Cisco IOS Mobile Wireless Packet Data Serving Node Configuration Guide, Release 12.4
Configuring Cisco Mobile Wireless Packet Data Serving Node
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Table Of Contents

Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) Release 3.0 for Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T

Feature Overview

System Overview

How PDSN Works

Cisco PDSN Simple IP

Cisco PDSN Mobile IP

Mobile IP Dynamic Home Address Deletes Older Sessions With Different IMSI

PMTU Discovery by Mobile IP Client

Cisco PDSN Proxy Mobile IP

PDSN on MWAM

Features

New Features in This Release

Features From Previous Releases

PDSN Performance Metrics

Packet Data Service Access

Simple IP Based Service Access

Simple IP Routed Access

Simple IP VPDN Access

Proxy-Mobile IP Access

Mobile IP Based Service Access

Binding Update Procedures

Simple IPv6 Access

Configuring Simple IPV6

Session Redundancy Infrastructure

Functional Overview

In Process Sync Events

Handoff

Restrictions

Internals

AAA - Authentication and Authorization

AAA Accounting

AAA Accounting

Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy

Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy Infrastructure

Configuring HSRP

Protocol Layering and RP Connections

Open RP Interface Connections

PPP Connections

Application Flows

Closed-RP/Open-RP Integration

Handoff between Closed-RP and Open-RP

Closed-RP/Open-RP Clustering Architecture

Performance

Mobility Management With Closed-RP

Handoffs

IOS-SLB on the Supervisor card

PPPoGRE RP Interface

A11 Session Update

SDB Indicator Marking

Signaling of SDB Indication

Identification of Data Packets For SDB Indication

SDB Indicator Marking for PPP Control Packets

Resource Management

Resource Revocation for Mobile IP

Packet of Disconnect

Radius Enhancements

Radius Server Load Balancing

Subscriber Authorization Based on Domain

IS-835 Prepaid Support

Prepaid Billing

Volume-based Prepaid Data Service Flow

Duration-based Prepaid Data Service Flow

Volume-based Prepaid Data Service with Tariff Switching

Support for G17 Attribute in Acct-Stop and Interim Records

Mobile IP Call Processing Per Second Improvements

IS-835-B Compliant Static IPSec

Configuring IPSec in Cisco IOS

On-Demand Address Pools (ODAP)

Pool Sizing Information

Always On Feature

NPE-G1 Platform Support

PDSN MIB Enhancement

Cisco Proprietary Prepaid Billing

How Prepaid Works in PDSN

Prepaid Simple IP Call Flow

Prepaid Mobile IP Call Flow

3 DES Encryption

Mobile IP IPSec

Hardware IPSec Acceleration Using IPSec Acceleration Module—Static IPSec

Conditional Debugging Enhancements

Enhancements Prior to Release 3.0

Electronic Serial Number (ESN) in Billing

Support for Mobile Equipment Indentifier (MEID)

1xEV-DO Support

Features Available From Previous PDSN Releases

Integrated Foreign Agent (FA)

AAA Support

Packet Transport for VPDN

Proxy Mobile IP

Multiple Mobile IP Flows

Redundancy and Load Balancing

PDSN Cluster Controller / Member Architecture

PDSN Controller-Member Clustering

Redundancy

Load Sharing

PDSN Cluster Member Selection

Load Balancing

Upgrading the Controller PDSN Software from R1.2 to R2.0

Upgrading the Member PDSN Software from R1.2 to R2.0 and Above

Scalability

High Availability

Related Features and Technologies

Related Documents

Supported Platforms

Supported Standards, MIBs, and RFCs

Configuration Tasks

System Requirements

Memory Requirements

Hardware Supported

Software Compatibility

Determining the Software Version

Upgrading to a New Software Release

Upgrading PDSN Image from YF-based Image to R3.0-based Image

Loading the IOS Image to the MWAM

Configuring the PDSN Image

Enabling PDSN Services

Creating the CDMA Ix Interface

Creating a Loopback Interface

Creating a Virtual Template Interface and Associating It With the PDSN Application

Enabling R-P Interface Signaling

Configuring User Session Parameters

Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy Infrastructure

Configuring AAA in the PDSN Environment

Configuring RADIUS in the PDSN Environment

Configuring Prepaid in the PDSN Environment

Enabling VPDN in a PDSN Environment

Configuring the Mobile IP FA

Configuring IS835-B IPSec for the Cisco PDSN

Configuring Proxy Mobile IP Attributes Locally

Configuring Mobile IP Security Associations

Configuring PDSN Cluster Controller

Configuring PDSN Cluster Member

Configuring Peer-to-Peer PDSN Selection

Enabling Network Management

Configuring Always On Service

Configuring A11 Session Updates

Configuring SDB Indicator Marking

Configuring SDB Indicator Marking for PPP Control Packets

Configuring On Demand Address Pools

Configuring PoD on the PDSN

Configuring Mobile IP Resource Revocation on the PDSN

Configuring Closed-RP Interfaces

Configuring Short Data Burst Flagging

Configuring PDSN Accounting Events

Configuring CDMA RADIUS Attributes

Monitoring and Maintaining the PDSN

Configuration Examples

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Simple IP

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Simple IP with VPDN

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Mobile IP

Combined Configuration for Cisco PDSN

PDSN Cluster Configuration

Closed RP IOS SLB Load Balancing Configuration

Open-Closed RP Configuration Example

Session Redundancy Configuration Examples

Simple IPV6 Configuration Example

PDSN Accounting

Flow Based Accounting

AAA Authentication and Authorization Profile

AAA Profiles for Various Service Types

Attributes

Authentication and Authorization RADIUS Attributes

Accounting Services RADIUS Attributes

Prepaid RADIUS Attributes

Acronyms


Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) Release 3.0 for Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T


Feature History

Release
Modification

12.3(14)YX1

Release 3.0 of the Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) software. The following new feature is introduced:

Support for Mobile Equipment Indentifier (MEID)

12.3(14)YX

Release 3.0 of the Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) software. The following new features are introduced:

Packet Data Service Access, page 14

Simple IPv6 Access

Session Redundancy Infrastructure, page 21

Radius Server Load Balancing, page 60

Closed-RP/Open-RP Integration, page 47

Subscriber Authorization Based on Domain, page 62

PDSN MIB Enhancement, page 79

PPP Counters in Release 3.0

RP Counters in Release 3.0

Conditional Debugging Enhancements, page 100

Trace Functionality in Release 3.0

12.3(11)YF3

Added support for Mobile IP Dynamic Home Address Deletes Older Sessions With Different IMSI.

The following new command was added:

ip mobile cdma imsi dynamic

12.3(11)YF2

Added support for Identification of Data Packets For SDB Indication, SDB Indicator Marking for PPP Control Packets, and Support for G17 Attribute in Acct-Stop and Interim Records.

The following new commands were added or modified:

cdma pdsn a11 dormant sdb-indication match-qos-group

cdma pdsn compliance

cdma pdsn attribute send g17

12.3(11)YF1

A restriction for Registration Revocation was removed.

New commands were added, including:

cdma pdsn compliance

debug cdma pdsn prepaid

debug cdma pdsn radius disconnect nai

show cdma pdsn statistics prepaid

Existing commands were modified, including:

clear cdma pdsn session

clear cdma pdsn statistics adds RADIUS statistics

cdma pdsn mobile-advertisement-burst

ip mobile foreign-service

12.3(11)YF

Release 2.1 of the Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) software. Four new features were added, including the Closed-RP Interface.

12.3(8)XW

Release 2.0 of the Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) software.

12.3(4)T

This feature was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3(4)T.

12.2(8)ZB8

One new CLI command was added.

12.2(8)ZB7

Six CLI commands were added or modified.

12.2(8)ZB6

Two CLI commands were added or modified.

12.2(8)ZB5

Four new CLI commands were added.

12.2(8)ZB1

This feature was introduced on the Cisco 7600 Internet Router.

12.2(8)ZB

This feature was introduced on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Switch.

12.2(8)BY

This feature was introduced on the Cisco 7200 Series Router.


This document describes the Cisco Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) software for use on the Cisco 7200 Series router, and the Cisco Multi-processor WAN Application Module (MWAM) that resides in the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Switch, and the Cisco 7600 Internet Router. It includes information on the features and functions of the product, supported platforms, related documents, and configuration tasks.

This document includes the following sections:

Feature Overview, page 3

Features, page 11

Supported Platforms, page 111

Supported Standards, MIBs, and RFCs, page 112

Configuration Tasks, page 113

System Requirements, page 113

Monitoring and Maintaining the PDSN, page 151

Configuration Examples, page 154

PDSN Accounting, page 215

AAA Authentication and Authorization Profile, page 220

Attributes, page 222

Acronyms, page 236

Feature Overview

A PDSN provides access to the Internet, intranets, and Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) servers for mobile stations using a Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000) Radio Access Network (RAN). The Cisco PDSN is a Cisco IOS software feature that runs on Cisco 7200 routers, and on MWAM cards on the 6500 routers, and the Cisco 7600 Internet Router, where it acts as an access gateway for Simple IP and Mobile IP stations. It provides foreign agent (FA) support and packet transport for virtual private networking (VPN). It also acts as an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) client.

The Cisco PDSN supports all relevant 3GPP2 standards, including those that define the overall structure of a CDMA2000 network, and the interfaces between radio components and the PDSN.

System Overview

CDMA is one of the standards for Mobile Station communication. A typical CDMA2000 network includes terminal equipment, mobile termination, base transceiver stations (BTSs), base station controllers (BSCs / PCFs), PDSNs, and other CDMA network and data network entities. The PDSN is the interface between a BSC / PCF and a network router.

Figure 1 illustrates the relationship of the components of a typical CDMA2000 network, including a PDSN. In this illustration, a roaming mobile station user is receiving data services from a visited access provider network, rather than from the mobile station user's subscribed access provider network.

Figure 1 The CDMA Network

As the illustration shows, the mobile station, which must support either Simple IP or Mobile IP, connects to a radio tower and BTS. The BTS connects to a BSC, which contains a component called the Packet Control Function (PCF). The PCF communicates with the Cisco PDSN through an A10/A11 interface. The A10 interface is for user data and the A11 interface is for control messages. This interface is also known as the RAN-to-PDSN (R-P) interface. For the Cisco PDSN Release 2.0 and above, you must use a Fast Ethernet (FE) interface as the R-P interface on the 7200 platform, and a Giga Ethernet (GE) interface on the MWAM platform.

Figure 2 illustrates the communication between the RAN and the Cisco PDSN.

Figure 2 RAN-to-PDSN Connection: the R-P Interface

The IP networking between the PDSN and external data networks is through the PDSN-to-intranet/Internet (Pi) interface. For the Cisco PDSN Release 2.0 and above, you can use either an FE or GE interface as the Pi interface.

For "back office" connectivity, such as connections to a AAA server, or to a RADIUS server, the interface is media independent. Any of the interfaces supported on the Cisco 7206 can be used to connect to these types of services; however, Cisco recommends that you use either an FE or GE interface.

How PDSN Works

When a mobile station makes a data service call, it establishes a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) link with the Cisco PDSN. The Cisco PDSN authenticates the mobile station by communicating with the AAA server. The AAA server verifies that the user is a valid subscriber, determines available services, and tracks usage for billing.

The method used to assign an IP address and the nature of the connection depends on service type and network configuration. Simple IP operation and Mobile IP operation are referred to as service types. The service type available to a user is determined by the mobile station, and by the type of service that the service provider offers. In the context of PDSN, a mobile station is the end user in both Simple IP and Mobile IP operation.

Once the mobile station is authenticated, it requests an IP address. Simple IP stations communicate the request using the Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP). Mobile IP stations communicate the request using Mobile IP registrations.

The following sections describe the IP addressing and communication levels for each respective topic:

Cisco PDSN Simple IP

Cisco PDSN Mobile IP

PMTU Discovery by Mobile IP Client

Cisco PDSN Simple IP

With Simple IP, a service provider's Cisco PDSN assigns a dynamic or static IP address to the mobile station during the PPP link setup. The mobile station retains this IP address as long as it is served by a radio network that has connectivity to the address-assigning PDSN.

Therefore, as long as the mobile station remains within an area of RANs that is served by the same PDSN, the MS can move or roam inside the coverage area and maintain the same PPP links. If the mobile station moves outside the coverage area of the given PDSN, the mobile station is assigned a new IP address, and any application-level connections are terminated.


Note A static IP address can be requested by the mobile station, and will be assigned if the address is within the pool of addresses and is available. Also an IP address can be statically specified in the AAA profile of the user using the "Framed-IP-Address" attribute.


Figure 3 illustrates the placement of the Cisco PDSN in a Simple IP scenario.

Figure 3 CDMA Network - Simple IP Scenario

Cisco PDSN Simple IP with VPDN Scenario

A Virtual Private Data Network (VPDN) allows a private network dial-in service to span to remote access servers called Network Access Servers (NAS). Figure 4 illustrates a VPDN connection in the PDSN environment with Simple IP. In this scenario, the PDSN is acting as the NAS.

Figure 4 CDMA Network —Simple IP with VPDN Scenario

A VPDN connection is established in the following order:

1. A PPP peer (mobile station) connects with the local NAS (the Cisco PDSN).

2. The NAS begins authentication when the client dials in. The NAS determines that the PPP link should be forwarded to a tunnel server for the client. The location of the tunnel server is provided as part of the authentication by the Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) server.

3. The tunnel server performs its own authentication of the user and starts the PPP negotiation. It performs authentication for both the tunnel setup and the client.

The PPP client is forwarded through a Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) tunnel over User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

4. The PPP setup is completed and all frames exchanged between the client and tunnel server are sent through the NAS. The protocols running within PPP are transparent to the NAS.

Cisco PDSN Mobile IP

With Mobile IP, the mobile station can roam beyond the coverage area of a given PDSN and still maintain the same IP address and application-level connections.

Figure 5 shows the placement of the Cisco PDSN in a Mobile IP scenario.

Figure 5 CDMA Network —Mobile IP Scenario

The communication process occurs in the following order:

1. The mobile station registers with its Home Agent (HA) through an FA; in this case, the Cisco PDSN.

2. The HA accepts the registration, assigns an IP address to the mobile station, and creates a tunnel to the FA. This results in a PPP link between the mobile station and the FA (or PDSN), and an IP-in-IP or Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnel between the FA and the HA.

As part of the registration process, the HA creates a binding table entry to associate the mobile station's home address with its Care-of address.


Note While away from home, the mobile station is associated with a care-of address. This address identifies the mobile station's current, topological point of attachment to the Internet, and is used to route packets to the mobile station. In IS-835-B networks, the foreign agent's address is always used as the Care-of address.


3. The HA advertises that the network is reachable to the mobile station, and tunnels datagrams to the mobile station at its current location.

4. The mobile station sends packets with its home address as the source IP address.

5. Packets destined for the mobile station go through the HA; the HA tunnels them through the PDSN to the mobile station using the care-of address.

6. When the PPP link is handed off to a new PDSN, the link is re-negotiated and the Mobile IP registration is renewed.

7. The HA updates its binding table with the new care-of address.


Note For more information about Mobile IP, refer to the Cisco IOS Release 12.2 documentation modules Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide and Cisco IOS IP Command Reference. RFC2002 describes the specification in detail. TIA/EIA/IS-835-B also defines how Mobile IP is implemented for PDSN.


Mobile IP Dynamic Home Address Deletes Older Sessions With Different IMSI

The PDSN cannot recognize 1xRTT to EVDO as a handoff due to a change of IMSI. The result is that the "cdma-reason-ind" in the account stop message will not reflect the same.

By default, the PDSN keeps the first call session if the Mobile does a static home address. In this release, the PDSN supports deleting the first call session for dynamic home address cases (for example, 1x-RTT to EVDO handoff where the IMSI changes during the handoff).

The old call scenario is established as follows:

1. Mobile Node with IMSI = imsi1, NAI = nai1 establishes session.

2. When PDSN receives an RRQ from the same mobile node with the same NAI but with different IMSI (with IMSI = imsi2, NAI = nai1), currently a new session does not come up on the PDSN, and old session remains.

3. During the mobile handoff between 1XRTT and EVDO call, handoff will not succeed due to the above behavior of PDSN.

A new CLI is introduced in this release that allows you to delete the old session. When you issue the ip mobile cdma imsi dynamic command, the PDSN releases the old session and allows the new session to come up.

PMTU Discovery by Mobile IP Client

FTP upload and ping from the end node may fail when PMTU Discovery (done by setting the DF bit) is done by a MobileIP client (an end node) for packet sizes of about 1480. Due to failure of PMTUD algorithm, the IP sender will never learn the smaller path MTU, but will continue unsuccessfully to retransmit the too-large packet, until the retransmissions time out.

Please refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/105/38.shtml#2000XP for disabling PMTUD for Windows 2000/XP platforms.

Cisco PDSN Proxy Mobile IP

Currently, there is a lack of commercially-available Mobile IP client software. Conversely, PPP, which is widely used to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP), is ubiquitous in IP devices. As an alternative to Mobile IP, you can use Cisco's proxy Mobile IP feature. This capability of the Cisco PDSN, which is integrated with PPP, enables a Mobile IP FA to provide mobility to authenticated PPP users.


Note In Proxy Mobile IP, the MS can have only one IP flow per PPP Session.


The communication process occurs in the following order:

1. The Cisco PDSN (acting as an FA) collects and sends mobile station authentication information to the AAA server.

2. If the mobile station is successfully authenticated to use Cisco PDSN Proxy Mobile IP service, the AAA server returns the registration data and an HA address.

3. The FA uses this information, and other data, to generate a Registration Request (RRQ) on behalf of the mobile station, and sends it to the HA.

4. If the registration is successful, the HA sends a registration reply (RRP) that contains an IP address to the FA.

5. The FA assigns the IP address (received in the RRP) to the mobile station, using IPCP.

6. A tunnel is established between the HA and the FA/PDSN. The tunnel carries traffic to and from the mobile station.

PDSN on MWAM

The MWAM supports the feature set of PDSN Release 3.0, and functionality remains the same as on the Cisco 7200 platforms. The significant difference between the Cisco PDSN on the Cisco 7200 router and on the MWAM is that a Cisco Catalyst 6500 or Cisco 7600 chassis will support a maximum of 6 application modules. Each application module supports 5 IOS images, each with access to 512 Megabytes of RAM. Up to five of these images can function as a PDSN.

Additionally, instances of the cluster controller functionality will be configured as required. One active and one standby controller are required for a cluster of 48 PDSN instances or less. Each PDSN image supports 20,000 sessions. For every 10 PDSNs configured in the chassis, one active and one standby controller is required. Internal to the chassis, the PDSN images are configured on the same VLAN in order to support the Controller-Member architecture (although the architecture itself does not require this). Load balancing external to the chassis is determined by the physical proximity of the chassis and the network architecture. It is possible that you require both a VLAN approach, and a more traditional routed approach.

Features

New Features in This Release

This section describes the following key features of the Cisco PDSN Release 3.0:

Packet Data Service Access, page 14

Simple IPv6 Access

Session Redundancy Infrastructure, page 21

Radius Server Load Balancing, page 60

Closed-RP/Open-RP Integration, page 47

Subscriber Authorization Based on Domain, page 62

PDSN MIB Enhancement, page 79

PPP Counters in Release 3.0

RP Counters in Release 3.0

Conditional Debugging Enhancements, page 100

Trace Functionality in Release 3.0

Features From Previous Releases

This section lists features that were introduced prior to Cisco PDSN Release 3.0

Mobile IP Dynamic Home Address Deletes Older Sessions With Different IMSI, page 9

Protocol Layering and RP Connections, page 46

PPPoGRE RP Interface, page 55

A11 Session Update, page 55

SDB Indicator Marking, page 56Resource Revocation for Mobile IP, page 58

Packet of Disconnect, page 59

IS-835 Prepaid Support, page 62

Prepaid Billing, page 63

Mobile IP Call Processing Per Second Improvements, page 73

IS-835-B Compliant Static IPSec, page 73

On-Demand Address Pools (ODAP), page 76

Always On Feature, page 77

NPE-G1 Platform Support, page 78

PDSN MIB Enhancement, page 79

Conditional Debugging Enhancements, page 100

Cisco Proprietary Prepaid Billing, page 93

3 DES Encryption, page 97

Mobile IP IPSec, page 97

Hardware IPSec Acceleration Using IPSec Acceleration Module—Static IPSec, page 98

1xEV-DO Support, page 102

Integrated Foreign Agent (FA), page 103

AAA Support, page 103

Packet Transport for VPDN, page 104

Proxy Mobile IP, page 104

Multiple Mobile IP Flows, page 104

PDSN Cluster Controller / Member Architecture, page 104


Note The Cisco PDSN software offers several feature options which are available on four different images. Some features are image-specific, and are not available on all images. The PDSN 2.1 Feature Matrixin Table 1 lists the available images for PDSN 2.0, and identifies the features available on each image.


Table 1 PDSN 2.1 Feature Matrix 

Feature Name
c7200-
c6is-mz
c7200-
c6ik9s-mz
c6svc5fmwam-c6is-mz

Session Redundancy

   

X

Simple IPv6

X

X

X(P)

Closed/Open RP Integration

   

X

Resource Revocation Per User

X

X

X

Trace Functionality

X

X

X

Radius server load balancing

   

X

Selection of RADIUS Server Based On Realm

X

X

X

PPPoGRE RP Interface

X(P)

X(P)

X(P)

A11 Session Update

X

X

X

SDB Indicator Marking

X

X

X

Packet of Disconnect

X

X

X

Resource Revocation

X

X

X

IS-835-B Compliant Static IPSec

 

X*

X*

On-Demand Address Pools

X

X

X

Always On Feature

X

X

X

NPE-G1 Platform Support

X

X

 

PDSN MIB Enhancements

X

X

X

Conditional Debugging

X

X

X

10000 Sessions

X

X

 

20000 Sessions

X(P)

X(P)

X

Prepaid Billing (IS-835-C)

X(P)

X(P)

X(P)

PDSN Controller / Member Clustering

X

X

X

PDSN Peer-to-Peer Clustering

X

X

 

1xEV-DO Support

X

X

X

ESN in Billing

X

X

X

3DES Encryption

 

X*

X*

PPP Optimization

X

X

X


P indicates that this feature is only available with a Premium license.

* Requires appropriate hardware support.


Note If you require higher performance values for PDSN selection, use the c6is-mz images; these images contain the PDSN controller-member cluster feature for PDSN selection.


PDSN Performance Metrics

Performance metrics for the Cisco PDSN software on 7200 Platform include the following:

20000 user sessions per on 7206VXR with NPE-400 with 512MB DRAM and on 7206VXR NPE-G1 with 1G DRAM.

Maximum of 200,000 user sessions per PDSN cluster configured according to the controller/member architecture (10 members) without the clustering enhancement.

Throughput on the R-P interface for non-fragmented packets of size 64, 512 and 1024 bytes.

Throughput on the R-P interface for fragmented packets of size 64, 512 and 1024 bytes with 20 byte fragmentation.

Maximum call setup rate for Simple IP and Mobile IP sessions for a stand alone PDSN.

Maximum call set up rate for a cluster with 8 members configured in a controller/member cluster for Simple IP and Mobile IP Sessions.

Maximum of 3000 L2TP tunnel endpoints with a maximum of 20000 sessions distributed across those tunnels.

Maximum of 3000 Mobile IP tunnels.

Maximum of 5000 IPSec tunnels with VAM2 hardware support on 7200 platforms.

The following performance metrics apply to the Cisco 6500 and 7600 series platforms. The quoted figures are per image, and each MWAM supports 5 PDSN images.

20000 user sessions.

Maximum call setup rate for Simple IP and Mobile IP sessions for a standalone PDSN.

Maximum of 200,000 user sessions per PDSN cluster configured according to the controller/member architecture, without R2.0 clustering enhancement. Supported cluster configuration is 10 members and 2 controllers of which one is an active controller and the other a standby.

Cluster member architecture with 48 members and clustering enhancement.

Throughput on the R-P interface for non-fragmented packets of size 64, 512 and 1024 bytes.

Throughput on the R-P interface for fragmented packets of size 64,512 and 1024 bytes with 20 byte fragmentation.

Call set up rate for a stand-alone PDSN for Simple IP and Mobile IP Sessions.

Maximum call set up rate for a cluster with 8 members configured in a controller/member cluster for Simple IP and Mobile IP Sessions.

Maximum of 3000 L2TP tunnel endpoints with a maximum of 20000 sessions distributed across those tunnels per image.

Maximum of 3000 Mobile IP tunnels per image.

Maximum of 8000 IPSec tunnels with VPNSM hardware support (This figure is for the chassis; IPSec resources are not linked with PDSN images on MWAM, they are a separate resource).

Maximum call set up rate for a cluster with n members configured in a controller-member cluster for Simple IP and Mobile IP Sessions with clustering enhancements

Packet Data Service Access

The PDSN supports two types of service accesses. The type of service access for a mobile session is determined by the capabilities of the mobile station:

Simple IP based service access

Mobile IP based service access

Simple IP Based Service Access

The PDSN facilitates a mobile user to access the internet and corporate intranet by using Simple IP based service access. Simple IP mode of access, however, limits user mobility to the coverage area of the serving PDSN. Inter-PDSN handoff causes re-negotiation of PPP between the mobile station and the new PDSN. The old IP address assigned at the previous PDSN can usually not be assigned to the mobile user from the new PDSN, and results in reset and restart of user applications.

Some of the salient features for Simple IP based service access include:

Support for static IP Addresses

Public IP addresses

Private IP addresses, e.g. for VPDN service

Support for dynamic IP Addresses

Public IP addresses

Private IP addresses, e.g for VPDN service

Support for PPP PAP/CHAP authentication

Support for MSID based service access

Support for packet data accounting per TIA/EIA/IS-835-B

Support for packet filtering

Ingress address filtering

Input access lists

Output access lists

User NAI is available during the PPP CHAP/PAP authenticating phase. Domain name information in the NAI determines the domain responsible for user authentication. Based on the type of packet routing model, Simple IP based service access can be categorized as follows.

Simple IP Routed Access

Simple IP VPDN Access

Proxy-Mobile IP services

Simple IP Routed Access

After receiving username and password during PPP LCP negotiations, the PDSN forwards authentication information to the local AAA server via an access request message. This, in turn, may be proxied to the AAA server in the user's home domain, via broker AAA servers, if necessary. On successful authentication, the user is authorized services based on its service profile. User Class/CDMA_IPTECH information, along with other authorization parameters are returned to the PDSN using an access accept message from the home AAA. On successful negotiation of an IP address, Simple IP based services are made available to the mobile user.

Simple IP routed access method is applicable for users that are not configured for VPDN or proxy-Mobile IP services. With PPP terminated at the PDSN, uplink user traffic is routed towards the IP network from the PDSN. The address assigned to the mobile user would be from within the PDSN routable domain. Private addresses may also be used if a NAT is configured. User mobility is limited to the PDSN coverage area. Inter-PCF handoffs do not disrupt service. Inter-PDSN handoffs, however, result in PPP renegotiation at the new PDSN, another IP address being assigned at the new PDSN, and reset and restart of user applications.

Simple IP VPDN Access

After receiving username and password during PPP LCP negotiations, the PDSN forwards authentication information to the local AAA server via an access request message. This, in turn, may be proxied to the AAA server in the user's home domain, via broker AAA servers, if necessary. On successful authentication, the user is authorized services based on user's service profile. If the user is configured for VPDN based access services, User Class information, along with other authorization parameters including tunneling options and tunneling parameters, are returned to the PDSN via an access accept message from the home AAA. The following types of VPDN services are supported at the PDSN:

L2TP - Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

For L2TP type layer2 tunneling, the PDSN establishes an L2TP tunnel with the tunneling endpoints specified by the tunneling parameters. The L2TP tunnel would be established between the LAC at the PDSN and LNS at the NAS in user's home domain. The PPP connection would be between the mobile station and the LNS in the home network. Despite the PPP connection termination at the LNS, the PDSN monitors the PPP session for inactivity. Status of the PPP connection is also linked with the state of the underlying A10 connection. PPP connection is deleted when the underlying A10 connection is deleted. IPSec encryption methods can also be enabled over the L2TP tunnels for enhanced security.

On successful negotiation of an IP address between the mobile and the LNS, IP-based services are made available to the mobile.

The LNS may be configured to authenticate the mobile user based on the challenge and challenge response information from the PDSN. Additionally, the LNS may also be configured to challenge the user again after the layer2 tunnel has been established. The following authentication options are supported for L2TP:

L2TP With Proxy-Authentication

The LAC (PDSN) challenges the mobile user and forwards authentication related information to the LNS as part of tunnel setup parameters. The LNS may be configured to authenticate the user either locally or via the home AAA, based on the authentication related information from the LAC (PDSN). On successful authentication, the mobile and the LNS proceed with the IPCP phase and negotiate an IP address for the user session. Call establishment procedures for this scenario are illustrated in Figure 16.

L2TP With Dual Authentication

The LAC (PDSN) challenges the mobile and forwards authentication related information to the LNS as part of tunnel setup parameters. The LNS may be configured to authenticate the user either locally or via the home AAA, based on the authentication related information from the LAC (PDSN). On successful authentication, the LNS challenges the mobile again. After successful authentication, the LNS and the mobile proceed with IPCP phase and negotiate the IP address for the user session.

