Cisco Unified IP Phones 7960G/7940G Administration Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.0 (SIP)
An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone
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An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Table Of Contents

An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Understanding the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G

What Networking Protocols Are Used?

What Features are Supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G?

Feature Overview

Configuring Telephony Features

Configuring Network Parameters Using the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Providing Users with Feature Information

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Overview of Supported Security Features

Overview of Configuring and Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

Configuring Cisco Unified IP Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Checklist for Configuring the Cisco Unified IP Phone in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

Checklist for Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone


An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone


The Cisco Unified IP Phone provides voice communication over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. It functions much like a digital business telephone, allowing you to place and receive phone calls and to access features such as mute, hold, transfer, and speed dial. In addition, because the phone is connected to your data network, it offers enhanced productivity features, including access to network information and services, XML applications, and customizeable features. The phone also supports security features that include configuration file encryption, and image and digest authentication.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G (SIP) are interoperable with RFC-3261, RFC-3264, and RFC-3311.

A Cisco Unified IP Phone, like other network devices, must be configured and managed. These phones encode G.711a, G.711u, G.729a, G.729ab, and decode G.711a, G.711u, G.729, G.729a, G.729b, and G.729ab. These phones also support uncompressed wideband (16 bits, 16 kHz) audio.

This chapter includes the following topics:

Understanding the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G

What Networking Protocols Are Used?

What Features are Supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G?

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Overview of Configuring and Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones


Caution Using a mobile or GSM phone, or two-way radio in close proximity to a Cisco Unified IP Phone might cause interference. For more information, refer to the manufacturer's documentation of the interfering device.

Understanding the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G

Figure 1-1 shows the main components of the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and Figure 1-2, shows the main components of the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7940G.

These phone models differ only in the number of available line or speed dial buttons. The Cisco Unified IP Phone 7940G has two lines, and the 7960G has six lines.

Figure 1-1 Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G

Figure 1-2 Cisco Unified IP Phone 7940G

1

Handset light strip

Indicates an incoming call or new voice message.

2

Phone screen

Shows phone features.

3

Model type

Indicates the Cisco Unified IP Phone model.

4

Programmable buttons

Depending on configuration, programmable buttons provide access to:

Phone lines (line buttons)

Speed-dial numbers (speed-dial buttons, including the BLF speed-dial feature)

Web-based services (for example, a Personal Address Book button)

Phone features (for example, a Privacy button)

The Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G has six programmable buttons and the 7940G has two.

5

Footstand adjustment button

Allows you to adjust the angle of the phone base.

6

Directories button

Opens/closes the Directories menu. Use it to access call logs and directories.

7

? button

Provides access to online Help

8

Settings button

Opens/closes the Settings menu.

9

Speaker button

Toggles the speakerphone on or off.

10

Mute button

Toggles the Mute feature on or off.

11

Headset button

Toggles the headset on or off.

12

Volume button

Controls the handset, headset, and speakerphone volume (off-hook) and the ringer volume (on-hook; adjusts contrast settings.

13

Services button

Opens/closes the Services menu.

14

Messages button

Auto-dials your voice message service (varies by service).

15

Navigation button

Allows you to scroll through menus and highlight items. When the phone is on-hook, displays phone numbers from your Placed Calls log.

16

Keypad

Allows you to dial phone numbers, enter letters, and choose menu items.

17

Softkey buttons

Each activates a softkey option (displayed on your touchscreen).


What Networking Protocols Are Used?

Cisco Unified IP Phones support several industry-standard and Cisco networking protocols required for voice communication. Table 1-1 provides an overview of the networking protocols that the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G support.

Table 1-1 Supported Networking Protocols on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 

Networking Protocol
Purpose
Usage Notes

Bootstrap Protocol (BootP)

BootP enables a network device such as the Cisco Unified IP Phone to discover certain startup information, such as its IP address.

If you are using BootP to assign IP addresses to the Cisco Unified IP Phone, the BOOTP Server option shows "Yes" in the network configuration settings on the phone.

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

CDP is a device-discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco-manufactured equipment.

Using CDP, a device can advertise its existence to other devices and receive information about other devices in the network.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone uses CDP to communicate information such as auxiliary VLAN ID, per port power management details, and Quality of Service (QoS) configuration information with the Cisco Catalyst switch.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

DHCP dynamically allocates and assigns an IP address to network devices.

