Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide, Release 5.0
Chapter 4, Performance Monitoring
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Performance Monitoring

Table Of Contents

Performance Monitoring

4.1  Threshold Performance Monitoring

4.2  Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring

4.3  Pointer Justification Count Performance Monitoring

4.4  Performance Monitoring Parameter Definitions

4.5  Performance Monitoring for Electrical Cards

4.5.1  XTC DS-1 Performance Monitoring Parameters

4.5.2  XTC DS3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

4.6  Performance Monitoring for Ethernet Cards

4.6.1  E-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

4.6.2  G-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

4.7  Performance Monitoring for Optical Cards

4.7.1  OC-3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

4.7.2  OC-12 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

4.7.3  OC-48 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters


Performance Monitoring



Note The terms "Unidirectional Path Switched Ring" and "UPSR" may appear in Cisco literature. These terms do not refer to using Cisco ONS 15xxx products in a unidirectional path switched ring configuration. Rather, these terms, as well as "Path Protected Mesh Network" and "PPMN," refer generally to Cisco's path protection feature, which may be used in any topological network configuration. Cisco does not recommend using its path protection feature in any particular topological network configuration.


Performance monitoring (PM) parameters are used by service providers to gather, store, threshold, and report performance data for early detection of problems. In this chapter, PM parameters and concepts are defined for electrical cards, Ethernet cards, and optical cards in the Cisco ONS 15327.

For information about enabling and viewing PM parameters, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.

Chapter topics include:

Threshold Performance Monitoring

Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring

Pointer Justification Count Performance Monitoring

Performance Monitoring Parameter Definitions

Performance Monitoring for Electrical Cards

Performance Monitoring for Ethernet Cards

Performance Monitoring for Optical Cards


Note Additional PM parameter information can also be found under digital transmission surveillance in Telcordia's GR-1230-CORE, GR-820-CORE, and GR-253-CORE documents and in the ANSI T1.231 document entitled Digital Hierarchy - Layer 1 In-Service Digital Transmission Performance Monitoring.


4.1  Threshold Performance Monitoring

Thresholds are used to set error levels for each PM parameter. You can program PM parameter threshold ranges from the Provisioning > Line Thresholds tabs on the card view. For procedures for provisioning card thresholds, such as line, path, and SONET thresholds, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.

During the accumulation cycle, if the current value of a PM parameter reaches or exceeds its corresponding threshold value, a threshold crossing alert (TCA) is generated by the node and sent to CTC. TCAs provide early detection of performance degradation. When a threshold is crossed, the node continues to count the errors during a given accumulation period. If 0 is entered as the threshold value, the PM parameter is disabled.

Change the threshold if the default value does not satisfy your error monitoring needs. For example, customers with a critical DS-1 installed for 911 calls must guarantee the best quality of service on the line; therefore, they lower all thresholds so that the slightest error raises a TCA.

4.2  Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring

Intermediate-path performance monitoring (IPPM) allows transparent monitoring of a constituent channel of an incoming transmission signal by a node that does not terminate that channel. You can program IPPM from the Provisioning > SONET STS tabs on the card view. Many large ONS 15327 networks only use line terminating equipment (LTE), not path terminating equipment (PTE). Table 4-1 shows ONS 15327 cards that are considered LTE.

Table 4-1 Traffic Cards that Terminate the Line, Called LTEs 

Line Terminating Equipment

OC3 IR 1310

OC48 LR 1550

OC12 LR 1550

OC48 IR 1310

OC12 IR 1310


Software Release 3.0 and later allows LTE cards to monitor near-end PM parameter data on individual STS payloads by enabling IPPM. After enabling IPPM provisioning on the line card, service providers can monitor large amounts of STS traffic through intermediate nodes, thus making troubleshooting and maintenance activities more efficient. IPPM can also be monitored at line cards on the nodes where cicuits terminate.

IPPM occurs only on STS paths which have IPPM enabled, and TCAs are raised only for PM parameters on the selected IPPM paths. The monitored IPPM parameters are STS CV-P, STS ES-P, STS SES-P, STS UAS-P, and STS FC-P.


Note Far-end IPPM is not supported. However, SONET path PM parameters can be monitored by logging into the far-end node directly.


The ONS 15327 performs IPPM by examining the overhead in the monitored path and by reading all of the near-end path PM parameters in the incoming direction of transmission. The IPPM process allows the path signal to pass bidirectionally through the node completely unaltered.

For detailed information about specific PM parameters, locate the card name in the following sections and review the appropriate definition.

4.3  Pointer Justification Count Performance Monitoring

Pointers are used to compensate for frequency and phase variations. Pointer justification counts indicate timing errors on SONET networks. When a network is out of synch, jitter and wander occurs on the transported signal. Excessive wander can cause terminating equipment to slip. It also causes slips at the SDH and plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) boundaries.

