Cisco MDS 9000 Family Storage Media Encryption Configuration Guide
Cisco SME Overview
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Product Overview

Table Of Contents

Product Overview

About Cisco Storage Media Encryption

Cisco Storage Media Encryption Features

Transparent Fabric Service

Encryption

Cisco SME Roles

Key Management

Clustering

FC-Redirect

Server-Based Discovery for Provisioning Tapes

Target-Based Load Balancing

SME Scalability

Cisco SME Terminology

Supported Topologies

Single-Fabric Topology

In-Service Software Upgrade in Cisco SME

Software and Hardware Requirements

Software Requirements

Hardware Requirements

Cisco MDS 9000 Family 18/4-Port Multiservice Module (MSM-18/4)

Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Modular Switch

Cisco MDS 16-Port Storage Services Node (SSN-16)

FC-Redirect-Capable Switches

Smart Card Readers

Cisco SME Prerequisites

Java Cryptography Extension Requirement

Zoning Requirement

FC-Redirect Requirements

Cisco Storage Media Encryption Security Overview

Additional Security Capabilities


Product Overview


This chapter provides an overview of the Storage Media Encryption (SME) and the hardware and software requirements for the product. It contains the following sections:

About Cisco Storage Media Encryption

Software and Hardware Requirements

Cisco SME Prerequisites

Cisco Storage Media Encryption Security Overview

About Cisco Storage Media Encryption

The Cisco SME solution is a comprehensive network-integrated encryption service with enterprise-class key management that works transparently with existing and new SANs. The innovative Cisco network-integrated solution has numerous advantages over competitive solutions available today:

Cisco SME installation and provisioning are both simple and nondisruptive. Unlike other solutions, Cisco SME does not require rewiring or SAN reconfiguration.

Encryption engines are integrated on the Cisco MDS 9000 18/4-Port Multiservice Module (MSM-18/4) , the Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Module Switch and the 16-Port Gigabit Ethernet Storage Services Node (SSN-16) eliminating the need to purchase and manage extra switch ports, cables, and appliances.

Traffic from any virtual SAN (VSAN) can be encrypted using Cisco SME, enabling flexible, automated load balancing through network traffic management across multiple SANs.

No additional software is required for provisioning, key, and user role management; Cisco SME is integrated into Cisco Fabric Manager, which reduces operating expenses.

Figure 1-1 shows the integration of Cisco SME with SAN fabrics to offer seamless management of data encryption.

Figure 1-1 Cisco Storage Media Encryption

This section covers the following topics:

Cisco Storage Media Encryption Features

Cisco SME Terminology

Supported Topologies

In-Service Software Upgrade in Cisco SME

Cisco Storage Media Encryption Features

The Cisco MDS 9000 Family of intelligent directors and fabric switches provide an open, standards-based platform for hosting intelligent fabric applications and services. As a platform, the Cisco MDS 9000 family switches provide all essential features required to deliver secure, highly available, enterprise-class Fibre Channel storage area network (SAN) fabric services. Cisco has integrated encryption for data-at-rest as a transparent fabric service to take full advantage of this platform.

Storage Media Encryption is a standards-based encryption solution for heterogeneous tape libraries and virtual tape libraries. Cisco SME is managed with Cisco Fabric Manager and a command-line interface (CLI) for unified SAN management and security provisioning. Cisco SME includes the following comprehensive built-in key management features:

Transparent Fabric Service

Encryption

Cisco SME Roles

Key Management

Clustering

FC-Redirect

Server-Based Discovery for Provisioning Tapes

Target-Based Load Balancing

SME Scalability

Transparent Fabric Service

Cisco employs a Fibre Channel redirect scheme that automatically redirects the traffic flow to an MSM-18/4 module, a MDS 9222i switch or a SSN-16 module anywhere in the fabric. There are no appliances in-line in the data path and there is no SAN rewiring or reconfiguration.

Encryption

Cisco SME uses strong, IEEE-compliant AES 256 encryption algorithms to protect data at rest. Advanced Cisco MDS 9000 SAN-OS and NX-OS software security features, such as Secure Shell (SSH), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), RADIUS, and Fibre Channel Security Protocol (FC-SP) provide the foundation for the secure architecture.