DHCP enables you to connect an IP phone into the network and have it become operational without you needing to manually assign an IP address or configure additional required network parameters.

DHCP is enabled by default. If disabled, you must manually configure the IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and a TFTP server on each phone locally.

Cisco recommends that you use DHCP custom option 150. With this method, you configure the TFTP server IP address as the option value. For additional supported DHCP configurations, refer Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTTP is the standard way of transferring information and moving documents across the Internet and the web.

Cisco Unified IP Phones running SIP support HTTP as a client protocol.

Internet Protocol (IP)

IP is a messaging protocol that addresses and sends packets across the network.

To communicate using IP, network devices must have an assigned IP address, subnet, and gateway.

IP addresses, subnets, and gateways identifications are automatically assigned if you are using the Cisco Unified IP Phone with Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). If you are not using DHCP, you must manually assign these properties to each phone locally.

Real-Time Transport (RTP)

RTP is a standard protocol for transporting real-time data, such as interactive voice and video, over data networks.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use the RTP protocol to send and receive real-time voice traffic from other phones and gateways.

Session Description Protocol (SDP)

SDP is the portion of the SIP that determines which parameters are available during a connection between two endpoints. Conferences are established using only the SDP capabilities that are supported by all endpoints in the conference.

SDP capabilities, such as codec types, DTMF detection, and comfort noise are normally configured on a global basis by the Cisco Unified Communications Manager or the Media Gateway in operation. Some SIP endpoints may allow these parameters to be configured on the endpoint itself.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

SIP is the Internet Engineering task Force (IETF) standard for multimedia conferencing over IP. SIP is an ASCII-based, application-layer control protocol (defined in RFC 3261) that can be used to establish, maintain, and terminate calls between two or more endpoints.

Like other VoIP protocols, SIP is designed to address the functions of signaling and session management within a packet telephony network. Signaling allows call information to be carried across network boundaries. Session management provides the ability to control the attributes of an end-to-end call.

Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP)

SCCP includes a messaging set that allows communications between call control servers and endpoint clients such as IP Phones. SCCP is proprietary to Cisco Systems.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use SCCP for call control. You can configure the Cisco Unified IP Phone to use either SCCP or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

TCP is a connection-oriented transport protocol.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use TCP to connect to Cisco Unified Communications Manager and to access XML services.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

TFTP allows you to transfer files over the network.

On the Cisco Unified IP Phone, TFTP enables you to obtain a configuration file specific to the phone type.

TFTP requires a TFTP server in your network, which can be automatically identified from the DHCP server. If you want a phone to use a TFTP server other than the one specified by the DHCP server, you must manually assign the IP address of the TFTP server using the Network Configuration menu on the phone.=

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

UDP is a connectionless messaging protocol for delivery of data packets.

Cisco Unified IP Phones transmit and receive RTP streams, which utilize UDP.


Related Topics

Understanding Interactions with Other Cisco Unified IP Telephony Products, page 2-1

Understanding the Phone Startup Process, page 2-6

Network Configuration Menu, page 4-4

What Features are Supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G?

The Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G function much like digital business phones, allowing you to place and receive telephone calls. In addition to traditional telephony features, the Cisco Unified IP Phone includes features that enable you to administer and monitor the phone as a network device.

This section covers the following topics:

Feature Overview

Configuring Telephony Features

Configuring Network Parameters Using the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Providing Users with Feature Information

Feature Overview

Cisco Unified IP Phones provide traditional telephony functionality, such as call forwarding and transferring, redialing, speed dialing, and voice messaging system access. Cisco Unified IP phones also provide a variety of other features. For an overview of the telephony features that the Cisco Unified IP Phone supports and for tips on configuring them, see the "Telephony Features Available for the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 5-2.

As with other network devices, you must configure Cisco Unified IP Phones to prepare them to access Cisco Unified Communications Manager and the rest of the IP network. By using DHCP, you have fewer settings to configure on a phone, but if your network requires it, you can manually configure an IP address, TFTP server, and subnet mask. For instructions on configuring the network settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phones, see Chapter 4, "Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone."