Slips cause different effects in service. Voice service has intermittent audible clicks. Compressed voice technology has short transmission errors or dropped calls. Fax machines lose scanned lines or experience dropped calls. Digital video transmission has distorted pictures or frozen frames. Encryption service loses the encryption key causing data to be transmitted again.

Pointers provide a way to align the phase variations in STS and virtual tributary (VT) payloads. The STS payload pointer is located in the H1 and H2 bytes of the line overhead. Clocking differences are measured by the offset in bytes from the pointer to the first byte of the STS synchronous payload envelope (SPE) called the J1 byte. Clocking differences that exceed the normal range of 0 to 782 can cause data loss.

You can enable positive pointer justification count (PPJC) and negative pointer justification count (NPJC) performance monitoring parameters for LTE cards. See Table 4-1 for a list of Cisco ONS 15327 LTE cards.

There are PPJC and NPJC parameters. PPJC is a count of path-detected (PPJC-Pdet) or path-generated (PPJC-Pgen) positive pointer justifications. NPJC is a count of path-detected (NPJC-Pdet) or path-generated (NPJC-Pgen) negative pointer justifications depending on the specific PM parameter.

A consistent pointer justification count indicates clock synchronization problems between nodes. A difference between the counts means the node transmitting the original pointer justification has timing variations with the node detecting and transmitting this count. Positive pointer adjustments occur when the frame rate of the SPE is too slow in relation to the rate of the STS 1.

For pointer justification count definitions, depending on the cards in use, see the "OC-3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters" section, the "OC-12 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters" section, or the "OC-48 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters" section.

In CTC, the count fields for PPJC and NPJC PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs > PJStsMon# menu.

4.4  Performance Monitoring Parameter Definitions

Table 4-2 gives definitions for each type of performance-monitoring parameter found in this chapter.

Table 4-2 Performance-Monitoring Parameters 

Parameter
Definition

AISS-P

AIS Seconds Path (AISS-P) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more AIS defects.

CV-L

Line Code Violation (CV-L) indicates the number of coding violations occurring on the line. This parameter is a count of bipolar violations (BPVs) and excessive zeros (EXZs) occurring over the accumulation period.

CV-LFE

CV-LFE is a count of BIP errors detected by the far-end LTE and reported back to the near-end LTE using the Line remote error indication (REI-L) in the line overhead. For SONET signals at rates below OC-48, up to 8 x n BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated using the REI-L indication. For OC-48 signals, up to 255 BIP errors per STS-N frame can be indicated. The current CV-L second register is incremented for each BIP error indicated by the incoming REI-L.

CV-P

Near-End STS Path Coding Violations (CV-P) is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-P second register.

CV-PFE

Far-End STS Path Coding Violations (CV-PFE) is a count of BIP errors detected at the STS path layer (that is, using the B3 byte). Up to eight BIP errors can be detected per frame; each error increments the current CV-PFE second register.

CV-S

Section Coding Violation (CV-S) is a count of bit interleaved parity (BIP) errors detected at the section-layer (that is, using the B1 byte in the incoming SONET signal). Up to eight section BIP errors can be detected per STS-N frame; each error increments the current CV-S second register.

CV-V

Code Violation VT Layer (CV-V) is a count of the BIP errors detected at the VT path layer. Up to two BIP errors can be detected per VT superframe, with each error incrementing the current CV-V second register.

CV-VFE

Far-End VT Path Coding Violations (CV-VFE) is a count of the number of BIP errors detected by the far-end VT PTE and reported back to the near-end VT PTE using the VT layer remote error indication (REI-V) in the VT path overhead. Only one BIP error can be indicated per VT superframe using the REI-V bit. The current CV-VFE second register is incremented for each BIP error indicated by the incoming REI-V.

ES-L

Line Errored Seconds (ES-L) is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies (BPV + EXZ) or defects (that is, loss of signal) on the line.

ES-LFE

Far-End Line Errored Seconds (ES-LFE) is a count of the seconds when at least one line-layer BIP error was reported by the far-end LTE or a RDI-L defect was present.

ES-P

Near-End STS Path Errored Seconds (ES-P) is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an ES-P.

ES-PFE

Far-End STS Path Errored Seconds (ES-PFE) is a count of the seconds when at least one STS path BIP error was detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an STS ES-PFE.

ES-S

Section Errored Seconds (ES-S) is a count of the number of seconds when at least one section-layer BIP error was detected or an SEF or LOS defect was present.

ES-V

Errored Seconds VT Layer (ES-V) is a count of the seconds when at least one VT Path BIP error was detected. An AIS-V defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-V defect can also cause an ES-V.