Proxy-Mobile IP Access

After receiving username and password during PPP LCP negotiations, the PDSN forwards authentication information to the local AAA server via an access request message. This, in turn, may be proxied to the AAA server in the user's home domain, using broker AAA servers, if necessary. On successful authentication, the user is authorized services based on its service profile. User Class information, along with other authorization parameters are returned to the PDSN via an access reply from the home AAA.

If the user is configured for proxy-Mobile IP based access, authorization parameters from the home AAA include the Home Agent (HA) address, and the security parameter (SPI) to be used for computing the MN-HA Authentication extension for the mobile station. The Home Agent is allocated from the list of Home Agents configured at the home AAA server. Round robin or hashing algorithms based on user NAI can be used for allocating a Home Agent at the AAA. Other authorization attributes returned from the AAA include MN-AAA authenticating extension as defined in RFC 3012. Based on this information, the PDSN performs proxy-Mobile IP procedures on behalf of the mobile user by sending a Mobile IP Registration Request message to the allocated HA. On successful authentication of the mobile with the AAA, and registration at the Home Agent, the Home Agent assigns a home address for this mobile user This address is returned to the mobile during IPCP IP address negotiation phase.

On successful negotiation of an IP address, proxy-Mobile IP based services are made available to the mobile user. To the mobile, these services are no different from Simple IP services with tunneling being done via the Home Agent. This feature, however, extends the coverage area of the call beyond coverage area of the serving PDSN. If, as a result of a handoff event, another PDSN is allocated to the call, the target PDSN performs Mobile IP registration with the Home Agent thereby ensuring that the same home address is allocated to the mobile.

Mobile IP Based Service Access

The PDSN allows a mobile station with Mobile IP client function, to access the internet and corporate intranet using Mobile IP based service access. With this mode of service access, user mobility is extended beyond the coverage area of currently serving PDSN. Resulting from a handoff, if another PDSN is allocated to the call, the target PDSN performs Mobile IP registration with the Home Agent thereby ensuring that the same home address is allocated to the mobile.

Some of the salient features for Mobile IP services access include:

Support for static IP Addresses

Public IP addresses

Private IP addresses

Support for dynamic IP Addresses

Public IP addresses

Private IP addresses

Multiple Mobile IP user flows over a single PPP connection

Multiple flows for different NAIs using static or dynamic addresses

Multiple flows for the same NAI using different static addresses

Foreign Agent Challenge procedures in RFC 3012

Mobile IP Agent Advertisement Challenge Extension

MN-FA Challenge Extension

MN-AAA Authentication Extension

Mobile IP Extensions specified in RFC 2002

MN-HA Authentication Extension

MN-FA Authentication Extension

FA-HA Authentication Extension

Mobile IP Extensions specified in RFC 3220

Authentication requiring the use of SPI.

Mobile NAI Extension, RFC 2794

Reverse Tunneling, RFC 2344

Multiple tunneling Modes between FA and HA

IP-in-IP Encapsulation, RFC 2003

Generic Route Encapsulation, RFC 2784

Support for PPP PAP/CHAP authentication

Support for MSID based service access

Binding Update message for managing zombie PPP connections

Flow based packet data accounting per TIA/EIA/IS-835-B

Support for Packet Filtering

Ingress address filtering

Input access lists

Output access lists

A Mobile IP capable mobile client may be configured to skip PAP/CHAP based authentication during the PPP LCP phase. Once the PPP is established, the PDSN sends a burst of Mobile IP Agent Advertisement messages that include the Mobile IP Agent Advertisement Challenge extension specified in RFC 3012. The number and timing of the burst is configurable. The mobile user responds with a Mobile IP Registration Request message that includes the mobile user's NAI and MN-FA Challenge extension in response to the challenge in the Agent Advertisement message. If the mobile user does not respond to the initial burst, advertisements can be solicited.

The Foreign Agent function at the PDSN can be configured to authenticate the mobile user by forwarding an access request message to the local AAA server. The local AAA server would proxy the message to the home AAA server, via broker AAA server(s), if necessary. On successful authentication, the home AAA may assign a Home Agent to the call and return its address in the access reply message. Other authorization parameters in the access-reply message include the SPI and IPSec shared key to be used between the FA and the HA. The PDSN/FA and Home Agent establish a secure IPSec tunnel, if required, and the PDSN/FA forwards the Registration Request message to the Home Agent. The Registration Request message includes the NAI and MN-FA-Challenge Extension also. It may also include MN-AAA Authentication extension.

The Home Agent can be configured to authenticate the mobile again with the home AAA. On successful authentication and registration, the Home Agent responds with a Registration Reply message to the PDSN/FA, which is forwarded to the mobile station. The Registration Reply message contains the home address also (static or dynamically assigned) for the user session.

Potential home addresses are available to the PDSN from the following:

Mobile IP Registration Request received from the Mobile Node

FA-CHAP response received from the HAAA

Mobile IP Registration Reply received from the Home Agent

The mobile may be configured to perform PPP PAP/CHAP authentication in addition to performing Foreign Agent Challenge based authentication specified in RFC 3012. In this case the PDSN would support one Simple IP flow, in addition to one or more Mobile IP flows.

For Mobile IP services, the Home Agent would typically be located within an ISP network or within a corporate domain. However, many of the ISPs and/or corporate entities may not be ready to provision Home Agents by the time service providers begin rollout of third-generation packet data services. Access service providers could mitigate this situation by provisioning Home Agents within their own domain, and then forward packets to ISPs or corporate domains via VPDN services.

Binding Update Procedures

When a mobile first registers for packet data services, a PPP session and associated Mobile IP flow(s) are established at the PDSN. In the event of an inter-PDSN handoff, another PPP session is established at the target PDSN, and the mobile registers with the Home Agent via the new PDSN/FA. The Visitor list binding and the PPP session at the previous PDSN are, however, not released until the PPP inactivity timer expires.

Idle/unused PPP sessions at a PDSN consume valuable resources. The Cisco PDSN and Home Agent support Mobile IP Resource Revocation as defined in IS83C and Cisco Proprietary Binding Update and Binding Acknowledge messages for releasing such idle PPP sessions as soon as possible. Mobile IP Resource Revocation is described in Section 16 in greater detail

If Cisco Proprietary binding update feature is used, in the event of an inter-PDSN handoff and Mobile IP registration, the Home Agent updates mobility binding information for the mobile with the Care-of-Address (COA) of the new PDSN/FA. If simultaneous bindings are not enabled, the Home Agent sends a notification in the form of a Binding Update message to the previous PDSN/FA. The previous PDSN/FA acknowledges with Binding Acknowledge, if required, and deletes visitor list entry for the Mobile IP session. The previous PDSN/FA initiates the release of the PPP session when there are no active flows for that mobile station.

The sending of the binding update message is configurable at the Home Agent.


Note When multiple flows are established for the same NAI, a different IP address is assigned to each flow. This means that simultaneous binding is not required as this is used for maintaining more than one flow to the same IP address.


Simple IPv6 Access

The PDSN simple IP service has been enhanced to allow both simple IPv4 and simple IPv6 access. These protocols can be used one at a time, or at the same time. The ipcp and the ipv6cp are equivalent for each protocol.

An IPv6 access uses the same PPP LCP authentication and authorization procedures, as well as the AAA access. When an RP connection is established, the MS sends a PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) Configuration-Request for a new PPP session to the PDSN. The PPP authentication (CHAP/PAP/none) is one of the parameters negotiated during the LCP phase. After the LCP parameters are negotiated between the MS and the PDSN, an LCP Configure-Acknowledge message is exchanged. Once LCP is up, the PPP authentication is started.

The authentication phase uses CHAP, PAP, or none, depending on the configuration and LCP negotiation. After authentication, the NCPs, ipcp and/or ipv6cp, can be started. A simultaneous IPv4 and IPv6 access from an MS shares the common LCP authentication and authorization as well as the AAA correlation-id parameter.

The ipv6cp protocol negotiates a valid non-zero 64-bit IPv6 interface indentifier for the MS and the PDSN. The PDSN has only one interface-identifier associated with the PPP connection, so it will be unique. Once ipv6cp has been successfully negotiated, the PDSN and MS both generate unique link-local addresses for the IPv6 interface. The link-local addresses are generated by pre-pending the link-local prefix, FE80:/64, to the 64-bit interface-identifier negotiated during the ipv6cp phase (for example, FE80::205:9AFF:FEFA:D806). This gives a 128-bit link-local address.

The PDSN immediately sends an initial unsolicited Router Advertisement (RA) message on the PPP link to the MS. The link-local address of the PDSN is used as the source address and the destination address will be FF02::1, the "all nodes on the local link" IPv6 address. The PDSN includes a globally unique /64 prefix in the RA message sent to the MS. The prefix may be obtained from a local prefix pool or from AAA. The MS will construct a global IPv6 unicast address by prepending the prefix received in the RA to the lower 64-bit interface identifier. You should carefully configure the PDSNs so that the /64 prefix is globally unique for each MS.

After a successful ipv6cp negotiation phase and configuration of the link-local address, the MS transmits a Router Solicitation (RS) message if an RA message has not been received from the PDSN within some specified period of time. The RA is necessary for the MS to construct its 128-bit global unicast address.

In contrast to IPv4, an IPv6 MS will have multiple IPv6 addresses, including:

Link-local address

Global unicast address

Various multicast addresses used for IPv6 Neighbor Discovery and IPv6 ICMP messages

An IPv6 address is 128-bits for both source and destination addresses. The /64 designation means that 64-bits are used for the prefix (upper 64-bits). This is similar to an IPv4 netmask. A /128 address would mean that the entire address is used. Refer to RFC-3513 for additional IPv6 addressing details and information.

Configuring Simple IPV6

The following commands are used to configure simple IPV6 on the Cisco PDSN, and are listed in the Command Reference:

The cdma pdsn ipv6 command enables the PDSN IPv6 functionality.

The cdma pdsn ipv6 ra-count number command configures the number of IPv6 Route Advertisements (RA).

The cdma pdsn ipv6 ra-count number ra-interval number command controls the number and interval of RAs sent to the MN when an IPv6CP session comes up.

The cdma pdsn accounting send ipv6-flows command control the number of flows and UDR records used for simultaneous IPv4, IPv6 sessions.

The show cdma pdsn flow mn-ipv6-address command shows CDMA PDSN user information by MN IPv6 address.

The show cdma pdsn flow service simple-ipv6 command displays flow-based information for simple IPV6 sessions.

The debug cdma pdsn ipv6 command displays IPV6 error or event messages.

The following configuration commands are required for IPv6:

Global Configuration Commands

ipv6 unicast-routing - IPv6 is off by default

ipv6 cef - enables cef switching

ipv6 local pool PDSN-Ipv6-Pool 2001:420:10::/48 64 - enables a pool of IPv6 prefix addresses that can be sent to the MS as a Routing Advertisement (RA)

Virtual-template interface commands:

ipv6 enable - enables IPv6 on this interface

no ipv6 nd suppress-ra - do not suppress the Neighbor Discovery Routing Advertisement messages (suppressed on non-ethernet interfaces)

ipv6 nd ra-interval 1000 - send a ND Routing Advertisement every 1000 seconds

ipv6 nd ra-lifetime 5000 - lifetime for the ND Routing Advertisement is 5000 seconds

peer default ipv6 pool PDSN-Ipv6-Pool - use this pool for RA prefixes

Other commands

show ipv6

Please refer to the Cisco IOS IPV6 Command Reference at the following URL for more detailed information regarding these configuration commands:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5187/products_command_reference_book09186a00801d661a.html

Session Redundancy Infrastructure


Note Session redundancy is only available on the MWAM platform.


PDSN session redundancy is focused on preserving user flows on fail-over. Support for the continuity of billing records, internal counters, and MIB variables is secondary. The following conditions need to exist for fail-over to be successful on the PDSN:

Users perceive no service interruption.

Users do not experience excessive or incorrect billing.

Users are able to re-initiate data service after fail-over.

Functional Overview

The PDSN Session Redundancy feature provides user session failover capability to minimize the impact of a PDSN failure on the mobile user experience. The PDSN uses a 1:1 redundancy model, with a standby present for every active PDSN. The active PDSN sends state information to the standby PDSN for synchronization on an as-needed basis. When a PDSN failure occurs, the standby PDSN has the necessary state information to provide service to all existing sessions. It then takes over as the active PDSN and services user sessions, thus providing session redundancy. When the previously active PDSN comes back online, it assumes the role of standby for the now active PDSN, and receives state information for all existing sessions from the newly active PDSN.

Under normal operating conditions, the active and standby PDSN pairs are two separate PDSN images that have identical configurations. They share one or more HSRP interfaces, which are used by all external entities to communicate with them. The active PDSN synchronizes session data to the standby PDSN based on events described below.

Session Events

When a new user session needs to be established, the PCF first sets up an A10 connection to the active PDSN, via the HSRP address known to the PCF. The MN then sets up a PPP connection with the active PDSN, via the A10 tunnel. Once the call is in a stable state, i.e., the PPP session is successful, the active PDSN then syncs relevant state information to the standby PDSN. The standby then duplicates the actions of the active PDSN with regards to the A10 connection and the PPP session, and awaits further updates from the active. When any of the other events as listed below occurs, the active PDSN sends state information to the standby.

In order to minimize the loss of accounting data in the event of a failover, a periodic accounting update, with configurable frequency shall run on the active PDSN. Every periodic update for a session shall trigger a sync sent to the standby PDSN, which shall update its accounting data. Only counters and attributes that undergo a change on the active PDSN are synced to the standby periodically. Information since the last accounting synchronization point will be lost. Also, in order to ensure that the latest information is correctly conveyed to the billing system, the standby unit will never send out any accounting records to the AAA server. The records are always sent from the Active Unit.

Session events that lead to a sync are:

Call Setup

Call teardown

Flow setup

Flow teardown

Dormant-Active transition

Handoff

A11 Re-registrations

Periodic accounting sync

PPP renegotiation

IP Address Management and ODAP

IP addresses allocated to the user by the active PDSN are communicated to the standby PDSN, which will honor them. This is true no matter what allocation mechanism is used.

Both the DHCP ODAP subnet allocation server and the ODAP manager supports the PDSN session redundancy functionality. The DHCP ODAP subnet allocation server runs on the PDSN MWAM Cluster Controller. It synchronizes the allocated subnet pool information to the backup DHCP ODAP subnet allocation server located on the Backup MWAM Cluster Controller.

Similarly, the ODAP manager on the PDSN synchronizes the IP subnet pool and allocation information to a backup PDSN image.

If either the DHCP ODAP subnet allocation server or the ODAP manager fails, the backup takes over. This allows existing PDSN sessions to remain, and for new session requests to be properly processed.

Active PDSN Failure

In the event that the standby PDSN detects that the active PDSN has failed (using HSRP), it then takes over as the active PDSN. Since all external entities, including PCFs, AAA servers, and Home Agents are configured to communicate with the PDSN pair only using the HSRP addresses, once the standby PDSN takes over those addresses, they are unable to detect a failure. All stable calls also have their state synced to the standby; therefore the standby is able to start forwarding user traffic once it takes over as active. On the standby all timers (such as A11 lifetime, PPP timers, and Mobile IP lifetime) are started at the time it takes over as active. Accounting data is also synchronized to the extent that the periodic accounting sync timer has been configured on the PDSNs.

Standby PDSN Start-up

When a PDSN comes up when there is an existing active, it takes over the standby role. When the active PDSN learns that a standby PDSN is available, it goes through a process of transferring state data for all existing user sessions to the standby, called a Bulk Sync. Once this process is complete, the standby PDSN is then ready to take over as active in the event of a failure.

Handling Active-Active Scenario

If there is a link failure or a failure in an intermediate node, HSRP packets sent will not reach the peer and the standby node would assume that the active has reloaded and transitioned to active state. This leads to a situation of Active-Active PDSN nodes. The requirement is that, in case one of the PDSNs continues to receive traffic while the other is isolated from the network, it is ensured that the node which received traffic should remain active once the link is restored.

To achieve this, an application tracking object is introduced and HSRP priority is altered based on whether PDSN is processing traffic after the HSRP peer is lost. For details on configuration refer to section 20.4.9. The PDSN will lower its HSPR priority once it detects that the peer PDSN is lost. Afterward, when PDSN processes traffic (either control or data packets), it would raise its priority back to the configured value. This helps to choose the active node after the link is restored between the PDSNs. So the node which received traffic in Active-Active situation remains to be Active after link restoration.

Other Considerations

A Redundancy Framework (RF) MIB is available in order to monitor the active and standby status of the two PDSNs. Other MIB variables and internal counters are not synchronized between the Active and Standby. They start from the values following IOS-Load or Reload on the backup image. The backup image is treated as a new box.

The PDSN redundant pair is treated as a single member by the cluster controller, and is transparent to the PDSN clustering mechanism. The cluster controller is oblivious to a failover from an active PDSN to its redundant standby.

Similarly, a PDSN redundant pair appears as a single PDSN to all external entities, such as the PCF, the HA, and the AAA server.

IPSec security associations for FA-HA connectivity are maintained across fail-over.


Note Currently, VPDN, Closed RP, IPv6 and Prepaid services are not supported by the Session Redundancy implementation.



Note Configuration synchronization between the active and standby units is not supported for R3.0. The operator needs to enter configuration commands on both the Active and Standby units.


In Process Sync Events

The following subsections explain the expected behavior of the PDSN under session redundancy for various sync events in process.

Call Setup

The state of "sessions-in-progress" is not preserved during fail-over. Mechanisms such as R-P connection retry from the PCF will ensure that sessions will be established as required.

It is possible that a fail-over can occur when the PCF has established an R-P session for a user flow, but user flow establishment is not completed. In this case, fail-over will result in the R-P session not being present on the standby. The PCF will timeout the R-P session on the next R-P session lifetime refresh. If the user attempts to establish a new session during this time, a new session will be created.

Call Teardown

There are four scenarios for session termination. These include the following:

Mobile Terminal initiates session teardown

PPP Idle Timeout expires on PDSN

PDSN initiates a Registration Update

PCF initiates a Registration request with lifetime 0

For each of these cases, session teardown is a multi-step process. For example, a fail-over can occur when a Registration Update message has been sent from the PDSN and the acknowledgement has not been received. In this case, the standby PDSN will already have been told to delete the session. The active PDSN will not wait for an update acknowledgement from the PCF.

If a fail-over occurs after sending the Registration Update to the PCF but before the standby has been told to delete the session, or the request to delete the session is lost, the session will remain established on the standby.

Another case is that the PPP context has been deleted as a result of mobile-initiated termination, and then fail-over occurs prior to the R-P session being terminated.

Similarly, expiry of the PPP Idle timer on the PDSN could also result in deletion of PPP context followed by fail-over prior to R-P session termination.

In these cases, either the Mobile IP Registration Lifetime or the PPP Idle Timeout will expire, and the session is terminated.

Flow Setup

Flows that are in the process of being established are not preserved. You will see this as failure to establish the flow, and you will have to re-establish the flow.

Flow Teardown

This section applies when a session has two or more flows. Currently only a MoIP call supports this case. For an SIP call, only one flow is allowed.

Although a MoIP flow is preserved after switchover, it is possible that registration lifetime expiration will lead to deletion of the flow. If the same user registers again before the lifetime expires, it will be considered as a re-registration since this is an existing visitor. However, the re-registration may or may not succeed, depending on the following conditions:

1. If the user got a Registration Reply (RRP) for its previous de-registration from the active node before the switchover and if the Foreign Agent Challenge (FAC) included in that RRP is not synced to the now active node (very likely, otherwise, the flow would have been deleted from this node), this re-registration will be rejected with an invalid challenge error. The user has to initiate a solicitation to the new active node, receive a new challenge and then resend a Registration Request (RRQ). This time, the RRQ is treated as a valid re-registration and the lifetime is refreshed. It also gets the same IP address as the previous one even though the user considers this as a new registration (it is a re-registration from the FA's and HA's view).

2. If the user did not get a RRP for its previous de-registration from the active node before the switchover, de-registration is resent to the now-active node. This de-registration is likely to be rejected due to invalid FAC, which depends on whether the latest FAC is synced to the standby before the switchover. Then the user can either send a solicitation to get a new FAC and then sends de-registration again or simply give up. In the latter case, 1 above applies.

Dormant-Active Transition

The transition is synchronized between active and standby, and would fall into following scenarios:

1. If the PCF receives a RRP in response to the RRQ, and if the transition state is synced to the standby before the switchover, the now-active node will have the right session state and the transition is successful.

2. If the PCF receives a RRP in response to the RRQ but the transition state is not synced to the standby before the switchover, the now-active node will have the wrong session state (e.g. session is marked as dormant while it should be active).

However, packets will be switched and counted. The PDSN-related show commands may not show all the right information about the session. The subsequent transition from active to dormant will not cause difficulties as the session remains dormant on the PDSN.

3. If the PCF did not receive an RRP in response to the RRQ before the switchover and if it tries again with the now-active node, this is handled as today.

4. If the PCF did not receive a RRP in response to the RRQ before the switchover, and if it exceeds the maximum number of retries with the now-active node, this is handled as 2 above.

Handoff

Inter-PCF Handoff (Dormant or Active) - Same PDSN

The most significant problem with hand-off is to re-establish the data path between the target PCF and the now-active PDSN for the preserved session, irrespective of whether this is an active or dormant handoff. Again, there is a window between handoff actually being completed and the state being synchronized within which a fail-over can occur.

There are the following scenarios:

1. If the target PCF received an RRP from the active PDSN, and the handoff state is synchronized to the standby before switchover, the data path between the target PCF and the now-active PDSN is established for the handed-off session and the user would not perceive any service disruption. The old PCF may or may not receive the Registration Update from the previously active node, depending on the exact point of switchover. If it receives the Registration Update and sends out a RRQ (lifetime=0), the call should be treated correctly at the old PCF. In case that the old PCF does not receive the Registration Update, and that the session is handled back to it again, it's not clear how PCF will handle this case (this is similar to that the PCF has an existing call for a user and then receives a new call request from the same user). If the PCF ignores the new request, the correct data path is not present and therefore a user is not able to transfer traffic.

2. If the target PCF received the RRP from the active PDSN, but the handoff state is NOT synchronized to the standby before switchover, the data path between the target PCF and the now-active PDSN will not be established (the session still points to the old PCF). As a result, the end user will notice service disruption. The user cannot gracefully de-register as PPP packets for call termination (TERMREQ) cannot reach the now-active PDSN, and the RRQ (lifetime=0) from the target PCF arrives on the now-active PDSN but the session does not recognize this as a valid remote tunnel endpoint. As a result, de-registration is ignored. The session will eventually be deleted on expiry of the PPP idle timer or registration lifetime. If the user re-registers again, this will be treated as hand-off since the session's current remote tunnel endpoint (the old PCF) is different from the target PCF. This time, the data path is established and the user will receive service.

3. If the target PCF did not receive an RRP from the active PDSN before switchover, and if the PCF tries again with the now-active PDSN, the hand-off is processed the same as of today.

Inter-PCF Handoff (Dormant or Active) - Different PDSN

This kind of handoff is indicated to the PDSN by receipt of an A11 Registration Request containing the PANID and CANID. It also includes the Mobility Event Indicator and Accounting Data (R-P Session Setup Air-link Record). From the perspective of High Availability, this looks like a new session establishment on the newly active PDSN and a 'regular' session termination on the old PDSN.

A11 Re-registrations

A11 Re-registration RRQ is received by the active unit. The registration life timer does not start on the standby, but it keeps track of the life timer value so that it can restart the life timer once it becomes active. If the lifetime in the re-registration RRQ is different from the previous RRQ, the new lifetime is synced to the standby. For example, if a previous RRQ carries a lifetime of 300 seconds and now a new RRQ has the value changed to 500 seconds, the new value is synced to the standby. Other significant parameters included in the re-registration RRQ are also synced to the standby.

Now, in the above example, if the failover occurs before syncing the new lifetime to the standby, the standby will start the lifetime for 300 seconds.

PPP Re-negotiation

Upon PPP renegotiation, the PDSN deletes all the flows on the RP session and sends accounting STOP for each flow. Once PPP is up again, the PDSN creates new flow(s) for the session. Therefore, when PPP renegotiation happens on the active, the active unit will send a PPP renegotiation notification to the standby which will then delete all the flows from the RP session on the standby. Once PPP is up again and a new flow is created on the active, the active unit sends each flow's data to the standby. If the failover occurs during PPP re-negotiation, the re-negotiation will fail, and the session may be torn down on the newly active unit.

Other Considerations

Timers

The following timers are normally running when a session is established

R-P Session Lifetime

PPP Idle Timeout

Mobile IP Registration Lifetime

PPP Absolute Session Timeout

The following timers may be running, depending on configuration

Periodic accounting (not to be confused with the sync timer mentioned above).

These timers are restarted on the standby when fail-over occurs, and the elapsed time is not synchronized to the standby. The effect will be to extend the timers beyond their original values by a time equal to the time that has already expired. This ensures that the user will not perceive a session failure on fail-over.

Restrictions

The following restrictions exist for the PDSN Session Redundancy Feature:

Limitation for Resource Revocation with SR Setup.

Setting the revocation timestamp to "msec" (ip mobile foreign-service revocation timeout 5 retransmit 4 timestamp msec) for PMIP flows with Session Redundancy is not permitted.

The "msec" option puts the uptime in the timestamp field, and the uptime of the standby router is expected to be lower after switchover when the standby PDSN takes over as active (and when the PMIP flow was closed). Therefore, revocation on HA will be ignored because the identifier value in the revocation message is less than what is expected by HA.

The ip radius source interface command does not support virtual address (HSRP), and hence the IP address configured under Loopback interface to be used as source interface (NAS IP address) for reaching AAA in SR setup

Internals

The following sections identify information that is synced to the standby unit:

AHDLC

The control character mapping per used AHDLC channel is preserved. As the default is normally used, only those that are different are synchronized. The AHDLC channel number is not synchronized; an available channel will be selected independently on the standby.

GRE - RP Interface

The GRE Key is synchronized. The flags are synchronized as the sequence flag can be set on a per user basis.

RP Signaling

The contents of the A11 messaging will be treated as described below.

Flags - Fixed - No synchronization required.

Lifetime - Synchronized.

Home Address - No synchronization required.

Home Agent - No synchronization - This is the HSRP address of the R-P interface. This is used for proposing a PDSN IP address when clustering is configured. This will be the HSRP address of the proposed PDSN. It is only used prior to session establishment.

Care-of-Address - Synchronized - This is the PCF IP address for the R-P Session.

A10 Source IP Address - Synchronized - This is the PCF's A10 IP Address.

Identification - Not synchronized - contains timestamp to protect against replay attacks.

Mobile-Home Authentication Extension - Not synchronized, calculated per message.

Registration Update Authentication Extension - Not synchronized, calculated per message.

Session-Specific Extension - Synchronized - covers Key, MN_ID and SR-ID.

C-VOSE - This contains multiple application types, Accounting, MEI and DAI. The accounting information will be synchronized. Details are in the accounting section.

N-VOSE contents - ANID will be synchronized, both as part of the session establishment and when it changes as a result of handoff. Fast handoff is not supported, so PDSN Identifier and Identifiers are not relevant to the session redundancy discussion.

RNPDIT - Synchronized - Radio Network Packet Data Inactivity Timer.

The source UDP port for the A11 traffic will be synchronized.

PPP

All LCP options are synchronized. For IPCP, only the IP address and IPHC parameters are synchronized. DNS server IP address negotiated during IPCP negotiation is not synchronized to the standby unit. All per user attributes downloaded from AAA during authentication/authorization are synchronized to the standby unit.

Compression - Header and Payload

There is no synchronization of compression context for either header or payload compression. Fail-over to a standby PDSN results in the compression context being re-established.

Header compression - First packet for a session after switchover is dropped, and peer retries the packet after acknowledge timeout.

Payload compression - There is no compression history present after switchover on the standby. A CCP reset is automatically generated when decode fails. No special treatment is needed.

IP Address Assignment

When an IP address is dynamically assigned from a pool configured on the PDSN, it is necessary that the standby associates the same address with the session. The IP address will be synchronized as part of PPP state. If the IP address is received from AAA or a static IP address is used that does not come from a local pool, this address will also be associated with the session on the standby. Similarly, the address pool will be synced.

AAA - Authentication and Authorization

Table 2 lists the relevant Authentication and Authorization parameters. This is required on the standby to allow accurate recreation of AAA state.

Table 2 Standard AVPs Supported for Authentication and Authorization 

Authentication and Authorization AVPs Supported By Cisco IOS Name
Synchronized
Description
Allowed In
     
Access Request
Access Accept

User-Name

Yes

User name for authentication and authorization.

Yes

No

User-Password

No

Password for authentication.

Yes

No

CHAP-Password

No

CHAP password.

Yes

No

NAS-IP-Address

No

IP address of the PDSN interface used for communicating with RADIUS server. A loopback address could be use for this purpose.

Yes

No

Service-Type

No

Type of service the user is getting. Supported values include:

"Outbound" for MSID based user access

"Framed" for other type of user access

Yes

Yes

Framed-Protocol

No

Framing protocol user is using. Supported values include:

PPP

Yes

Yes

Framed-IP-Address

Yes

IP address assigned to the user.

Yes

Yes

Session-Time-Out

Yes

Maximum number of seconds of service is to be provided to the user before session terminates.