Cisco SME uses the NIST-approved random number standard to generate the keys for encryption.

Encryption and compression services are transparent to the hosts and storage devices.

Cisco SME Roles

Cisco SME services include the following four configuration and security roles:

Cisco SME Administrator

Cisco SME Storage Administrator

Cisco SME Key Management Center (KMC) Administrator

Cisco SME Recovery Officer

The Cisco SME Administrator configures and maintains Cisco SME. This role can be filled by multiple storage network administrators. The Cisco SME Storage Administrators are responsible for Cisco SME provisioning operations and the Cisco SME KMC Administrators are responsible for the Cisco SME KMC administration operations. The security officer may be assigned the Cisco SME KMC Administrator role in some scenarios.


Note Cisco SME Administrator role includes the Cisco SME Storage Administrator and the Cisco SME KMC Administrator roles.


The Cisco SME Recovery Officers are responsible for key recovery operations. During Cisco SME configuration, additional Recovery Officers can be added. Cisco SME Recovery Officers play a critical role in recovering the key database of a deactivated cluster and they are responsible for protecting the master key. The role of the Cisco SME Recovery Officer separates master key management from Cisco SME administrations and operations. In some organizations, a security officer may be assigned to this role.

At the advanced security level, a quorum of Cisco SME Recovery Officers is required to perform recovery procedures. The default is 2 out of 5. In this case 2 of the 5 recovery officers are required to unlock the master key.

For additional information on Cisco SME Administrator and Cisco SME Recovery Officer roles, see the "Creating and Assigning Cisco SME Roles and Cisco SME Users" section.

Key Management

Cisco Key Management Center (KMC) provides essential features such as key archival, secure export and import, and key shredding.

Key management features include the following:

Master key resides in smart cards.

Quorum (2 out of 5) of smart cards required to recover the master key.

Unique key per tape.

Keys reside in clear-text only inside a FIPS boundary.

Tape keys and intermediate keys are wrapped by the master key and deactivated at the Key Management Center.

Option to store tape keys on tape media.

The centralized key lifecycle management includes the following:

Archive, shred, recover, and distribute media keys.

Integrated into Fabric Manager Server.

Secure transport of keys.

End-to-end key management using HTTPS/SSL/SSH.

Access controls and accounting.

Use of existing AAA mechanisms.

The Cisco KMC provides dedicated key management for Cisco SME, with support for single and multisite deployments. The Cisco KMC performs key management operations.

The Cisco KMC is either integrated or separated from Fabric Manager depending on the deployment requirements.

Single site operations can be managed by the integration of the Cisco KMC in Fabric Manager. In multisite deployments, the centralized Cisco KMC can be used together with the local Fabric Manager servers that are used for fabric management. This separation provides robustness to the KMC and also supports the storage media encryption deployments in different locations sharing the same Cisco KMC.

Figure 1-2 shows how Cisco KMC is separated from Fabric Manager for a multisite deployment.

A Cisco KMC is configured only in the primary data center and Fabric Manager servers are installed in all the data centers to manage the local fabrics and provision storage media encryption. The storage media encryption provisioning is performed in each of the data centers and the tape devices and backup groups in each of the data centers are managed independently.

Figure 1-2 Multisite Setup in Cisco KMC.

In the case of multisite deployments when the Cisco KMC is separated from Fabric Manager, fabric discovery is not required on the Cisco KMC installation. The clusters that have connection to the Cisco KMC will be online and the clusters that are not connected, but are not deactivated, appear as offline. The Cisco SME clusters that are deleted from the fabric appear as deactivated.

The high availability Cisco KMC server consists of a primary server and a secondary server. When the primary server is unavailable, the cluster connects to the secondary server and fails over to the primary server once the primary server is available. The high availability KMC will be available after you configure the high availability settings in the Fabric Manager Web Client. For more information on the configuration, see the "Choosing High Availability Settings" section.

For information about primary and secondary servers, see the "High Availability Key Management Center" section.

Clustering

Cluster technology provides reliability and availability, automated load balancing, failover capabilities, and a single point of management.