ES-VFE

Far-End VT Path Errored Seconds (ES-VFE) is a count of the seconds when at least one VT path BIP error was reported by the far-end VT PTE, or a one-bit VT layer remote defect indication (RDI-V) defect is present.

FC-L

Line Failure Count (FC-L) is a count of the number of near-end line failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-L failure is declared or when a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end failure is declared. This failure event ends when the failure is cleared. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it begins.

FC-LFE

Far-End Line Failure Count (FC-LFE) is a count of the number of far-end line failure events. A failure event begins when Line remote fault indication (RFI-L) failure is declared, and it ends when the RFI-L failure clears. A failure event that begins in one period and ends in another period is counted only in the period where it began.

FC-P

Near-End STS Path Failure Counts (FC-P) is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared. A failure event also begins if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports ERDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

FC-PFE

Far-End STS Path Failure Counts (FC-PFE) is a count of the number of near-end STS path failure events. A failure event begins when an AIS-P failure, an LOP-P failure, a UNEQ-P failure, or a TIM-P failure is declared. A failure event also begins if the STS PTE that is monitoring the path supports ERDI-P for that path. The failure event ends when these failures are cleared.

LOSS-L

Line Loss of Signal (LOSS-L) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more LOS defects.

NPJC-PDET-P

Negative Pointer Justification Count, STS Path Detected (NPJC-Pdet-P) is a count of the negative pointer justifications detected on a particular path in an incoming SONET signal.

NPJC-PGEN-P

Negative Pointer Justification Count, STS Path Generated (NPJC-Pgen-P) is a count of the negative pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.

PJC-DIFF-P

Pointer Justification Count Difference, STS Path (PJCDIFF-P) is the absolute value of the difference between the total number of detected pointer justification counts and the total number of generated pointer justification counts. That is, PJCDiff-P is equal to (PPJC-PGen - NPJC-PGen) - (PPJC-PDet - NPJC-PDet).

PJCS-PDET-P

Pointer Justification Count Seconds, STS Path Detect (PJCS-PDet) is a count of the one-second intervals containing one or more PPJC-PDet or NPJC-PDet.

PJCS-PGEN-P

Pointer Justification Count Seconds, STS Path Generate (PJCS-PGen) is a count of the one-second intervals containing one or more PPJC-PGen or NPJC-PGen.

PPJC-PDET-P

Positive Pointer Justification Count, STS Path Detected (PPJC-Pdet-P) is a count of the positive pointer justifications detected on a particular path in an incoming SONET signal.

PPJC-PGEN-P

Positive Pointer Justification Count, STS Path Generated (PPJC-Pgen-P) is a count of the positive pointer justifications generated for a particular path to reconcile the frequency of the SPE with the local clock.

PSC (1+1)

In a 1 + 1 protection scheme for a working card, Protection Switching Count (PSC) is a count of the number of times service switches from a working card to a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the working card. For a protection card, PSC is a count of the number of times service switches to a working card from a protection card plus the number of times service switches back to the protection card. The PSC PM is only applicable if revertive line-level protection switching is used.

PSC (BLSR)

For a protect line in a two-fiber ring, PSC refers to the number of times a protection switch has occurred either to a particular span's line protection or away from a particular span's line protection. Therefore, if a protection switch occurs on a two-fiber BLSR, the PSC of the protection span to which the traffic is switched will increment, and when the switched traffic returns to its original working span from the protect span, the PSC of the protect span will increment again.

PSC-W

For a working line in a two-fiber BLSR, Protection Switching Count-Working (PSC-W) is a count of the number of times traffic switches away from the working capacity in the failed line and back to the working capacity after the failure is cleared. PSC-W increments on the failed working line and PSC increments on the active protect line.

For a working line in a four-fiber BLSR, PSC-W is a count of the number of times service switches from a working line to a protection line plus the number of times it switches back to the working line. PSC-W increments on the failed line and PSC-R or PSC-S increments on the active protect line.

PSD

Protection Switching Duration (PSD) applies to the length of time, in seconds, that service is carried on another line. For a working line, PSD is a count of the number of seconds that service was carried on the protection line.

For the protection line, PSD is a count of the seconds that the line was used to carry service. The PSD PM is only applicable if revertive line-level protection switching is used.

PSD-W

For a working line in a two-fiber BLSR, PSD-W is a count of the number of seconds that service was carried on the protection line. PSD-W increments on the failed working line and PSD increments on the active protect line.

Rx AISS-P

Receive Path Alarm Indication Signal (Rx AISS-P) means that an alarm indication signal occurred on the receive end of the path. This parameter is a count of seconds containing one or more Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) defects.

Rx CSS-P

Receive Path Controlled Slip Seconds (Rx CSS-P) is a count of seconds during which a controlled slip has occurred. Counts of controlled slips can be accurately made only in the path terminating NE of the DS-1 signal where the controlled slip takes place.