This attribute value becomes the per-user "absolute time-out."

No

Yes

Idle-Time-out

Yes

Maximum number of consecutive seconds of idle connection allowed to the user before the session terminates.

This attribute value becomes the per-user "idle-time-out".

No

Yes

Calling-Station-ID

Yes

MSID identifier of the mobile user.

Yes

No

CHAP-Challenge (optional)

No

CHAP Challenge.

Yes

No

Tunnel-Type

No

VPN tunneling protocol(s) used. Supported values include:

1 for PPTP (not supported)

3 for L2TP

No

Yes

Tunnel-Medium-Type

No. Not supported

Transport medium type to use for the tunnel.

No

Yes

Tunnel-Client- Endpoint

No. Not supported

Address of the client end of the tunnel. When you specify Tunnel-Client-Endpoint, Tunnel-Server is not supported. Use L2TP

No

Yes

Tunnel-Server- Endpoint

No. Not supported

Address of the server end of the tunnel.

No

Yes

Tunnel-Password

No. Not supported

Password to be used for authenticating remote server.

No

Yes

Tunnel-Assignment-ID

No. Not supported

Indicates to the initiator of the tunnel, identifier of the tunnel to which the session is assigned.

No

Yes

addr-pool

No. Not supported

Name of a local pool from which to obtain address. Used with service=ppp and protocol=ip.

"addr-pool" works in conjunction with local pooling. It specifies the name of a local pool (which must have been pre-configured locally).

Use the ip-local pool command for configuring local pools. For example:

ip address-pool local

ip local pool boo 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.10

ip local pool moo 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.20

No

Yes

Inacl#<n>

Yes

ASCII access list identifier for an input access list to be installed and applied to an interface for the duration of the current connection.

Used with service=ppp and protocol=ip, and service service=ppp and protocol =ipx.

Note Per-user access lists do not currently work with ISDN interfaces.

No

Yes

Inacl

Yes

ASCII identifier for an interface input access list.

Used with service=ppp and protocol=ip.

Contains an IP output access list for SLIP or PPP/IP (for example, intacl=4).

The access list itself must be pre-configured on the router.

No

Yes

outacl#<n>

Yes

ASCII access list identifier for an interface output access list to be installed and applied to an interface for the duration of the current connection.

Used with service=ppp and protocol=ip, and service service=ppp and protocol=ipx.

No

Yes

Outacl

Yes

ASCII identifier for an interface output access list.

Used with service=ppp and protocol=ip, and service service=ppp and protocol=ipx.

Contains an IP output access list for SLIP or PPP/IP (for example, outacl=4).

The access list itself must be pre-configured on the router.

No

Yes

interface-config

Yes

User-specific AAA interface configuration information with Virtual Profiles.

The information that follows the equal sign (=) can be any Cisco IOS interface configuration command.

No

Yes

SPI

Yes

Carries authentication information needed by the home agent for authenticating a mobile user during MIP registration.

Provides the Security Parameter Index (SPI), key, authentication algorithm, authentication mode, and replay protection timestamp range.

The information is in the same syntax as the ip mobile secure host address configuration command. Essentially, it contains the rest of the configuration command that follows that string, verbatim.

No

Yes

IP-Pool-Definition

Yes

Defines a pool of addresses using the format: X a.b.c Z; where X is the pool index number, a.b.c is the pool's starting IP address, and Z is the number of IP addresses in the pool.

For example, 3 10.0.0.1 5 allocates 10.0.0.1 through 10.0.0.5 for dynamic assignment.

No

Yes

Assign-IP-Pool

Yes

Assign an IP address from the identified IP pool.

No

Yes

Framed-Compression

Yes

Indicates a compression protocol used for the link. Supported values include:

0: None

1: VJ-TCP/IP header compression

No

Yes

Link-Compression

Yes

Link compression protocol to be used.

Supported values include:

0: None

1: Stac

2: Stac-LZS

3: MS-Stac

No

Yes


GPP2 Packet Data Service Attributes

Table 3 lists the 3GPP2 Packet Data Service Attributes

Table 3 3GPP2 Packet Data Service Attributes 

Name
Synchronized
Description
                             Allowed In
     

Access Request

Access Accept

mobileip-mn- lifetime

Yes

Defines lifetime used in Proxy MIP RRQ.

No

Yes

mobileip-mn- ipaddr

Yes

MN IP address for static address assignment. If this attribute is present, this address is used in Proxy MIP RRQ.

No

Yes

mobileip-mn- flags

Yes

Defines Flags used in Proxy MIP RRQ.

No

Yes

CDMA-Realm

Yes

For MSID based access, "realm" information for construction of user name in the form MSID@realm. User names constructed this way are used for accounting purposes only.

The format of realm information is:

ASCII string specifying realm of user's registered domain.

No

Yes

CDMA-User- Class

Yes

Type of service user is subscribed to.

Supported values are:

1 for Simple IP

2 for Mobile IP

No

Yes

3GPP2-Reverse- Tunnel- Spec

Yes

Indicates whether reverse tunneling is required or not.

Su.pported values are:

0 for reverse tunneling not required.

1 for reverse tunneling required.

No

Yes

3GPP2-Home- Agent- Attribute

Yes

Address of the Home Agent

Yes

Yes

3GPP2-IP- Technology

Yes

Indicates type of service user is subscribed to.

Supported values are:

1 for Simple IP

2 for Mobile IP

No

Yes

3GPP2- Correlation-Id

Yes

Identifies all accounting records generated for a particular user flow.

Yes

Yes

3GPP2-Always-On

Yes

Indicates Always On Service.

Supported values are:

0 for non always on users

1for always on users

No

Yes

3GPP2-Security Level

Yes

Indicates the type of security that the home network mandates on the visited network.

No

Yes

3GPP2- IKE Pre-shared Secret Request

No

Indicates that the PDSN needs a pre-shared secret for Phase 1 IKE negotiation with the HA.

Yes

No

3GPP2-Pre-shared secret

No

A pre-shared secret for IKE.

No

Yes

3GPP2-KeyID

No

Contains the KeyID parameter used during IKE exchange between the PDSN and the HA.

No

Yes

3GPP2-Allowed DiffServ marking

No

Specifies if the user is able to mark packets with AF (A), EF (E). The Max Class (i.e., Max Selector Class), specifies that the user may mark packets with a Class Selector Code Point that is less than or equal to Max Class.

No

Yes

3GPP2-MN-AAA Removal Indication

Yes

When received in a RADIUS Access-Accept message, the PDSN shall not include the MN-AAA.

No

Yes

3GPP2-Foreign- Agent Address

No

The IPv4 address of the PDSN CoA contained in RRQ.

Yes

No

Service Option

Yes

Indicates the type of service being used.

Yes

No

DNS Update Required

No. Not supported

Indicates whether DNS update is required.

No

Yes

RN PDIT

Yes

Radio Network Packet Data Inactivity Timer.

No

Yes

Session Termination Capability

Yes

Indicates the nature of resource revocation supported.

Yes

Yes


AAA Accounting

GPP2 Accounting Records Fields

Table 4 GPP2 Accounting Records Fields 

Item
Parameter
Description
Synchronized

A. Mobile Identifiers

A1

MSID

MS ID (e.g., IMSI, MIN, IRM)

Yes

A2

ESN

Electronic Serial Number

Yes

A3

MEID

Mobile Equipment Identifier

Yes

B. User Identifiers

B1

Source IP Address

IPv4 address of the MS.

Yes

B2

Network Access Identifier (NAI)

user@domain construct which identifies the user and home network of the MS.

Yes

B3

Framed-IPv6- Prefix

MS IPv6 prefix.

Not supported.

B4

IPv6 Interface ID

MS IPv6 interface identifier.

Not supported.

C. Session Identifiers

C1

Account Session ID

The Account Session ID is a unique accounting ID created by the Serving PDSN that allows start and stop RADIUS records from a single R-P connection or P-P connection to be matched.

Yes

C2

Correlation ID

The Correlation ID is a unique accounting ID created by the Serving PDSN for each packet data session that allows multiple accounting events for each associated R-P connection or P-P connection to be correlated.

Yes

C3

Session Continue

This attribute when set to "true" means it is not the end of a Session and an Accounting Stop is immediately followed by an Account Start Record. "False" means end of a session.

Yes

C4

Beginning Session

The attribute when set to "true" means new packet data session is established; "false" means continuation of previous packet data session. This attribute is contained in a RADIUS Accounting-Request (Start) record.

No

C5

Service Reference ID

This is the service instance reference ID received from the RN in an A11 Registration-Request message.

Yes

D. Infrastructure Identifiers

D1

Home Agent

The IPv4 address of the HA.

Yes

D2

PDSN

The IPv4 address of the PDSN.

No. Should be configured to be the same on the active and standby.

D3

Address Serving PCF

The IP address of the serving PCF (the PCF in the serving RN).

Yes

D4

BSID

SID + NID + Cell Identifier type 2.

Yes

D5

IPv6 PDSN Address

The IPv6 address of the PDSN.

Not supported

D6

Foreign Agent Address

The IPv4 address of the FA-CoA.

Not supported

E. Zone Identifiers

E1

User zone

Tiered Services user zone.

Yes

F. Session Status

F1

Forward FCH Mux Option

Forward Fundamental Channel multiplex option.

Yes

F2

Reverse FCH Mux Option

Reverse Fundamental Channel multiplex option.

Yes

F5

Service Option

CDMA service option as received from the RN.

Yes

F6

Forward Traffic Type

Forward direction traffic type - either Primary or Secondary.

Yes

F7

Reverse Traffic Type

Reverse direction traffic type - either Primary or Secondary.

Yes

F8

FCH Frame Size

Specifies the FCH frame size.

Yes

F9

Forward FCH RC

The format and structure of the radio channel in the forward Fundamental Channel. A set of forward transmission formats that are characterized by data rates, modulation characterized, and spreading rates.

Yes

F10

Reverse FCH RC

The format and structure of the radio channel in the reverse Fundamental Channel. A set of reverse transmission formats that are characterized by data rates, modulation characterized, and spreading rates.

Yes

F11

IP Technology

Identifies the IP technology to use for this call: Simple IP or Mobile IP.

Yes

F12

Compulsory Tunnel Indicator

Indicator of invocation of compulsory tunnel established on behalf of MS for providing private network and/or ISP access during a single packet data connection.

Yes

F13

Release Indicator

Specifies reason for sending a stop record.

Yes

F14

DCCH Frame Size

Specifies Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) frame size.

Yes

F15

Always On

Specifies the status of Always On service.

Yes

F16

Forward PDCH RC

The Radio Configuration of the Forward Packet Data Channel. (This parameter can be used as an indication that the MS is 1xEV DV capable.)

Yes

F17

Forward DCCH Mux Option

Forward Dedicated Control Channel multiplex option.

Yes

F18

Reverse DCCH Mux Option

Reverse Dedicated Control Channel multiplex option

Yes

F19

Forward DCCH RC

The format and structure of the radio channel in the forward Dedicated Control Channel. A set of forward transmission formats that are characterized by data rates, modulation characterized, and spreading rates.

Yes

F20

Reverse DCCH RC

The format and structure of the radio channel in the reverse Dedicated Control Channel. A set of reverse transmission formats that are characterized by data rates, modulation characterized, and spreading rates.

Yes

G. Session Activity

G1

Data Octet Count (Terminating)

The total number of octets in IP packets sent to the user, as received at the PDSN from the IP network (i.e. prior to any compression and/or fragmentation).

Yes

G2

Data Octet Count (Originating)

The total number of octets in IP packets sent by the user.

Yes

G3

Bad PPP frame count

The total number of PPP frames from the MS dropped by the PDSN due to incorrect able errors.

Yes

G4

Event Time

This is an event timestamp which indicates one of the following:

The start of an accounting session if it is part of a RADIUS start message.

The end of an accounting session if it is part of a RADIUS stop message.

An Interim-Update accounting event if it is part of a RADIUS Interim-Update message.

Yes

G5

Remote IPv4 Address Octet Count

Contains the octet count associated with one or more remote IPv4 address; used for source/destination accounting.

Not supported

G6

Remote IPv6 Address Octet Count

Contains the octet count associated with one or more remote IPv6 address; used for source/destination accounting.

Not supported

G8

Active Time

The total active connection time on traffic channel in seconds.

Yes

G9

Number of Active Transitions

The total number of non-active to Active transitions by the user.

Not supported

G10

SDB Octet Count (Terminating)

The total number of octets sent to the MS using Short Data Bursts.

Yes

G11

SDB Octet Count (Originating)

The total number of octets sent by the MS using Short Data Bursts.

Yes

G12

Number of SDBs (Terminating)

The total number of Short Data Burst transactions with the MS.

Yes

G13

Number of SDBs (Originating)

The total number of Short Data Burst transactions with the MS.

Yes

G14

Number of HDLC layer octets received

The count of all octets received in the reverse direction by the HDLC layer in the PDSN.

Yes

G15

Inbound Mobile IP Signaling Octet Count

This is the total number of octets in registration requests and solicitations sent by the MS.

Yes

G16

Outbound Mobile IP Signaling Octet Count

This is the total number of octets in registration replies and agent advertisements sent to the MS prior to any compression and/or fragmentation.

Yes

G17

Last User Activity Time

This is a Timestamp (in number of seconds from Jan 1 1970 UTC) of the last known activity of the user.

Yes

I. Quality of Service

I1

IP Quality of Service (QoS)

This attribute is deprecated.

Not supported

I2

Airlink Priority

Identifies Airlink Priority associated with the user. This is the user's priority associated with the packet data service.

Not supported

Y. Airlink Record Specific Parameters

Y1

Airlink Record Type

3GPP2 Airlink Record Type.

No

Y2

R-P Connection ID

Identifier for the R-P Connection. This is the GRE key that uniquely identifies an R-P connection (an A10 connection) between the PCF and the PDSN.

Yes

Y3

Airlink Sequence Number

Sequence number for Airlink records. Indicates the sequence of airlink records for an R-P connection.

Yes

Y4

Mobile Originated / Mobile Terminated Indicator

Used only in SDB airlink records. Indicates whether the SDB is Mobile Originated or Mobile Terminated. (0=Mobile Originated and 1=Mobile Terminated).

Yes

Z. Container

Z1

Container

3GPP2 Accounting Container attribute. This attribute is used to embed 3GPP2 AVPs.

Not supported


Table 4 identifies the GPP2 accounting records fields.

Radius Server Group Support

The IP address of the AAA server chosen will not be synchronized.

Mobile IP Signaling

For Mobile IP service, the parameters to be synchronized, per MIP flow, include the following:

Mobile IP Registration Lifetime

Mobile IP Flags indicated in the Registration Request

MN-AAA Removal Indication received from AAA

Home Agent IP address

Mobile's IP Address

Reverse Tunneling indication

Care of Address from Mobile IP Registration Request

FA-Challenge (used during Mobile Node reregistration)

Mobile IP tunneled traffic

This traffic is carried in either GRE tunnels or IP-in-IP tunnels. The only information that needs to be synchronized is the tunnel endpoint of the peer.

Locally Configured IPSec

For the PDSN on the Cat76xx, IPSec tunnels are terminated on the Macedon VPN Acceleration Module. The role of the PDSN is to retrieve parameters from AAA and, based on those parameters, trigger IPSec tunnel establishment. Synchronization of these parameters is sufficient to preserve IPSec tunnels in the event of PDSN fail-over for intra-chassis configurations. PDSN failover is not coupled with VPN Acceleration Module/SUP failover. Inter chassis configurations and intra-chassis Macedon/SUP failover does not currently support stateful IPSec.

FA-HA IPSec

FA-HA IPSec tunnels will be preserved when PDSN on 7600 fail-over occurs for intra-chassis configurations. They will not be preserved for inter chassis configurations.

AAA Accounting

Periodic Accounting Sync

Accounting information is optionally synchronized between the active and standby images. This synchronization occurs at the configured periodic accounting interval. The counters that are synchronized are g1 and g2, along with the packet counts. Sending an Interim Accounting record will trigger synchronization of the byte and packet counts. Setting the operator-defined periodic accounting interval determines the accuracy of the user-billing record as impacted by PDSN fail-over. It is possible that undercharging could occur; however, overcharging is not possible.

Accounting with VSA Approach

After a switchover takes place, the first interim or stop accounting record (as appropriate) includes a VSA (cdma-rfswact) indicating that a switchover has occurred. The inclusion of this VSA is controllable by issuing the cdma pdsn redundancy accounting send vsa swact command.


Note Please note that the G1 and G2 counters will not sync.


Here is a sample accounting debug with vsa:

Sep 13 18:23:10.179: RADIUS:   Cisco AVpair       [34]  16  
Sep 13 18:23:10.179: RADIUS:   63 64 6D 61 2D 72 66 73 77 61 63 74 3D 31        
[cdma-rfswact=1]

System Accounting

In a session redundancy setup, an accounting ON will be sent by the active unit only when the whole setup is brought up (accounting ON will not be sent by the newly active unit after a failover). The standby unit does not send any system accounting events under any scenarios. The events, however, are sent in a standalone mode.

A sys-off is sent if reload is issued on the active unit.

Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy

The following new commands have been introduced for PDSN Session Redundancy:

Enabling PDSN Session Redundancy

The active PDSN shall be able to synchronize the session and flow related data to its standby peer provided the redundancy capability has been enabled. By default this capability is disabled.

The commands syntax is as follows:

[no] cdma pdsn redundancy

When the above CLI is configured, session redundancy is enabled provided the underlying redundancy infrastructure has been configured. The redundancy functionality for PDSN is disabled when the above command with no is executed.

Periodic Accounting Counters Synchronization

The active PDSN by default will not try synchronizing accounting counters periodically. To enable periodic accounting counters synchronization, configure the following command:

[no] cdma pdsn redundancy accounting update-periodic

The no form of the command is used to go to the default behavior. When configured, the byte and packet counts for each flow are synced from the active to the standby unit (only if they undergo a change) at the configured periodic accounting interval (using aaa accounting update periodic xxx). If periodic accounting is not configured, the byte and packet counts will not be synced.

Debug Commands for PDSN-Session Redundancy

In order to facilitate the identification of problem areas of PDSN high availability, the following debug commands are introduced for debugging. All of these debug can be turned off using either undebug all or no debug all, if desired.

[no] debug cdma attribute

[no] debug cdma pdsn redundancy packets

To debug and collect any data pertaining to PDSN-SR, the above command is executed and the details pertaining to redundancy data is sent to the console.

[no] debug cdma pdsn redundancy errors

To debug the PDSN-SR redundancy errors the above command is executed and the details pertaining to A11 data is sent to the console.

[no] debug cdma pdsn redundancy events

To debug events for PDSN session redundancy events, above command is executed and the details pertaining to PDSN (e.g. RP) data is sent to the console.

Display of Redundancy Statistics

When a pair of PDSNs is operating in an active and a standby mode, it is desirable to show or display a variety of information about the sessions and its associated flows that have been synchronized to the standby. The following command shall allow the operator to view the session redundancy data for PDSN.

show cdma pdsn redundancy statistics

On execution the above command displays a number of data items; some of the examples are as follows:

Number of sessions synchronized

Number of SIP flows

Number of MoIP flows

Number of synchronized sessions up after a switch-over.

Number of sessions failed to synchronize.


Note show cdma pdsn redundancy statistics will be hidden until service internal is configured.


show cdma pdsn redundancy

On execution of this command, in addition to existing data being displayed, it will also output "pdsn redundancy is enabled," or "redundancy is not enabled," depending on whether the redundancy feature for PDSN has been turned on, or not.

Clearing of PDSN Session Redundancy Statistics

clear cdma pdsn redundancy statistics

On execution of this command, all the data counters associated with the PDSN session redundancy will be actualized to initial value.

Other Debug Commands

In addition to the PDSN-SR debugging commands described above, the following commands associated with high availability are also useful debugging aid:

debug redundancy inter-device

debug ccm

Other Show Commands

In addition to the PDSN-SR show commands described above, the following commands associated with high availability are also useful:

show redundancy inter-device

Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy Infrastructure

The PDSN-SR feature uses the Cisco IOS Check-point Facility (CF) to send stateful data over Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) to a redundant PDSN. Additionally, in conjunction with Cisco IOS HSRP, the PDSN uses the Cisco IOS Redundancy Facility (RF) to monitor and report transitions on Active and Standby PDSNs.

Before you configure PDSN-SR, you need to configure the inter-device redundancy infrastructure.

Configuring HSRP

The Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) provides high network availability because it routes IP traffic from hosts on networks without relying on the availability of any single router. HSRP is used in a group of routers for selecting an Active router and a Standby router. HSRP monitors both the inside and outside interfaces so that if any interface goes down, the whole device is deemed to be down and the Standby device becomes active and takes over the responsibilities of an Active device.

When configuring HSRP, note that the following recommendation and restrictions apply:

At minimum, HSRP must be enabled and an HSRP a "master" group defined on one interface per PDSN instance. A "follow" group can be configured on all other PDSN interfaces using the standby interface configuration command with the follow keyword option specified. The advantages of using follow groups are:

The follow group feature enables all interfaces on which it is configured to share the HSRP parameters of the master group.

Interfaces that share the same group will follow the state of master interface and will use same priority as master interface. This will ensure that all interfaces are in the same HSRP state. Otherwise there is a possibility of one or more interfaces to assume another role than the master HSRP interface.

This optimizes HSRP group number and hence minimizes the configuration and maintenance overhead when having large configurations.

It eliminates unnecessary network traffic over all interfaces by eliminating HSRP Hello messages from follow groups, if configured.

Do not configure a preemption delay on the Standby PDSN using the standby preempt interface configuration command.

When the standby use-bia command is not used to allow bridge and gateways to learn the virtual MAC address, for optimization purposes, configure the standby mac-refresh command to a value greater than the default (hello messages are sent every 10 seconds) under the main interface (gig0/0). This value is used as the hello message interval.


Note If standby use-bia is configured, no hello messages are sent out of the follow group interfaces. We recommended that you use the default virtual MAC address with HSRP unless explicitly required not to.


An ARP multicast packet is sent out when there is a HSRP state change to Active. ARP requests for follow group virtual IP address are responded if HSRP state is Active. Also an ARP multicast is sent on the follow group VLAN when a slave virtual IP address is configured and if the master group is Active.

Use the same group number for each PDSN follow group as is defined for the primary group. Using the same group number for the primary and follow groups facilitates HRSP group setup and maintenance in an environment that contains a large number of PDSN interfaces and HRSP groups.

More information on HSRP configuration and HSRP groups can be found here:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk648/tk362/tk321/tsd_technology_support_sub-protocol_home.html

and

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk648/tk362/technologies_configuration_example09186a0080094e90.shtml

Enabling HSRP and Configuring an HSRP Master Group

To enable HSRP on an interface and configure the primary group, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:


Step 1 Router(config-if)# standby [group-number] ip [ip-address [secondary]]

Enables the HSRP on the interface.

Step 2 Router(config-if)# standby [group-number] priority priority

Set the Hot Standby priority used in choosing the active router. The priority value range is from 1 to 255, where 1 denotes the lowest priority and 255 denotes the highest priority. Specify that, if the local router has priority over the current active router, the local router should attempt to take its place as the active router.

Step 3 Router(config-if)# standby [group-number] name name

Specifies the name of the standby group.

Step 4 Router(config-if)# standby use-bia [scope interface]

(Optional) Configures HSRP to use the burned-in address of an interface as its virtual MAC address instead of the preassigned MAC address.


Configuring Follow Groups

HSRP follow groups are configured to share the HSRP parameters of the primary group by defining a follow group on the interface using the standby interface configuration command with the follow keyword option specified. Interfaces that share a group track states together and have the same priority.

To configure an interface to follow a primary group, use the following command in interface configuration mode:


Step 1 Router(config-if)# standby group-number follow group-name

Specifies the number of the follow group and the name of the primary group to follow and share status.


Note It is recommended that the group number specified is the same as the primary group number.


Step 2 Router(config-if)# standby group-number ip virtual-ip-address

Specifies the group number and virtual IP address of the follow group.


Note The group number specified above should be same as the master group number.



Enabling Inter-Device Redundancy

To enable inter-device redundancy, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode.


Step 1 Router(config)# redundancy inter-device

Configures redundancy and enters inter-device configuration mode.

To remove all inter-device configuration, use the no form of the command.

Step 2 Router(config-red-interdevice)# scheme standby standby-group-name

Defines the redundancy scheme that is to be used. Currently, "standby" is the only supported scheme.

standby-group-name-Must match the standby name specified in the standby name interface configuration command (see the "Configuring HSRP" section). Also, the standby name should be the same on both PDSNs.

Step 3 Router(config-red-interdevice)# exit

Returns to global configuration mode.


Configuring the Inter-Device Communication Transport

Inter-device redundancy requires a transport for communication between the redundant PDSNs. This transport is configured using Interprocess Communication (IPC) commands.

To configure the inter-device communication transport between the two PDSNs, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:


Step 1 Router(config)# ipc zone default

Configures the Inter-device Communication Protocol (IPC) and enters IPC zone configuration mode.

Use this command to initiate the communication link between the Active device and the Standby device.

Step 2 Router(config-ipczone)# association 1

Configures an association between two devices and enters IPC association configuration mode.

In IPC association configuration mode, you configure the details of the association, such as the transport protocol, local port and local IP addresses, and the remote port and remote IP addresses.

Valid association IDs range from 1 to 255. There is no default value.

Step 3 Router(config-ipczone)# no shutdown

Restarts a disabled association and its associated transport protocol. Note Shutdown of the association is required for any changes to the transport protocol parameters.

Step 4 Router(config-ipczone-assoc)# protocol sctp

Configures Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as the transport protocol for this association and enables SCTP protocol configuration mode.

Step 5 Router(config-ipc-protocol-sctp)# local-port local_port_num

Defines the local SCTP port number to use to communicate with the redundant peer and enables IPC Transport-SCTP local configuration mode.

Valid port numbers range from 1 to 65535. There is no default value.


Note The local port number should be the same as the remote port number on the peer router.


Step 6 Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# local ip ip_addr

Defines the local IP address that is used to communicate with the redundant peer. The local IP address must match the remote IP address on the peer router.

Step 7 Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# keepalive [period [retries]]

Enables keepalive packets and specifies the number of times that the Cisco IOS software tries to send keepalive packets with a response before bringing down the interface or tunnel protocol for a specific interface.

Valid value for period is an integer value in seconds great than 0. The default is 10. Valid value for retries is an integer value greater than one and less than 355. The default is the previously used value or 5 if there was no value previously specified.

Step 8 Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# retransmit-timeout interval

Configures the message retransmission time. Valid range is 300 to 60000 milliseconds. The minimum default is 1000. The maximum default is 60000.

Step 9 Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# path-retransmit number

Configures the maximum number of keep-alive retries before the corresponding destination address is marked inactive. Valid range is 2 to 10. The default is 5.

Step 10 Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# assoc-retransmit number

Defines the maximum number of retransmissions over all destination addresses before an association is declared failed. Valid range is 2 to 20. The default is 10.

Step 11 Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# exit

Exits IPC transport - SCTP local configuration mode.

Step 12 Router(config-ipc-protocol-sctp)# remote-port port_num

Defines the remote SCTP port that is used to communicate with the redundant peer and enables IPC Transport-SCTP remote configuration mode. Valid port numbers range from 1 to 65535. There is no default.


Note The remote port number should be the same as the local port number on the peer device.


Step 13 Router(config-ipc-remote-sctp)# remote-ip ip_addr

Defines the remote IP address of the redundant peer that is used to communicate with the local device. All remote IP addresses must refer to the same device. To remove an association configuration, use the no form of the command.


Using the Loopback Interface For the PDSN-AAA Server Interface

To ensure that the AAA server views the active and standby units as a single NAS, the same NAS IP address should be used by both the units. Now, the NAS IP Address can be configured for the PDSN using the ip radius source-interface command. When configured, the IP address of that interface is used as the NAS IP Address.

However, the command does not support virtual IP addresses (HSRP). As a result, the only way to ensure that both the units appear as a single NAS is to configure a loopback interface, and use that interface as the source-interface. In short, the CLI would look something like:

ip radius source-interface Loopback1

Configuring Application Tracking to Handle Active-Active Situation


Step 1 Router(config) # track object-id application pdsn

Defines a tracking object for PDSN application.

Step 2 Router(config-if) # standby track object-id [decrement priority]

Associates the tracking object defined for PDSN with the HSRP config. HSRP would start tracking the state of this object. The configured decrement priority is used to change the HSRP priority based on the state of the tracking object. If the tracking object is "UP", HSRP will have the configured priority. If the tracking object is "DOWN", HSRP decrements its priority by the decrement priority specified in the standby track command.


Note If preemption is configured, the priority value should be greater than the difference in priorities of the active and standby PDSNs



Protocol Layering and RP Connections

Each mobile station has a single PPP connection with the PDSN, and for each PPP connection there is a corresponding R-P connection between the PDSN and the Base Station/ PCF. R-P connection-related information is maintained for the duration of the PPP connection.

Additionally, the PPP connection and the associated HDLC, LCP, CCP and IPCP state information is also maintained for the duration of the packet data session. One Simple IP flow and several Mobile IP flows can be supported over a single PPP connection.

