclassified Rogue APs page provide the following information: the MAC address and SSID of the rogue access point, the number of clients connected to the rogue access point, the number of radios that detected the rogue access point, and the current status of the rogue access point.


Note If you ever want to delete a rogue access point from one of these pages, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow and click Remove.


Step 3 Obtain more details about a rogue access point by clicking the MAC address of the access point. The Rogue AP Detail page appears (see Figure 5-42).

Figure 5-42 Rogue AP Detail Page

This page provides the following information: the MAC address of the rogue device, the type of rogue device (such as an access point), whether the rogue device is on the wired network, the dates and times when the rogue device was first and last reported, and the current status of the device.

The Class Type text box shows the current classification for this rogue access point:

Friendly—An unknown access point that matches the user-defined friendly rules or an existing known and acknowledged rogue access point. Friendly access points cannot be contained.

Malicious—An unknown access point that matches the user-defined malicious rules or is moved manually by the user from the Friendly or Unclassified classification type.


Note Once an access point is classified as Malicious, you cannot apply rules to it in the future, and it cannot be moved to another classification type. If you want to move a malicious access point to the Unclassified classification type, you must delete the access point and allow the controller to reclassify it.


Unclassified—An unknown access point that does not match the user-defined friendly or malicious rules. An unclassified access point can be contained. It can also be moved to the Friendly or Malicious classification type automatically in accordance with user-defined rules or manually by the user.

Step 4 If you want to change the classification of this device, choose a different classification from the Class Type drop-down list.


Note A rogue access point cannot be moved to another class if its current state is Contain.


Step 5 From the Update Status drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how the controller should respond to this rogue access point:

Internal—The controller trusts this rogue access point. This option is available if the Class Type is set to Friendly.

External—The controller acknowledges the presence of this rogue access point. This option is available if the Class Type is set to Friendly.

Contain—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients. This option is available if the Class Type is set to Malicious or Unclassified.

Alert—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action. This option is available if the Class Type is set to Malicious or Unclassified.

The bottom of the page provides information on both the access points that detected this rogue access point and any clients that are associated to it. To see more details for any of the clients, click Edit to open the Rogue Client Detail page.

Step 6 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 8 View any rogue clients that are connected to the controller by choosing Rogue Clients. The Rogue Clients page appears. This page shows the following information: the MAC address of the rogue client, the MAC address of the access point to which the rogue client is associated, the SSID of the rogue client, the number of radios that detected the rogue client, the date and time when the rogue client was last reported, and the current status of the rogue client.

Step 9 Obtain more details about a rogue client by clicking the MAC address of the client. The Rogue Client Detail page appears (see Figure 5-43).

Figure 5-43 Rogue Client Detail Page

This page provides the following information: the MAC address of the rogue client, the MAC address of the rogue access point to which this client is associated, the SSID and IP address of the rogue client, the dates and times when the rogue client was first and last reported, and the current status of the rogue client.

Step 10 From the Update Status drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how the controller should respond to this rogue client:

Contain—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.

Alert—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.

The bottom of the page provides information on the access points that detected this rogue client.

Step 11 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 12 If desired, you can test the controller's connection to this client by clicking Ping.

Step 13 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 14 View any ad-hoc rogues detected by the controller by choosing Adhoc Rogues. The Adhoc Rogues page appears (see Figure 5-44).

Figure 5-44 Adhoc Rogues Page

This page shows the following information: the MAC address, BSSID, and SSID of the ad-hoc rogue, the number of radios that detected the ad-hoc rogue, and the current status of the ad-hoc rogue.

Step 15 Obtain more details about an ad-hoc rogue by clicking the MAC address of the rogue. The Adhoc Rogue Detail page appears (see Figure 5-45).

Figure 5-45 Adhoc Rogue Detail Page

This page provides the following information: the MAC address and BSSID of the ad-hoc rogue, the dates and times when the rogue was first and last reported, and the current status of the rogue.

Step 16 From the Update Status drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how the controller should respond to this ad-hoc rogue:

Contain—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.

Alert—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.

Internal—The controller trusts this rogue access point.

External—The controller acknowledges the presence of this rogue access point.

Step 17 From the Maximum Number of APs to Contain the Rogue drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the maximum number of access points used to contain this ad-hoc rogue: 1, 2, 3, or 4.