The Cisco Unified IP Phone can interact with other services and devices on your IP network to provide enhanced functionality. For example, you can integrate the Cisco Unified IP Phones with the corporate Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 3 (LDAP3) standard directory to enable users to search for co-worker contact information directly from their IP phones. You can also use XML to enable users to access information such as weather, stocks, quote of the day, and other web-based information. For information about configuring such services, see the "Configuring Corporate and Personal Directories" section on page 5-4 and the "Setting Up Services" section on page 5-6.

Finally, because the Cisco Unified IP Phone is a network device, you can obtain detailed status information from it directly. This information can assist you with troubleshooting any problems users might encounter when using their IP phones. See Chapter 6, "Viewing Status, Statistics, and Firmware Information on the Cisco Unified IP Phone," for more information.

Related Topics

Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone, page 4-1

Configuring Features, Templates, Services, and Users, page 5-1

Troubleshooting and Maintenance, page 7-1

Configuring Telephony Features

You can modify additional settings for the Cisco Unified IP Phone from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration application. Use this web-based application to set up phone registration criteria and calling search spaces, to configure corporate directories and services, and to modify phone button templates, among other tasks. See the "Telephony Features Available for the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 5-2 and refer to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager documentation for additional information.

For more information about the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration application, refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager documentation, including Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide. You can also use the context-sensitive help available within the application for guidance.

You can access the complete Cisco Unified Communications Manager documentation suite at this location:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/voicesw/ps556/prod_maintenance_guides_list.html

Related Topic

Telephony Features Available for the Cisco Unified IP Phone, page 5-2

Configuring Network Parameters Using the Cisco Unified IP Phone

You can configure parameters such as DHCP, TFTP, and IP settings on the phone itself. You can also obtain statistics about a current call or firmware versions on the phone.

For more information about configuring features and viewing statistics from the phone, see Chapter 4, "Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone" and see Chapter 6, "Viewing Status, Statistics, and Firmware Information on the Cisco Unified IP Phone."

Related Topics

Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone, page 4-1

Troubleshooting and Maintenance, page 7-1

Providing Users with Feature Information

If you are a system administrator, you are likely the primary source of information for Cisco Unified IP Phone users in your network or company. To ensure that you distribute the most current feature and procedural information, familiarize yourself with Cisco Unified IP Phone documentation. Make sure to visit the Cisco Unified IP Phone web site:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/phones/ps379/tsd_products_support_series_home.html

From this site, you can view access various user guides.

In addition to providing documentation, it is important to inform users of available Cisco Unified IP Phone features—including those specific to your company or network—and of how to access and customize those features, if appropriate.

For a summary of some of the key information that phone users need their system administrators to provide, see Appendix A, "Providing Information to Users Via a Website."

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Implementing security in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager system prevents identity theft of the phone and Cisco Unified Communications Manager server, prevents data tampering, and prevents call signaling and media stream tampering.

To alleviate these threats, the Cisco Unified IP telephony network establishes and maintains authenticated and encrypted communication streams between a phone and the server, digitally signs files before they are transferred to a phone, and encrypts media streams and call signaling between Cisco Unified IP phones.

Table 1-2 shows where you can find additional information about security in this and other documents.

Table 1-2 Cisco Unified IP Phone and Cisco Unified Communications Manager
Security Topics 

Topic
Reference

Detailed explanation of security, including set up, configuration, and troubleshooting information for Cisco Unified Communications Manager and Cisco Unified IP Phones

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager
Security Guide

Security features supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone

See the "Overview of Supported Security Features" section

Security and the phone startup process

See the "Understanding the Phone Startup Process" section on page 2-6

Security and phone configuration files

See the "Understanding Phone Configuration Files" section on page 2-5

Understanding security icons in the Communications Manager options in the Network Configuration Menu on the phone

See the "Unlocking and Locking Options" section on page 4-2

Troubleshooting

See the "Troubleshooting Cisco Unified IP Phone Security" section on page 7-9

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide

Resetting or restoring the phone

See the "Resetting or Restoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 7-12


Overview of Supported Security Features

Table 1-3 provides an overview of the security features that the Cisco Unified IP Phones support. For more information about these features and about Cisco Unified Communications Manager and Cisco Unified IP Phone security, refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.