FC-Redirect

Cisco SME performance can easily be scaled up by adding more Cisco MDS 9000 family switches or modules. The innovative Fibre Channel redirect capabilities in Cisco MDS 9000 NX-OS enable traffic from any switch port to be encrypted without SAN reconfiguration or rewiring.

Server-Based Discovery for Provisioning Tapes

Cisco SME provides discovery of backend targets using the identity of the host during a session establishment.

Target-Based Load Balancing

The Cisco SME cluster consists of a set of switches (in a dual-fabric environment) running the Cisco SME application. Clustering offers target-based load balancing of Cisco SME application services. The cluster infrastructure allows the Cisco SME application to communicate and coordinate to maintain consistency and high availability.

Load balancing is achieved by distributing ownership of the various metadata objects throughout the cluster. Cisco SME assigns hosts to the available Cisco SME interfaces using the following algorithm:

All hosts for a given target port are always assigned to the same Cisco SME interface.

If a target port is connected to one of the Cisco SME switches, an interface is selected based on the load from the target-connected switch. That is, the target locality is considered when choosing a Cisco SME interface for a target.

If a target is connected to a switch that has no Cisco SME interface, then the target is assigned to the least loaded available interface in the Cisco SME cluster.

In target-based load balancing, the load on an interface refers to the number of targets assigned to that interface.


Caution The load balancing command is disruptive to traffic. Ensure that you execute this command at a scheduled downtime, otherwise, the existing traffic will be affected.

SME Scalability

The following features improve the scalability and performance of the Cisco SME application by minimizing the network overhead and maximizing the overall throughput:

The SME application supports the batching of messages where messages of the same type are combined and sent as a single message. This feature saves a significant amount of overhead and minimizes the number of messages between the SME process and the cluster process. The reduction in the traffic load substantially reduces the CPU usage of these processes.

The FC redirect process is optimized by caching the FC redirect messages. This feature reduces the number of identical messages that are generated each time a new ITL is configured, which reduces the total number of backend messages.

The affinity-based load balancing feature reduces the FC redirect interactions, which reduces the overhead in the existing operation.

Cisco SME Terminology

The following Cisco SME-related terms are used in this book:

Cisco SME interface—The security engine in the MSM-18/4 module or fixed slot of a Cisco MDS 9222i fabric switch. Each MSM-18/4 module and MDS 9222i switch has one security engine.

Cisco SME cluster—A network of MDS switches that are configured to provide the Cisco SME functionality; each switch includes one or more MSM-18/4 modules and each module includes a security engine.

Fabric—A physical fabric topology in the SAN as seen by Fabric Manager. There can be multiple VSANs (logical fabrics) within the physical fabric.

Tape group—A backup environment in the SAN. This consists of all the tape backup servers and the tape libraries that they access.

Tape device—A tape drive that is configured for encryption.

Tape volumes—A physical tape cartridge identified by a barcode for a given use.

Tape volume group—A logical set of tape volumes that are configured for a specific use, for example, a group of tape volumes used to backup a database.

Key Management Center—A component of the Fabric Manager that stores the encryption keys.

Master Key—An encryption key generated when an Cisco SME cluster is created. The master key encrypts the tape volume keys and tape keys and it is required to decrypt those keys in order to retrieve encrypted data.

Media Key—A key that is used for encrypting and authenticating the data on specific tapes.

SmartCard—A card (approximately the size of a credit card) with a built-in microprocessor and memory used for authentication.

Cisco SME Administrator—An administrator who configures Cisco SME. This role includes the Cisco Storage Administrator role where the administrator manages the storage media encryption operations and the Cisco SME KMC Administrator role where the administrator is responsible for the Cisco SME key management operations.

Cisco Storage Administrator —An administrator who manages the storage media encryption operations.

Cisco SME KMC Administrator—An administrator who is responsible for the Cisco SME key management operations.

Cisco SME Recovery Officer—A data security officer entrusted with smart cards and the associated PINs. Each smart card stores a share of the cluster master key. Recovery officers must present their cards and PINs to recover the key database of a deactivated cluster. A quorum of recovery officers are required to execute this operation.