The bottom of the page provides information on the access points that detected this ad-hoc rogue.

Step 18 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 19 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 20 View any access points that have been configured to be ignored by choosing Rogue AP Ignore-List. The Rogue AP Ignore-List page appears (see Figure 5-46).

Figure 5-46 Rogue AP Ignore-List Page

This page shows the MAC addresses of any access points that are configured to be ignored. The rogue-ignore list contains a list of any autonomous access points that have been manually added to WCS maps by WCS users. The controller regards these autonomous access points as rogues even though WCS is managing them. The rogue-ignore list allows the controller to ignore these access points. The list is updated as follows:

When the controller receives a rogue report, it checks to see if the unknown access point is in the rogue-ignore access point list.

If the unknown access point is in the rogue-ignore list, the controller ignores this access point and continues to process other rogue access points.

If the unknown access point is not in the rogue-ignore list, the controller sends a trap to WCS. If WCS finds this access point in its autonomous access point list, WCS sends a command to the controller to add this access point to the rogue-ignore list. This access point is then ignored in future rogue reports.

If a user removes an autonomous access point from WCS, WCS sends a command to the controller to remove this access point from the rogue-ignore list.


Using the CLI to View and Classify Rogue Devices

To view and classify rogue devices using the controller CLI, use these commands:

View a list of all rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:

show rogue ap summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Rogue Location Discovery Protocol................ Enabled
Rogue AP timeout................................. 1200
 
   
MAC Address        Classification     # APs 	# Clients 	Last Heard
-----------------  ------------------ ----- 	--------- 	-----------------------
00:0a:b8:7f:08:c0  Friendly           0     	0         	Not Heard
00:0b:85:01:30:3f  Malicious          1     	0         	Fri Nov 30 11:30:59 2007
00:0b:85:63:70:6f  Malicious          1     	0         	Fri Nov 30 11:20:14 2007
00:0b:85:63:cd:bf 	Malicious 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 1 	 	 	0 	 	 Fri Nov 30 11:23:12 2007 
... 

View a list of the friendly rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:

show rogue ap friendly summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of APs.................................... 1
 
   
MAC Address        State              # APs # Clients Last Heard
-----------------  ------------------ ----- --------- ---------------------------
00:0a:b8:7f:08:c0  Internal           1	 	 	 0 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 Tue Nov 27 13:52:04 2007 

View a list of the malicious rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:

show rogue ap malicious summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of APs.................................... 264
 
   
MAC Address        State              # APs # Clients Last Heard
-----------------  ------------------ ----- --------- -----------------------
00:0b:85:01:30:3f  Alert              1     0         Fri Nov 30 11:20:01 2007
00:0b:85:63:70:6f  Alert              1     0         Fri Nov 30 11:20:14 2007
00:0b:85:63:cd:bf  Alert              1     0         Fri Nov 30 11:23:12 2007
00:0b:85:63:cd:dd  Alert              1     0         Fri Nov 30 11:27:03 2007
00:0b:85:63:cd:de  Alert              1     0         Fri Nov 30 11:26:23 2007
00:0b:85:63:cd:df 	Alert 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 1 		0 	 	 Fri Nov 30 11:26:50 2007 
... 

View a list of the unclassified rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:

show rogue ap unclassified summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of APs.................................... 164
 
   
MAC Address        State              # APs # Clients Last Heard
-----------------  ------------------ ----- --------- -----------------------
00:0b:85:63:cd:bd  Alert              1 	 0         Fri Nov 30 11:12:52 2007
00:0b:85:63:cd:e7  Alert              1 	 0         Fri Nov 30 11:29:01 2007
00:0b:85:63:ce:05  Alert              1 	 0         Fri Nov 30 11:26:23 2007
00:0b:85:63:ce:07	Alert 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 1 	 	0 		 Fri Nov 30 11:26:23 2007 
... 