Rx CV-P

Receive Path Code Violation (Rx CV-P) means that a coding violation occurred on the receive end of the path. For DS-1 extended super frame (ESF) paths, this parameter is a count of detected CRC-6 errors. For the DS-1 super frame (SF) paths, the Rx CV-P parameter is a count of detected frame-bit errors (FE).

Rx ES-P

Receive Path Errored Seconds (Rx ES-P) is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies and/or defects for paths on the receive end of the signal. For DS1-ESF paths, this parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more convergence sublayer (CS) events, or one or more Severely Errored Frame (SEF) or AIS defects. For DS-1 SF paths, the Rx ES-P parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more FE events, or one or more CS events, or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

Rx SAS-P

Receive Path Severely Errored Seconds Frame/Alarm Indication Signal (Rx SAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more SEFs or one or more AIS defects on the receive end of the signal.

Rx SES-P

Receive Path Severely Errored Seconds (Rx SES-P) is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies or defects for paths on the receive end of the signal. For the DS1-ESF paths, this parameter is a count of seconds when 320 or more CRC-6 errors or one or more SEF or AIS defects occurred. For DS1-SF paths, an SES is a second containing either the occurrence of four FEs or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

Rx UAS-P

Receive Path Unavailable Seconds (Rx UAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals when the DS-1 path is unavailable on the receive end of the signal. The DS-1 path is unavailable at the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that qualify as SESs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-Ps. The ten seconds with no SES-Ps are excluded from unavailable time.

Rx ESA-P

Errored Second Type A is a count of one second intervals with exactly one CRC-6 error and no SEF or AIS defects.

Rx ESB-P

Errored Second Type B is a count of one second intervals no less than 2, and no more than 319 CRC-6 errors, no SEF defects, and no AIS defects.

Rx SEFS-P

Receive Path Severely Errored Frame-Path (SEFS-P) is a count of one-second performance report message (PRM) intervals containing an SE=1

SEFS-S

Severely Errored Framing Seconds (SEFS-S) is a count of the seconds when an SEF defect was present. An SEF defect is expected to be present during most seconds when an LOS or loss of frame (LOF) defect is present. However, there can be situations when the SEFS-S parameter is only incremented based on the presence of the SEF defect.

SES-L

Line Severely Errored Seconds (SES-L) is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies (BPV + EXZ > 1544) and/or defects on the line.

SES-LFE

SES-LFE is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253-CORE for values) or more line-layer BIP errors were reported by the far-end LTE or an RDI-L defect was present.

SES-P

Near-End STS Path Severely Errored Seconds (SES-P) is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an SES-P.

SES-PFE

Far-End STS Path Severely Errored Seconds (SES-PFE) is a count of the seconds when K (2400) or more STS path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-P defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, far-end defect) or an LOP-P defect can also cause an SES-PFE.

SES-S

Section Severely Errored Seconds (SES-S) is a count of the seconds when K (see Telcordia GR-253 for value) or more section-layer BIP errors were detected or an SEF or LOS defect was present.

SES-V

Severely Errored Seconds VT Layer (SES-V) is a count of seconds when K (600) or more VT Path BIP errors were detected. An AIS-V defect (or a lower-layer, traffic-related, near-end defect) or an LOP-V defect can also cause SES-V.

SES-VFE

Far-End VT Path Severely Errored Seconds (SES-VFE) is a count of the seconds when K (600) or more VT path BIP errors were reported by the far-end VT PTE or a one-bit RDI-V defect was present.

Tx AISS-P

Transmit Path Alarm Indication Signal (Tx AISS-P) means that an alarm indication signal occurred on the transmit end of the path. This parameter is a count of seconds containing one or more AIS defects.

Tx CV-P

Transmit Path Code Violation (Tx CV-P) means that a coding violation occurred on the transmit end of the path. For DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of detected CRC-6 errors. For the DS-1 SF paths, the Tx CV-P parameter is a count of detected FEs.

Tx ES-P

Transmit Path Errored Seconds (Tx ES-P) is a count of the seconds containing one or more anomalies and/or defects for paths on the transmit end of the signal. For DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more CRC-6 errors, one or more CS events, or one or more SEF or AIS defects. For DS-1 SF paths, the Tx ES-P parameter is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more FE events, or one or more CS events, or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

Tx SAS-P

Transmit Path Severely Errored Seconds Frame/Alarm Indication Signal (Tx SAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals containing one or more SEFs or one or more AIS defects on the transmit end of the signal.

Tx SES-P

Transmit Path Severely Errored Seconds (Tx SES-P) is a count of the seconds containing more than a particular quantity of anomalies and/or defects for paths on the transmit end of the signal. For the DS-1 ESF paths, this parameter is a count of seconds when 320 or more CRC-6 errors or one or more SEF or AIS defects occurred. For DS-1 SF paths, an SES is a second containing either the occurrence of four FEs or one or more SEF or AIS defects.