Open RP Interface Connections

An R-P connection represents the logical tunnel between the PDSN and the Base Station/PCF. It enables bearer data for a PPP connection to be transported between the PDSN and the Base Station/PCF. R-P connection state information is maintained at the PDSN for the duration of the PPP connection. During handoff, the mobile station may connect the PDSN through another Base Station/PCF entity resulting in establishment of another R-P connection between the PDSN and the new Base Station/PCF. This results in the release of the R-P connection between the PDSN and the old Base Station/PCF.

R-P connection state information is maintained at the PDSN even during the dormant phase of the session. When a mobile station transitions to active state, this information allows the PDSN to associate the mobile station with an already available PPP connection. Loss of R-P state information results in the release of the PPP connection by the PDSN. As a result, a mobile station accessing packet data services following the loss of an R-P connection results in the establishment of a new PPP connection, and the reset and restart of user applications. Therefore, the PDSN retains the R-P connection state information to ensure minimal disruption of user applications during transitions between active and dormant session phases.


Note In PDSN Release 2.1, Dual RP Interface (Open RP and Closed RP) is not supported on the same PDSN instance.


PPP Connections

A PPP connection represents the link layer connectivity between the mobile station and the PDSN. It includes the HDLC state, negotiated LCP parameters, negotiated IP address and CCP compression state tables, etc. Peer PPP entities may re-negotiate LCP and CCP parameters during an active session without compromising continuity of user sessions; however, user identity, authentication-related information and negotiated IP addresses are retained, thus ensuring that applications established over the SimpleIP flow are unaware that renegotiation has occurred. PPP connection state information is retained at the PDSN during dormant phase of the session to ensure minimal disruption of user applications during transitions between active and dormant session phases.

Application Flows

One Simple IP and several Mobile IP flow instances can be supported over a single PPP connection. For each Simple IP flow, the state information includes the associated IP address, NAI and billing related user data records (UDRs), and other related information. For each Mobile IP flow, the state information includes the Mobile IP visitor list information, NAI and UDRs, and other related information.

Closed-RP/Open-RP Integration

Cisco PDSN Release 3.0 introduces the Closed-RP and Open-RP Integration feature, which includes the following details:

Open RP and Closed RP handoff support on the same PDSN instance

Open RP and Closed RP common clustering solution based on controller member architecture that already exist for Open RP

Handoff between Closed-RP and Open-RP

PDSN instance will be able to handoff the session between the Closed-RP and Open-RP PCF. During the handoff the PDSN will not re-negotiate the PPP for the session. Also in the accounting records for a Closed-RP PCF only the relevant parameters that are supported in the Closed-RP architecture are sent. For the Open-RP PCF all the 3GPP2 supported accounting parameters will be included records to the RADIUS.

Closed-RP/Open-RP Clustering Architecture

The controller module in the Open-RP clustering architecture supports Closed-RP clustering. In the dual mode, the controller module accepts Closed-RP connections from the Closed-RP PCF, and terminates the connection locally. After it successfully terminates the Closed-RP connection, the controller performs L2TP Tunnel switching on the session to one of the members. The following call control and call management capabilities of the Closed RP signaling interface are supported on the controller:

Closed RP Tunnel setup procedures

Closed RP Tunnel teardown procedures

Closed RP Session setup procedures

Closed RP Session release procedures

Closed RP and Open RP handoff procedures

Closed-RP Tunnel Setup Procedures

The PCF establishes a Closed RP tunnel when it is brought into service, and PDSN IP addresses are statistically configured on it. PCF establishes a tunnel with each PDSN controller for which it has an IP address.

The following L2TP control messages are required to setup the tunnel in a Controller Closed RP Tunnel Setup


Step 1 Closed RP PCF sends SCCRQ (Start-Control-Connection-Request) to the PDSN controller which terminates the Closed RP tunnel.

Step 2 The PDSN controller in case accepts the tunnel request will reply with SCCRP (Start-Control-Connection-Reply) to the Closed RP PCF.

Step 3 Closed RP PCF responds with SCCCN (Start-Control-Connection-Connected) to the PDSN Controller.

Step 4 PDSN controller Acks the SCCCN message with ZLB (Zero Length Buffer) to the Closed RP PCF.


Closed RP Tunnel Clearing Procedures

Tunnel clearing can be initiated by the PDSN (Controller / Member) or by Closed RP PCF by sending a Stop Control Connection Notification Message, and ZLB is sent to Ack the message. The PDSN can be configured to initiate the Tunnel termination in the following scenarios

There is no keepalive message

There is no session.

Here is the Controller Closed RP Tunnel Clearing message flow:


Step 1 Closed RP PCF sends a Stop CCN to the PDSN controller, and the PDSN controller deletes the tunnel (including all the sessions on the tunnel) and responds with the ZLB Ack to the Closed RP PCF. All the Closed RP sessions that are switched to PDSN members are also locally cleared on the controller. If all the sessions are closed on the Closed RP tunnel between the controller and members, then Closed RP switched tunnel is also closed by sending a Stop CCN message to the member.

Step 2 The PDSN members can send Stop CCN to the PDSN controller, and the PDSN controller deletes the tunnel (including all the sessions on the tunnel) and responds with the ZLB Ack to the PDSN member. All the Closed RP session towards to the Closed RP PCF are locally cleared. If all the sessions are cleared, then Stop CCN is sent to the Closed RP PCF.


Closed RP Connection Setup Procedures

The following message flow depicts the Controller Closed RP Connection Setup:


Step 1 Closed RP PCF sends an ICRQ message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attributes, such as MSID.

Step 2 The PDSN controller sends an ICRP message to the Closed RP PCF. ICRP message is sent to the Closed RP PCF if, and only if, the PDSN controller is able to select a PDSN member for redirecting this particular session. Otherwise the ICRQ is rejected by the PDSN controller by sending a CDN message. Please refer to below note for selection for PDSN member

Step 3 Closed RP PCF sends an ICCN message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes, and for mandatory attributes.

Step 4 If the PDSN controller accepts the ICCN message, it sends a ZLB Ack message to the Closed RP PCF

Step 5 The PDSN controller sends a SCCRQ message to the PDSN member selected for redirecting the session.

Step 6 The PDSN member send a SCCRP message to the PDSN controller.

Step 7 The PDSN controller sends a SCCN message to the PDSN member.

Step 8 The PDSN member sends a ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 9 The PDSN controller sends the ICRQ message to PDSN member. In the ICRQ, all the Closed RP AVP are included (similar to what was received from the Closed RP PCF). The PDSN controller includes 2 additional attributes in the ICRQ message (HopCount AVP set to 1 and Original NAS IP address AVP set to the original PCF IP address). By sending the PCF IP address in Original NAS IP address AVP allows the PDSN member to send the correct PCF IP address in the accounting information to the RADIUS

Step 10 The PDSN member sends ICRP to the PDSN controller if the ICRQ is accepted on the PDSN member.

Step 11 The PDSN controller sends ICCN to the PDSN member with the Closed RP AVP included.

Step 12 The PDSN member sends ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 13 The PDSN member starts PPP negotiation with the mobile. Until the tunnel and session is established between the PDSN controller and PDSN member, the data packets (which are the PPP negotiation packets) from the mobile are dropped on the controller itself.


Note Steps 5 through 8 are performed only once for the tunnel to be setup between the Closed RP PDSN controller and the PDSN member.



Note Selection of the PDSN member is based on whether the PDSN controller already has the MSID information, or not. If the PDSN controller does not possess the MSID information, then member selection is based on the PDSN member selection criteria. If MSID information is already present, then the same member is selected.


Both 3GPP2 RP and Closed RP share a common MSID to the PDSN member table on the PDSN controller. This enables the PDSN controller to select the same PDSN member during the handoff between the RP technologies.


Closed RP Connection Release Procedure

The following message flow depicts the Controller Closed RP Connection Release procedure:


Step 1 The Closed RP PCF sends a CDN to the PDSN controller; the PDSN controller deletes the session on the tunnel and responds with the ZLB Ack to the Closed RP PCF. The PDSN controller also closes the Closed RP session with the PDSN member by sending a CDN message for the session to the member.

Step 2 The PDSN member sends a CDN to the PDSN controller; the PDSN controller deletes the session on the tunnel and responds with the ZLB Ack to the PDSN member. PDSN controller also closes the Closed RP session with the Closed RP PCF by sending a CDN message for the session to the Closed RP PCF.


Closed RP and Open RP Handoff Procedures

The following message flow depicts the Controller Closed RP Handoff Closed to Open RP PCF procedure:


Step 1 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICRQ message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attribute such as MSID.

Step 2 The PDSN controller sends an ICRP message to the Closed RP PCF. An ICRP message is sent to the Closed RP PCF if, and only if, the PDSN controller is able to select a PDSN member for redirecting this particular session. Otherwise the ICRQ is rejected by the PDSN controller by sending a CDN message. Please refer to the note below for selection for PDSN member.

Step 3 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICCN message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attributes.

Step 4 The PDSN controller, if it accepts the ICCN message, sends a ZLB Ack message to the Closed RP PCF

Step 5 The PDSN controller will send a SCCRQ message to the PDSN member selected for redirecting the session.

Step 6 The PDSN member will send a SCCRP message to the PDSN controller.

Step 7 The PDSN controller sends a SCCN message to the PDSN member.

Step 8 The PDSN member sends a ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 9 The PDSN controller sends the ICRQ message to PDSN member. In the ICRQ all the Closed RP AVPs are included (similar to what was received from the Closed RP PCF).The PDSN controller includes 2 additional attributes in the ICRQ message (HopCount AVP set to 1 and Original NAS IP address AVP set to the original PCF IP address). By sending the PCF IP address in Original NAS IP address AVP allows the PDSN member to send the correct PCF IP address in the accounting information to the RADIUS.

Step 10 The PDSN member sends ICRP to the PDSN controller if the ICRQ is accepted on the PDSN member.

Step 11 The PDSN controller sends ICCN to the PDSN member with the Closed RP AVP included.

Step 12 The PDSN member sends ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 13 The PDSN member starts PPP negotiation with the mobile.

Step 14 The Open RP PCF sends an A11 Registration request to the PDSN controller as part of the handoff.

Step 15 The PDSN controller rejects the Registration request with 88H (unknown PDSN) and provides the member IP address that holds the Closed RP session.

Step 16 The Open RP PCF sends the A11 registration request to the PDSN member.

Step 17 The PDSN member sends a A11 registration reply accept to the Open RP PCF.

Step 18 The PDSN member sends a CDN message to the Old PCF (PDSN controller) with message code 255 indicating handoff.

Step 19 The PDSN controller sends a ZLB Ack to the PDSN member.

Step 20 The PDSN controller sends a CDN message to the PCF with message code 255 indicating handoff.

Step 21 The PDSN receives a ZLB Ack for the CDN message from the PCF.


The following message flow depicts the Controller Closed RP Handoff Open to Close RP PCF procedure:


Step 1 The Open RP PCF sends an A11 Registration request to the PDSN controller as part of the handoff.

Step 2 The PDSN controller rejects the Registration request with 88H (unknown PDSN) and provides the member IP address that holds the Closed RP session.

Step 3 The Open RP PCF sends the A11 registration request to the PDSN member.

Step 4 The PDSN member sends a A11 registration reply accept to the Open RP P.

Step 5 The PDSN member starts PPP negotiation with the mobile.

Step 6 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICRQ message to the PDSN controller as part of handoff. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attributes, such as MSID.

Step 7 The PDSN controller sends an ICRP message to the Closed RP PCF. ICRP message is sent to the Closed RP PCF if and only if PDSN controller is able to select a PDSN member for redirecting this particular session. Otherwise the ICRQ is rejected by the PDSN controller by sending a CDN message. Please refer to below note for selection for PDSN member.

Step 8 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICCN message to the PDSN controller. PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attributes.

Step 9 The PDSN controller, if it accepts the ICCN message, sends a ZLB Ack message to the Closed RP PCF.

Step 10 The PDSN controller sends a SCCRQ message to the PDSN member selected for redirecting the session.

Step 11 The PDSN member sends a SCCRP message to the PDSN controller.

Step 12 PDSN controller sends a SCCN message to the PDSN member.

Step 13 The PDSN member sends a ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 14 The PDSN controller sends the ICRQ message to the PDSN member. In the ICRQ all the Closed RP AVPs are included (similar to what was received from the Closed RP PCF). The PDSN controller includes 2 additional attributes in the ICRQ message (HopCount AVP set to 1, and Original NAS IP address AVP set to the original PCF IP address). Sending the PCF IP address in Original NAS IP address AVP allows the PDSN member to send the correct PCF IP address in the accounting information to the RADIUS

Step 15 The PDSN member sends ICRP to the PDSN controller if the ICRQ is accepted on the PDSN member.

Step 16 The PDSN controller sends ICCN to the PDSN member with the Closed RP AVP included.

Step 17 The PDSN member sends ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 18 The PDSN member sends A11 RP Update to the Old PCF.

Step 19 The PDSN member receives A11 RP Update Ack from the old PCF.

Step 20 The PDSN member receives A11 De registration request from the Old PCF.

Step 21 The PDSN member accepts the De registration request from the Old PCF.


The following message flow depicts the Controller Closed RP Handoff Closed to Closed RP PCF procedure:


Step 1 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICRQ message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attribute such as MSID.

Step 2 The PDSN controller sends an ICRP message to the Closed RP PCF. ICRP message is sent to the Closed RP PCF if, and only if, the PDSDN controller is able to select a PDSN member for redirecting this particular session. Otherwise, the ICRQ is rejected by the PDSN controller by sending a CDN message. Please refer to note below for selection for PDSN member.

Step 3 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICCN message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attribute.

Step 4 If the PDSN controller accepts the ICCN message, it sends a ZLB Ack message to the Closed RP PCF.

Step 5 The PDSN controller sends a SCCRQ message to the PDSN member selected for redirecting the session.

Step 6 The PDSN member sends a SCCRP message to the PDSN controller.

Step 7 The PDSN controller sends a SCCN message to the PDSN member.

Step 8 The PDSN member sends a ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 9 The PDSN controller sends the ICRQ message to PDSN member. In the ICRQ all the Closed RP AVP are included (similar to what was received from the Closed RP PCF). PDSN controller includes 2 additional attributes in the ICRQ message (HopCount AVP set to 1, and Original NAS IP address AVP set to the original PCF IP address). Sending the PCF IP address in Original NAS IP address AVP allows the PDSN member to send the correct PCF IP address in the accounting information to the RADIUS.

Step 10 The PDSN member sends ICRP to the PDSN controller if the ICRQ is accepted on the PDSN member.

Step 11 The PDSN controller sends ICCN to the PDSN member with the Closed RP AVP included.

Step 12 The PDSN member sends ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 13 The PDSN member starts PPP negotiation with the mobile.

Step 14 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICRQ message to the PDSN controller as part of handoff. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attributes, such as MSID.

Step 15 The PDSN controller sends an ICRP message to the Closed RP PCF. ICRP message is sent to the Closed RP PCF if, and only if, the PDSN controller is able to select a PDSN member for redirecting this particular session. Otherwise, the ICRQ is rejected by the PDSN controller by sending a CDN message. Please refer to the note below for selection for PDSN member.

Step 16 The Closed RP PCF sends an ICCN message to the PDSN controller. The PDSN controller checks for the Closed RP specific attributes and mandatory attribute.

Step 17 The PDSN controller if accepts the ICCN message will send a ZLB Ack message to the Closed RP.

Step 18 The PDSN controller sends the ICRQ message to PDSN member. In the ICRQ all the Closed RP AVP are included (similar to what was received from the Closed RP PCF). The PDSN controller includes 2 additional attribute in the ICRQ message (HopCount AVP set to 1, and Original NAS IP address AVP set to the original PCF IP). Sending the PCF IP address in Original NAS IP address AVP allows the PDSN member to send the correct PCF IP address in the accounting information to the RADIUS.

Step 19 The PDSN member sends ICRP to the PDSN controller if the ICRQ is accepted on the PDSN member.

Step 20  The PDSN controller sends ICCN to the PDSN member with the Closed RP AVP included.

Step 21 The PDSN member sends ZLB Ack to the PDSN controller.

Step 22 The PDSN member sends a CDN message to the Old PCF (PDSN controller) with message code 255 indicating handoff.

Step 23 The PDSN controller sends a ZLB Ack to the PDSN member.

Step 24 The PDSN controller sends a CDN message to the PCF with message code 255 indicating handoff.

Step 25 The PDSN controller receives a ZLB Ack for the CDN message from the PCF.


Performance

In the solution controller that anchors the Closed RP session from the PCF, and does L2TP switching of these sessions to the PDSN member, the following performance measurements were found:

The PDSN controller supports 20,000 Closed RP sessions and 140,000 Open RP sessions with 2 PDSN controllers (one being Active, and other Standby), with 8 PDSN member each supporting 20,000 sessions in total. These can be a mix of Closed RP and Open RP sessions.

The PDSN controller supports approximately 10% of the Closed RP session that are active; 2,000 sessions will be able to send and receive traffic using this architecture. With 144Kbps required for each session, this translates to 300 Mbps of traffic support required on the PDSN controller for 10% of Closed RP session being active. CPU usage on the controller for a 20,000 Closed RP session open, and 2% of these session being active with 300Mbps of traffic is around 44%.

The Open RP CPS on the controller is around 750 calls per second (for 140,000 sessions), with 300 Mbps traffic being sent on 2,000 closed RP session on the controller. The CPU usage during the period is 98%.

Mobility Management With Closed-RP

An important aspect of packet data services is mobility management. A user should be able to maintain an established service even when roaming within and beyond their service provider's coverage area. For such mobility management, the system supports handoffs that are transparent to user applications.

Handoffs

Handoffs occur as a result of user mobility. A CDMA2000 system supports three types of handoffs:

Inter-BTS Handoff

This type of handoff occurs when the mobile moves from one BTS coverage area to another BTS coverage area, generally within a BSC/PCF area. This type of handoff is not visible to the PDSN and is not discussed further.

Inter-PCF Handoff - Same PDSN

This type of handoff occurs when the mobile moves from the radio coverage area served by one BSC/PCF to a coverage area served by a different BSC/PCF, both connected to the same MSC. In this case, the new PCF can often connect to the same PDSN as the old PCF. However, this is not guaranteed.

When a mobile with an active data session hands off from one PCF to another PCF, the target PCF sends an ICRQ with Session Inquiry AVP to all the PDSNs it is connected with. The PDSN that has the PPP session for the Mobile Node replies with ICRP and terminates the RP session with the Source PCF by sending a CDN with Cause Value 253. If none of the PDSNs, connected with the Target PCF has the PPP session for the Mobile Node, the PCF chooses the least loaded PDSN and proceeds with Call Setup.

Inter-PCF Handoff - Different PDSN

This type of handoff occurs when the mobile moves from the radio coverage area served by one BSC/PCF to a coverage area served by a different BSC/PCF and the new BSC/PCF is connected to a different MSC than the old BSC/PCF. In this case, the new and old PCFs are typically unable to connect to the same PDSN.

This scenario is possible when the mobile moves to a different radio coverage area and the new BSC/PCF connects to a different MSC than the original BSC/PCF. In this case, it is unlikely that the same PDSN will be used. This results in Inter-PCF and Inter-PDSN handoff.

When the target PCF learns that none of the PDSNs host the packet data session for the MN, the least loaded PDSN is selected and the session is set up using the same steps followed in initial call setup. This scenario is same as the new Closed RP connection setup.

IOS-SLB on the Supervisor card

One aspect of the Closed-RP feature requires that you configure Server Load Balancing on the Cisco Supervisor card. IOS-SLB on the Supervisor card provides loadbalancing for the Closed RP Tunnels between the PCFs and PDSNs. The Loadbalancing unit will direct the Closed RP tunnel to the appropriate PDSN instance. The IOS-SLB unit supports redundancy, so that there is no single point of failure for this system. Figure 6 illustrates this configuration.

Figure 6 Closed-RP Server Load Balancing Configuration

PPPoGRE RP Interface

The PDSN interfaces with the Radio Network/Base Station to provide a transmission path for the user data stream between the packet network and the radio access network. The PDSN interfaces to the Radio Network through the Packet Control Function (PCF) using the PPPoGRE RP interface.

The following list describes the transmission path between the Radio Network and the PDSN:

The PDSN provides a media-independent physical link that supports IP packet transport capabilities.

The PPPoGRE RP Interface supports both the signaling channel and the bearer data transport capabilities.

The PPPoGRE RP interface is based on 3GPP2 TIA/EIA/IS-835 standard for the control and bearer data transport capabilities. The following list describes the differences between the 3GPP2 standard and PPPoGRE RP Interface from the PDSN perspective:

The PCF connecting the PDSN that supports PPPoGRE functionality sends the A11 Registration request with the GRE Protocol Type field set to 0x880B.

Neither the PDSN, nor the mobile node requires AHDLC framing or de-framing for the PPPoGRE sessions.

A10 bearer data packets are sent and received in the GRE Protocol field set to 0x880B (PPPoGRE).

A11 Session Update

This feature is based on Interoperability Specification (IOS) for cdma2000 Access Network Interfaces (Part 7 (A10 and A11 Interfaces) (3G-IOSv4.3) Version 2.0.1 Date: July 2003) and Interoperability Specification (IOS) for cdma2000 Access Network Interfaces (Part 3 Features (3G-IOSv4.3) Version 2.0.1 Date: July 2003 standard). An A11 Session Update message is sent from the PDSN to the PCF to add, change, or update session parameters for an A10 connection. The following parameters are sent from the PDSN to PCF in an A11 Session Update message in a session parameters NVSE extension with Application Type 08H (Session Parameter). These session parameters NVSE extension will also be sent by the PDSN in the A11 Registration Reply messages.

Radio Network Packet Data Inactivity Timer [01H]

Application Sub- Type 01H, the Application Data field contains the Radio Network Packet Data Inactivity Timer (RN-PDIT) value in seconds. This field is one octet in length and has range 01H-FFH, corresponding to timer values 1-255 seconds.

Supported for Service types Simple IP, Mobile IP, Proxy Mobile IP, MSID, and VPDN.

Always On Indicator [02H]

For Application Sub Type 02H ((Always-on indicator), the Application Data is zero bytes in length.

Supported for Service types Simple IP and MSID.

As per the standard cdma2000® Wireless IP Network Standard TIA-835-C, AUGUST 2003, the PDSN will download the Always On Indicator VSA and RN-PDIT VSA from the Radius server (Visited/Home RADIUS) during the authentication phase. If a user initiates multiple packet data sessions, the PDSN may receive more than one RN PDIT VSA from different home domains. In this case, the largest RN PDIT value received from different home domains is sent from the PDSN to the RN. This update may happen during an ongoing packet data session when the PDSN receives a new RN PDIT value that is greater than the one previously sent to the RN. For Handoff scenario the RN-PDIT and Always-On indicator are sent the PCF in the A11 Registration Reply if the Airlink is not dormant.

SDB Indicator Marking

This feature supports short data burst (SDB) applications, such as SIP signaling for PTT applications, and proposes the interaction with the PDSN. SIP is used by PTT applications to signal a PTT call. The message is short and needs to be delivered to the end-user. The Short Data Burst support on the RAN can be used to send these to the end-user, especially when the messages are to be terminated to the mobile. This is especially important when the mobile user is actually dormant.

The proposal consists of two parts:

Signalling of SDB indication, or other indications, on the GRE link between PDSN and PC.

Identification of data packet suitable for payloads.


Note SDB Marking is only supported for service type Simple IP.


Signaling of SDB Indication

The SDB indication is based on the 3GPP2 Proposal Contribution (Ericsson/SKT) A30-20030818-006, where one of the reserved bits in the GRE header is used to indicate the SDB packets from the PDSN for dormant sessions. The PDSN definition of dormancy is Airlink Stop record A11 Registration request is received from the PCF and A11 Registration success reply is sent by the PDSN.

The PDSN may set the B bit to "1" if the GRE frame contains an IP packet suitable for transmission over the air interface in a Data Burst Message. In the PCF-to-PDSN direction, and on the A8 interface, the B bit is set to "0".

Identification of Data Packets For SDB Indication

SDB indication is required for certain types of data only. Packets destined towards the mobiles that match the policy criteria will be chosen for SDB indication provided the mobile is in dormant mode

The local policy can be considered for an initial phase, if the selection of servers or signaling protocols is limited. For example, if there is only a single SIP server sending out SIP signaling message, a combination of port and source IP address may be used. In addition to this, the PDSN can also be configured with the min and max IP length.

On a Cisco PDSN, IOS MQC can be used to apply classification rules for matching packets that require SDB classification. For example, simple classification criteria can include port number, and source IP address range of the server. A more complex classification criterion can include a custom protocol inspection.

If packets pass the classification criteria and the user is dormant, the PDSN will signal SDB indication to the PCF.

To enable this feature, use the following command:

cdma pdsn compliance ios4.1 sdb

This command enables the PDSN to process an SDB record sent from PCF according to IOS4.1 Standard.

If deep classification is required for certain types of payloads such as RTP, or a custom application, IOS NBAR can be used for inspecting these packets. For a detailed description of how to configure IOS NBAR please refer to the documentation on NBAR.

A sample configuration for the classification function is shown here:

class-map match-all sdb-packets
     match packet length min 100 max 300
     match protocol <protocol>
     match access-group <access-group-number>
ip access-list <access-group-number> permit ip 192.0.2.0 0.0.0.255 any   

(This example of access-list allows matching of a certain protocol from servers whose address range is 192.0.2.0/24)

The protocol and the access-group can be set to match the desired packet stream. The match criteria can also include a custom protocol inspection such as

ip nbar custom media_new 8 hex 0x60 dest udp 3001

The above statement classifies all packets with a UDP destination of port 3001, and contains the value 0x60 at offset 8. The protocol media_new can now be used in the match protocol protocol statement.

policy-map sdb-policy
     class sdb-packets
     set qos-group group-number

The policy map is then applied to the input interface. The group-number represents the classified match criteria. All packets that are set with the specific group-number will be flagged for SDB usage between the PCF and the PDSN. This is done with the following command:

cdma pdsn a11 dormant sdb-indication gre-flags group-number

The B bit (SDB indication) would be set for packets matching the sdb-indication group-number.

SDB Indicator Marking for PPP Control Packets

While data packets can be sent towards the mobile using SDBs as shown above, SDBs can also be used for delivering PPP control packets. This can be particularly helpful for Always-On sessions, where the session is dormant. Basically, with Always On configured, the PDSN sends out LCP echo requests (and waits for LCP echo replies) to keep the session alive. Hence, when such a session goes dormant, a data channel needs to be setup to deliver these LCP echo requests to the MN. The other option is to use SDBs to deliver the LCP echo requests without setting up a data channel.

Configure the following CLI in conjunction of the above CLIs to enable this feature:

cdma pdsn a11 dormant sdb-indication match-qos-group group-number ppp-ctrl-pkts

Resource Management

Resource management defines the mechanism to release packet data session related resources at the network elements like the PDSN and the HA. Resources may be released due to the session handoff or for administrative purposes.

IS-835-C defines two mechanisms for resource management:

Packet of Disconnect (POD)

Mobile IP Resource Revocation

While resource management based on Packet of Disconnect is applicable to Simple IP, Mobile IP and Proxy Mobile IP flows, resource management based on Mobile IP Resource revocation is applicable only to Mobile IP flows.

The Cisco PDSN supports resource management based on both Packet of Disconnect and Mobile IP resource revocation.

Resource Revocation for Mobile IP

Basic Mobile IP resource revocation is an IS-835-C initiative that defines the methods by which a mobility agent (one that provides Mobile IP services to a mobile node) can notify the other mobility agent of the termination of a registration due to administrative reasons or MIP handoff.

When configured on the PDSN/FA, the Mobility Agent Advertisement extension in the Agent advertisement will have the X bit set, thus advertising support for resource revocation on that link. A PDSN configured to support resource revocation in Mobile IPv4 will include a revocation support extension in all MIP RRQ including re-registrations. If the associated MIP RRP from the HA also includes a valid revocation support extension, then the PDSN will assume the associated registration as revocable.

For a registration that is revocable, if the PDSN/FA needs to terminate the session administratively, the PDSN/FA sends a resource revocation message to the HA and releases the resources held for that registration.

If the resource revocation ACK from the HA is not received within a configurable amount of time, the resource revocation message will be retransmitted.

On receipt of a resource revocation message from Home Agent, and a registration (identified by the home address, care-of address, and Home Agent address) is located, the resources held by that registration are freed, and a resource revocation ACK message is sent back to the Home Agent. If no other Mobile IP registrations are active on the PPP session associated with the revoked binding, then the PDSN will release the associated PPP and R-P sessions for the revoked registration.

Restrictions for Registration Revocation

The following restrictions for Registration Revocation on the PDSN apply:

The STC VSA returned from AAA in access-accept message during FA-CHAP and HA-CHAP will be ignored, and local configuration on the PDSN and HA will take precedence.

Revocation extension and messages, even if not protected by FHAE or IPSec, will be accepted and processed by both PDSN and HA. It is recommended that the user takes care of providing the security of the messages by either configuring FA-HA security association or by provisioning IPSec tunnel between the two agents.

MobileIP MIB is not updated with the Registration revocation information.

On the PDSN, all the ip mobile foreign-service commands need to be configured at the global level and not at the interface level.