View detailed information for a specific rogue access point by entering this command:

show rogue ap detailed ap_mac_address

Information similar to the following appears:

Rogue BSSID...................................... 00:0b:85:63:d1:94
Is Rogue on Wired Network........................ No
Classification................................... Unclassified
State............................................ Alert
First Time Rogue was Reported.................... Fri Nov 30 11:24:56 2007
Last Time Rogue was Reported..................... Fri Nov 30 11:24:56 2007
Reported By
    AP 1
        MAC Address.............................. 00:12:44:bb:25:d0
        Name..................................... HReap
        Radio Type............................... 802.11g
        SSID..................................... edu-eap
        Channel.................................. 6
        RSSI..................................... -61 dBm
        SNR...................................... -1 dB
        Encryption............................... Enabled
        ShortPreamble............................ Enabled
        WPA Support.............................. Disabled
        Last reported by this AP.............. Fri Nov 30 11:24:56 2007 

See the rogue report (which shows the number of rogue devices detected on different channel widths) for a specific 802.11a/n radio by entering this command:

show ap auto-rf 802.11a Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

Number Of Slots.................................. 2
AP Name.......................................... AP2
MAC Address...................................... 00:1b:d5:13:39:74
  Radio Type..................................... RADIO_TYPE_80211a
  Noise Information
    Noise Profile................................ PASSED
    Channel 36...................................  -80 dBm
    Channel 40...................................  -78 dBm
    ...
  Interference Information
    Interference Profile......................... PASSED
    Channel 36...................................  -81 dBm @  8 % busy
    Channel 40...................................  -66 dBm @  4 % busy
   ...
Rogue Histogram (20/40_ABOVE/40_BELOW)
	Channel 36................................... 21/ 1/ 0
    Channel 40...................................  7/ 0/ 0
    ... 

View a list of all rogue clients that are associated to a rogue access point by entering this command:

show rogue ap clients ap_mac_address

Information similar to the following appears:

MAC Address       	 State              	# APs 				 Last Heard
-----------------  ------------------ ----- ------------------------- 
00:bb:cd:12:ab:ff					Alert					 1		Fri Nov 30 11:26:23 2007 

View a list of all rogue clients detected by the controller by entering this command:

show rogue client summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Validate rogue clients against AAA............... Disabled
 
   
MAC Address        State              # APs Last Heard
-----------------  ------------------ ----- -----------------------
00:0a:8a:7d:f5:f5  Alert              1     Mon Dec  3 21:56:36 2007
00:18:ba:78:c4:44  Alert              1     Mon Dec  3 21:59:36 2007
00:18:ba:78:c4:d1  Alert              1     Mon Dec  3 21:47:36 2007
00:18:ba:78:ca:f8 	Alert 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 1 	 	Mon Dec  3 22:02:36 2007 
... 

View detailed information for a specific rogue client by entering this command:

show rogue client detailed client_mac_address

Information similar to the following appears:

Rogue BSSID...................................... 00:0b:85:23:ea:d1
State............................................ Alert
First Time Rogue was Reported.................... Mon Dec  3 21:50:36 2007
Last Time Rogue was Reported..................... Mon Dec  3 21:50:36 2007
Rogue Client IP address.......................... Not known
Reported By
    AP 1
        MAC Address.............................. 00:15:c7:82:b6:b0
        Name..................................... AP0016.47b2.31ea
        Radio Type............................... 802.11a
        RSSI..................................... -71 dBm
        SNR...................................... 23 dB
        Channel.................................. 149
        Last reported by this AP.............. Mon Dec  3 21:50:36 2007 

View a list of all ad-hoc rogues detected by the controller by entering this command:

show rogue adhoc summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Detect and report Ad-Hoc Networks................ Enabled
 
   
Client MAC Address  Adhoc BSSID         State 			 	 	 	# APs   	Last Heard
------------------  ------------------  ----------- -------  ------------------------
00:bb:cd:12:ab:ff					super					Alert			 1		 Fri Nov 30 11:26:23 2007
 
   

View detailed information for a specific ad-hoc rogue by entering this command:

show rogue adhoc detailed rogue_mac_address

Information similar to the following appears:

Adhoc Rogue MAC address.......................... 02:61:ce:8e:a8:8c
Adhoc Rogue BSSID................................ 02:61:ce:8e:a8:8c
State............................................ Alert
First Time Adhoc Rogue was Reported.............. Tue Dec 11 20:45:45 2007
Last Time Adhoc Rogue was Reported............... Tue Dec 11 20:45:45 2007
Reported By
    AP 1
        MAC Address.............................. 00:14:1b:58:4a:e0
        Name..................................... AP0014.1ced.2a60
        Radio Type............................... 802.11b
        SSID..................................... rf4k3ap
        Channel.................................. 3
        RSSI..................................... -56 dBm
        SNR...................................... 15 dB
        Encryption............................... Disabled
        ShortPreamble............................ Disabled
        WPA Support.............................. Disabled
		Last reported by this AP............... Tue Dec 11 20:45:45 2007 

View a list of rogue access points that are configured to be ignore by entering this command:

show rogue ignore-list

Information similar to the following appears:

MAC Address
------------------
10:bb:17:cc:01:ef

Note See Step 20 of the "Using the GUI to View and Classify Rogue Devices" section for more information on the rogue-ignore access point list.