Note Most security features are available only if a certificate trust list (CTL) is installed on the phone. For more information about the CTL, refer to "Configuring the Cisco Unified CTL Client" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.


Table 1-3 Overview of Security Features

Feature
Description

Image authentication

Signed binary files (with the extension .sbn) prevent tampering with the firmware image before it is loaded on a phone. Tampering with the image causes a phone to fail the authentication process and reject the new image.

Encrypted configuration files

Lets you ensure the privacy of phone configuration files.

Phone hardening

Additional security options, which you control from Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration:

Disabling PC port

Disabling Gratuitous ARP

Disabling PC Voice VLAN access

Disabling access to the Setting menus, or providing restricted access that allows access to the User Preferences menu and saving volume changes only

Note You can view current settings for the PC Port Disabled, GARP Enabled, and Voice VLAN enabled options by looking at the phone's Network Configuration menu. For more information, see the "Displaying a Configuration Menu" section on page 4-2.


Overview of Configuring and Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

When deploying a new IP telephony system, system administrators and network administrators must complete several initial configuration tasks to prepare the network for IP telephony service. For information and a checklist for setting up and configuring a complete Cisco Unified IP telephony network, refer to the "System Configuration Overview" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.

After you have set up the IP telephony system and configured system-wide features in Cisco Unified Communications Manager, you can add IP phones to the system.

The following topics provide an overview of procedures for adding Cisco Unified IP Phones to your network:

Configuring Cisco Unified IP Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

Configuring Cisco Unified IP Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

To add phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, you can use:

Auto-registration

Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration

Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)

For more information about these choices, see the "Adding Phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Database" section on page 2-7.

For general information about configuring phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager, refer to the "Cisco Unified IP Phone" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.

Checklist for Configuring the Cisco Unified IP Phone in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Table 1-4 provides an overview and checklist of configuration tasks for the Cisco Unified IP Phone in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration. The list presents a suggested order to guide you through the phone configuration process. Some tasks are optional, depending on your system and user needs. For detailed procedures and information, refer to the sources in the list.

Table 1-4 Checklist for Configuring the Cisco Unified IP Phones 7960G and 7940G in Cisco Unified Communications Manager 

Task
Purpose
For More Information

1.

Gather the following information about the phone:

Phone Model

MAC address

Physical location of the phone

Name or user ID of phone user

Device pool

Partition, calling search space, and location information

Number of lines and associated directory numbers (DNs) to assign to the phone

Cisco Unified Communications Manager user to associate with the phone

Phone usage information that affects phone button template, softkey template, phone features, IP Phone services, or phone applications

Provides list of configuration requirements for setting up phones.

Identifies preliminary configuration that you need to perform before configuring individual phones, such as phone button templates or softkey templates.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone" chapter.

See the "Telephony Features Available for the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 5-2.

2.

Customize phone button templates if required).

Changes the number of line buttons, speed-dial buttons, Service URL buttons or adds a Privacy button to meet user needs.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Phone Button Template Configuration" chapter.

See the "Modifying Phone Button Templates" section on page 5-6.

3.

Add and configure the phone by completing the required fields in the Phone Configuration window. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) next to the field name; for example, MAC address and device pool.

Adds the device with its default settings to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter.

For information about Product Specific Configuration fields, refer to "?" Button Help in the Phone Configuration window.

4.

Add and configure directory numbers (lines) on the phone by completing the required fields in the Directory Number Configuration window. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) next to the field name; for example, directory number and presence group.

Adds primary and secondary directory numbers and features associated with directory numbers to the phone.

Refer to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, Directory Number Configuration chapter, "Creating a Cisco Unity Voice Mailbox" section.

See the "Telephony Features Available for the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 5-2.

5.

Configure speed-dial buttons and assign speed-dial numbers (optional)

Adds speed-dial buttons and numbers.

Users can change speed-dial settings on their phones by using the Cisco Unified CM User Options.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter, "Configuring Speed-Dial Buttons" section.

6.

Configure Cisco Unified IP Phone services and assign services (optional).

Provides IP Phone services.

Users can add or change services on their phones by using the User Options.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Services Configuration" chapter.