On the PDSN, for the I-bit support the local policy is to always negotiate I-bit and to always set it to 1 in the Revocation messages. Also the provision to set B-bit to 1 in the agent advertisement message while informing MN of the revoked data flow is not provided.

Resource Revocation and Bind Update cannot be enabled simultaneously. Both are mutually exclusive of each other.

Packet of Disconnect

Radius Disconnect, or Packet of Disconnect (PoD) is a mechanism that allows the RADIUS server to send a Radius Disconnect Message to the PDSN to release Session related resources. Resources may be released due to the session handoff, or for administrative purposes. Some of the resources identified include PPP, RP sessions and Mobile IP bindings. Support for Radius Disconnect on the Cisco PDSN and Home Agent is TIA835C compliant.

The PDSN communicates its Resource management capabilities to the Home AAA in the Access Request message (sent for authentication/authorization procedure) by including a 3GPP2 Vendor Specific Session Termination Capability (STC) VSA. The value communicated in the STC VSA is obtained in the configuration. The PDSN also includes an NAS-Identifier attribute containing its Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) in the Access Request.

The Home AAA server establishes a relationship between the user and the NAS Identifier/ NAS-IP address to detect a inter-PDSN handoff. If the NAS-Identifier/ NAS IP address received in the Access Request is different from the previously stored value (non-zero), an inter-PDSN handoff is detected.

The Disconnect Request contains the NAS-ID and the Username (NAI) attributes. It can optionally contain 3GPP2 Correlation ID Calling station ID (IMSI) and the Framed IP address—some session identification attributes. A Disconnect Reason VSA is included if a inter-PDSN handoff is detected. The session identification attributes supported by the PDSN are 3GPP2 Correlation ID and Calling station ID (IMSI).

If the 3GPP2 Correlation ID and Calling station ID (IMSI) attributes are received in the Disconnect Request, and the PDSN is able to find the session/flow corresponding to them, the PDSN will terminate the associated flow and send a Disconnect ACK message to RADIUS server. If session is not found for the received attributes, the PDSN will reply back with a Disconnect NACK message with error code "session context not found". If the Disconnect request has invalid attributes (for example, an 8 digit IMSI), the PDSN will reply with a Disconnect NACK with error code "Invalid Request".

The PDSN also supports processing Disconnect Requests that only contain the NAI attribute (if configured). In compliance with the standards, the PDSN terminates all sessions corresponding to the Username received.

The Ballot version mentions that a Disconnect Request can be received at the Home Agent (HA,) but details on the action to be taken in such an event is not detailed. Hence the approach followed is to terminate a specific binding if Framed-IP-Address attribute is received along with NAI, or terminate all bindings for the NAI, if only NAI attribute is received in the Disconnect Request.

The following restriction is present for this feature:

All Dormant NVSE are not supported.

The command line interface for this feature will be standard AAA interfaces. The preferred method to configure POD in Release 2.0 and above is to use the aaa server radius dynamic-author command, which leads to a sub-configuration mode that has options to configure clients, security keys, and other variables.

The following NAS global AAA command is used to enable listening for POD packets:

aaa pod server key word, where word is the shared key.

The full syntax for this command is:

aaa pod server [clients ipaddr1 [ipaddr2] [ipaddr3] [ipaddr4]] [port port-number] [auth-type {any | all | session-key}] server-key [encryption-type] string

The following debug command is also available:

debug aaa pod

Restrictions for RADIUS Disconnect

All Dormant NVSE is not supported.

MIB support is not currently planned.

Processing of a RADIUS Disconnect message with only NAI present must be configured for compliance to IS 835-C.

Radius Enhancements

PDSN R3.0 includes the following RADIUS enhancements:

Radius Server Load Balancing

Selection of Radius Server based on realm.

Radius Server Load Balancing

The RADIUS Load-Balancing feature is a mechanism to share the load of RADIUS Authentication and Accounting transactions across a set of RADIUS servers. Currently, all transactions are sent to the first server considered to be alive in a server group. Only when this server stops responding and is marked dead, the PDSN fails over to the next one in the group. This mechanism of using only one server despite the presence of other usable servers in the group limits the overall throughput for call setup/teardown.

Thus, with Radius Server Load Balancing, the PDSN distributes the transaction load across multiple servers in a server group. It tracks the slower servers and reduces the transaction load on those servers and it adapts when a server is marked dead and when it comes back up again.

The transactions are grouped into batches (the size of which is configurable), and each server is assigned a batch to process. The feature then load-balances transactions based on these batches, one batch at a time. When the first transaction is received, the algorithm determines the server with the least outstanding transactions. This server is then assigned the next batch of transactions. Once a batch of transactions has been assigned, we again compute the server with the least outstanding transactions. This server gets assigned the next batch of transactions. Thus the server with the least outstanding transactions always gets assigned the next batch. This load-balancing scheme can be applied based on a server group. Thus, each server group defined on the IOS platform can have its own load-balancing scheme.

Care should be taken while configuring the batch size. The trade-off in large versus a small batch size is that of throughput versus CPU load. A large batch size results in lesser amount of computations hence a lower CPU load. However, it may cause a particular server within the server-group to be assigned transactions even though others in the group are idle. For very small batch sizes, the CPU load increases, as it computes outstanding load across servers more often. Lab simulations indicate that a batch size of 25 gives a decent throughput while not adversely affecting CPU load.

High Latency RADIUS servers

The algorithm adapts well to servers of varying response times. Servers that are quick will have a lower number of transactions outstanding and hence will be assigned larger number of the incoming transactions. Slower servers get proportionately lesser number of transactions.

Server Failovers

When a transaction fails over to the next server in the group after a failover, its outstanding count will be increased. Thus, failed-over transactions are also load-balanced. When the next batch of transactions is being assigned, this server's outstanding count will reflect it's load accurately - both new and failover transactions will be accounted for in the outstanding transaction count.

Dealing with Server Groups

Consider the following two server-groups:

Server-group SG1 with servers S1, S2, S3.

Server-group SG2 with servers S3, S4, S5.

Consider that SG1 is configured to be load-balanced, while SG2 is not. When requests are sent to SG2, these requests will be assigned to S3 as it is the first server in the group and its outstanding transaction count will increase. When requests are sent to SG1, these requests will be load-balanced across these servers. When sending transactions to S3, the outstanding transaction count for the server will be high due to the SG2 transactions being assigned directly to it. Hence it will receive a low proportion of transactions in SG1. This is the preferred behavior, since the goal is to send transactions to servers that are quicker and able to handle more load, where load is the total transactions a server is handling, not just those of the current server-group.

Preferred Servers

In certain cases, it is desirable to use the same server for the authentication and accounting phases of a session. With RADIUS server load balancing, however, there are no guarantees that the stop-record for a session will be sent to the same server as the start-record for that session. To avoid such situations a preferred-server indication is introduced in Release 3.0.


Note This indication is a preference/recommendation only.


The PDSN will try to use the server if possible, but if not, it will fall back to other servers in the group based on the load-balancing mechanism.

When this indicator is used, costs will not be considered in deciding the server to use. However, it might not be possible to always use the preferred server. The server may have been marked dead. Or the server may not be usable since it isn't part of the server-group that was used for a previous transaction for the session (for example, the Accounting server-group may be different from the authentication server-group). In this case, the algorithm is free to select an alternate server, based on the load-balancing scheme.

Incoming RADIUS requests

The RADIUS server load balancing feature is not applicable to incoming RADIUS requests (e.g. Packet of Disconnect). POD responses require that the server requesting service be the one that is responded too. Hence we shouldn't load-balance these requests across servers.

Subscriber Authorization Based on Domain

Cisco IOS provides a "Subscriber Authorization" mechanism to authorize subscribers based on their realm. You can find details of this feature at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps6350/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080455cf0.html#wp1056463

IS-835 Prepaid Support

The Cisco PDSN 2.0 software release provides real-time monitoring and rating of data calls for prepaid users. The prepaid billing solution for the PDSN is based on the RADIUS (AAA) server, and takes advantage of the existing flow-based accounting functionality. The prepaid billing feature requires the RADIUS server to interface with a Prepaid Billing Server (PBS) to relay real-time billing information between the PDSN and the PBS. A third-party Prepaid Billing Server controls the real-time rating of data calls and maintains balances in users' accounts. Cisco does not supply the PBS.

The following three types of Prepaid service are available in PDSN Release 2.1:

Volume-based Prepaid data service

Volume-based Prepaid data service with tariff switching

Duration-based Prepaid data service

Prepaid functionality is supported on PDSN for the following type of data sessions:

Simple IP sessions with authentication and authorization performed at AAA.

VPDN sessions with authentication and authorization for the user performed at AAA.

Mobile IP sessions with FA-CHAP performed for the session/NAI at AAA.

Proxy mobile IP sessions with authentication and authorization for the user performed at AAA.

Prepaid service is also available for sessions opened with MSID-based authentication access.


Note Either Volume-based or Duration-based, but not both options in one prepaid flow, are supported on the PDSN. Multiple flows, each supporting either Volume or Duration based prepaid service, are allowed on the PDSN. The PDSN can be configured to support only Volume-based, or only Duration-based, or either type of Prepaid service per flow at any point in time.


Volume-based accounting for prepaid flows other than VPDN will count the bytes present in the PPP payload. For VPDN flows, it will count the bytes present in the PPP packet including the PPP packet header. A session that has multiple flows can have some of the flows with prepaid data service enabled, each either Volume-based or Duration-based, while other flows may not be prepaid enabled.

Tariff-based prepaid service is also supported for volume-based prepaid data service on the PDSN. To support tariff-based prepaid service, the Prepaid Billing Server should have the following capabilities:

Charged by volume—different tariff for different time of day.

The Billing server allocates a different quota (volume-based) for a user that is determined by a tariff for a different time-of-day (this ensures the two charging rates do not overlap).

Restrictions for Prepaid Support in Cisco PDSN Release 2.1

Prepaid for remote address based accounting is not supported.

Online Access Request messages are sent with Service-Type as "outbound" (instead of "Authorize Only"), and user password is included in the message.

There is no Prepaid MIB support in the present release.

Prepaid for the HA is not supported.

Prepaid Billing

When a user performs Simple IP access with AAA authentication, or Mobile IP access with FA-CHAP, the Prepaid capable PDSN sends a RADIUS Access-Request message for Authentication and Authorization. The Prepaid capable PDSN informs the Billing Server of its own Prepaid capabilities by including a PPAC VSA in the RADIUS Access-Request message.

The Home RADIUS performs Authentication and Authorization procedures as usual. If the HAAA identifies that a user is a prepaid user from its user profile, the HAAA interfaces with the Billing Server to retrieve prepaid related information for the user, and passes on the prepaid related information in the Access Request message. The Billing Server performs prepaid authorization for the user. The prepaid authorization procedure at HAAA and Billing Server consists of the following steps:

Checking the PPAC VSA.

Checking the home network policy.

Checking the user's account balance and state.

When the Billing Server successfully authorizes the user as a valid prepaid user, it notifies the HAAA that it supports prepaid service based on volume, or duration, or both, depending on the configuration at the Billing Server and capabilities as indicated by the PDSN. The HAAA encodes the information in a PPAC VSA to the PDSN, and indicates that volume-based or duration-based prepaid (or both) service is supported by the Billing Server.

HAAA sends the authorization response to the Prepaid capable PDSN using RADIUS Access-Accept/Reject messages. The authorization response includes a PPAQ VSA in the same RADIUS Access-Accept message stating an initial quota, quota-id and a threshold value of the quota for the prepaid flow corresponding to the user.

When the PDSN sends on-line Access Request messages to HAAA for prepaid related functionality, it does not set the User-Password (= 2) field in the message, and normal RADIUS message authentication is set and performed with Message Authenticator. Currently, the User-Password is set in online Access Requests to the default value of "cisco".

If the PDSN does not receive the PPAC VSA from the HAAA in the initial RADIUS Access-Accept message, or the message is included but indicates that "Prepaid Accounting not used", the PDSN will release the user's prepaid flow if the RADIUS Access-Accept message includes a PPAQ VSA. The PDSN will send an Access Request to HAAA to return the quota allocated with Update-Reason VSA that indicates Client Service termination.

If the PDSN is capable of supporting prepaid service based on either volume or duration, then the PDSN will enable prepaid service for the flow based on the Billing server-indicated service that applies to the session in PPAC. If the Billing server also indicates that the PDSN can allocate either volume or duration, then the PDSN will enable prepaid service based on the type of quota (volume or duration) present in PPAQ from HAAA. If both types of quota are present in PPAQ, then prepaid flow is not opened on the PDSN.

If the PDSN is capable of supporting prepaid service based on volume, and Billing Server indicates that it will support prepaid service based on duration, then the PDSN will close the prepaid flow. The PDSN will send an Access Request message with Update-Reason VSA indicating "Client Service termination". The same logic applies to the PDSN if it supports prepaid based on duration, and Billing Server returns prepaid service based on volume.

If the PDSN receives an Access-Accept message containing the PPAC VSA indicating prepaid service supported, but the initial quota is not included in the message, the PDSN will close the flow. Since no quota was received in the Access Accept, the PDSN will not send further RADIUS Access Request message to HAAA.

To ignore Billing Server interaction of HAAA for Access Requests sent by the PDSN during mobile IP re-registration for FA-CHAP, the PDSN will include the Session-Continue VSA set to "TRUE" in the on-line Access Request messages.

If multiple flows are present for the session that hosted the Prepaid flow, and a prepaid flow was stopped, and if it was the last flow for the session, then the session will be deleted by the PDSN. If one of mobile IP flows expires and it is not the last flow for the session, then the PDSN will close the flow locally. If the resource revocation mechanism is enabled on PDSN, the relevant resource revocation mechanism will be applied in this case.

If the Simple IP (SIP) flow is closed (for example, a PPP session is torn down or quota for the SIP flow expires), then all the other mobile IP flows, both prepaid and non-prepaid, will also get closed. If SIP flow is closing due to allocated quota expiry, it will send Access Request message with Update-Reason as "Quota Reached". In other cases where the SIP session is closed, the Access Request will be sent with Update-Reason as "Client Service Termination". All other prepaid flows for the PPP session will also send Access Request messages to close the prepaid service and return unused quota. The Update-Reason for all these flows will contain value for "Main SI Released".

When threshold for the quota is reached, the PDSN sends an Access Request to HAAA to retrieve more quota for the flow. In case the values of threshold for the quota and the quota allocated are same, then on quota expiry (when Quota = Threshold), the PDSN will treat this as flow as closed, and send an Access Request with Update-reason as "Quota reached".

When the quota expires for the flow, the PDSN sends an on-line Access Request to the HAAA to indicate that the prepaid flow is released. During this time the PDSN marks the flow as deleted, and stops switching any packets for the flow. On receipt of the Access Accept from the AAA server for this Access Request, the PDSN deletes the prepaid flow for the user and sends an Accounting Stop.

If resource revocation mechanism is enabled at the PDSN, then the PDSN will send a resource revocation to the HA to clear binding at the HA, and the PDSN will clear the visitor info for the flow.

Upon receiving a RADIUS Disconnect Request (POD) or Mobile IP revocation messages, the PDSN will send an on-line RADIUS Access-Request message containing the used quota and the Update-Reason Sub-Type set to "Remote forced disconnect". The PDSN will delete the flow and send resource revocation message to the HA, and will send the existing RADIUS Accounting-Stop.

Volume-based Prepaid Data Service Flow

The metric for accounting volume based Prepaid service is total bytes flowing through the user flow in upstream and downstream direction.


Step 1 The Prepaid capable PDSN determines that Simple IP or Mobile IP setup requires a RADIUS Access-Request message to be sent to the Home RADIUS Server. For SIP sessions, the use has to be authenticated with AAA instead of local authentication. In case of Mobile IP users, FA-CHAP authentication is required.

The PDSN includes its own PPAC VSA to inform the HAAA/Billing Server that it supports Prepaid based on Volume (value = 1 or 3). If resource revocation is enabled on the PDSN, then it will send a SessionTerminationCapability (STC) attribute indicating that it can support resource revocation for Mobile IP sessions.

The Home RADIUS server performs the regular Authentication and Authorization of the Access Request sent by the user. If the user profile indicates the user is a Prepaid subscriber, HAAA interfaces with the Billing Server, and provides the Billing Server with the prepaid info for the user as received in the Access Request message.

Step 2 After the Billing Server receives the user's prepaid information, it checks the capabilities of PDSN (sent in the PPAC VSA). The Billing Server also checks that the user has a valid balance and account status. The Billing Server then indicates to the PDSN that it supports prepaid packet data service based on volume. It also assigns the initial quota for the user, which is typically a fraction of total available quota for the user. The quota allocated for the user is identified by a quota id assigned by Billing Server for the user for the current quota. The Billing Server interfaces with HAAA and provides this information to the HAAA.

The HAAA encapsulates the prepaid information received for the user in a RADIUS Access-Accept message and sends it to the PDSN. The RADIUS message includes:

A PPAQ VSA that contains the following parameters:

Initialized quota for the user flow specified in VolumeQuota parameter

Quota ID for the quota allocated

A threshold value for the quota allocated in VolumeThreshold parameter

A PPAC VSA indicating prepaid service is based on Volume.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. The PDSN stores the information present in the packet regarding the quota allocated for the flow and the threshold corresponding to the allocated flow. It also stores the Quota-ID allocated in the user flow present in the message. Once the flow for the user comes up (IP address assigned for Simple IP, or MIP RRP received from the HA and sent to the MS), the PDSN starts metering the user's traffic over the flow against the allocated quota.

Step 3 User data (IP datagrams) that flow through each Prepaid flow is accounted in both upstream and downstream directions. The bytes consumed are checked against the quota allocated for the flow by the Billing Server.

Step 4 Once the Volume Threshold value reaches the allocated quota for the prepaid flow, the PDSN sends an Access-Request Message to AAA to refresh quota for the user. This RADIUS packet contains a PPAQ VSA, which includes following parameters:

Update-Reason Sub-Type that is set to indicate "Threshold reached" (= 3)

Quota ID previously received

Used volume in the VolumeQuota Sub-Type

HAAA authenticates the RADIUS packet and if authentication is successful, forwards the prepaid-related information present in the packet to the Billing Server.

Step 5 The Billing Server updates its database with the amount of quota the user utilizes. Since the user indicates quota renewal, the Billing Server apportions a fraction of prepaid account balance of the user. It also assigns a new Quota ID for the current allocated quota and a corresponding threshold value for the assigned quota. This information is passed on to HAAA.

The HAAA sends the information received from the Billing Server into a RADIUS Access-Accept message to be sent to PDSN. The attributes that are encapsulated into a PPAQ VSA include:

Quota ID

Allocated quota into VolumeQuota parameter

Threshold corresponding to the assigned quota into VolumeThreshold parameter.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. The PDSN stores the information present in the packet and updates the quota allocated for the flow and the current threshold value corresponding to the allocated flow. It also stores the new Quota-ID allocated for the current quota.

Step 6 User data (IP datagrams) continues to flow through the Prepaid flow, and is accounted in both upstream and downstream directions. The bytes consumed are checked against the quota allocated for the flow.

Step 7 The PDSN decides to close the prepaid flow based on following criteria:

Access-Request message was sent to renew the quota and corresponding Access-Accept message was not received from AAA after a configurable time value. This time is same as the RADIUS message timeout configured on PDSN.

An Access-Accept was sent to retrieve quota and before Access-Accept can be received, the remaining VolumeQuota is consumed. This is when the VolumeQuota value and the VolumeThreshold values become same.

In this case, PDSN sends an Access-Request message containing the PPAQ VSA that includes:

Update-Reason Sub-Type to indicate 'Quota reached' (= 4)

Amount of quota used by the user in VolumeQuota attribute.

At this time, the PDSN marks the prepaid flow as being marked for deleted, such that it does not switch any packets through it for the prepaid flow. It does not delete the prepaid flow immediately and waits for the response of the Access-Request or timeout of the Access-Request message.

Step 8 The Billing Server does not allocate a new quota when the user indicates "Quota reached" for the prepaid flow. The Billing Server terminates the prepaid flow and indicates the same to the HAAA. The HAAA sends an Access-Accept message to the PDSN acknowledging the termination of the Prepaid packet data session by encapsulating Update Reason Sub-type as "Quota is reached" inside PPAQ VSA.

After the PDSN receives the Access Accept message, it deletes the user flow for the Prepaid session. As part of the usual off-line accounting procedures, the PDSN sends an off-line RADIUS Accounting-Stop message upon successful release of the appropriate resources (normal operation).


Duration-based Prepaid Data Service Flow

The metric for accounting duration-based Prepaid service is session duration in seconds.


Step 1 The Prepaid capable PDSN determines that Simple IP or Mobile IP setup requires a RADIUS Access-Request message to be sent to the Home RADIUS Server. For SIP sessions, user authentication has to be performed with AAA rather than local authentication. In the case of Mobile IP users, FA-CHAP is required for authentication.

The PDSN includes its own PPAC VSA to inform the HAAA/Billing Server that it supports Prepaid based on Duration (value = 2 or 3). If resource revocation is enabled on the PDSN, the PDSN will send a SessionTerminationCapability (STC) attribute indicating that it can support resource revocation for Mobile IP sessions. The Event_Time attribute (G4, value = 55) will be included in the RADIUS Access-Request message.

The Home RADIUS server performs the regular Authentication and Authorization of the Access Request sent by the user. If the user profile indicates the user is a Prepaid subscriber, the HAAA interfaces with the Billing Server and provides the Billing Server with the prepaid related info for the user as received in the Access Request message.

Step 2 After the Billing Server receives the user's prepaid info, it checks the capabilities of the PDSN (sent in the PPAC VSA). The Billing Server also checks that the user has a valid balance and account status. The Billing Server informs the PDSN that it supports prepaid packet data service that is based on Duration. It also assigns the initial quota for the user, which is typically a fraction of total available quota for the user. The quota allocated for the user is identified by a quota id assigned by Billing Server for that user for the current quota. The Billing Server interfaces with the HAAA and provides this info to the HAAA.

The HAAA encapsulates the prepaid information received for the user in a RADIUS Access-Accept message and sends it to the PDSN. The RADIUS message includes:

A PPAQ VSA that contains the following parameters:

Initialized quota for the user flow specified in DurationQuota parameter

Quota ID for the quota allocated

A threshold value for the quota allocated in DurationThreshold parameter

A PPAC VSA that indicates prepaid service is based on Volume.

For duration based Prepaid packet data service, the Event_Time attribute is used for DurationQuota/DurationThreshold allocation by the Billing Server.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. The PDSN stores information in the packet regarding the quota allocated for the flow, and threshold corresponding to the allocated flow. It also stores the Quota-ID allocated corresponding to the quota.

Once the flow for the user comes up (for example, an IP address assigned for Simple IP or MIP RRP received from the HA and sent to the MS), the PDSN starts the timer corresponding to the duration threshold value and duration quota value.

Once the timer expires for the threshold value of the allocated quota for the prepaid flow, the PDSN sends an Access-Request Message to AAA to refresh quota for the prepaid flow. This Access Request message contains a PPAQ VSA, which includes following parameters:

Update-Reason Sub-Type that is set to indicate 'Threshold reached' (= 3)

Quota ID previously received

Used duration in the DurationQuota Sub-Type

The HAAA authorizes the RADIUS packet and, if successful, forwards the prepaid-related information in the packet to the Billing Server.

Step 3 The Billing Server updates its database with the amount of quota used by the user. Since the user indicates quota renewal, the Billing Server apportions a fraction of prepaid account balance of the user. It also assigns a new Quota ID for the current allocated quota and a corresponding threshold value for the assigned quota. This information is passed on to the HAAA.

The HAAA sends the information received from the Billing Server into a RADIUS Access-Accept message to be sent to the PDSN. The attributes that are encapsulated into a PPAQ VSA include:

Quota ID

Allocated quota into DurationQuota parameter

Threshold corresponding to the assigned quota into DurationThreshold parameter.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from the AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. The PDSN stores the information in the packet, updates it with the quota allocated for the flow and the current threshold value corresponding to the allocated flow. The PDSN restarts the duration quota timer with the new value received in the Accept-Accept message, and starts the threshold timer with the new threshold value received corresponding to the current quota. It also stores the new Quota-ID allocated for the current quota.

Step 4 The PDSN closes the prepaid flow based on following criteria:

An Access-Request message was sent to renew the quota, and the corresponding Access-Accept message was not received from AAA after a configurable time value. This time value is same as the RADIUS message timeout configured on PDSN.

An Access-Accept was sent to retrieve quota before the Access-Accept can be received, and the remaining DurationQuota is consumed and the timer corresponding to it expires. This event is when the DurationQuota value and the DurationThreshold values become the same.

If this event occurs, the PDSN sends an Access-Request message containing the PPAQ VSA that includes:

Update-Reason Sub-Type to indicate `Quota reached' (= 4)

Amount of quota used by the user in DurationQuota attribute.

The PDSN marks the prepaid flow for deletion, and does not switch any packets through it for the prepaid flow. The PDSN does not delete the prepaid flow immediately, and waits for the response of the Access-Request or timeout of the Access-Request message.

Step 5 The Billing Server does not allocate a new quota when the user indicates "Quota reached" for the prepaid flow. The Billing Server terminates the prepaid flow and indicates the same to the HAAA. HAAA sends an Access-Accept message to the PDSN acknowledging the termination of the Prepaid packet data session by encapsulating Update Reason Sub-type as "Quota is reached" inside PPAQ VSA.

When the PDSN receives the Access Accept message, it clears the user flow for the Prepaid session. As part of the usual off-line accounting procedures, the PDSN sends an off-line RADIUS Accounting-Stop message upon successful release of the appropriate resources.


Volume-based Prepaid Data Service with Tariff Switching

The PDSN and Billing Server support tariff switch, volume- based, Prepaid packet data service. The tariff switch trigger is controlled at the Billing Server. To support this capability, a new sub-Type PrepaidTariffSwitch (PTS) VSA attribute is sent by HAAA to PDSN. This attribute contains following key sub-types:

QuotaId: Quota Id is same as present in PPAQ.

VolumeUsedAfterTariffSwitch (VUATS): Volume switched after Tariff Switch

TariffSwitchInterval (TSI): Interval in seconds between the time stamp (G4) of the corresponding on-line RADIUS Access-Request message and the next tariff switch condition

The following sequence describes the functionality of Prepaid data service when Tariff Switching is enabled.


Step 1 The Prepaid capable PDSN determines that Simple IP or Mobile IP setup requires a RADIUS Access-Request message to be sent to the Home RADIUS Server. For SIP sessions, authentication of the user with AAA has to be done instead of local authentication. In case of Mobile IP users, authentication via FA-CHAP is required.

PDSN includes its own PPAC VSA to inform the HAAA/Billing Server that it supports Prepaid based on Volume (value = 1 or 3). If resource revocation is enabled on the PDSN, then it will send a SessionTerminationCapability (STC) attribute indicating that it can support resource revocation for Mobile IP sessions.

The Home RADIUS server performs the regular Authentication and Authorization of the Access Request sent by the user. If the user profile indicates the user is a Prepaid subscriber, HAAA interfaces with the Billing Server and provides the Billing Server with the prepaid related info for the user as received in the Access Request message.

Step 2 After the Billing Server receives the user's prepaid info, it checks the capabilities of the PDSN that were sent in the PPAC VSA. It also checks that the user has a valid balance and account status. The Billing Server notifies the PDSN that it will support prepaid packet data service that is based on Volume. The Billing Server also assigns the initial quota for the user, which is typically fraction of total available quota for the user. The quota allocated for the user is identified by a quota id assigned by Billing Server for the user. The Billing Server interfaces with the HAAA and provides this info to the HAAA.

The Billing Server that supports Tariff Switching indicates the time (in seconds) remaining for the next tariff switch point, and passes the info to the HAAA server. Optionally, it can include the time after tariff switch point that the PDSN will send Access Request to the HAAA if the threshold value for the assigned quota is not reached.

The HAAA encapsulates the prepaid information received for the user from Billing Server in a RADIUS Access-Accept message and sends it to the PDSN. The RADIUS message includes:

A PPAQ VSA that contains the following parameters:

Initialized quota for the user flow specified in VolumeQuota parameter

Quota ID for the quota allocated

A threshold value for the quota allocated in VolumeThreshold parameter

A PTS VSA that contains the following parameters:

QuotaID as in PPAQ VSA attribute

TariffSwitchInterval indicating the time in seconds remaining before which the tariff switch condition will trigger

TimeIntervalafterTariffSwitchUpdate indicating the duration after tariff switch point when PDSN will send an on-line Access Request if threshold point is not reached.

A PPAC VSA indicating prepaid service is based on Volume.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. It stores the information present in the packet regarding the quota allocated for the flow and threshold corresponding to the allocated flow. The PDSN also stores the Quota-ID allocated in the user flow present in the message.

Once the flow for the user comes up (the IP address assigned for Simple IP, or MIP RRP received from the HA and sent to the MS), the PDSN starts metering user's traffic over the flow against the allocated quota. It also starts the timer corresponding to the value received in TariffSwitchInterval attribute so that it is aware when the tariff switch condition is hit. The timer is started by the PDSN only if the timestamp of the Access Request + Tariff Switch Interval is more than the timestamp of the Access Accept message.

QuotaId present in the PTS attribute should be equal to the QuotaId present inside PPAQ. If the 2 values are unequal, the prepaid flow is closed by PDSN.