Supported Topologies

Cisco SME supports a single-fabric topology. The Cisco MSM-18/4 module, the MDS 9222i switch and the SSN-16 provides the Cisco SME engines used by Cisco SME to encrypt and compress data-at-rest. Multiple modules can be deployed in a Fibre Channel fabric to easily scale-up performance, to enable simplified load balancing, and to increase availability. In a typical configuration, one MSM-18/4 is required in each Cisco SME cluster.

Cisco SME clusters include designated backup servers, tape libraries, and one or more MDS switches running Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later or NX-OS 4.x. One cluster switch must include an MSM-18/4 module. With easy-to-use provisioning, traffic between any host and tape on the fabric can utilize the Cisco SME services.

Required Cisco SME engines are included in the following Cisco products:

Cisco MDS 9000 Family 18/4-port Multiservice Module (MSM-18/4)

Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Module Switch

Cisco MDS 16-Port Storage Services Node (SSN-16)

Single-Fabric Topology

Figure 1-3 shows a single-fabric topology in which the data from the HR server is forwarded to the Cisco MSM-18/4. The Cisco MSM-18/4 can be anywhere in the fabric. Cisco SME does a one-to-one mapping of the information from the host to the target and forwards the encrypted data to the dedicated HR tape. Cisco SME also tracks the barcodes on each encrypted tape and associates the barcodes with the host servers.

Figure 1-3 shows encrypted data from the HR server is compressed and stored in the HR tape library. Data from the Email server is not encrypted when backed up to the dedicated Email tape library.

Figure 1-3 Cisco Storage Media Encryption: Single-Fabric Topology


Note Tape devices should be connected to core switches such as an MDS 9500 Series switch or an MDS 9216 or MDS 9222i switch running Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x.


Encryption and compression services are transparent to the hosts and storage devices. These services are available for devices in any virtual SANs (VSANs) in a physical fabric and can be used without rezoning.

In-Service Software Upgrade in Cisco SME

In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) is a comprehensive, transparent software upgrade capability that allows you to add new features and services without any disruption to the traffic.

In a cluster, which has the MDS 9222i switch as nodes, if the nodes are not able to communicate, then the node having the lowest node identifier (node ID) remains in the cluster while the other node leaves the cluster. However, when an ISSU is performed on a node having the lowest node identifier, a complete loss of the cluster results since both the nodes leave the cluster.

This undesirable situation is addressed in a two-node cluster as follows:

The upgrading node sends a message to the other node of the intent to leave the cluster. The upgrading node can either be a master node or a slave node.

The remaining node remains in the cluster and performs the role of the master node if it was a slave node. This node continues to remain in the cluster with the quorum intact.

After the ISSU is completed and the switches boots up, the upgraded node rejoins the cluster as a slave node.


Note This feature is tied to the internals of ISSU logic and no additional command needs to be executed for this purpose.


Software and Hardware Requirements

This section includes the following topics:

Software Requirements

Hardware Requirements

Software Requirements

All MDS switches in the Cisco SME cluster must be running the current release of Fabric Manager and Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x software. This includes the following:

The Fabric Manager server must be running Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x.

The Cisco MDS switches attached to tape devices must be running Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x.

All switches that include MSM-18/4 modules must be running Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x software.

Hardware Requirements

Cisco SME requires at least one encryption service engine in each cluster. The Cisco SME engines on the required modules provide the transparent encryption and compression services to the hosts and storage devices. To take full advantage of the standard and advanced security levels, a smart card reader is required.

For detailed information on required hardware and installing required hardware, refer to the specific installation guides. For information about ordering hardware, refer to http://www.cisco.com/en/web/ordering/root/index.shtml.

This section includes information about the following required hardware:

Cisco MDS 9000 Family 18/4-Port Multiservice Module (MSM-18/4)

Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Modular Switch

Cisco MDS 16-Port Storage Services Node (SSN-16)

FC-Redirect-Capable Switches

Smart Card Readers

Cisco MDS 9000 Family 18/4-Port Multiservice Module (MSM-18/4)

The Cisco MDS 9000 Family 18/4-port Multiservice module (MSM-18/4) provides 18 autosensing
1-, 2-, and 4-Gbps Fibre Channel ports and four Gigabit Ethernet IP services ports. The MSM-18/4 module provides multiprotocol capabilities such as Fibre Channel, Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP), Small Computer System Interface over IP (iSCSI), IBM Fiber Connectivity (FICON), and FICON Control Unit Port (CUP) management.