Tx UAS-P

Transmit Path Unavailable Seconds (Tx UAS-P) is a count of one-second intervals when the DS-1 path is unavailable on the transmit end of the signal. The DS-1 path is unavailable at the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that qualify as SESs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SESs. The ten seconds with no SESs are excluded from unavailable time.

UAS-L

Line Unavailable Seconds (UAS-L) is a count of the seconds when the line is unavailable. A line becomes unavailable when ten consecutive seconds occur that qualify as SES-Ls, and it continues to be unavailable until ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-Ls.

UAS-LFE

Far-End Line Unavailable Seconds (UAS-LFE) is a count of the seconds when the line is unavailable at the far end. A line becomes unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-LFEs, and continues to be unavailable until the onset of ten consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-LFEs.

UAS-P

Near-End STS Path Unavailable Seconds (UAS-P) is a count of the seconds when the STS path was unavailable. An STS path becomes unavailable when ten consecutive seconds occur that qualify as SES-Ps, and continues to be unavailable until ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-Ps.

UAS-PFE

Far-End STS Path Unavailable Seconds (UAS-PFE) is a count of the seconds when the STS path was unavailable. An STS path becomes unavailable when ten consecutive seconds occur that qualify as SES-PFEs, and continues to be unavailable until ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-PFEs.

UAS-V

Unavailable Second VT Layer (UAS-V) is a count of the seconds when the VT path was unavailable. A VT path becomes unavailable when ten consecutive seconds occur that qualify as SES-Vs, and it continues to be unavailable until ten consecutive seconds occur that do not qualify as SES-Vs.

UAS-VFE

Far-End VT Path Unavailable Seconds (UAS-VFE) is a count of the seconds when the VT path is unavailable at the far-end. A VT path is considered unavailable at the onset of ten consecutive seconds that qualify as SES-VFEs, and continues to be considered unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not qualify as SES-VFEs.


4.5  Performance Monitoring for Electrical Cards

The following sections define performance monitoring parameters for the XTC-14 and XTC-28-3 electrical cards.

4.5.1  XTC DS-1 Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 4-1 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters.

Figure 4-1 Monitored Signal Types for the XTC Card DS-1 Ports


Note The XX in Figure 4-1 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 4-2 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 4-2 shows where overhead bytes detected on the application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) produce performance monitoring parameters for the XTC card DS-1 ports.

Figure 4-2 PM Parameter Read Points on the XTC Card DS-1 Ports

The PM parameters for the XTC card DS-1 ports are listed in Table 4-3.

Table 4-3 DS1 PM Parameters for XTC Card DS-1 Ports 

Line (NE)
Rx Path (NE)
Tx Path (NE)
VT Path (NE)
STS Path (NE)
VT Path (FE)
STS Path (FE)

CV-L
ES-L
SES-L
LOSS-L

AISS-P
CV-P
ES-P
SAS-P
SES-P
UAS-P
CSS-P
ESA-P
ESB-P
SEFS-P

AISS-P
CV-P
ES-P
SAS-P
SES-P
UAS-P

CV-V
ES-V
SES-V
UAS-V

CV-P
ES-P
SES-P
UAS-P
FC-P

CV-VFE
ES-VFE
SES-VFE
UAS-VFE

CV-PFE
ES-PFE
SES-PFE
UAS-PFE
FC-PFE



Note Under the Provisioning > Threshold tab, the XTC cards have user-defined thresholds for the DS-1 receive (Rx) path PM parameters. In the Threshold tab they are displayed as Code Violation (CV), Errored Seconds (ES), Severely Errored Seconds (SES), Unavailable Seconds (UAS), Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), and Seconds Frame/Alarm Indication Signal (SAS) without the Rx prefix.



Note Under the Performance tab, the displayed DS-1 Tx path PM parameter values are based on calculations performed by the card and therefore have no user-defined thresholds. The tab is labeled Elect[rical] Path Threshold.


4.5.2  XTC DS3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 4-3 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters.

Figure 4-3 Monitored Signal Types for the XTC Card DS-3 Ports


Note The XX in Figure 4-3 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 4-4 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 4-4 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the XTC card DS-3 ports.

Figure 4-4 PM Parameter Read Points on the XTC Card DS-3 Ports

The PM parameters for the XTC card DS-3 ports are listed in Table 4-4.

Table 4-4 DS-3 PM Parameters for XTC Card DS-3 Ports 

Line (NE)
STS Path (NE)
STS Path (FE)

CV-L
ES-L
SES-L
LOSS-L

CV-P
ES-P
SES-P
UAS-P
FC-P

CV-PFE
ES-PFE
SES-PFE
UAS-PFE
FC-PFE


4.6  Performance Monitoring for Ethernet Cards

The following sections define performance monitoring parameters and definitions for the E-Series and G-Series Ethernet cards.