Step 3 User data (IP datagrams) that flows through each Prepaid flow is accounted in both upstream and downstream directions. The bytes consumed are checked against the quota allocated for the flow by the Billing Server.

Step 4 Once the VolumeThreshold value is reached for the allocated quota for the prepaid flow, the PDSN sends an Access-Request Message to AAA to refresh quota for the user. This RADIUS packet contains a PPAQ VSA, which includes following parameters:

Update-Reason Sub-Type that is set to indicate `Threshold reached' (= 3)

Quota ID previously received

Used volume in the VolumeQuota Sub-Type

The HAAA authorizes the RADIUS packet and if authorization is successful, forwards the prepaid-related information present in the packet to the Billing Server.

Step 5 The Billing Server updates its database with the amount of quota used by the user. Since the user indicates quota renewal, the Billing Server apportions a fraction of prepaid account balance of the user. It also assigns a new Quota ID for the current allocated quota and a corresponding threshold value for the assigned quota. This information is passed on to HAAA.

The Billing Server also indicates to the HAAA, the time remaining in seconds for the next Tariff Switch trigger point.

The HAAA sends the information received from the Billing Server into a RADIUS Access-Accept message to be sent to the PDSN. The attributes that are encapsulated into a PPAQ VSA include:

Quota ID

Allocated quota into VolumeQuota parameter

Threshold corresponding to the assigned quota into VolumeThreshold parameter

The Attributes encapsulated inside PTS attribute includes:

QuotaID, same as the PPAQ attribute

TariffSwitchInterval that indicates the time (in seconds) remaining before which the tariff switch condition will trigger.

TimeIntervalafterTariffSwitchUpdate that indicates the duration after tariff switch point when the PDSN will send an on-line Access Request if threshold point is not reached.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. It stores the information present in the packet updating with the quota allocated for the flow and the current threshold value corresponding to the allocated flow. It also stores the new Quota-ID allocated for the current quota.

Additionally, the PDSN re-starts the timer indicated in TariffSwitchInterval attribute. This time indicates the time remaining in seconds before the next tariff switch condition will be hit.

Step 6 User data (IP datagrams) continues to flow through the Prepaid flow, and is accounted in both upstream and downstream directions. The bytes consumed are checked against the quota allocated for the flow.

Step 7 The timer for the tariff switch interval expires, and indicates the tariff switch point for the flow is hit. The PDSN continues to count the total number of octets flowing through the session in upstream and downstream direction, and also the number of bytes switched by the PDSN after the tariff switch trigger point. If TimeIntervalafterTariffSwitchUpdate was sent by AAA, then the PDSN will start a timer with this value after the tariff switch point is reached.

Step 8 User data (IP datagrams) that flows through each Prepaid flow continues to be accounted in both upstream and downstream directions until the next threshold point is reached. The PDSN counts the total number of bytes switched till last quota update, and also the total number of bytes switched by PDSN after the Tariff Switch trigger point is hit. The bytes consumed are checked against the quota allocated for the flow.

Step 9 Once the VolumeThreshold value is reached for the quota allocated in VolumeQuota value for the flow or timer corresponding to TimeIntervalafterTariffSwitchUpdate expires, the PDSN sends quota update information in an Access Request Message to AAA and Billing Server. This on-line RADIUS Access-Request message contains following attributes in the PPAQ VSA:

Update-Reason Sub-Type that is set to indicate "Threshold reached" (= 3) if threshold is reached. Otherwise, it is set to indicate "Tariff Switch Update" (=9) if TimeIntervalafterTariffSwitchUpdate expires

The Quota ID previously received

The utilized volume in the VolumeQuota Sub-Type

The PTS attribute contains following subtypes:

Quota ID previously received

VolumeUsedAfterTariffSwitch (VUATS) attribute, that contains the total number of octets being switched by the PDSN after tariff switch trigger point.

The HAAA authorizes the RADIUS packet and, if authorization is successful, forwards the prepaid-related information present in the packet to the Billing Server.

The Billing Server updates its database with the amount of quota utilized by the user. Since the user indicates quota renewal, the Billing Server apportions a fraction of prepaid account balance of the user. It also assigns a new Quota ID for the current allocated quota and a corresponding threshold value for the assigned quota. This information is passed on to the HAAA.

The Billing Server also indicates to the HAAA the time remaining in seconds for the next Tariff Switch trigger point.

The HAAA sends the information received from the Billing Server into a RADIUS Access-Accept message to be sent to PDSN. The attributes that are encapsulated into a PPAQ VSA include:

New Quota ID for the current quota

Allocated quota into VolumeQuota parameter

Threshold corresponding to the assigned quota into VolumeThreshold parameter

The PTS attribute contains following subtypes:

Quota ID previously received

TariffSwitchInterval that indicates the time (in seconds) remaining before which the tariff switch condition will trigger.

Optionally TimeIntervalafterTariffSwitchUpdate that indicates the duration after the tariff switch point when the PDSN will send an on-line Access Request if threshold point is not reached.

After the PDSN receives the Access-Accept message from AAA, it parses the RADIUS packet and retrieves the attributes inside it. The PDSN stores the information present in the packet, and updates it with the quota allocated for the flow and the current threshold value corresponding to the allocated flow. It also stores the new Quota-ID allocated for the current quota.

Additionally, the PDSN re-starts the timer indicated in TariffSwitchInterval attribute. The PDSN starts the timer only if the timestamp of the Access Request + Tariff Switch Interval is more than the timestamp of the Access Accept message. This time indicates the time remaining in seconds before the next tariff switch condition will be hit.


Support for G17 Attribute in Acct-Stop and Interim Records

The G17 attribute is required to bill users based on when the last activity was detected rather than when the user is de-registered. The following scenario gives a brief on how the attribute is used and how AAA needs to identify the last user activity.

G17 is defined as last user activity to indicate the time when the last activity was detected by the user. The G17 attribute is sent in acct-stop and interim accounting update messages, and has the following usage guidelines:

Configure support for the G17 attribute by issuing the cdma pdsn attribute send g17 command

The attribute is not included in acct-start record and included only in accounting stop/interim-update.

The attribute is set to 0 when an airlink start record arrives.

The attribute is set to the current time when airlink active stop arrives.

The attribute is set to 0 once the acct-stop record is sent out.

The G17 attribute is useful under the following conditions:

When the cdma pdsn accounting send start-stop command is not configured.

A session goes dormant. G17 is recorded with the current time. As the above CLI is not configured, there is no accounting stop generated.

The PDSN will continue to send interim update accounting records for this session. These messages will contain G17 with the value recorded with time when airlink-stop was received.

When the mobile finally deregisters (and receives an A11 RRQ with lft = 0, and w/o an airlink STOP), the PDSN sends an accounting stop with the G17 attribute that was recorded earlier when airlink-stop was received. This gives the real value of time when last user activity was detected.

When the cdma pdsn accounting send start-stop command is configured.

The PDSN will generate an accounting stop when an airlink-stop is received from the PCF. This acct-stop will contain the G17 recorded with time when airlink-stop was received.

G17 is reset once the acct-stop is sent out. finally when the session ends, the accounting stop would have G17 as 0.

AAA server needs to use the previous value of G17 to find out the last user activity.

Mobile IP Call Processing Per Second Improvements

In previous Cisco PDSN Releases, the Mobile IP CPS rate was approximately 40—comparatively low to that of Simple IP CPS which around 125. Mobile IP CPS was low because some of the Mobile IP configurations are interface specific. When these configurations are applied to the virtual-template interface (which is typical for the PDSN software), it takes considerable time to clone the virtual-access from the Virtual-Template because of the presence of the Mobile IP configuration, and this directly affects the CPS for Mobile IP service. The virtual-access are cloned when the calls are setup. To reduce virtual-access cloning time, PDSN Release 2.1 supports commonly used per-interface configurations in global configuration mode, and supports per-interface for backward compatibility.

IS-835-B Compliant Static IPSec

An IPSec Security Association is a unidirectional logical connection between two IPSec systems, and is uniquely identified by Security Parameter Index (SPI), IP Destination Address, and the Security Protocol (where the Security Protocol is Authenticate Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). The Security Association has two types: Transport and Tunnel.

IPSec based security may be applied on tunnels between the PDSN and HA depending on parameters received from Home AAA server. A single tunnel may be established between each PDSN-HA pair. A single tunnel between a PDSN-HA pair can have three types of traffic streams: Control Messages, Data with IP-in-IP encapsulation, and Data with GRE-in-IP encapsulation. All traffic carried in the tunnel has the same level of protection provided by IPSec.

The IS835 standard defines MobileIP service as described in RFC 2002; the Cisco PDSN provides Mobile IP service and Proxy Mobile IP service.

In Proxy Mobile service, the Mobile-Node is connected to the PDSN/FA through Simple IP, and the PDSN/FA acts as Mobile IP Proxy on the MN's behalf to the HA. Once Security-Osculations (tunnels) are established, they remain active until there is traffic (user traffic or user binding) on the tunnel, or the lifetime of the security association expires.

IS-835 B specification describes three mechanisms to provide IP Security: 1) Certificates, 2) Dynamically distributed Pre-Shared secret, and 3) Statically configured Pre-Shared secret.

Once security associations (tunnels) are established, they remain active till there is traffic (user traffic or user bindings) on the tunnel, or until the lifetime of the association expires.

The IS835 standard specifies support for the following IPSec modes:

IKE & Public Certificate(X.509)

Dynamic pre-shared IKE secret distributed by Home Radius Server.

Statically configured IKE pre-shared secret.


Note IS835B Static IPSec feature is available only on the Cisco 7200 Internet router platform. The Cisco IOS IPSec feature is available on the Cisco 7200 7200 Internet router, Cisco 6500 Catalyst switch, and Cisco 7600 switch platforms. PDSN Release 2.1 only supports Statically configured Pre-Shared secret.


The level of IPsec protection on a tunnel between the PDSN and HA is determined by a "security level" parameter: whether to provide IPSec protection on control messages, data, control message plus data, or no protection. The security level attribute is received from the Home Radius server in an Access-Accept Message by the PDSN. On the HA, this attribute has to be configured for each Foreign Agent because there is no provision to pass security-level from the Home AAA server to the Home Agent.

PDSN Release 2.1 supports the following values:

IPSec for Mobile Control and Data traffic

No IPSec

Once a Security Association is established, it will be periodically refreshed by the PDSN until the tunnel expires.

If reverse tunneling is supported by the HA (as indicated by the RADIUS server), and IPSec security is authorized for the tunneled data, and a mobile requests reverse tunneling, then the PDSN will provide security on the reverse tunnel.

The HA determines which type of security association (if any) is required with a PDSN. The HA uses the same security policy that is specified in the Home RADIUS server and returned to the PDSN in the 3GPP2 security level attribute. All MN will receive the same security level while accessing the same PDSN.

Configuring IPSec in Cisco IOS

To employ IS835-B IPSec on the PDSN requires that you configure the following commands:

[no] ip mobile cdma ipsec—enables or disables the CDMA IPSec feature. This command is only present in crypto images for the Cisco 7200 Series Internet Router, and in non-crypto images for the Cisco MWAM.

[no] ip mobile cdma ipsec profile profile-tag—This command is only present in crypto images for the Cisco 7200 Series Internet Router.

show ip mobile cdma ipsec—This command shows if the feature is enabled.

show ip mobile cdma ipsec profile—This command shows the crypto profile configured.

[no] debug ip mobile cdma ipsec—This turns on the debug on this feature.

Here is a sample configuration:

Router(config)#crypto isakmp policy 1
                          authentication pre-share
Router(config)#crypto isakmp key cisco address 7.0.0.2
Router(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set mobile-set1 esp-3des
Router(config)#crypto ipsec profile testprof
                          set transform-set mobile-set1
Router(config)#crypto identity pdsntest
Router(config)#ip mobile cdma ipsec 
Router(config)# ip mobile cdma ipsec profile testprof
Router(config)#ip mobile foreign-agent reg-wait 30

Additionally, to employ Cisco IOS IPSec on the PDSN you must configure "Transform" and "CryptoMap," and apply Cryptomap to the interface.

The Transform set represents a certain combination of security protocols and algorithms. During the IPSec security association negotiation, the peers agree to use a particular transform set for protecting particular data flow. Use the crypto ipsec transform-set mobile-set1 esp-3des command to configure the transforms set.

The Crypto map entries created for IPSec pull together the various parts used to set up IPSec security associations, including the following:

Which traffic should be protected by IPSec (per a crypto access list).

The granularity of the flow to be protected by a set of security associations.

The location IPSec-protected traffic should be sent (remote IPSec peer).

The local address used for IPSec traffic (applying Crypto map to interface).

The type of IPSec security that should be applied to this traffic (selected from a list of one or more transform sets).

Whether security associations are manually established, or established with IKE.

The parameters that might be necessary to define an IPSec security association.

Crypto map entries with the same crypto map name (but different map sequence numbers) are grouped into a crypto map set. These Crypto map sets are applied to interface; then all traffic passing through the interface is evaluated against the applied crypto map set.

The policy described in the crypto map entries is used during the negotiation of security association, for IPSec to succeed between two IPSec peers, both peers' crypto map entries must a contain compatible configuration statement.

Only one crypto map set is applied to single interface; Multiple interfaces can share the same crypto map set.

Multiple Crypto map entries can be created for interface; the sequence number of each map-entry is used to rank the map-entries.

Multiple Crypto map entries must be created for a given interface if different data flows are handled by separate IPSec peers. If different IPSec security is required for different types of traffic, create a separate access list for each type of traffic, and create a separate crypto map entry for each access list.

The following configuration example illustrates the minimum requirement to establish Crypto map entries that use IKE.

Router(config)# access-list mobile-example permit ip 10.0.0.0  0.0.0.255
Router(config)# crypto ipsec transform-set mobile-set1 esp-3des
Router(config)# crypto map map-mobile-example 10 ipsec-isakmp
                                   match mobile-example
                                   set transform-set transform-set mobile-set1
                                   set peer 10.0.0.34
Router(config)# interface FastEthernet0/1
                                   ip address 10.0.0.32
                                   crypto map map-mobile-example

Cisco employs two additional mechanisms to define cryptomaps:

Dynamic Crypto-maps: these are crypto-maps with fe fields that relate to policy. They are only suitable for applications that do not require initiating IKE, but only respond to IKE.

IPSec Profiles: is a mechanism to convert a Crypto Map into a template that can be used to dynamically set up an identical policy.

Router(config)# access-list mobile-example permit ip 10.0.0.0  0.0.0.255
Router(config)# crypto ipsec transform-set mobile-set1 esp-3des
Router(config)# crypto  map map-mobile-example 10 ipsec-isakmp profile example-profile
                                   match mobile-example
                                   set transform-set transform-set mobile-set1
                                   set peer 10.0.0.34

The following example illustrates the minimum Crypto configuration for IS835-based IPSec:

Router(config)# crypto isakmp policy 1
	            hash md5
	            authentication pre-share
Router(config)# crypto isakmp key <cisco> address <peer ip address7.0.0.10>
Router(config)# crypto ipsec transform-set testtrans	 esp-3des
Router(config)#crypto ipsec profile testprof
                                 description new cli
								 set transform-set testtrans	 

On-Demand Address Pools (ODAP)

A PDSN Cluster can consist of up to ten MWAM cards, with one Cluster Controller and a Backup Cluster Controller, and 48 PDSN IOS application image instances.

While MWAM cards provide a higher density of PDSNs, they make it necessary to allocate IP addresses from a central source. This simplifies configuration so users will not have to configure a local pool of IP addresses in each PDSN. With on-demand address pools, a DHCP/ODAP server manages a block of addresses for each ODAP client application. The ODAP clients will request subnets from the ODAP Subnet Allocation Server. These pools of subnetted IP addresses can dynamically increase or decrease in size depending on the utilization of the IP addresses. A pool can be divided into subnets of various sizes and the server assigns these subnets to routers running ODAP clients upon request. The PDSN will run the ODAP client and use OSPF to aggregate the routes. The DHCP/ODAP Server can either be an external Cisco AR, or run on a Cisco IOS image.


Note To use the ODAP feature, you must have Cisco IOS Release 12.2(15)T or later.


In this case, either the PDSN Cluster controller, or the backup cluster controller on one of the MWAM cards, will be configured as the DHCP/ODAP Server. The local IP pools used for PDSN Home Agent applications can also use the DHCP/ODAP Server for a subnet pool. A different name for the mobile IP pools would be used in the configurations.

Pool Sizing Information

The PDSN configuration dictates that either the PDSN Cluster Controller or the PDSN Backup Cluster Controller on one of the MWAM cards is configured as the DHCP Server with the ODAP Subnet Allocation Server. These processors will have more capacity because they provide PDSN Clustering functionality, and do not process the actual PDSN sessions. The ODAP clients reside on each of the PDSN images.

You must decide how large to make the ODAP subnet pools based on the following variables:

Number of MWAMs and number of PDSNs per MWAM

How many total PDSN sessions will be required

Incoming call rates

Number of available IP addresses for the ODAP pool.

Use the following information to size the ODAP Subnet Allocation Server pool and to determine how many IP addresses are required for all the PDSN applications.

Each PDSN IOS application can support up to 20,000 PDSN sessions.

Each MWAM contains:

Either a PDSN Cluster Controller or Backup Cluster Controller and up to 4 PDSN IOS images, so each MWAM can support up to 80,000 sessions (4 * 20000).


Note If a Cluster Controller or Backup Cluster Controller is not configured, then 5 PDSN images can be used allowing up to 100,000 sessions (5 * 20000).


A Catalyst 6500 chassis contains up to 6 MWAM cards. The total number of local IP addresses needed in the pool for each chassis:

6 MWAMs * 80,000 sessions = 480,000 IP addresses in the PDSN ODAP pool.

In order to configure an ODAP subnet pool for Mobile IP PDSN applications, determine the number IP addresses needed for each PDSN. Use the following formula to determine the Mobile IP pool size:

PDSN Subnet IP Pool size = (number of PDSNs x number of sessions)

Always On Feature

The PDSN supports Always On service to maintain the subscriber's packet data session in the local network. Always On support dictates that the PDSN will not release a subscriber's packet data session due to PPP idle timer expiry unless the PDSN determines the user is no longer reachable.

The Always On service maintains a subscriber's packet data session irrespective of PPP inactivity timer value for the user. At the same time, by making use of a finite PPP inactivity timer value, this feature provides a way to keep a session only as long as the user is reachable. The PDSN uses LCP Echos (as per rfc1661 and IS835B) to determine if the user is reachable.

Always On service is enabled for a user only when the F15 "Always On" attribute is received and set to a value of 1 in the access accept message from the AAA server.

The PDSN supports the ability to configure the Echo-Reply-Timeout timer and Echo-Request-Attempts counter. There is no extra configuration required on the PDSN to enable the Always On feature itself; however, you can disable the feature by configuring the Echo-Request-Attempts to 0. The PPP inactivity timer will be started for a session entering IPCP open state, if is configured or retrieved from AAA, for the user.

For always on users:

1. Upon expiration of the inactivity timer, Echo-Request-Attempts counter is initialized to the configured value.

2. If the Echo-Request-Attempts counter is zero, PPP session is torn down. If the Echo-Request-Attempts counter is nonzero, an LCP Echo-Request message will be sent, Echo-Request-Attempts counter is decremented, and Echo-Reply-Timeout timer is started.

3. Upon receipt of corresponding LCP Echo-Reply message, Echo-Reply-Timeout timer is stopped and PPP inactivity timer is restarted.

4. Upon expiration of Echo-Reply-Timeout timer, repeat from 2 above.

This feature is not supported for VPDN users, and is not applicable to Mobile IP users.

For Always-on users, a value of "1" will be sent for F15 attribute in the accounting start/stop/interim records. For non-always-on users, the F15 attribute will only be sent in the accounting records if configured.

Restrictions for the Always On Feature:

The Always On implementation follows the IS835B standard; the IS835C specific additions are not available in this release of PDSN.

Echo-Reply is the only packet that will stop always-on timer.

Basically it means even if there is upstream/downstream data received, the session will be teared down unless Echo-reply received within configured number of retries and configured time interval.

Always-on feature is not applicable for mobileip users.

Always-on feature is not supported for VPDN users.

Aging of Dormant PPP sessions feature works independent of always-on users. The aging of dormant PPP sessions feature does not care for the always-on property of a session.

NPE-G1 Platform Support

PDSN Release 2.0 and above, introduces support for the NPE-G1 router platform. The maximum number of sessions supported on the NPE G1 platform is 20,000. A faster processor will provide higher throughput rates compared the VXR NPE-400. The throughput is expected to be 2 times better than the VXR NPE-400 platform.

The supported configuration on a Cisco 7206VXR NPE-G1 processor is with 1Gigabyte of DRAM and one PA-2FE-TX FE port adaptor. The Cisco 7206VXR NPE-G1 processor has three 10/100/1000 based Ethernet Ports.

For IPSec support, a service adaptor SA-VAM2 is required.

PDSN MIB Enhancement

The following sub-sections highlight the MIBs that are added in R3.0:

PPP Counters in Release 3.0

Objects have been added under the following existing MIB subgroups:

cCdmaPppSetupStats

cCdmaPppReNegoStats

cCdmaPppAuthStats

cCdmaPppReleaseStats

cCdmaPppMiscStats

The below table describes the list of PPP counters that have been added in R3.0.

Table 5 PPP Counters in Release 3.0 

CDMA PPP MIB Subgroup
Counter Description

cCdmaPppSetupStats

 

PPP stats - LCP Failure - option issue

Total number of PPP calls failed by LCP option negotiation failure.

PPP stats - IPCP failure option-issue

Total number of PPP calls failed by IPCP option negotiation failure.

PPP stats - Authentication aborted

Total number of PPP calls failed by authentication max-retry.

Session Disc - no remote-ip address:

Total number of sessions released because MN rejects IP address allocated by PDSN.

PPP stats - Lower layer disconnected:

Total number of calls released by RP layer.

PPP stats - TermReq-From-MN-IPCP:

LCP Term-Req received from MS During IPCP

PPP stats - TermReq-From-PDSN-IPCP:

LCP Term-Req Sent from PDSN During IPCP

PPP stats - TermReq-From-PDSN-Auth:

LCP Term-Req Sent from PDSN During Authentication

PPP stats - TermReq-From-MN-Auth:

LCP Term-Req received from MS During Authentication

PPP stats - TermReq-From-PDSN-LCP :

LCP Term-Req Sent from PDSN During LCP

PPP stats - TermReq-From-MN-LCP :

LCP Term-Req received from MS During LCP

PPP stats - A10Release-PCF-preLCP :

A10 Released by PCF before LCP stage

PPP stats - A10Release-PDSN-preLCP :

A10 Release by PDSN before LCP stage

PPP stats - A10Release-PCF-LCP :

A10 Released by PCF During LCP stage without LCP Term-Req

PPP stats - A10Release-PDSN-LCP :

A10 Released by PDSN During LCP stage without LCP Term-Req

PPP stats - A10Release-PCF-Auth:

A10 Released by PCF During Authentication without LCP Term-Req

PPP stats - A10Release-PDSN-Auth

A10 Released by PDSN During Authentication without LCP Term-Req

PPP stats - A10Release-PCF-IPCP :

A10 Released by PCF During IPCP stage without LCP Term-Req

PPP stats - A10Release-PDSN-IPCP :

A10 Released by PDSN During IPCP stage without LCP Term-Req

PPP stats - LCP - success :

PPP connections that finished LCP successfully

PPP stats - auth - success :

PPP connections that finished AUTH successfully

PPP stats - IPCP - success :

PPP connections that finished IPCP successfully

cCdmaPppReNegoStats

 

Session Reneg - Lower layer handoff:

Total number of sessions renegotiated due to PANID/CANID comparison during handoff.

cCdmaPppAuthStats

 

Session Authen- CHAP auth timeout:

MN does not respond for CHAP request.

Session Authen- PAP auth timeout:

PDSN does not receive PAP request from MN.

Session Authen- MSCHAP auth timeout:

MN does not respond for MSCHAP request.

Session Authen- sessions skipped PPP Auth:

Total number of sessions skipped PPP authentication.

cCdmaPppReleaseStats

 

PPP stats - release - pcf deregister:

PPP connections released as PCF sends deregistration

PPP stats - release - lifetime expiry:

PPP connections released due to life timer expiry

cCdmaPppMiscStats

 

Session Data Compress - CCP negotiation failures:

Total number of sessions failed CCP negotiation.

LCP Echo Stats - total LCP Echo Req. sent:

Total transmission of LCP Echo Request.

LCP Echo Stats - LCP Echo Req. resent:

Total retransmission of LCP Echo Request.

LCP Echo Stats - LCP Echo Reply received:

Total received LCP Echo Reply.

LCP Echo Stats - LCP Echo Request timeout:

Total LCP Echo Request timeout.

Receive Errors - unknown protocol errors:

Total packets which protocol value cannot be identified out of packets received at PPP stack.

Receive Errors - bad pkt length:

Total bytes discarded with reasons above.


RP Counters in Release 3.0

The following list identifies new MIB subgroups in Release 3.0:

cCdmaRPRegReqErrors

cCdmaRPRegUpdAckErrors

cCdmaRPSessUpdAckErrors

cCdmaRPRegReplyErrors

cCdmaRPRegUpdErrors

cCdmaRPSessUpdErrors

cCdmaRpSessUpdStats

cCdmaPcfSoRpSessUpdStats

The following list identifies existing MIB subgroups, under which objects are added:

cCdmaTrafficStats

cCdmaPcfSoRpRegStats

cCdmaPcfSoRpUpdStats

cCdmaSystemInfo

cCdmaRpRegStats

Table 6 indicates the additional RP counters supported in Release 3.0:

Table 6 RP Counters Supported in Release 3.0 

CDMA PPP MIB Subgroup
Counter Description

cCdmaSystemInfo

 

sysInfo - PPPoGREsessions

The total number of PPPoGRE sessions currently established with this system.

sysInfo-HDLC-GREsessions

The total number of HDLCoGRE sessions currently established with this system.

sysInfo-totalSessions

The total number of sessions established since system was last restarted.

sysInfo-totalReleases

The total number of sessions released since system was last restarted.

sysInfo-totalMSIDFlow

The total number of flows currently using MSID service.

sysInfo-totalVPDNFlow

The total number of flows currently using VPDN service.

cCdmaRpRegStats

 

RegStats-Reqs

The number of Initial A11 Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

RegStats-Disc

The number of Initial A11 Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

RegStats-ReregReqs

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

RegStats-ReregDisc

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

RegStats-DeregReqs

The number of A11 De-Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

RegStats-DeregDisc

The number of A11 De-Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

RegStats-HandoffReqs

The number of A11 Handoff Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

RegStats-HandoffAccepted

Total number of accepted handoff A11 Registration Requests meant for already existing session, since the system was last restarted.

RegStats-HandoffDenied

Total number of denied handoff A11 Registration Requests meant for already existing session, since the system was last restarted.

RegStats-HandoffDisc

The number of handoff A11 Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

RegStats-ReregAirlinkStart

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests containing Airlink Start since system was last restarted.

RegStats-ReregAirlinkStop

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests containing Airlink Stop since system was last restarted.

RegStats-DeregAirlinkStop

The number of Inter PCF active handoff since system was last restarted.

RegStats-HandoffInterPCFActive

The number of A11 De-Registration requests containing Airlink Stop since system was last restarted.

RegStats-HandoffInterPCFDormant

The number of Inter PCF dormant handoff since system was last restarted.

cCdmaRpSessUpdStats

 

SessUpdStats-TransReqs

Total number of A11 Session Updates transmitted since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-AcceptedReqs

Total number of A11 Session Update Acknowledgements received with the Status field set to zero (indicating that the corresponding Registration Update was accepted), since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-DeniedReqs

Total number of A11 Session Update Acknowledgements received with the Status field set to non-zero indicating that the corresponding Registration Update was denied, since system was last restarted.

 SessUpdStats-NotAckedReqs

Total number of A11 Session Update Updates sent, for which no corresponding A11 Registration Acknowledgements received, since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-TransReqs

Total number of initial A11 Session Updates sent, excluding the re-transmitted A11 Registration Updates, since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-RetransReqs

Total number of re-transmitted A11 Session Updates, since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-RecAcks

Total number of A11 Session Update Acknowledgements received, since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-DiscAcks

Total number of A11 Session Update Acknowledgements discarded, since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-AlwaysON

Total number of initial A11 Session Updates sent due to Always On since system was last restarted. Note that this count does not include any retransmissions.

SessUpdStats-RNPDIT

Total number of initial A11 Registration Updates sent due to RNPDIT value downloaded, since system was last restarted. Note that this count does not include any retransmissions.

SessUpdStats-UnSpecFail

The number of session update registrations failed for unspecified reason since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-ParamNotUpd

The number of session update registrations failed for session parameters not updated reason since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-MNAuthenFail

The number of session update registrations failed due to MN authentication failure since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-IdentMismatchFail

The number of session update registrations failed due to registration identity mismatch since system was last restarted.