Classify a rogue access point as friendly by entering this command:

config rogue ap classify friendly state {internal | external} ap_mac_address

where

internal means that the controller trusts this rogue access point.

external means that the controller acknowledges the presence of this rogue access point.


Note A rogue access point cannot be moved to the Friendly class if its current state is Contain.


Mark a rogue access point as malicious by entering this command:

config rogue ap classify malicious state {alert | contain} ap_mac_address

where

alert means that the controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.

contain means that the controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.


Note A rogue access point cannot be moved to the Malicious class if its current state is Contain.


Mark a rogue access point as unclassified by entering this command:

config rogue ap classify unclassified state {alert | contain} ap_mac_address


Note A rogue access point cannot be moved to the Unclassified class if its current state is Contain.


alert means that the controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.

contain means that the controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.

Specify how the controller should respond to a rogue client by entering one of these commands:

config rogue client alert client_mac_addressThe controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.

config rogue client contain client_mac_addressThe controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.

Specify how the controller should respond to an ad-hoc rogue by entering one these commands:

config rogue adhoc alert rogue_mac_address—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.

config rogue adhoc contain rogue_mac_address—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.

config rogue adhoc external rogue_mac_addressThe controller acknowledges the presence of this ad-hoc rogue.

Save your changes by entering this command:

save config


Configuring IDS

The Cisco intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system (CIDS/IPS) instructs controllers to block certain clients from accessing the wireless network when attacks involving these clients are detected at Layer 3 through Layer 7. This system offers significant network protection by helping to detect, classify, and stop threats including worms, spyware/adware, network viruses, and application abuse. Two methods are available to detect IDS attacks:

IDS sensors, see below

IDS signatures, see page 92

Configuring IDS Sensors

You can configure IDS sensors to detect various types of IP-level attacks in your network. When the sensors identify an attack, they can alert the controller to shun the offending client. When you add a new IDS sensor, you register the controller with that IDS sensor so that the controller can query the sensor to get the list of shunned clients. You can configure IDS sensor registration through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Sensors

Follow these steps to configure IDS sensors using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Advanced > CIDs > Sensors to open the CIDS Sensors List page appears (see Figure 5-47).

Figure 5-47 CIDS Sensors List Page

This page lists all of the IDS sensors that have been configured for this controller.


Note If you want to delete an existing sensor, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that sensor and choose Remove.


Step 2 To add an IDS sensor to the list, click New. The CIDS Sensor Add page appears (see Figure 5-48).

Figure 5-48 CIDS Sensor Add Page

Step 3 The controller supports up to five IDS sensors. From the Index drop-down box, choose a number (between 1 and 5) to determine the sequence in which the controller consults the IDS sensors. For example, if you choose 1, the controller consults this IDS sensor first.

Step 4 In the Server Address field, enter the IP address of your IDS server.

Step 5 The Port field contains the number of the HTTPS port through which the controller is to communicate with the IDS sensor. Cisco recommends that you set this parameter to 443 because the sensor uses this value to communicate by default.

Default: 443

Range: 1 to 65535

Step 6 In the Username field, enter the name that the controller uses to authenticate to the IDS sensor.


Note This username must be configured on the IDS sensor and have at least a read-only privilege.


Step 7 In the Password and Confirm Password fields, enter the password that the controller uses to authenticate to the IDS sensor.

Step 8 In the Query Interval field, enter the time (in seconds) for how often the controller should query the IDS server for IDS events.

Default: 60 seconds

Range: 10 to 3600 seconds

Step 9 Check the State check box to register the controller with this IDS sensor or uncheck this check box to disable registration. The default value is disabled.

Step 10 Enter a 40-hexadecimal-character security key in the Fingerprint field. This key is used to verify the validity of the sensor and is used to prevent security attacks.


Note Do not include the colons that appear between every two bytes within the key. For example, enter AABBCCDD instead of AA:BB:CC:DD.