The MSM-18/4 module provides 18 4-Gbps Fibre Channel interfaces for high-performance SAN and mainframe connectivity and four Gigabit Ethernet ports for FCIP and iSCSI storage services. Individual ports can be configured with hot-swappable shortwave, longwave, extended-reach, coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) or dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) Small Form-Factor Pluggables (SFPs) for connectivity up to 125 miles (200 km).

The MSM-18/4 module can minimize latency for disk and tape through FCIP write acceleration and FCIP tape write and read acceleration. The MSM-18/4 module provides up to 16 virtual Inter-Switch Link (ISL) connections on the four 1-Gigabit Ethernet ports through tunneling, and provides up to 4095 buffer-to-buffer credits that can be assigned to a single Fibre Channel port.

The MSM-18/4 provides intelligent diagnostics, protocol decoding, and network analysis tools with the integrated Call Home capability.


Note Cisco MDS 9500 Series switches running Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x support the MSM-18/4 and the MSFM-18/4 modules.


For additional information, refer to the Cisco MDS 9500 Series Hardware Installation Guide.

Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Modular Switch

The Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Modular switch includes an integrated supervisor module (in slot 1) that provides the control and management functions of the Cisco MDS 9222i Switch and it provides an 18-port Fibre Channel switching and 4-port Gigabit Ethernet IP services module. The Cisco MDS 9222i built-in supervisor module provides multiple communication and control paths to avoid a single point of failure. The Cisco MDS 9222i supervisor module has a PowerPC PowerQUICC III class processor, 1 GB of DRAM, and an internal CompactFlash card that provides 1 GB of storage for software images.

The Cisco MDS 9222i switch includes a modular expansion slot to host Cisco MDS 9000 Family Switching and Services Modules. For additional information, refer to the Cisco MDS 9200 Series Hardware Installation Guide.


Note The Cisco MDS 9222i switch requires Cisco SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x.


Cisco MDS 16-Port Storage Services Node (SSN-16)

The Cisco MDS 9000 Family 16-Port Storage Services Node hosts four independent service engines which can be individually and incrementally enabled to scale as business requirements grow. The SSN-16 configuration is based on the single service engine of the Cisco MDS 9000 Family 18/4-Port Multiservice Module and the four to one consolidation delivers hardware savings and frees up slots in the MDS 9500 series chassis.

The SSN-16 seamlessly integrates into the Cisco MDS 9500 Series Multilayer Directors and the Cisco MDS 9222i Multiservice Modular Switch. Each of the four service engines supports four Gigabit Ethernet IP storage services ports for a total of 16 ports of Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP) connectivity. The traffic can be switched between an IP port and any Fibre Channel port on Cisco MDS 9000 Family switches.

The SSN-16 supports the full range of services available on other Cisco MDS 9000 Family modules including VSAN, security and traffic management. Features such as I/O Accelerator (IOA), SME, SanTAP and FCIP are supported on the same module.

By running four separate, concurrent applications on the same module, SSN-16 provides the following functions:

Better disaster recovery and continuity solutions for mission critical applications.

Minimizes the number of devices required and hence improves the reliability.

Consolidates the management with a single module and hence provides end-to-end visibility.

Integration facilitates solution-level performance optimization

The SSN-16 module provides transparent services to any port in a fabric and does not require additional SAN reconfiguration and re-wiring. The module does not require the host or target to be directly attached and is highly available with multi-module clustering and balancing.

The SSN-16 module supports upto four SME interfaces per module and provides higher scalability and performance improvement of up to 20% over the MSM-18/4 and 922i switches.


Note Cisco MDS 9500 Series switches running Cisco NX-OS Release 4.2(1) or later support the SSN-16.


For additional information, refer to the Cisco MDS 9500 Series Hardware Installation Guide.