SessUpdStats-BadReqsFail

The number of session update registrations failed due to poorly formed request since system was last restarted.

cCdmaTrafficStats

 

trafficStats-SDBPaks

Total number of SDB marked data packets sent to PCF from PDSN since system was last restarted.

trafficStats-SDBOctets

Total number of SDB marked data octets sent to PCF from PDSN since system was last restarted.

cCdmaPcfSoRpRegStats

 

PcfSoRegStats-InitRegReqs

The number of Initial A11 Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-InitRegDisc

The number of Initial A11 Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-RegReqs

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-ReregDisc

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-DeregReqs

The number of A11 De-Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-DiscardedReqs

The number of A11 De-Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-RcvdReqs

The number of A11 Handoff Registration requests received since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-AcptdReqs

Total number of accepted handoff A11 Registration Requests meant for already existing session, since the system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-DeniedReqs

Total number of denied handoff A11 Registration Requests meant for already existing session, since the system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-Disc

The number of handoff A11 Registration requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-ReregAirlinkStart

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests containing Airlink Start since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-ReregAirlinkStop

The number of A11 Re-Registration requests containing Airlink Stop since system was last restarted.

PcfSoRegStats-DeregAirlinkStop

The number of A11 De-Registration requests containing Airlink Stop since system was last restarted.

cCdmaPcfSoRpUpdStats

 

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats

The number of update registrations sent as a result of inter pcf handoffs, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-NotAckedReqs

Total number of A11 Registration Updates (sent as the result of inter PCF handoffs), for which no corresponding A11 Registration Acknowledgements received, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-RecAcks

Total number of A11 Registration Acknowledgements received for the A11 Registration Updates sent as the result of inter PCF handoffs, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-AcceptReqs

Total number of A11 Registration Acknowledgements received with the Status field set to zero (indicating that the corresponding Registration Update was accepted), since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-DeniedReqs

Total number of A11 Registration Acknowledgements received with the Status field set to non-zero indicating that the corresponding Registration Update was denied, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-DiscAcks

Total number of A11 Registration Acknowledgements discarded, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-TxdReqs

Total number of initial A11 Registration Updates sent as the result of inter PCF handoffs, excluding the re-transmitted A11 Registration Updates, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-RetxdReqs

Total number of re-transmitted A11 Registration Updates as the initial Registration Update (sent as a result of inter PCF handoffs) was not acked or denied, since system was last restarted.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-UnknownFail

The number of update registrations failed for unspecified reason since system was last restarted. The update is sent as a result of inter PCF handoff.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-AdminProhibitFail

The number of update registrations failed due to administrative prohibition since system was last restarted. The update is sent as a result of inter PCF handoff.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-MNAuthenFail

The number of update registrations failed due to MN authentication failure since system was last restarted. The update is sent as a result of inter PCF handoff.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats--IdMismatch

The number of registrations failed due to registration identity mismatch since system was last restarted. The update is sent as a result of inter PCF handoff.

PcfSoHandoffUpdStats-BadReqs

The number of update registrations failed due to poorly formed request since system was last restarted. The update is sent as a result of inter- PCF handoff.

cCdmaRPRegReqErrors

 

RegReqErr-PakLen

Invalid Registration request packet length while parsing since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-Protocol

Invalid Protocol value in the Registration Request Session Specific Extension since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-Flags

Invalid Flags value in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-MHAEKey

Invalid Authentication key in the Registration Request Mobile-Home Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-SPIMismatch

Mismatch in SPI in the Registration Request Mobile-Home Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-SPI

Invalid SPI in the Registration Request Mobile-Home Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-ConnId

Invalid Connection ID in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-MNID

Invalid MN ID in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-MNIDType

Invalid MN ID type in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-MSIDLen

Invalid MSID length in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-SSE

Session Specific extension missing in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-MHAE

Mobile-Home Authentication extension missing in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-Order

Invalid order of the extensions in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-VSE

Invalid Vendor specific extensions in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-AppType

Invalid Application type in Vendor specific extensions in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-DupAppType

Duplicate Application type in Vendor specific extensions in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-AppSubType

Invalid Sub Application type in Vendor specific extensions in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-VendorId

Invalid Vendor ID in Vendor specific extensions in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-CVSE

Duplicate Critical Vendor extension in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-UnknownAttr

Unknown Accounting attribute in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-LenAttr

Invalid accounting attribute length in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-DupAttr

Duplicate accounting attribute received in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-AcctRecRetrans

Same accounting sequence number and record type in the Registration Requests airlink record not updated since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-SeqNum

Invalid sequence number in the airlink accounting record Registration Requests silently discarded since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-DupGREKey

Duplicate GRE Key received in the Registration Request for different MSID from the same PCF since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-SameGREKey

Same GRE Key and Airlink setup received in the Registration Request for existing session since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-GREKeyChangeNoSetup

GRE changed without airlink setup received in the Registration Request for existing session since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-InitNoSetup

Airlink Setup record not received in the Initial Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-StartBeforeSetup

Airlink Start record received before the Airlink setup in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-StartOnClose

Airlink Start record received in the De-Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-StartOnActive

Airlink Start record received in the Registration Request for already active session since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-StopOnDormant

Airlink Stop record received in the Registration Request for already dormant session since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-InitStop

Airlink Stop record received in the Initial Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-InitSDB

Airlink SDB received in the Initial Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-airlinkRec

Invalid Accounting Airlink record type in the Registration Request since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-DeregNoSession

De-Registration Request for non existing session registration request is discarded since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-ReregInDisc

Re-Registration Request received for the session in the disconnecting or deleting state, therefore the registration request is discarded since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-Memfail

Registration Request discarded due to memory allocation failure during processing since system was last restarted.

RegReqErr-MaxSessions

Registration request rejected because of maximum limit or configured number of session reached since system was last restarted.

cCdmaRPRegUpdAckErrors

 

RegUpdAckErr-PakLen

Invalid Registration Update Ack packet length while parsing since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-Protocol

Invalid Protocol value in the Registration Update Ack Session Specific Extension since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-RUAEKey

Invalid Authentication key in the Registration Update Ack Registration Update Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-SPI

Invalid SPI in the Registration Update Ack Registration Update Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-ConnId

Invalid Connection ID in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-MNID

Invalid MN ID in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-MNIDType

Invalid MN ID type in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-MSIDLen

Invalid MSID length in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-SSE

Session Specific extension missing in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-RUAE

Registration Update Authentication extension missing in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-Order

Invalid order of the extensions in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-VSE

Invalid Vendor specific extensions in the Registration Update Ack since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-NoSession

De-Registration Update Ack for non existing session Registration Update Ack is discarded since system was last restarted.

RegUpdAckErr-MemFail

Registration Update Ack discarded due to memory allocation failure during processing since system was last restarted.

cCdmaRPSessUpdAckErrors

 

SessUpdAckErr-PakLen

Invalid Session Update Ack packet length while parsing since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-Protocol

Invalid Protocol value in the Session Update Ack Session Specific Extension since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-RUAEKey

Invalid Authentication key in the Session Update Ack Registration Update Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-SPI

Invalid SPI in the Session Update Ack Session Update Authentication extension since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-ConnId

Invalid Connection ID in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-MSID

Invalid MN ID in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-MSIDType

Invalid MN ID type in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-MSIDLen

Invalid MSID length in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-SSE

Session Specific extension missing in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-RUAE

Session Update Authentication extension missing in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-Order

Invalid order of the extensions in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-VSE

Invalid Vendor specific extensions in the Session Update Ack since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-NoSession

De-Session Update Ack for non existing session Session Update Ack is discarded since system was last restarted.

SessUpdAckErr-MemFail

Session Update Ack discarded due to memory allocation failure during processing since system was last restarted.

cCdmaRPRegReplyErrors

 

RegRplyErr-Internal

Registration reply not sent due to internal error during processing since system was last restarted.

RegRplyErr-MemFail

Registration reply not sent due to memory allocation failure during processing since system was last restarted.

RegRplyErr-NoSecOrParse

Cannot send Reply to PCF because security association not found for the PCF or Parse error of Request since system was last restarted.

cCdmaRPRegUpdErrors

 

RegUpdErr-Internal

Registration update not sent due to internal error during processing since system was last restarted.

RegUpdErr-MemFail

Registration update not sent due to memory allocation failure during processing since system was last restarted.


The following MIB enhancements are included in the Cisco PDSN Release 2.1:

PPP Counter Objects have been added under the following existing MIB subgroups:

cCdmaPppSetupStats

cCdmaPppReNegoStats

cCdmaPppAuthStats

cCdmaPppReleaseStats

cCdmaPppMiscStats

In PDSN Release 2.1 a new MIB CISCO-CDMA-PDSN-CRP-MIB is defined to reflect the support of Closed RP interface on PDSN.

The MIB has two groups, SystemInfo and PerPCF Stats. SystemInfo group has the system level info like Total number of Closed RP sessions while the PerPCF stats group details call management statistics per PCF.

CDMA PDSN System Information

ccpcEnabled OBJECT-TYPE

"An indication of whether Closed RP feature is enabled."

::= { ccpcSystemInfo 1 }

ccpcSessionTotal OBJECT-TYPE

"The total number of Closed RP sessions currently established with this system."

::= { ccpcSystemInfo 2 }

CDMA PDSN Closed RP Registration Statistics per PCF

The PDSN PCF table maintains reference about the PCF in the RAN currently interacting with the PDSN.

An entry is created when an L2TP tunnel is established with the PCF. An entry is deleted when the tunnel is deleted.

Statistics Objects maintained per PCF include the following:

ccpcPcfIpAddressType OBJECT-TYPE

"Represents the type of the address specified by ccpcPcfIpAddress."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 1 }

ccpcPcfIpAddress OBJECT-TYPE

"The IP address of the PCF that serves the mobile node."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 2 }

ccpcPcfRcvdIcrqs OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Requests received to establish a L2TP session since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 3 }

ccpcPcfAcptdIcrqs OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Requests accepted since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 4 }

ccpcPcfDroppedIcrqs OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Requests denied since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 5 }

ccpcPcfSentIcrps OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Replies sent since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 6 }

ccpcPcfRcvdIccns OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Connected messages received since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 7 }

ccpcPcfAcptdIccns OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Connected messages accepted since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 8 }

ccpcPcfDroppedIccns OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Incoming-Call-Connected messages accepted since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 9 }

ccpcPcfRcvdCdns OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Call-Disconnect-Notify messages received to tear down L2TP session since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 10 }

ccpcPcfSentCdns OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Call-Disconnect-Notify messages sent to PCF to tear down L2TP session since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 11 }

ccpcPcfDroppedCdns OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Call-Disconnect-Notify messages dropped since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 12 }

ccpcPcfRcvdZlbs OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Zero-Length-Buffer messages received since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 13 }

ccpcPcfSentZlbs OBJECT-TYPE

"Total number of Zero-Length-Buffer messages sent since the L2TP tunnel was established with PCF."

::= { ccpcPcfPerfStatsEntry 14 }

In PDSN Release 2.0 and above, the MIB CISCO-CDMA-PDSN-MIB module is modified to provide the following statistics by PCF plus Service Option:

PCF and Service Option based RP Registration Statistics

PCF and Service Option based RP Update Statistics

PCF and Service Option based PPP Statistics

PCF/Service Option-based RP Statistics

In Release 1.2, the PDSN MIB provided RP registration statistics that offer box level information. These statistics are defined under the group "cCdmaRpRegStats." In Release 2.0 and above, in addition to box level information, the PCF/SO-based RP statistics will also be provided, and the MIB objects pertaining to these statistics is defined under the following group:

cCdmaPcfSoRpRegStats OBJECT IDENTIFIER

::= { cCdmaPerformanceStats 10 }

PCF/Service Option-based RP Update Statistics

The Release 1.2 MIB provides RP update statistics at box level; the MIB objects pertaining to these statistics are defined under the group cCdmaRpUpdStats. In addition to these statistics, the Release 2.0 MIB will provide PCF/SO based RP update statistics. These new MIB objects are defined under the following group.

cCdmaPcfSoRpUpdStats OBJECT IDENTIFIER

::= { cCdmaPerformanceStats 11 }

PCF/Service Option-based PPP Statistics

In Release 1.2, the MIB objected defined under the group "cCdmaPppStats" provides box level information about PPP negotiation between the PDSN and the MN. In Release 2.0, the MIB will provide the following PPP stats based on PCF/SO.

cCdmaPcfSoPppCurrentConns,

cCdmaPcfSoPppConnInitiateReqs,

              cCdmaPcfSoPppConnSuccesses,

cCdmaPcfSoPppConnFails,

cCdmaPcfSoPppConnAborts

These objects are grouped under the following MIB group.

cCdmaPcfSoPppSetupStats OBJECT IDENTIFIER

::= { cCdmaPerformanceStats 12 }

As with previous releases, you can manage the Cisco PDSN with Cisco Works 2000 network management system using SNMP. In addition to the standard 7200 and 6500 MIBS, the Cisco CDMA PDSN MIB (CISCO_CDMA_PDSN_MIB.my) is part of the PDSN solution. The Cisco PDSN MIB continues to support the following features:

Statistics groups

Handoff statistics: include inter-PCF success and failure, inter-PDSN handoff

Service option based success and failure statistics

Flow type based failure statistics

MSID authentication statistics

Addressing scheme statistics: static or dynamic mobile IP/simple IP

A TRAP threshold group to support different severity levels. Agent generates notifications only if the severity level of the affected service is higher than the configured severity level. The severity level can be configured using the following methods:

The CLI using the cdma pdsn mib trap level 1-4, or by

Using SNMP, set the object cCdmaNotifSeverityLevel.

Cisco Proprietary Prepaid Billing

PDSN Release 2.1 supports Cisco's proprietary prepaid billing features, that provide the following services:

Simple IP-based service metering in real time. See the "Prepaid Simple IP Call Flow" section on page 95 for more information.

Undifferentiated Mobile IP service in real-time, with support for multiple Mobile IP flows per user. See the "Prepaid Mobile IP Call Flow" section on page 96 for more information.

Rating based on per-flow data volume, octet or packet count, and call duration.

Figure 7 shows the network reference architecture for prepaid service. The PBS resides in the mobile station's home network and is accessed by the home RADIUS server. A Cisco Access Registrar (AR) with prepaid functionality can be used as the home RADIUS server to provide service to prepaid and non-prepaid users.

Figure 7 PDSN Prepaid Billing Architecture

For roaming users, the local RADIUS server in the visited network forwards AAA requests to the home RADIUS server, using a broker RADIUS server if required. For roaming prepaid users, this requires that the local and broker AAA servers forward the new vendor specific prepaid accounting attributes transparently to the home RADIUS server.

In existing networks, where the home RADIUS server does not support the interface to the Prepaid Billing Server, AR can be placed in front of the home RADIUS server to act as a proxy. In this case AR forwards all authorization and accounting messages to /from the home RADIUS server and communicates with the PBS. This scenario is relevant if an operator already has a RADIUS server.

While this architecture does impose some additional requirements on the RADIUS server, the interface towards the PDSN does not change.

It is possible that an operator may want to use an existing WIN or IN based prepaid billing server. In this situation, the PBS will interface to the external prepaid billing server.

Accounting Records

The PDSN will continue to generate per flow accounting records in the same way as it does for non-prepaid users. However, the last Accounting Stop Request for a flow will contain the new prepaid Vendor Specific Attributes (VSAs) for reporting the final usage.

How Prepaid Works in PDSN

When a prepaid mobile user makes a data service call, the MS establishes a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) link with the Cisco PDSN. The Cisco PDSN authenticates the mobile station by communicating with the AAA server. The AAA server verifies that the user is a valid prepaid subscriber, determines what services are available for the user, and tracks usage for billing.

The methods used to assign an IP address and the nature of the connection are similar to those discussed in the "How PDSN Works" section on page 5.

The following sections describe the IP addressing and communication levels in the prepaid environment for each respective topic:

Prepaid Simple IP Call Flow

Prepaid Mobile IP Call Flow

Prepaid Simple IP Call Flow

In the following scenario, the prepaid user has sufficient credit and makes a Simple IP data call. The user disconnects at the end of the call.


Step 1 The MS originates a call by sending an origination message. A traffic channel is assigned, and the MS is authenticated using CHAP.

Step 2 The PDSN determines that a Simple IP flow is requested and sends an Access Request to the RADIUS server.

Step 3 The RADIUS Server looks up the user's profile and determines that user has prepaid service. It sends an initial authentication request to the billing server.

Step 4 The billing server checks that the user has sufficient quota to make a call, and returns the result.

Step 5 The RADIUS Server sends an Access Accept message to PDSN indicating that this is a prepaid user.

Step 6 The PDSN completes the PPP connection, and an IP address is assigned to the MS.

Step 7 PDSN sends an Accounting Request (Start) as normal, and sends an Access Request to AR for initial quota authorization. The request contains the Service Id VSA that indicates the call is Simple IP.

Step 8 The RADIUS Server, knowing that this is a prepaid user, sends an initial quota authorization request to the billing server, which returns the quota information to the RADIUS Server. The RADIUS Server includes the quota information in the Access Accept message and sends it to the PDSN.

Step 9 The PDSN saves the received quota information and monitors user data against this. When the quota is used up, the PDSN sends an Access Request to AR indicating the usage and reason "Quota Depleted."

Step 10 The RADIUS Server then sends a re-authorization request to PBS, which updates the user's account, allocates additional quota, and returns the new quota information to the RADIUS Server.

Step 11 The RADIUS Server includes the new quota information in the Access Accept message and sends it to the PDSN. The PDSN updates the new quota information in its tables, and adjusts the usage to allow for quota that was used since the Access Request was sent. The PDSN then continues to monitor the user data. Steps 9 - 11 are repeated as long as the user has sufficient quota.

Step 12 When the user disconnects, the MS initiates release of the call and the traffic channel is released. The PDSN clears the session and sends an Accounting Request Stop record. The record includes the prepaid VSAs to report final usage.

Step 13 The RADIUS Server updates its own records and sends final usage report to PBS. The PBS updates the user's account and replies to the AR. And the AR sends the Accounting Response to PDSN.


Prepaid Mobile IP Call Flow

In the following scenario, the prepaid user makes a Mobile IP data call. The user runs out of quota during the mobile IP data session and the PDSN disconnects the call. The call flow shows a single Mobile IP flow; however, additional flows are established and handled in a similar manner when the MS sends additional Mobile IP Registration Requests.


Step 1 The MS originates a call by sending an Origination message. A traffic channel is assigned, but the MS skips CHAP.

Step 2 The PDSN completes the PPP connection. Since the MS skips IP address assignment during IPCP the PDSN assumes Mobile IP.

Step 3 The PDSN sends an Agent Advertisement with a FA-CHAP challenge, and the MS initiates a Mobile IP Registration Request with FA-CHAP response.

Step 4 The PDSN sends the Access Request with FA-CHAP to the AR. The AR looks up the user's profile and determines that the user has prepaid service. It the sends an authentication request to the billing server.

Step 5 The billing server checks that the user has sufficient quota to make a call and returns an ok. The RADIUS Server sends an Access Accept message to the PDSN that indicates a prepaid user.

Step 6 The PDSN forwards the mobile IP Registration Request to the Home Agent and receives a Registration Reply. The PDSN forwards the reply to the MS.

Step 7 The PDSN sends an Access Request for initial quota authorization. The request contains Service Id VSA that indicates this is a Mobile IP call. The AR, knowing that this is a prepaid user, sends the initial quota authorization request to the PBS. The billing server returns the quota information to the AR, who includes the quota information in the Access Accept message and sends it to the PDSN.

Step 8 The PDSN saves the received quota information and monitors the user data against this. When the quota is used up, the PDSN sends an Access Request to AR indicating the usage and reason "Quota Depleted."

Step 9 The AR sends re-authorization request to the PBS, who updates the user's account, allocates additional quota, and returns the new quota information to the AR.

Step 10 The AR includes the new quota information in the Access Accept message and sends it to the PDSN. The PDSN updates the new quota information in its tables, and adjusts usage to allow for quota used since the Access Request was sent. The PDSN then continues to monitor the user data. Steps 8-10 are repeated as long as the user has sufficient funds.

Step 11 If the PDSN requests an additional quota but the user has run out, the PBS rejects the request with reason "Exceeded Balance," and the AR sends an Access Reject to PDSN.

Step 12 The PDSN deletes the Mobile IP flow, determines that this is the last flow, and requests release of the A10 connection by sending A11-Registration Update to the PCF. The PCF sends an ack message and initiates release of the traffic channel.

Step 13 The PDSN clears the session and sends an Accounting Request Stop record. The record includes the prepaid VSAs to report final usage.

Step 14 The AR updates its own records and sends final usage report to PBS, who updates the user's account and replies to the AR.

Step 15 The AR finally sends the Accounting Response to PDSN.



Note This feature is a variant of the PDSN Release 2.1 software. Refer to the Feature Matrix to see which features are available on a specific image of PDSN 2.0.


3 DES Encryption

The Cisco PDSN include 3DES encryption, which supports IPSec on PDSN. To accomplish this on the 7200 platform, Cisco supplies an SA-ISA card for hardware provided IPsec. IPSec on the MWAM platform requires you to use a Cisco VPN Acceleration Module.

This feature allows VPDN traffic and Mobile IP traffic (between the PDSN Home Agent) to be encrypted. In this release the PDSN requires you to configure the parameters for each HA before a mobile ip data traffic tunnel is established between the PDSN and the HA.


Note This feature is only available with hardware support.



Note This feature is a variant of the PDSN software. Refer to the Feature Matrix to see which features are available on a specific image of PDSN.


Mobile IP IPSec

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed a framework of open standards called IP Security (IPSec) that provides data confidentiality, data integrity, and data authentication between participating peers. IPSec provides these security services at the IP layer; it uses Internet Key Exchange (IKE) to handle negotiation of protocols and algorithms based on local policy, and to generate the encryption and authentication keys to be used by IPSec. IPSec can be used to protect one or more data flows between a pair of hosts, between a pair of security gateways, or between a security gateway and a host.

IS-835-B specifies three mechanisms for providing IPSec security:

Certificates

Dynamically distributed pre-shared secret

Statically configured pre-shared secret.


Note IS-835-B Statically configured pre-shared secret is not supported in PDSN Release 1.2. Only CLI-configured, statically configured pre-shared-secret of IKE will be implemented and supported.


Hardware IPSec Acceleration Using IPSec Acceleration Module—Static IPSec


Note The Cisco PDSN Release on the Cisco 6500 and 7600 platforms requires the support of the Cisco IPSec Services Module (VPNSM), a blade that runs on the Catalyst 6500 switch and the Cisco 7600 Internet Router. VPNSM does not have any physical WAN or LAN interfaces, and utilizes VLAN selectors for its VPN policy. For more information on Catalyst 6500 Security Modules visit http://wwwin.cisco.com/issg/isbu/products/6000/6500security.shtml. For more information on the Cisco 7600 Internet Router visit http://wwwin.cisco.com/rtg/routers/products/7600/techtools/index.shtml.


IPSec-based security may be applied on tunnels between the PDSN and the HA depending on parameters received from Home AAA server. A single tunnel may be established between each PDSN-HA pair. It is possible for a single tunnel between the PDSN-HA pair to have three types of traffic streams: Control Messages, Data with IP-in-IP encapsulation, and Data with GRE-in-IP encapsulation. All Traffic carried in the tunnel will have the same level of protection provided by IPSec.

IS-835-B defines MobileIP service as described in RFC 2002; the Cisco PDSN provides Mobile IP service and Proxy Mobile IP service.

In Proxy Mobile service, the Mobile-Node is connected to the PDSN/FA through Simple IP, and the PDSN/FA acts as Mobile IP Proxy for the MN to the HA.

Once Security Associations (SAs, or tunnels) are established, they remain active until there is traffic on the tunnel, or the lifetime of the SAs expire.

Figure 8 illustrates the IS-835-B IPSec network topology.

Figure 8 IS-835-B IPSec Network

Hardware IPSec acceleration of 8000 IPSec tunnels per chassis is available through the use of the Cisco VPN Acceleration Module. Refer to the xxxxx for more information.


Note This feature is a variant of the PDSN software. Refer to the Feature Matrix to see which features are available on a specific image of PDSN.


Conditional Debugging Enhancements

Trace Functionality in Release 3.0

While conditional debugging has been a useful tool to limit the displayed debugs to a particular user, the output can still be a bit misleading if a few users are traced together. Therefore, the following capabilities are added in R3.0:

The PDSN currently supports display of the MNID/username with every line printed from the CDMA debugs. A similar mechanism is also added for a few other subsystems, like MoIP, PPP, and AAA. Some of the commonly used debugs that are enhanced with the trace functionality are:

debug ppp negotiation

debug aaa id

debug aaa accounting

debug aaa authentication

debug aaa authorization

debug ip mobile

debug cdma pdsn a11 events

debug cdma pdsn accounting

debug cdma pdsn service-selection

debug cdma pdsn session events

cdma pdsn redundancy debugs

When the debug conditions match, every line of the debug message is pre-pended with either the username or the IMSI (not both), depending on the condition set.


Note Pre-pending of Username/IMSI is not supported for a11 cluster debugs.



Note Pre-pending of Username/IMSI is not supported for cdma pdsn redundancy debugs.



Note GRE debugs are not pre-pended with IMSI for the first few lines.



Note debug cdma pdsn a11 errors are not printed for matching conditions.



Note debug aaa accounting does not get pre-pended with username.


The above behavior is controlled through the cdma pdsn debug show-condition and ip mobile debug include username commands. If conditional debugging is enabled without these CLI being configured, the username/IMSI will not be displayed in the debugs. However, if the above CLIs are configured without configuring conditional debugging, the username/IMSI is printed along with the debugs.

Enhancements Prior to Release 3.0

PDSN Release 2.1 supports additional conditional debugging for Mobile IP components. Mobile IP conditional debugging is supported based on NAI as well as the MN's home address.

Currently, when multiple conditional debugging is enabled, the debug output does not individually display the condition for which the debugs are printed for all the CDMA related debugs.

Check Condition

A condition is set using the debug condition username command.

Delete Condition

The debugging conditions can be removed using the following commands:

no debug condition username—removes all the conditions based on username

no debug condition username username—removes the condition for the specified username

When a condition is removed using the above CLI, the IOS Conditional Debugging Subsystem, which maintains a list of conditions and the TRUE conditions, resets the flag. When all the conditions are removed, the debugging information will appear without any filter applied.

The PDSN software also utilizes conditional debugging based on the Mobile Subscriber ID (MSID) into the CDMA subsystem by using the existing IOS debug condition of the Cisco CLI. The calling option of the CLI is used to specify the MSID (for example, debug condition calling 00000000011124).

The following debug commands are supported for conditional debugging based on NAI. The NAI is a name like foo@bar.com.

debug ip mobile

debug ip mobile host

debug ip mobile proxy

The following debug commands are not impacted by NAI-based conditional debugging:

debug ip mobile local-area

debug ip mobile router

This release provides conditional debugging support for the following PDSN CLI commands:

debug cdma pdsn accounting

debug cdma pdsn accounting flow

debug cdma pdsn session [errors | events]

debug ip mobile

debug condition username

The a11 debugs additionally support msid-based debugging using the following individual CLI commands:

debug cdma pdsn a11 events mnid

debug cdma pdsn a11 errors mnid

debug cdma pdsn a11 packet mnid

Conditional debugging is an IOS feature, and the following CLI are available across all images.

router# debug condition ?
  application  Application
  called       called number
  calling      calling
  glbp         interface group
  interface    interface
  ip           IP address
  mac-address  MAC address
  match-list   apply the match-list
  standby      interface group
  username     username
  vcid         VC ID

The options calling, username, and ip are used by the CDMA/Mobile IP subsystems.

PDSN#debug condition username ?
  WORD  Username for debug filtering

PDSN#debu condition calling ?
  WORD  Calling number

PDSN#debu condition ip ?
  A.B.C.D  IP address

Refer to the debug commands in the Command Reference for more information about conditional debugging in PDSN Release 2.1.

Electronic Serial Number (ESN) in Billing

The ESN is a unique identifier for a piece of equipment, such as of a mobile device, and is used during the authentication process. The ESN is parameter a2 of the R-P Session Setup airlink record, and parameter A2 in the PDSN Usage Data Record (UDR). Both parameters are introduced in this release.

The PDSN accepts the parameter a2, and puts it as A2 into a User Data Record.

This feature is supported in the Cisco Access Registrar.

Support for Mobile Equipment Indentifier (MEID)

The MEID is a new attribute introduced in IS-835D, and will eventually replace the ESN AVP. In the interim period, both attributes are supported on the PDSN.

To include the MEID in Access Request, FA-CHAP, or Mobile IP RRQ, use the cdma pdsn attribute send a3 command.

1xEV-DO Support

The Cisco PDSN supports Evolution-Data Optimized (1xEV-DO). 1xEV-DO offers high performance, high-speed, high-capacity wireless Internet connectivity, and is optimized for packet data services. It can transport packet data traffic at forward peak rates of 2.4 Mbps, which is much higher than the current 1xRTT peak rate of 144 kbps.

PDSN support for 1xEV-DO technology includes the following enhancements:

PDSN recognizes a new Service Option value of 59 (decimal) for 1xEV-DO in Active Start Airlink Record.

The PDSN CLI commands are enhanced to show sessions—show cdma pdsn session—so that packet service options are displayed (1xRTT, 1xEV-DO, or undefined).

Features Available From Previous PDSN Releases

The following features were introduced in previous PDSN software releases, and are still supported in Release 2.0.