Step 11 Click Apply. Your new IDS sensor appears in the list of sensors on the CIDS Sensors List page.

Step 12 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure IDS Sensors

Follow these steps to configure IDS sensors using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To add an IDS sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor add index ids_ip_address username password

The index parameter determines the sequence in which the controller consults the IDS sensors. The controller supports up to five IDS sensors. Enter a number (between 1 and 5) to determine the priority of this sensor. For example, if you enter 1, the controller consults this IDS sensor first.


Note The username must be configured on the IDS sensor and have at least a read-only privilege.


Step 2 (Optional) To specify the number of the HTTPS port through which the controller is to communicate with the IDS sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor port index port_number

For the port-number parameter, you can enter a value between 1 and 65535. The default value is 443. This step is optional because Cisco recommends that you use the default value of 443. The sensor uses this value to communicate by default.

Step 3 To specify how often the controller should query the IDS server for IDS events, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor interval index interval

For the interval parameter, you can enter a value between 10 and 3600 seconds. The default value is 60 seconds.

Step 4 To enter a 40-hexadecimal-character security key used to verify the validity of the sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor fingerprint index sha1 fingerprint

You can get the value of the fingerprint by entering show tls fingerprint on the sensor's console.


Note Make sure to include the colons that appear between every two bytes within the key (for example, AA:BB:CC:DD).


Step 5 To enable or disable this controller's registration with an IDS sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor {enable | disable} index

Step 6 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Step 7 To view the IDS sensor configuration, enter one of these commands:

show wps cids-sensor summary

show wps cids-sensor detail index

The second command provides more information than the first.

Step 8 To obtain debug information regarding IDS sensor configuration, enter this command:

debug wps cids enable


Note If you ever want to delete or change the configuration of a sensor, you must first disable it by entering config wps cids-sensor disable index. To then delete the sensor, enter config wps cids-sensor delete index.



Viewing Shunned Clients

When an IDS sensor detects a suspicious client, it alerts the controller to shun this client. The shun entry is distributed to all controllers within the same mobility group. If the client to be shunned is currently joined to a controller in this mobility group, the anchor controller adds this client to the dynamic exclusion list, and the foreign controller removes the client. The next time the client tries to connect to a controller, the anchor controller rejects the handoff and informs the foreign controller that the client is being excluded. See Chapter 11, for more information on mobility groups.

You can view the list of clients that the IDS sensors have identified to be shunned through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to View Shunned Clients

Follow these steps to view the list of clients that the IDS sensors have identified to be shunned using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Advanced > CIDS > Shunned Clients. The CIDS Shun List page appears (see Figure 5-49).

Figure 5-49 CIDS Shun List Page

This page shows the IP address and MAC address of each shunned client, the length of time that the client's data packets should be blocked by the controller as requested by the IDS sensor, and the IP address of the IDS sensor that discovered the client.

Step 2 Click Re-sync to purge and reset the list as desired.


Using the CLI to View Shunned Clients

Follow these steps to view the list of clients that the IDS sensors have identified to be shunned using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To view the list of clients to be shunned, enter this command:

show wps shun-list

Step 2 To force the controller to sync up with other controllers in the mobility group for the shun list, enter this command:

config wps shun-list re-sync


Configuring IDS Signatures

You can configure IDS signatures, or bit-pattern matching rules used to identify various types of attacks in incoming 802.11 packets, on the controller. When the signatures are enabled, the access points joined to the controller perform signature analysis on the received 802.11 data or management frames and report any discrepancies to the controller.

A standard signature file exists on the controller by default. You can upload this signature file from the controller, or you can create a custom signature file and download it to the controller or modify the standard signature file to create a custom signature. You can configure signatures through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Signatures

You must follow these instructions to configure signatures using the controller GUI:

Uploading or downloading IDS signatures, page 93

Enabling or disabling IDS signatures, page 94

Viewing IDS signature events, page 96

Using the GUI to Upload or Download IDS Signatures

Follow these steps to upload or download IDS signatures using the controller GUI.


Step 1 If desired, create your own custom signature file.

Step 2 Make sure that you have a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server available. Keep these guidelines in mind when setting up a TFTP server:

If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP server must be on the same subnet as the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.

If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP server can be on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.

