Catalyst Supervisor Engine 32 PISA IOS Software Configuration Guide, 12.2ZY
Configuring IP Unicast Layer 3 Switching
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Configuring IP Unicast Layer 3 Switching

Table Of Contents

Configuring IP Unicast Layer 3 Switching

Understanding How Layer 3 Switching Works

Understanding Hardware Layer 3 Switching

Understanding Layer 3-Switched Packet Rewrite

Hardware Layer 3 Switching Examples

Default Hardware Layer 3 Switching Configuration

Configuration Guidelines and Restrictions

Configuring Hardware Layer 3 Switching

Displaying Hardware Layer 3 Switching Statistics


Configuring IP Unicast Layer 3 Switching


This chapter describes how to configure IP unicast Layer 3 switching on the Catalyst 6500 series switches.


Note For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to these publications:

The Catalyst Supervisor Engine 32 PISA Cisco IOS Command Reference, Release 12.2ZY, at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/ios/12.2ZY/command/reference/cmdref.html

The Release 12.2 publications at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_installation_and_configuration_guides_list.html


This chapter consists of these sections:

Understanding How Layer 3 Switching Works

Default Hardware Layer 3 Switching Configuration

Configuration Guidelines and Restrictions

Configuring Hardware Layer 3 Switching

Displaying Hardware Layer 3 Switching Statistics


NoteIPX traffic is fast switched on the PISA. For more information, refer to this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/atipx/configuration/guide/fatipx_c.html

For information about IP multicast Layer 3 switching, see Chapter 25 "Configuring IPv4 Multicast Layer 3 Switching."


Understanding How Layer 3 Switching Works

These sections describe Layer 3 switching:

Understanding Hardware Layer 3 Switching

Understanding Layer 3-Switched Packet Rewrite

Understanding Hardware Layer 3 Switching

Hardware Layer 3 switching allows the PFC3B , instead of the PISA, to forward IP unicast traffic between subnets. Hardware Layer 3 switching provides wire-speed forwarding on the PFC3B, instead of in software on the PISA. Hardware Layer 3 switching requires minimal support from the PISA. The PISA routes any traffic that cannot be hardware Layer 3 switched.

Hardware Layer 3 switching supports the routing protocols configured on the PISA. Hardware Layer 3 switching does not replace the routing protocols configured on the PISA.

Hardware Layer 3 switching runs on the PFC3B to provide IP unicast Layer 3 switching locally on each module. Hardware Layer 3 switching provides the following functions:

Hardware access control list (ACL) switching for policy-based routing (PBR)

Hardware NetFlow switching for TCP intercept, reflexive ACL forwarding decisions

Hardware Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) switching for all other IP unicast traffic

The PISA forwards traffic that cannot be Layer 3 switched.

Traffic is hardware Layer 3 switched after being processed by access lists and quality of service (QoS). Hardware Layer 3 switching makes a forwarding decision locally on the ingress-port module for each packet and sends the rewrite information for each packet to the egress port, where the rewrite occurs when the packet is transmitted from the Catalyst 6500 series switch.

Hardware Layer 3 switching generates flow statistics for Layer 3-switched traffic. Hardware Layer 3 flow statistics can be used for NetFlow Data Export (NDE). (See Chapter 46 "Configuring NDE".)

Understanding Layer 3-Switched Packet Rewrite

When a packet is Layer 3 switched from a source in one subnet to a destination in another subnet, the Catalyst 6500 series switch performs a packet rewrite at the egress port based on information learned from the PISA so that the packets appear to have been routed by the PISA.

Packet rewrite alters five fields:

Layer 2 (MAC) destination address

Layer 2 (MAC) source address

Layer 3 IP Time to Live (TTL)

Layer 3 checksum

Layer 2 (MAC) checksum (also called the frame checksum or FCS)


Note Packets are rewritten with the encapsulation appropriate for the next-hop subnet.


If Source A and Destination B are in different subnets and Source A sends a packet to the PISA to be routed to Destination B, the switch recognizes that the packet was sent to the Layer 2 (MAC) address of the PISA.

To perform Layer 3 switching, the switch rewrites the Layer 2 frame header, changing the Layer 2 destination address to the Layer 2 address of Destination B and the Layer 2 source address to the Layer 2 address of the PISA. The Layer 3 addresses remain the same.

In IP unicast and IP multicast traffic, the switch decrements the Layer 3 TTL value by 1 and recomputes the Layer 3 packet checksum. The switch recomputes the Layer 2 frame checksum and forwards (or, for multicast packets, replicates as necessary) the rewritten packet to Destination B's subnet.