4.6.1  E-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

CTC provides Ethernet performance information, including line-level parameters, port bandwidth consumption, and historical Ethernet statistics. The E-Series Ethernet performance information is divided into the Statistics, Utilization, and History tabbed windows within the card view Performance tab window.

4.6.1.1  E-Series Ethernet Statistics Window

The Ethernet Statistics window lists Ethernet parameters at the line level. The Statistics window provides buttons to change the statistical values shown. The Baseline button resets the displayed statistics values to zero. The Refresh button manually refreshes statistics. Auto-Refresh sets a time interval at which automatic refresh will occur.

Table 4-5 defines the E-Series Ethernet card statistics parameters.

Table 4-5 E-Series Ethernet Statistics Parameters 

Parameter
Meaning
Link Status

Indicates whether or not link integrity is present; up means present and down means not present.

Rx Packets

Number of packets received since the last counter reset.

Rx Bytes

Number of bytes received since the last counter reset.

Tx Packets

Number of packets transmitted since the last counter reset.

Tx Bytes

Number of bytes transmitted since the last counter reset.

Rx Total Errors

Total number of receive errors.

Rx FCS

Number of packets with a frame check sequence (FCS) error; FCS errors indicate frame corruption during transmission.

Rx Alignment

Number of packets with alignment errors; alignment errors are received incomplete frames.

Rx Runts

Measures undersized packets with bad cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors.

Rx Shorts

Measures undersized packets with good cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors.

Rx Oversized + Jabbers

Measures oversized packets and jabbers. Size is greater than 1522 errors, regardless of CRC errors.

Tx Collisions

Number of transmit packets that are collisions. The port and the attached device transmitting at the same time caused collisions.

Tx Late Collisions

Number of frames that were not transmitted because they encountered a collision outside of the normal collision window. Normally, late collision events should occur only rarely, if at all.

Tx Excessive Collisions

Number of consecutive collisions.

Tx Deferred

Number of packets deferred.


4.6.1.2  E-Series Ethernet Utilization Window

The Utilization window shows the percentage of Tx and Rx line bandwidth used by the Ethernet ports during consecutive time segments. The Mode field displays the real-time mode status, such as 100 Full, which is the mode setting configured on the E-Series port. However, if the E-Series port is set to autonegotiate the mode (Auto), this field shows the result of the link negotiation between the E-Series and the peer Ethernet device attached directly to the E-Series port.

The Utilization window provides an Interval menu, that enables you to set time intervals of 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 1 day. Line utilization is calculated with the following formulas:

Rx = (inOctets + inPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

Tx = (outOctets + outPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

The interval is defined in seconds. The maxBaseRate is defined by raw bits/second in one direction for the Ethernet port (that is, 1 Gbps). Table 4-6 shows the maxBaseRates for E-Series Ethernet cards.

Table 4-6 maxBaseRate for STS Circuits 

STS
maxBaseRate

STS-1

51840000

STS-3c

155000000

STS-6c

311000000

STS-12c

622000000



Note Line utilization numbers express the average of ingress and egress traffic as a percentage of capacity.



Note The E-Series Ethernet card is a Layer 2 device or switch and supports Trunk Utilization statistics. The trunk utilization statistics are similar to the line utilization statistics, but show the percentage of circuit bandwidth used rather than the percentage of line bandwidth used. The trunk utilization statistics are accessed via the card view Maintenance tab.


4.6.1.3  E-Series Ethernet History Window

The Ethernet History window lists past Ethernet statistics for the previous time intervals. Depending on the selected time interval, the History window will display the statistics for each port for the number of previous time intervals as shown in Table 4-7. The listed parameters are defined in Table 4-5.

Table 4-7 Ethernet History Statistics per Time Interval

Time Interval
Number of Intervals Displayed

1 minute

60 previous time intervals

15 minutes

32 previous time intervals

1 hour

24 previous time intervals

1 day (24-hours)

7 previous time intervals


4.6.2  G-Series Ethernet Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

CTC provides Ethernet performance information, including line-level parameters, port bandwidth consumption, and historical Ethernet statistics. The G-Series Ethernet performance information is divided into the Statistics, Utilization, and History tabbed windows within the card view Performance tab window.

4.6.2.1  G-Series Ethernet Statistics Window

The Ethernet Statistics window lists Ethernet parameters at the line level. The Statistics window provides buttons to change the statistical values shown. The Baseline button resets the displayed statistics values to zero. The Refresh button manually refreshes statistics. Auto-Refresh sets a time interval at which automatic refresh will occur. The G-Series Statistics window also has a Clear button. The Clear button sets the values on the card to zero, but does not reset the G-Series card.