A third-party TFTP server cannot run on the same computer as the Cisco WCS because the WCS built-in TFTP server and the third-party TFTP server require the same communication port.

Step 3 If you are downloading a custom signature file (*.sig), copy it to the default directory on your TFTP server.

Step 4 Click Commands to open the Download File to Controller page (see Figure 5-50).

Figure 5-50 Download File to Controller Page

Step 5 Perform one of the following:

If you want to download a custom signature file to the controller, choose Signature File from the File Type drop-down box on the Download File to Controller page.

If you want to upload a standard signature file from the controller, click Upload File and then choose Signature File from the File Type drop-down box on the Upload File from Controller page.

Step 6 In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.

Step 7 If you are downloading the signature file, enter the maximum number of times the controller should attempt to download the signature file in the Maximum Retries field.

Range: 1 to 254

Default: 10

Step 8 If you are downloading the signature file, enter the amount of time in seconds before the controller times out while attempting to download the signature file in the Timeout field.

Range: 1 to 254 seconds

Default: 6 seconds

Step 9 In the File Path field, enter the path of the signature file to be downloaded or uploaded. The default value is "/."

Step 10 In the File Name field, enter the name of the signature file to be downloaded or uploaded.


Note When uploading signatures, the controller uses the filename you specify as a base name and then adds "_std.sig" and "_custom.sig" to it in order to upload both standard and custom signature files to the TFTP server. For example, if you upload a signature file called "ids1," the controller automatically generates and uploads both ids1_std.sig and ids1_custom.sig to the TFTP server. If desired, you can then modify ids1_custom.sig on the TFTP server (making sure to set "Revision = custom") and download it by itself.


Step 11 Click Download to download the signature file to the controller or Upload to upload the signature file from the controller.


Using the GUI to Enable or Disable IDS Signatures

Follow these steps to enable or disable IDS signatures using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Standard Signatures or Custom Signatures. The Standard Signatures page (see Figure 5-51) or the Custom Signatures page appears.

Figure 5-51 Standard Signatures Page

The Standard Signatures page shows the list of Cisco-supplied signatures that are currently on the controller. The Custom Signatures page shows the list of customer-supplied signatures that are currently on the controller. This page shows the following information for each signature:

The order, or precedence, in which the controller performs the signature checks.

The name of the signature, which specifies the type of attack that the signature is trying to detect.

The frame type on which the signature is looking for a security attack. The possible frame types are data and management.

The action that the controller is directed to take when the signature detects an attack. The possible action are None and Report.

The state of the signature, which indicates whether the signature is enabled to detect security attacks.

A description of the type of attack that the signature is trying to detect.

Step 2 Perform one of the following:

If you want to allow all signatures (both standard and custom) whose individual states are set to Enabled to remain enabled, check the Enable Check for All Standard and Custom Signatures check box at the top of either the Standard Signatures page or the Custom Signatures page. The default value is enabled (or checked). When the signatures are enabled, the access points joined to the controller perform signature analysis on the received 802.11 data or management frames and report any discrepancies to the controller.

If you want to disable all signatures (both standard and custom) on the controller, uncheck the Enable Check for All Standard and Custom Signatures check box. If you uncheck this check box, all signatures are disabled, even the ones whose individual states are set to Enabled.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 To enable or disable an individual signature, click the precedence number of the desired signature. The Signature > Detail page appears (see Figure 5-52).

Figure 5-52 Signature > Detail Page

This page shows much of the same information as the Standard Signatures and Custom Signatures pages but provides these additional details:

The measurement interval, or the number of seconds that must elapse before the controller resets the signature threshold counters

The tracking method used by the access points to perform signature analysis and report the results to the controller. The possible values are:

Per Signature—Signature analysis and pattern matching are tracked and reported on a per-signature and per-channel basis.

Per MAC—Signature analysis and pattern matching are tracked and reported separately for individual client MAC addresses on a per-channel basis.

Per Signature and MAC—Signature analysis and pattern matching are tracked and reported on a per-signature and per-channel basis as well as on a per-MAC-address and per-channel basis.

The signature frequency, or the number of matching packets per second that must be identified at the individual access point level before an attack is detected

The signature MAC frequency, or the number of matching packets per second that must be identified per client per access point before an attack is detected

The quiet time, or the length of time (in seconds) after which no attacks have been detected at the individual access point level and the alarm can stop

The pattern that is being used to detect a security attack

Step 5 Check the State check box to enable this signature to detect security attacks or uncheck it to disable this signature. The default value is enabled (or checked).