See the "Setting Up Services" section on page 5-6.

7.

Create a SIP profile.

Refer to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "SIP Profile Configuration" chapter.

8.

Assign services to phone buttons (optional).

Provides single button access to an IP phone service or URL.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter, "Adding a Cisco Unified IP Phone Service to a Phone Button" section.

9.

Add user information by configuring the required fields:

Note Assign a password (for the User Options) and PIN (for Personal Directory)

Adds user information to the global directory for Cisco Unified Communications Manager.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "End User Configuration" chapter.

See the "Adding Users to Cisco Unified Communications Manager" section on page 5-7.

10.

Associate a user to a user group.

Assigns users a common list of roles and permissions that apply to all users in a user group. Administrators can manage user groups, roles, and permissions to control the level of access (and, therefore, the level of security) for system users.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide:

"End User Configuration" chapter, "End User Configuration Settings" section.

"User Group Configuration" chapter, "Adding Users to a User Group" section.

11.

Associate a user with a phone (optional).

Provides users with control over their phone such as forwarding calls or adding speed-dial numbers or services.

Note Some phones, such as those in conference rooms, do not have an associated user.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "End User Configuration" chapter, "Associating Devices to a User" section.


Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

After you have added the phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, you can complete the phone installation. You (or the phone users) can install the phone at the users's location. The Cisco Unified IP Phone Installation Guide that ships in the box with each phone provides directions for connecting the phone handset, cables, and other accessories.


Note Before you install a phone, even if it is new, upgrade the phone to the current firmware image. For information about upgrading, refer to the Readme file for your phone, which is located at:

http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/ip-7900ser


After the phone is connected to the network, the phone startup process begins and the phone registers with Cisco Unified Communications Manager. To finish installing the phone, configure the network settings on the phone depending on whether you enable or disable DHCP service.

If you used auto-registration, you need to update the specific configuration information for the phone such as associating the phone with a user, changing the button table, or directory number.

Checklist for Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Table 1-5 provides an overview and checklist of installation tasks for the Cisco Unified IP Phone. The list presents a suggested order to guide you through the phone installation. Some tasks are optional, depending on your system and user needs. For detailed procedures and information, refer to the sources in the list.

Table 1-5 Checklist for Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G and 7940G 

Task
Purpose
For More Information

1.

Choose the power source for the phone:

Power over Ethernet (PoE)

External power supply

Determines how the phone receives power.

See the "Providing Power to the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 2-3.

2.

Assemble the phone, adjust phone placement, and connect the network cable.

Locates and installs the phone in the network.

See the "Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 3-5.

See the "Adjusting the Placement of the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 3-7.

3.

Monitor the phone startup process.

Verifies that phone is configured properly.

See the "Verifying the Phone Startup Process" section on page 3-8.

4.

Configure these network settings on the phone by choosing Settings > Network Configuration.

Using DHCP—The IP address is automatically assigned and the Cisco Unified IP Phone is directed to a TFTP Server.

Note Consult with the network administrator if you need to assign an alternative TFTP server instead of using the TFTP server assigned by DHCP.

Without DHCP—You must configure the IP address, TFTP server, subnet mask, domain name, and default router locally on the phone.

To enable DHCP:

Set DHCP Enabled to Yes

To use an alternate TFTP server, set Alternate TFTP Server to Yes
Enter IP address for TFTP Server 1

To disable DHCP:

Set DHCP Enabled to No

Enter static IP address for phone

Enter subnet mask

Enter default router IP addresses

Enter domain name where phone resides

Set Alternate TFTP Server to Yes
Enter IP address for TFTP Server 1

See the "Configuring Security on the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 3-9.

See the "Network Configuration Menu" section on page 4-4.

5.

Set up security on the phone.

Provides protection against data tampering threats and identity theft of phones.

See the "Configuring Security on the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section on page 3-9.

6.

Make calls with the Cisco Unified IP Phone.

Verifies that the phone and features work correctly.

Refer to Cisco Unified IP Phone 7960G/7940G Series Phone Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.0 (SIP)

7.

Provide information to end users about how to use their phones and how to configure their phone options.

Ensures that users have adequate information to successfully use their Cisco Unified IP Phones.

See Appendix A, "Providing Information to Users Via a Website."