A received IP unicast packet is formatted (conceptually) as follows:

Layer 2 Frame Header
Layer 3 IP Header
Data
FCS

Destination

Source

Destination

Source

TTL

Checksum

   

PISA MAC

Source A MAC

Destination B IP

Source A IP

n

calculation1


After the switch rewrites an IP unicast packet, it is formatted (conceptually) as follows:

Layer 2 Frame Header
Layer 3 IP Header
Data
FCS

Destination

Source

Destination

Source

TTL

Checksum

   

Destination B MAC

PISA MAC

Destination B IP

Source A IP

n-1

calculation2


Hardware Layer 3 Switching Examples

Figure 23-1 shows a simple network topology. In this example, Host A is on the Sales VLAN (IP subnet 171.59.1.0), Host B is on the Marketing VLAN (IP subnet 171.59.3.0), and Host C is on the Engineering VLAN (IP subnet 171.59.2.0).

When Host A initiates an HTTP file transfer to Host C, Hardware Layer 3 switching uses the information in the local forwarding information base (FIB) and adjacency table to forward packets from Host A to Host C.

Figure 23-1 Hardware Layer 3 Switching Example Topology

Default Hardware Layer 3 Switching Configuration

Table 23-1 shows the default hardware Layer 3 switching configuration.

Table 23-1 Default Hardware Layer 3 Switching Configuration

Feature
Default Value

Hardware Layer 3 switching enable state

Enabled (cannot be disabled)

Cisco IOS CEF enable state on PISA

Enabled (cannot be disabled)

Cisco IOS dCEF1 enable state on PISA

Enabled (cannot be disabled)

1 dCEF = Distributed Cisco Express Forwarding


Configuration Guidelines and Restrictions

Follow these guidelines and restrictions when configuring hardware Layer 3 switching:

Hardware Layer 3 switching supports the following ingress and egress encapsulations:

Ethernet V2.0 (ARPA)

802.3 with 802.2 with 1 byte control (SAP1)

802.3 with 802.2 and SNAP

Configuring Hardware Layer 3 Switching


Note For information on configuring unicast routing on the PISA, see Chapter 19 "Configuring Layer 3 Interfaces."


Hardware Layer 3 switching is permanently enabled. No configuration is required.

To display information about Layer 3-switched traffic, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

Router# show interface {{type1  slot/port} | {port-channel number}} | begin L3

Displays a summary of Layer 3-switched traffic.

1 type = ethernet, fastethernet, gigabitethernet, or tengigabitethernet


This example shows how to display information about hardware Layer 3-switched traffic on Fast Ethernet port 3/3:

Router# show interface fastethernet 3/3 | begin L3 
  L3 in Switched: ucast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes - mcast: 12 pkt, 778 bytes mcast
  L3 out Switched: ucast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes - mcast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes 
     4046399 packets input, 349370039 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 3795255 broadcasts, 2 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
<...output truncated...>
Router#
 
   

Note The Layer 3 switching packet count is updated approximately every five seconds.


Cisco IOS CEF and dCEF are permanently enabled. No configuration is required to support hardware Layer 3 switching.

Hardware Layer 3 switching uses per-flow load balancing based on IP source and destination addresses. Per-flow load balancing avoids the packet reordering that can be necessary with per-packet load balancing. For any given flow, all load-balancing decisions are exactly the same, which can result in nonrandom load balancing.

The Cisco IOS CEF ip load-sharing per-packet, ip cef accounting per-prefix, and ip cef accounting non-recursive commands on the PISA apply only to traffic that is CEF-switched in software on the PISA. The commands do not affect traffic that is hardware Layer 3 switched on the PFC3B.

For information about Cisco IOS CEF and dCEF on the PISA, refer to these publications:

The "Cisco Express Forwarding" sections at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/switch/configuration/guide/xcfcef.html

The Cisco IOS Switching Services Command Reference publication at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/switch/command/reference/fswtch_r.html

Displaying Hardware Layer 3 Switching Statistics

Hardware Layer 3 switching statistics are obtained on a per-VLAN basis.

To display hardware Layer 3 switching statistics, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

Router# show interfaces {{type1  slot/port} | {port-channel number}}

Displays hardware Layer 3 switching statistics.

1 type = ethernet, fastethernet, gigabitethernet, or tengigabitethernet


This example shows how to display hardware Layer 3 switching statistics:

Router# show interfaces gigabitethernet 9/5 | include Switched 
L2 Switched: ucast: 8199 pkt, 1362060 bytes - mcast: 6980 pkt, 371952 bytes
L3 in Switched: ucast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes - mcast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes mcast
L3 out Switched: ucast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes - mcast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes 
 
   

To display adjacency table information, perform this task:

Command
Purpose

Router# show adjacency [{{type1  slot/port} | {port-channel number}} | detail | internal | summary]

Displays adjacency table information. The optional detail keyword displays detailed adjacency information, including Layer 2 information.

1 type = ethernet, fastethernet, gigabitethernet, or tengigabitethernet


This example shows how to display adjacency statistics:

Router# show adjacency gigabitethernet 9/5 detail 
Protocol Interface                 Address
IP       GigabitEthernet9/5        172.20.53.206(11)
                                   504 packets, 6110 bytes
                                   00605C865B82
                                   000164F83FA50800
                                   ARP        03:49:31 

Note Adjacency statistics are updated approximately every 60 seconds.