Step 6 Click Apply to commit your changes. The Standard Signatures or Custom Signatures page reflects the signature's updated state.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the GUI to View IDS Signature Events

Follow these steps to view signature events using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Signature Events Summary. The Signature Events Summary page appears (see Figure 5-53).

Figure 5-53 Signature Events Summary Page

This page shows the number of attacks detected by the enabled signatures.

Step 2 To see more information on the attacks detected by a particular signature, click the signature type link for that signature. The Signature Events Detail page appears (see Figure 5-54).

Figure 5-54 Signature Events Detail Page

This page shows the following information:

The MAC addresses of the clients identified as attackers

The method used by the access point to track the attacks

The number of matching packets per second that were identified before an attack was detected

The number of access points on the channel on which the attack was detected

The day and time when the access point detected the attack

Step 3 To see more information for a particular attack, click the Detail link for that attack. The Signature Events Track Detail page appears (see Figure 5-55).

Figure 5-55 Signature Events Track Detail Page

This page shows the following information:

The MAC address of the access point that detected the attack

The name of the access point that detected the attack

The type of radio (802.11a or 802.11b/g) used by the access point to detect the attack

The radio channel on which the attack was detected

The day and time when the access point reported the attack


Using the CLI to Configure IDS Signatures

Follow these steps to configure IDS signatures using the controller CLI.


Step 1 If desired, create your own custom signature file.

Step 2 Make sure that you have a TFTP server available. See the guidelines for setting up a TFTP server in Step 2 of the "Using the GUI to Upload or Download IDS Signatures" section.

Step 3 Copy the custom signature file (*.sig) to the default directory on your TFTP server.

Step 4 To specify the download or upload mode, enter transfer {download | upload} mode tftp.

Step 5 To specify the type of file to be downloaded or uploaded, enter transfer {download | upload} datatype signature.

Step 6 To specify the IP address of the TFTP server, enter transfer {download | upload} serverip tftp-server-ip-address.


Note Some TFTP servers require only a forward slash (/) as the TFTP server IP address, and the TFTP server automatically determines the path to the correct directory.


Step 7 To specify the download or upload path, enter transfer {download | upload} path absolute-tftp-server-path-to-file.

Step 8 To specify the file to be downloaded or uploaded, enter transfer {download | upload} filename filename.sig.


Note When uploading signatures, the controller uses the filename you specify as a base name and then adds "_std.sig" and "_custom.sig" to it in order to upload both standard and custom signature files to the TFTP server. For example, if you upload a signature file called "ids1," the controller automatically generates and uploads both ids1_std.sig and ids1_custom.sig to the TFTP server. If desired, you can then modify ids1_custom.sig on the TFTP server (making sure to set "Revision = custom") and download it by itself.


Step 9 Enter transfer {download | upload} start and answer y to the prompt to confirm the current settings and start the download or upload.

Step 10 To enable or disable IDS signatures, perform one of the following:

To enable or disable an individual IDS signature, enter this command:

config wps signature {standard | custom} state signature_id {enable | disable}

To enable or disable IDS signature processing, which enables or disables the processing of all IDS signatures, enter this command:

config wps signature {enable | disable}


Note If IDS signature processing is disabled, all signatures are disabled, regardless of the state configured for individual signatures.


Step 11 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Using the CLI to View IDS Signature Events

Use these commands to view signature events using the controller CLI.

1. To see whether IDS signature processing is enabled or disabled on the controller, enter this command:

show wps summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Client Exclusion Policy
  Excessive 802.11-association failures.......... Enabled
  Excessive 802.11-authentication failures....... Enabled
  Excessive 802.1x-authentication................ Enabled
  IP-theft....................................... Enabled
  Excessive Web authentication failure........... Enabled
 
   
Signature Policy
  Signature Processing........................ Enabled 


Note If IDS signature processing is disabled, all signatures are disabled, regardless of the state configured for individual signatures.