FC-Redirect-Capable Switches

Cisco SME requires that each target switch be FC-Redirect capable. FC-Redirect is not supported on the following switches:

Cisco MDS 9120 switch

Cisco MDS 9140 switch

Cisco MDS 9124 switch

Cisco MDS 9134 switch

Cisco MDS 9020 switch


Note Tape devices and tape libraries are not supported in these edge switches.


Smart Card Readers

To employ standard and advanced security levels, Cisco SME requires the following:

Smart Card Reader for Cisco SME (DS-SCR-K9)

Smart Card for Cisco SME (DS-SC-K9)

The smart card reader is a USB device that is connected to a management workstation. The management workstation is used to configure the Cisco SME cluster. The smart card reader requires the smart card drivers that are included on the installation CD. These must be installed on the management workstation where the reader is attached.


Note The smart card reader is supported on Windows-only platforms.


Cisco SME Prerequisites

This section describes the following requirements:

Java Cryptography Extension Requirement

Zoning Requirement

FC-Redirect Requirements

Java Cryptography Extension Requirement

Cisco SME requires Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files 5C0 (for JRE 1.5). You will need to extract and copy the local_policy.jar and the US_export_policy.jar files to the $JAVA_HOME\jre\lib\security\ directory. You can obtain these files from the Fabric Manager Installation CD.

Zoning Requirement

Zoning requirements include the following:

Internal virtual N-ports are created by Cisco SME in the default zone. The default zone must be set to deny and these virtual N-ports must not be zoned with any other host or target.

For information on zoning, refer to the Cisco Fabric Manager Fabric Configuration Guide and the Cisco MDS 9000 Family NX-OS Fabric Configuration Guide.

FC-Redirect Requirements

FC-Redirect requirements include the following:

The MDS switch with the MSM-18/4 module installed or the 9222i switch needs to be running Cisco MDS SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x.

The target must be connected to an MDS 95XX/9216/9222i switch running Cisco MDS SAN-OS Release 3.2(2c) or later, or Cisco NX-OS 4.x.

32 targets per MSM-18/4 module can be FC-redirected.

Each FC-redirected target can be zoned to 16 hosts or less.

CFS should be enabled on all required switches for FC-redirect.

Cisco SME servers and tape devices should not be part of an IVR zone set.

Advanced zoning capabilities like quality of service (QoS), logical unit number (LUN) zoning, and read-only LUNs must not be used for FC-Redirect hosts and targets.

Cisco Storage Media Encryption Security Overview

Cisco SME transparently encrypts and decrypts data inside the storage environment without slowing or disrupting business critical applications.

Cisco SME generates a master key, tape volume keys and tape keys. The keys are encrypted in a hierarchical order: the master key encrypts the tape volume keys and the tape keys. They are also copied to the key catalog on the Cisco KMC server for backup and archival. Eventually inactive keys are removed from the fabric, but they are retained in the Cisco KMC catalog. The keys can be retrieved automatically from the Cisco KMC by the Cisco SME services in the fabric if needed again.

A single Cisco KMC can be used as a centralized key repository for multiple fabrics with Cisco SME services if desired. Key catalog import and export capabilities are also provided to accommodate moving tape media to different fabrics in environments with multiple Cisco KMC servers. Backup applications can be used to archive the key catalogs for additional protection.

Additional Security Capabilities

Additional security capabilities offered by Cisco NX-OS complete the Cisco SME solution. For example, RADIUS and TACACS+ servers can be used to authenticate, authorize, and provide accounting (AAA) for Cisco SME administrators. Management of Cisco SME can be limited to authorized administrators using role based access controls (RBAC). When communication occurs, secure shell (SSHv2) protocol is used to provide message integrity and privacy.

The Cisco MDS 9000 Family is certified to meet Common Criteria (CC) EAL3 and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 level 2. To meet FIPS 140-2 level 3 Certification requirements for the critical Cisco SME services, the MSM-18/4 has the cryptographic engine and related memory devices encapsulated to prevent tampering. Any attempt at tampering the system is guaranteed to destroy the sensitive data. In addition, critical security parameters never leave the system unencrypted.