Table 4-8 defines the G-Series Ethernet card Statistics parameters.

Table 4-8 G-Series Ethernet Statistics Parameters 

Parameter
Meaning
Time Last Cleared

A time stamp indicating the last time statistics were reset.

Link Status

Indicates whether or not the Ethernet link is receiving a valid Ethernet signal (carrier) from the attached Ethernet device; up means present and down means not present.

Rx Packets

Number of packets received since the last counter reset.

Rx Bytes

Number of bytes received since the last counter reset.

Tx Packets

Number of packets transmitted since the last counter reset.

Tx Bytes

Number of bytes transmitted since the last counter reset.

Rx Total Errors

Total number of receive errors.

Rx FCS

Number of packets with a FCS error; FCS errors indicate frame corruption during transmission.

Rx Alignment

Number of packets with received incomplete frames.

Rx Runts

Measures undersized packets with bad CRC errors.

Rx Shorts

Measures undersized packets with good CRC errors.

Rx Jabbers

Total number of frames received that exceed the1548-byte maximum and contain CRC errors.

Rx Giants

Number of packets received that are greater than 1530 bytes in length.

Rx Pause Frames

Number of received IEEE 802.3z pause frames.

Tx Pause Frames

Number of transmitted IEEE 802.3z pause frames.

Rx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion

Number of received packets dropped due to overflow in G-Series frame buffer.

Tx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion

Number of transmit queue drops due to drops in the G-Series frame buffer.

HDLC errors

High-level data link control (HDLC) errors received from SONET1 .

Rx Unicast Packets

Number of unicast packets received since the last counter reset.

Tx Unicast Packets

Number of unicast packets transmitted.

Rx Multicast Packets

Number of multicast packets received since the last counter reset.

Tx Multicast Packets

Number of multicast packets transmitted.

Rx Broadcast Packets

Number of broadcast packets received since the last counter reset.

Tx Broadcast Packets

Number or broadcast packets transmitted.

1 Do not use the HDLC errors counter to count the number of frames dropped because of HDLC errors, because each frame can fragment into several smaller frames during HDLC error conditions and spurious HDLC frames can also be generated. If HDLC error counters are incrementing when no SONET path problems should be present, it might indicate a problem with the quality of the SONET path. For example, a SONET protection switch generates a set of HLDC errors. But the actual values of these counters are less significant than the fact they are changing.


4.6.2.2  G-Series Ethernet Utilization Window

The Utilization window shows the percentage of Tx and Rx line bandwidth used by the Ethernet ports during consecutive time segments. The Mode field displays the real-time mode status, such as 100 Full, which is the mode setting configured on the G-Series port. However, if the G-Series port is set to autonegotiate the mode (Auto), this field shows the result of the link negotiation between the G-Series and the peer Ethernet device attached directly to the G-Series port.

The Utilization window provides an Interval menu, that enables you to set time intervals of 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 1 day. Line utilization is calculated with the following formulas:

Rx = (inOctets + inPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

Tx = (outOctets + outPkts * 20) * 8 / 100 % interval * maxBaseRate

The interval is defined in seconds. The maxBaseRate is defined by raw bits/second in one direction for the Ethernet port (that is, 1 Gbps). Table 4-9 shows the maxBaseRates for G-Series Ethernet cards.

Table 4-9 maxBaseRate for STS Circuits 

STS
maxBaseRate

STS-1

51840000

STS-3c

155000000

STS-6c

311000000

STS-12c

622000000



Note Line utilization numbers express the average of ingress and egress traffic as a percentage of capacity.



Note Unlike the E-Series, the G-Series card does not have a display of trunk utilization statistics, because the G-Series card is not a Layer 2 device or switch.


4.6.2.3  G-Series Ethernet History Window

The Ethernet History window lists past Ethernet statistics for the previous time intervals. Depending on the selected time interval, the History window will display the statistics for each port for the number of previous time intervals as shown in Table 4-10. The listed parameters are defined in Table 4-8.

Table 4-10 Ethernet History Statistics per Time Interval

Time Interval
Number of Intervals Displayed

1 minute

60 previous time intervals

15 minutes

32 previous time intervals

1 hour

24 previous time intervals

1 day (24 hours)

7 previous time intervals


4.7  Performance Monitoring for Optical Cards

The following sections define performance monitoring parameters and definitions for the OC-3, OC-12, and OC-48 cards.

4.7.1  OC-3 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 4-5 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters. Figure 4-6 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce PM parameters for the OC-3 card.

Figure 4-5 Monitored Signal Types for the OC-3 Card

Figure 4-6 PM Parameter Read Points on the OC-3 Card


Note For PM locations relating to protection switch counts, see the Telcordia GR-253-CORE document.