2. To see individual summaries of the standard and custom signatures installed on the controller, enter this command:

show wps signature summary

3. To see the number of attacks detected by the enabled signatures, enter this command:

show wps signature events summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Precedence Signature Name 		 		 		 	 Type 		 	 No. Events
---------- ------------------		 	----- 	 	 	-----------
1 			Bcast deauth 		 	 	 	Standard 			 2
2 			NULL probe resp 1 	 Standard 	 		 	 1

4. To see more information on the attacks detected by a particular standard or custom signature, enter this command:

show wps signature events {standard | custom} precedence# summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Precedence....................................... 1
Signature Name................................... Bcast deauth
Type............................................. Standard
Number of active events....................... 2 

Source MAC Addr 		 	 Track Method 			 Frequency 		No. APs	 Last Heard
----------------- 	------------ 		 --------- -------- ------------------------
00:01:02:03:04:01 	Per Signature 		 	 4 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	3 	 Tue Dec 6 00:17:44 2005
00:01:02:03:04:01 	Per Mac 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	6	 	 	2 	 Tue Dec 6 00:30:04 2005

5. To see information on attacks that are tracked by access points on a per-signature and per-channel basis, enter this command:

show wps signature events {standard | custom} precedence# detailed per-signature source_mac

6. To see information on attacks that are tracked by access points on an individual-client basis (by MAC address), enter this command:

show wps signature events {standard | custom} precedence# detailed per-mac source_mac

Information similar to the following appears:

Source MAC....................................... 00:01:02:03:04:01
Precedence....................................... 1
Signature Name................................... Bcast deauth
Type............................................. Standard
Track............................................ Per Mac
Frequency........................................ 6
Reported By
	AP 1
		MAC Address.............................. 00:0b:85:01:4d:80
		Name..................................... Test_AP_1
		Radio Type............................... 802.11bg
		Channel.................................. 4
		Last reported by this AP................. Tue Dec 6 00:17:49 2005
	AP 2
		MAC Address.............................. 00:0b:85:26:91:52
		Name..................................... Test_AP_2
		Radio Type............................... 802.11bg
		Channel.................................. 6

Last reported by this AP................. Tue Dec 6 00:30:04 2005

Configuring AES Key Wrap

You can use the GUI or CLI to configure a controller to use AES key wrap, which makes the shared secret between the controller and the RADIUS server more secure. AES key wrap is designed for Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) customers and requires a key-wrap compliant RADIUS authentication server.

Using the GUI to Configure AES Key Wrap

Follow these steps to configure a controller to use AES key wrap using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > RADIUS > Authentication to open the RADIUS Authentication Servers page (see Figure 5-56).

Figure 5-56 RADIUS Authentication Servers Page

Step 2 To enable RADIUS-to-controller key transport using AES key wrap protection, check the Use AES Key Wrap check box. The default value is unchecked.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 To define an AES key wrap key for a specific RADIUS server, follow these steps:

a. Click New to configure a new RADIUS authentication server or click the server index number of an existing RADIUS server.

b. Check the Key Wrap check box (see Figure 5-57).

Figure 5-57 RADIUS Authentication Servers > New Page

c. Choose ASCII or Hex from the Key Wrap Format drop-down box to specify the format of the AES key wrap keys: Key Encryption Key (KEK) and Message Authentication Code Key (MACK).

d. Enter the 16-byte KEK in the Key Encryption Key (KEK) field.

e. Enter the 20-byte KEK in the Message Authentication Code Key (MACK) field.

f. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure AES Key Wrap

Follow these steps to configure a controller to use AES key wrap using the CLI.


Step 1 To enable or disable the use of AES key wrap attributes, enter this command:

config radius auth keywrap {enable | disable}

Step 2 To configure AES key wrap attributes, enter this command:

config radius auth keywrap add {ascii | hex} index

The index attribute specifies the index of the RADIUS authentication server on which to configure the AES key wrap.


Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries

You can use the controller GUI or CLI to specify the maximum local database entries used for storing user authentication information. The information in the database is used in conjunction with the controller's web authentication feature.

Using the GUI to Configure Maximum Local Database Entries

Follow these steps to configure a controller to use the maximum local database entries using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > General to open the General page (see Figure 5-58).

Figure 5-58 General Page

Step 2 Enter the desired maximum value (on the next controller reboot) in the Maximum Local Database Entries field. The range of possible values is 512 to 2048 (which also includes any configured MAC filter entries). The default value is 2048. The current value appears in parentheses to the right of the field.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.


Using the CLI to Specify the Maximum Number of Local Database Entries

To configure the maximum number of local database entries using the CLI, enter this command:

config database size max_entries