Table 4-11 lists the PM parameters for the OC-3 cards.

Table 4-11 OC3 Card PMs 

Section (NE)
Line (NE) 1
STS Path (NE)
Line (FE)
STS Path (FE)2

CV-S
ES-S
SES-S
SEFS-S

CV-L
ES-L
SES-L
UAS-L
FC-L
PSC (1+1)
PSD

CV-P
ES-P
SES-P
UAS-P
FC-P
PPJC-PDET
NPJC-PDET
PPJC-PGEN
NPJC-PGEN
PJC-DIFF
PJCS-PDET
PJCS-PGEN

CV-LFE
ES-LFE
SES-LFE
UAS-LFE
FC-LFE

CV-PFE
ES-PFE
SES-PFE
UAS-PFE
FC-PFE

1 BLSR is not supported on the OC-3 card; therefore, the Protection Switching Duration-Working (PSD-W), Protection Switching Duration-Span (PSD-S), and Protection Switching Duration-Ring (PSD-R) PM parameters do not increment.

2 SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information see the, "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring" section



Note For information about troubleshooting path protection switch counts, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide. For information about creating circuits that perform a switch, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.



Note In CTC, the count fields for PPJC and NPJC PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. See the "Pointer Justification Count Performance Monitoring" section.


4.7.2  OC-12 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 4-7 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters. Figure 4-8 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the OC-12 cards.

Figure 4-7 Monitored Signal Types for the OC-12 Cards


Note PM parameters on the protect STS are not supported for BLSR. The XX in Figure 4-7 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 4-8 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 4-8 PM Parameter Read Points on the OC-12 Cards


Note For PM locations relating to protection switch counts, see the Telcordia GR-1230-CORE document.


Table 4-12 lists the PM parameters for the OC-12 cards.

Table 4-12 OC12 Card PMs 

Section (NE)
Line (NE)
STS Path (NE)1
Line (FE)

CV-S
ES-S
SES-S
SEFS-S

CV-L
ES-L
SES-L
UAS-L
FC-L
PSC (1+1, 2F BLSR)
PSD (2F BLSR)
PSC-W (2F BLSR)
PSD-W (2F BLSR)

CV-P
ES-P
SES-P
UAS-P
FC-P
PPJC-PDET-P
NPJC-PDET-P
PPJC-PGEN-P
NPJC-PGEN-P
PJC-DIFF-P
PJCS-PDET-P
PJCS-PGEN-P

CV-LFE
ES-LFE
SES-LFE
UAS-LFE
FC-LFE

1 SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring" section



Note In CTC, the count fields for PPJC and NPJC PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. See the "Pointer Justification Count Performance Monitoring" section.



Note For information about troubleshooting path protection switch counts, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide. For information about creating circuits that perform a switch, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.


4.7.3  OC-48 Card Performance Monitoring Parameters

Figure 4-9 shows the signal types that support near-end and far-end PM parameters. Figure 4-10 shows where overhead bytes detected on the ASICs produce performance monitoring parameters for the OC-48 cards.

Figure 4-9 Monitored Signal Types for the OC-48 Cards


Note PM parameters on the protect STS are not supported for BLSR. The XX in Figure 4-9 represents all PM parameters listed in Figure 4-10 with the given prefix and/or suffix.


Figure 4-10 PM Parameter Read Points on the OC-48 Cards


Note For PM locations relating to protection switch counts, see the Telcordia GR-1230-CORE document.


Table 4-13 lists the PM parameters for the OC-48 cards.

Table 4-13 OC48 Card PMs 

Section (NE)
Line (NE)
STS Path (NE)1
Line (FE)

CV-S
ES-S
SES-S
SEFS-S

CV-L
ES-L
SES-L
UAS-L
FC-L
PSC (1+1, 2F BLSR)
PSD (2F BLSR)
PSC-W (2F BLSR)
PSD-W (2F BLSR)

CV-P
ES-P
SES-P
UAS-P
FC-P
PPJC-PDETP
NPJC-PDETP
PPJC-PGENP
NPJC-PGENP
PJC-DIFFP
PJCS-PDETP
PJCS-PGENP

CV-LFE
ES--LFE
SESLFE
UAS-LFE
FC-LFE

1 SONET path PM parameters do not count unless IPPM is enabled. For additional information, see the "Intermediate-Path Performance Monitoring" section



Note In CTC, the count fields for PPJC and NPJC PM parameters appear white and blank unless they are enabled on the Provisioning > Line tabs. See the "Pointer Justification Count Performance Monitoring" section.



Note For information about troubleshooting path protection switch counts, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Troubleshooting Guide. For information about creating circuits that perform a switch, refer to the Cisco ONS 15327 Procedure Guide.