Integrated Foreign Agent (FA)

The FA is an essential component to mobility, because it allows a mobile station to remotely access services provided by the station's home network. The Cisco PDSN provides an integrated FA. The FA communicates with any standard HA including the Cisco IOS-based HA.

AAA Support

The Cisco PDSN provides an authentication client that communicates with any standard AAA server, including Cisco Access Registrar, to authenticate the mobile station. It uses the mobile stations' name (NAI) for authentication of the user with the local AAA server.

The Cisco PDSN supports the following AAA services for Simple IP:

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and CHAP authentication.

Accounting information.

IP address allocation for the mobile user.


Note The Cisco PDSN supports the assignment of IP addresses and the mapping of MSID to NAI for special configuration users. Typically, this includes MSID-based access users who skip the authentication process during the PPP establishment, and who want just the Simple IP routing service.


The Cisco PDSN supports the following AAA services for VPDN:

PAP and CHAP authentication.

Accounting information.

The Cisco PDSN supports the following AAA services for Proxy Mobile IP:

PAP and CHAP authentication.

Accounting information.

Assignment of IP address (as received from HA, in the Registration Reply message) during the IPCP phase.

The Cisco PDSN supports the following AAA services for Mobile IP:

Optionally skip authentication during PPP upon receiving REJ from the mobile station.

FA Challenge/Response as defined in TIA/EIA/IS-835-B through Mobile IP registration.

FA-HA and FA-mobile station authentications as described under Mobile IP section.

Verification of the FA challenge response in a Mobile IP registration request corresponding to a recent advertisement.

The Cisco PDSN also supports service provisioning using AAA servers and a user service profile. This profile is defined by the user's home network. It is referenced by the NAI. It is typically stored in the AAA server in the user's home network, along with the user authentication information, and is retrieved as part of authorization reply.

Packet Transport for VPDN

The Cisco PDSN supports the transport of VPDN packets. If the operator offers VPDN services, the mobile station can securely access private resources through a public Internet or dedicated links. The VPDN tunnel extends from the PDSN/FA to the home IP network. The home IP network is the IP network associated with the NAI.

Proxy Mobile IP

With Proxy Mobile IP as part of the PPP link initiation, the PDSN registers with a HA on behalf of the mobile station. It obtains an address from the HA and forwards that address to the mobile station as part of IPCP during PPP initialization.

Multiple Mobile IP Flows

The Cisco PDSN allows multiple IP access points from the same mobile station, as long as each IP flow registers individually (each IP flow requires a unique NAI). This enables multiple IP hosts to communicate through the same mobile access device and share a single PPP connection to the operator's network. For accounting purposes, it is important that the PDSN generate separate usage data records (UDRs) for each flow to the AAA server.

Redundancy and Load Balancing

This section provides information about Intelligent PDSN Selection and Load Balancing for the Controller - Member cluster model.

PDSN Cluster Controller / Member Architecture

The PDSN Controller member architecture was designed to support 8 members with redundant Active/Standby controllers. This controller-member mode designates certain nodes as controllers responsible for performing PDSN selection, and for maintaining the global session tables. Each member node maintains information only about the sessions that are terminated on that node. Controllers can be redundant with all session information synchronized between them, and they monitor the state of all nodes to detect the failure of a member or another controller.

When a PDSN cluster operates in the controller-member mode, controllers are dedicated to the PDSN selection function, and do not terminate bearer sessions.

PDSN Release 2.1 supports the following enhancements:

Cluster scalability to support 48 members with bulk-update of session information

Conditional debugging support for MSID under clustering feature

Controller Show command enhancements

Clear command under clustering feature to clear clustering statistics

When a Registration Request (RRQ) arrives from the PCF to the active controller, the controller uses the MSID as an index to look up the session-table. If a session record entry is present, the controller forwards the RRQ to the PDSN that hosts the session for the MSID. If the session entry is not present in the controller session-table, the controller chooses a member based on a configured selection algorithm, and replies to the PCF with an RRP that suggests the member IP address in the message.

When the session comes up, the member sends a Session-Up message from the member for that session (MSID) to the controller. On receipt of this message from the member, the controller creates the Session Record for that MSID in the controller to establish MSID-member association on the controller. On receipt of Session-Down message from member, the controller flushes the Session Record from the controller.

The controller does not create a Session Record for the MSID when it redirects the RRQ, but only on the receipt of a Session-Up message from the member on which the session has come up

To support a large number of members (28~48) per Controller, processing overhead is reduced when members send one bulk-update packet to the controller for every configured periodic update time interval with multiple pairs of Session-Up/Session-Down. The packet contains concatenated multiple MSIDs with one Session-Up/Session-Down flag, thereby saving bytes in the packet. The controller will process these bulk-update packets and send a bulk-update-ack packet to the members.

Conditional Debugging Support Under Clustering Feature

The Cisco PDSN 2.0 Clustering feature adds additional support for the conditional debugging with the following clustering debug command on both controller and member:

Debug cdma pdsn cluster controller message {event | error | packet}


Note PDSNs in controller-member mode and peer-to-peer mode cannot co-exist in the same cluster. They are mutually exclusive.


PDSN Controller-Member Clustering

In Controller-Member clustering, a controller maintains load and session (such as A10 connection) information for each member in the cluster, and performs member selection for load-balancing or inter-PDSN handoff avoidance. The controller identifies the operational state of each member and detects the failure of a member, or the failure of another controller. A member notifies the controller about its load and session information.


Note The new PDSN Controller-Member clustering feature is only available on the -c6is-mz, and -c6ik9s-mz images.


Figure 9 illustrates the Controller-Member architecture on the 6500 or 7600-based MWAM platform. This illustration depicts two PDSN clusters with two primary and two backup controllers, and their corresponding members.

Figure 9 PDSN Controller -Member Architecture for MWAM on the Catalyst 6500

PDSNs that are designated as controllers, perform member PDSN selection and load balancing. The following list describes the major functions of the controllers:

Controllers maintain the load information for all members—they obtain the load information by seeking the cluster members. Alternatively, the members send the load value at configurable intervals inside a session origination or termination message. Controllers synchronize by exchanging information as needed.

The link on which controllers exchange information is an HSRP-based state information exchange (HA redundancy is based on this type of implementation).

The link on which the active controller and members exchange information is a unicast HSRP address for the active controller, but must be configured on the members.

The actual PDSN selection and load-balancing procedures are similar to the R1.1 implementation; however, different record tables are used.

Auto-configuration of a new PDSN controller added to the cluster—The new controller must be configured as such, and must be configured as a member of the HSRP group of routers. As a consequence, the new controller (standby) automatically downloads member and session records from the active controller. The active controller updates the standby as needed, so that records are synchronized.

Auto-configuration of the controllers when a new member is added to the cluster—The new member registers with the active controller, which updates the standby controller.

Redundancy—All controllers in the cluster maintain session and load information for all members. This provides redundancy for availability, and, in case of a controller failure, session and load-balancing information is not lost.

Redundancy

Cluster redundancy is based on the premise that only one PDSN might fail at any given time. Two controllers are configured as an HSRP group: One controller is active, the other standby. Controllers have redundancy and members have load sharing.

Load Sharing

Cluster member loadsharing is an N+1 scheme. If a member fails, the established sessions will be lost, but the overall group capacity allows sessions to be re-established with the other group members. Additionally, redundancy is also enhanced because cluster members no longer have to be network neighbors.

Controllers exchange information over an ethernet link. Controllers and members exchange information over a unicast interface link where members address messages to the HSRP group address of the controllers. The members in a PDSN cluster do not need to be network neighbors; they can be attached anywhere in the IP network.

Adding an additional controller to a cluster is simplified by auto-configuration of the controller in the cluster. This is possible by configuring the additional controller for HSRP. The newly-added controller will automatically synchronize with the active controller. Similarly, when a new member is added to the cluster, auto-configuration for the member occurs in all cluster controllers.

PDSN Cluster Member Selection

Selection of a cluster member by the controller is based on a load factor. Load factor is a computed value by session load and CPU load on a member. The controller attempts to assign sessions to a member that has smallest load factor so that data connections are evenly distributed over members in the cluster as much as possible.

If an A11 Registration Request is received indicating a handoff, a member that is already serving the session is selected by the controller.

Load Balancing

A controller maintains load information for all members in the cluster in order to perform PDSN Cluster Member selection. This load information is transferred from the members to the controller under the following conditions:

at periodic intervals.

when a session is established or dismantled in a member. In this case, the periodic timer is restarted.

requested from the members by the controller.

The session and member records are synchronized between the active and standby controllers as needed. Since both active and standby controller maintain session and load information for all the members of that cluster, failure of a controller does not result in the loss of any session or load information.

Upgrading the Controller PDSN Software from R1.2 to R2.0

To upgrade the PDSN controller to Release 2.0, perform the following tasks:


Step 1 Reload either the Active/Standby controller so that at least one of the controllers is operating to take care new incoming calls.

Step 2 Load Release 2.0 software. Once the controller with Release 2.0 software is operational, ensure both controllers have synched session information using the following command:

# show cdma pdsn cluster controller configuration

Step 3 Issue the following command to make use of the scalable bulk-synch mechanism of session information between Controller and member PDSN introduced in Release 2.0 PDSN Software.

config# cdma pdsn cluster controller member periodic-update

Follow the same procedure as above to upgrade the other PDSN controller to Release 2.0.


Upgrading the Member PDSN Software from R1.2 to R2.0 and Above

To upgrade a member PDSN to Release 2.0 or 2.1, perform the following tasks:


Step 1 Separate a member PDSN out of the cluster by configuring the following command on the member PDSN:

config# cdma pdsn cluster member prohibit administratively

The status of the member will be updated to the controller in a subsequent periodic keepalive reply message that the member sends to the controller. The controller, upon reception of this message, does not select this member for any of the new incoming calls.

Step 2 Display the member PDSNs which are prohibited administratively by issuing the following command:

#show cluster controller member prohibited administratively

The calls, which are already connected to the member, will be alive until the mobile node disconnects the call. Alternatively, the calls can be forcibly cleared on the prohibited member using the following command:

#clear cdma pdsn session all

Step 3 When all the calls are brought down, upgrade the software to Release 2.0 and above, or shutdown this member without disrupting the operation of the PDSN cluster. When the member comes online you can configure it to rejoin the cluster by issuing the following command:

config# no cdma pdsn cluster member prohibit administratively

Once the controller is updated with the status the new member PDSN will be selected for new incoming calls.

Step 4 Configure the following command to use the scalable bulk-synch mechanism of session information between Controller and member PDSN:

config# cdma pdsn cluster member periodic-update 300


Scalability

In this release the PDSN uses a new scalability feature that allows PPP sessions to run on virtual-access subinterfaces that can support up to 20000 sessions.


Note When using the virtual-access subinterfaces, not more than 20 percent (or a maximum of 4000) of the sessions should be compression sessions.



Note If you are using the Cisco PDSN with a AAA server, ensure that the attribute "compression=none" is not present in your user profiles. If it is, the Cisco PDSN will use the full virtual- access interface instead of the virtual-access sub-interface.



Note To increase the call setup performance, use the no virtual-template snmp global configuration command. This prevents the virtual-access subinterfaces from being registered with the SNMP functionality of the router, and reduces the amount of memory used.


High Availability

Overview

High availability allows you to minimize the switchover time from the active supervisor engine to the standby supervisor engine if the active supervisor engine fails.

Prior to this feature, fast switchover ensured that a switchover to the standby supervisor engine happened quickly. However, with fast switchover, because the state of the switch features before the switchover was unknown, you had to re-initialize and restart all the switch features when the standby supervisor engine assumed the active role.

High availability removes this limitation; high availability allows the active supervisor engine to communicate with the standby supervisor engine, keeping feature protocol states synchronized. Synchronization between the supervisor engines allows the standby supervisor engine to take over in the event of a failure.

In addition, high availability provides a versioning option that allows you to run different software images on the active and standby supervisor engines.

For high availability, a system database is maintained on the active supervisor engine and updates are sent to the standby supervisor engine for any change of data in the system database. The active supervisor engine communicates and updates the standby supervisor engine when any state changes occur, ensuring that the standby supervisor engine knows the current protocol state of supported features. The standby supervisor engine knows the current protocol states for all modules, ports, and VLANs; the protocols can initialize with this state information and start running immediately.

The active supervisor engine controls the system bus (backplane), sends and receives packets to and from the network, and controls all modules. Protocols run on the active supervisor engine only.

The standby supervisor engine is isolated from the system bus and does not switch packets. But it does receive packets from the switching bus to learn and populate its Layer 2 forwarding table for Layer 2-switched flows. The standby supervisor engine also receives packets from the switching bus to learn and populate the Multilayer Switching (MLS) table for Layer 3-switched flows. The standby supervisor engine does not participate in forwarding any packets and does not communicate with any modules.

If you enable high availability when the standby supervisor engine is running, image version compatibility is checked and if found compatible, the database synchronization starts. High availability compatible features continue from the saved states on the standby supervisor engine after a switchover.

When you disable high availability, the database synchronization is not done and all features must restart on the standby supervisor engine after a switchover.

If you change high availability from enabled to disabled, synchronization from the active supervisor engine is stopped and the standby supervisor engine discards all current synchronization data.

If you change high availability from disabled to enabled, synchronization from the active to standby supervisor engine is started (provided the standby supervisor engine is present and its image version is compatible).

NVRAM synchronization occurs irrespective of high availability being enabled or disabled (provided there are compatible NVRAM versions on the two supervisor engines).

If you do not install a standby supervisor engine during system bootup, the active supervisor engine detects this and the database updates are not queued for synchronization. Similarly, when you reset or remove the standby supervisor engine, the synchronization updates are not queued and any pending updates in the synchronization queue are discarded. When you hot insert or restart a second supervisor engine that becomes the standby supervisor engine, the active supervisor engine downloads the entire system database to the standby supervisor engine. Only after this global synchronization is completed, the active supervisor engine queues and synchronizes the individual updates to the standby supervisor engine.


Note When you hot insert or restart a second supervisor engine, it might take a few minutes for the global synchronization to complete.


For more information about High Availability, including configuration details, and information about power management, refer to the "PDSN Controller-Member Clustering" section on page 105, as well as the documents at the following urls:

Catalyst 6500 Series Software Configuration Guide (6.1.1a), with special attention to the "Configuring Redundancy" chapter at:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/sft_6_1/configgd/index.htm

Catalyst 6000 Family IOS Software Configuration Guide, Release 12.2(9)YO at:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/122yo/swcg/supcfg.htm

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/lan/cat6000/122yo/swcg/pwr_envr.htm

Related Features and Technologies

Mobile IP

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting)

VPDN (Virtual Private Data Network) using L2TP

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service)

Related Documents

For additional information about the Cisco PDSN Release 2.1 software, refer to the following documents:

Release Notes for the Cisco PDSN 2.1 Feature in Cisco IOS Release 12.3(11)YF

For more information about:

MWAM hardware and software information, refer to the Cisco Multi-processor WAN Application Module Installation and Configuration Note.

The IP Sec configuration commands included in this document, refer to the "IP Security and Encryption" section in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide.

The AAA configuration commands included in this document, refer to the Cisco IOS Release 12.3 documentation modules Cisco IOS Security Command Reference and Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide.

The PPP and RADIUS configuration commands included in this document, refer to the Cisco IOS Release 12.3 documentation module Cisco IOS Dial Services Command Reference.

Mobile IP, refer to the Cisco Release 12.3 documentation modules Cisco IOS IP Command Reference and Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide.

Virtual Private Networks, refer to the Cisco IOS Release 12.3 documentation modules Cisco IOS Dial Services Configuration Guide, Network Services and Cisco IOS Dial Services Command Reference.

Supported Platforms

The Cisco PDSN for MWAM release is a feature enhancement for the Cisco 7206 router and the Multi-Processor WAN Application Module (MWAM) card that resides on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 switch or Cisco 7600 Internet Router. Refer to the following document for more information regarding the respective platforms:

Release Notes for the Cisco PDSN 3.0 Feature in Cisco IOS Release 12.3(14)YX for information about the supported platforms.

Supported Standards, MIBs, and RFCs

Standards

TIA/EIA/IS-835-B, Wireless IP Network Standard

TIA/EIA/IS-2001-B, Interoperability Specification (IOS) for CDMA 2000 Access Network Interfaces (Also known as 3GPP2 TSG-A and as TR45.4)

TIA/EIA/TSB-115, Wireless IP Network Architecture Based on IETF Protocols

MIBs

CISCO_CDMA_PDSN_MIB.my

CISCO_PROCESS_MIB.my

CISCO_MOBILE_IP_MIB.my

CISCO_AHDLC_MIB.my

CISCO_AAA_CLIENT_MIB.my

CISCO_AAA_SERVER_MIB.my

CISCO_VPDN_MGMT_MIB.my

CISCO_VPDN_MGMT_EXT_MIB.my

For descriptions of supported MIBs and how to use MIBs, see the Cisco MIB web site on CCO at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml.

RFCs

RFC 791, Internet Protocol

RFC 1144, Compressing TCP/IP Headers for Low-speed Serial Links

RFC 1332, The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)

RFC 1334, PPP Authentication Protocols

RFC 1661, The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

RFC 1662, PPP in HDLC-like Framing

RFC 1962, The PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP)

RFC 1974, PPP Stac LZS Compression Protocol

RFC 1994, PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)

RFC 2002, IP Mobility Support

RFC 2003, IP Encapsulation within IP

RFC 2005, Applicability Statement for IP Mobility Support

RFC 2006, The Definitions of Managed Objects for IP Mobility Support using SMIv2

RFC 2118, Microsoft Point-To-Point Compression (MPPC) Protocol

RFC 2344, Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP

RFC 2401, Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol

RFC 2402, IP Authentication Header

RFC 2406, IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)

RFC 3012, Mobile IPv4 Challenge/Response Extension

Configuration Tasks

This section describes the steps for configuring the Cisco PDSN software on both the 7200 and MWAM platforms. Prior to configuring instances of the PDSN on MWAM application cards, you must create a base Catalyst 6500 or 7600 configuration. Refer to the Cisco Multi-processor WAN Application Module Installation and Configuration Note for more information.

System Requirements

This section describes the system requirements for Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T:

Memory Requirements, page 113

Hardware Supported, page 114

Software Compatibility, page 114

Determining the Software Version, page 114

Upgrading to a New Software Release, page 115

Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy Infrastructure, page 126

Memory Requirements

Table 7 shows the memory requirements for the PDSN Software Feature Set that supports the Cisco 7206VXR router, the MWAM card on the Cisco 6500 Catalyst Switch platform and 7600 Internet router platform, and the Cisco NPE-G1 router. The table also lists the memory requirements for the IP Standard Feature Set (for the Home Agent [HA]).

Table 7 Memory Requirements for the Cisco 7206VXR Router and MWAM on the 6500 Catalyst Switch and 7600 Router 

Platform
Software
Feature Set
Image Name
Flash
Memory
Required
DRAM
Memory
Required
Runs
From
Cisco 7206VXR Router

PDSN Software Feature Set

c7200-c6is-mz.123-14.YX c7200-c6ik9s-mz.123-14.YX

20 MB

512 MB

RAM

Cisco 6500 Catalyst Switch

PDSN Software Feature Set

c6svc5fmwam-c6is-mz

(This is a bundled image)

40MB

512MB

RAM

Cisco 7600 Internet Router

PDSN Software Feature Set

c6svc5fmwam-c6is-mz

(This is a bundled image)

40MB

512MB

RAM

Cisco NPE-G1 Router

PDSN Software Feature Set

c7200-c6is-mz.123-14.YX c7200-c6ik9s-mz.123-14.YX

40MB

512MB

RAM


Hardware Supported

Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T is optimized for PDSN Release 3.0 on the Cisco 7206VXR router, the MWAM card on the Cisco 6500 Catalyst Switch platform and 7600 Internet router platform, and the Cisco NPE-G1 router.

A Hardware-Software Compatibility Matrix is available on CCO for users with CCO login accounts. This matrix allows users to search for supported hardware components by entering a Cisco platform and IOS Release. The Hardware-Software Compatibility Matrix tool is available at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/front.x/Support/HWSWmatrix/hwswmatrix.cgi

Software Compatibility

Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T is a special release that is developed on Cisco IOS Release 12.4.

Cisco IOS Release 12.4(11)T supports the same features that are in Cisco IOS Release 12.4, with the addition of the PDSN Release 3.0 feature.


Note We recommend that you use the Cisco SXE3 Supervisor image with Release 3.0


Determining the Software Version

To determine the version of Cisco IOS software running on your router, log in to the router and enter the show version EXEC command:

Router#show version
mwt5-6509a-06-4#sh ver
Cisco IOS Software, MWAM Software (MWAM-C6IS-M), Version 12.3(11)YF4, RELEASE SOFTWARE 
(fc1) Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2005 by Cisco 
Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 25-Jul-05 15:24 by ssearch

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.2(11)YS2 RELEASE SOFTWARE 

mwt5-6509a-06-4 uptime is 2 hours, 9 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 07:35:31 
UTC Wed Jul 6 2005 System restarted at 02:31:05 UTC Tue Jul 26 2005 System image file is 
"svcmwam-c6is-mz"

Cisco MWAM (MWAM) processor with 473088K/32768K bytes of memory.
SB-1 CPU at 700MHz, Implementation 1025, Rev 0.2

Last reset from power-on
1 Gigabit Ethernet interface
511K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.

Configuration register is 0x4

mwt5-6509a-06-4#

Upgrading to a New Software Release

For information on upgrading to a new software release, see the product bulletin Cisco IOS Software Upgrade Ordering Instructions located at:

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/iosw/prodlit/957_pp.htm

Upgrading PDSN Image from YF-based Image to R3.0-based Image

If you are upgrading the PDSN from a YF-based image to a R3.0-based image, you first need to upgrade the SUP image from a SXB-based image to the recommended SXE-based image.


Note We recommend that you upgrade to the Cisco IOS Supervisor Engine 720, Release 12.2(18)SXE3.


For more information on the 12.2(18)SXE3 Supervisor image, please refer to the following URL: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/prod_release_note09186a00801c8339.html

After you upgrade the SUP image, you can then upgrade the PDSN image.

Upgrading the Supervisor Image:

To upgrade the Supervisor image, perform the following procedure:


Step 1 Copy the SUP image to the disks (disk0: / slavedisk0:).

Step 2 Add the following command to the running config boot system disk0: SUP image name. Here is an example:

boot system disk0:s72033-advipservicesk9_wan-mz.122-18.SXE3.bin


Note This step may require you to unconfigure previously configured instances of this CLI in order to enable the image to properly reload.


Step 3 Perform a "write memory" so that running configuration is saved on both active and standby SUP.

Step 4 Issue reload command on the active SUP.

Both active and standby SUP will reload simultaneously and come up with the SXE3-based image.


Note Issuing the reload command on the active SUP will cause both the active and standby Supervisors to reload simultaneously, thus causing some downtime during the upgrade process.



Upgrading the PDSN Image on MWAM:

To upgrade an image on the Cisco MWAM, you will need a compact flash card that has the MP partition from the current image or later, and a recent supervisor image. To locate the images, please go to the Software Center at Cisco.com (http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/)

Upgrading the Controller PDSN on MWAM:

To upgrade to the R3.0-based image on the PDSN controller, perform the following procedure:


Step 1 Bring down the Standby PDSN Controller Loaded with YF based image, by issuing the hw-module module slot # reset cf:1 command on Supervisor. The active PDSN Controller will continue to service the incoming requests.

Log onto the supervisor and boot the MP partition on the PC.

SUP-PDSN#hw-module module 8 reset cf:1                                         
Device BOOT variable for reset = <cf:1>
Warning: Device list is not verified.

Proceed with reload of module?[confirm]
% reset issued for module 8
SUP-HA#
SUP-HA#
Nov 10 18:01:29.624: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Down] Trap
Nov 10 18:01:29.624: SP: The PC in slot 8 is shutting down. Please wait ...
Nov 10 18:01:55.252: SP: PC shutdown completed for module 8
Nov 10 18:01:55.256: %C6KPWR-SP-4-DISABLED: power to module in slot 8 set off (Reset)
Nov 10 18:04:00.195: SP: OS_BOOT_STATUS(8) MP OS Boot Status: finished booting
Nov 10 18:04:42.299: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Up] Trap
Nov 10 18:04:42.271: %DIAG-SP-6-BYPASS: Module 8: Diagnostics is passed
Nov 10 18:04:43.143: %OIR-SP-6-INSCARD: Card inserted in slot 8, interfaces are now online
SUP-PDSN#

Step 2 Once the module is online, copy the R3.0 image to pclc# slot file system by issuing the following command:

copy tftp: tftp file location pclc# linecard #-fs:

The upgrade file uses a special format that makes this process slow. The following example illustrates the upgrade process output:

SUP-PDSN#$/10.77.155.10/pdsn/images/c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005  pclc#8-fs:
Destination filename [c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005]? 
Accessing tftp://10.77.155.10/pdsn/images/c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005...
Loading pdsn/images/c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005 from 10.77.155.10 (via Vlan10): 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!
[OK - 24168088 bytes]

24168088 bytes copied in 192.376 secs (125629 bytes/sec)
SUP-PDSN#
Nov 10 18:09:03.903: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <Application upgrade has started>
Nov 10 18:09:03.903: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <Do not reset the module till upgrade 
completes!!>
Nov 10 18:09:42.022: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <Application upgrade has succeeded>
Nov 10 18:09:42.022: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <You can now reset the module>
SUP-PDSN#

Step 3 Now boot the MWAM card back to partition 4, the processor comes back as standby unit, and you have an upgraded image on standby PDSN controller.

SUP-PDSN#hw-module module 8 reset cf:4                                
Device BOOT variable for reset = <cf:4>
Warning: Device list is not verified.

Proceed with reload of module?[confirm]
% reset issued for module 8
SUP-PDSN#
Nov 10 18:10:34.831: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Down] Trap
Nov 10 18:10:34.831: SP: The PC in slot 8 is shutting down. Please wait ...
Nov 10 18:10:57.387: SP: PC shutdown completed for module 8
Nov 10 18:10:57.391: %C6KPWR-SP-4-DISABLED: power to module in slot 8 set off (Reset)
Nov 10 18:12:13.370: SP: OS_BOOT_STATUS(8) MWAM
Nov 10 18:14:30.447: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Up] Trap
Nov 10 18:14:30.434: %DIAG-SP-6-BYPASS: Module 8: Diagnostics is passed
Nov 10 18:14:31.293: %OIR-SP-6-INSCARD: Card inserted in slot 8, interfaces are now online

Step 4 Verify that all the bindings serviced by the active PDSN controller running the YF image have been synched with the newly brought up standby PDSN controller running R3.0 PDSN image. The same can be verified by issuing the following show command on Active and Standby PDSN controller.

7600a-cont2# show cdma pdsn cluster controller member load

Secs until   Seq seeks         Member
(past) seek    no reply      IPv4 Addr      State   Load   Sessions
-------------------------------------------------------------------
          2       0         20.20.10.2      ready      0          15
          8       0         20.20.10.1      ready      0          15
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Controller IPv4 Addr   20.20.101.105
7600a-cont2# show cdma pdsn cluster controller session count
         30 session records

Step 5 Bring down the active PDSN Controller with the YF-based image. The newly upgraded standby PDSN controller (running R3.0-based PDSN image) becomes the active unit.

Step 6 Perform steps 1 through 3 as described above.

Step 7 Verify that all the bindings serviced using the active PDSN controller running R3.0 image have been synced with the newly enabled standby PDSN controller running R3.0 PDSN image. The same can be verified by issuing the following show command on active and standby PDSN controller.

7600a-cont1#show cdma pdsn cluster controller member load

Secs until   Seq seeks         Member
(past) seek    no reply      IPv4 Addr      State   Load   Sessions
-------------------------------------------------------------------
          2       0         20.20.10.2      ready      0          15
          8       0         20.20.10.1      ready      0          15
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Controller IPv4 Addr   20.20.101.105


7600a-cont1# show cdma pdsn cluster controller session count
         30 session records


Note We recommend that you remove the "HSRP Preemption" configuration between the active and standby PDSN Controller before proceeding with the Upgade/Downgrade Procedure.



Note The downgrade process is similar to the upgrade process, where the SUP image should be downgraded first, followed by the PDSN image.



Note If config-on-SUP mode (mwam config-mode supervisor) is used on MWAM, the startup configuration is written on the SUP. This will assist you in upgrading/downgrading the images without losing the PDSN configuration between the YF and R3.0 images.



Upgrading the Member PDSN on MWAM:

To upgrade to the R3.0-based image on the PDSN, perform the following procedure:


Step 1 In PDSN cluster environment you can segregate a member PDSN out of the cluster by configuring the following command on the member PDSN, so that no new request from mobile node are entertained by this member:

7600a-pdsn1(config)# cdma pdsn cluster member prohibit administratively

The calls, which are already connected to the member, will be alive until the mobile node disconnects the call. Alternatively, the calls can be forcibly cleared on the prohibited member using the following command:

7600a-pdsn1(config)# clear cdma pdsn session all

Step 2 Now bring down the PDSN Loaded with YF based image, by issuing the hw-module module slot # reset cf:1 command on Supervisor.

Log onto the supervisor and boot the MP partition on the PC.

SUP-PDSN# hw-module module 8 reset cf:1                                         
Device BOOT variable for reset = <cf:1>
Warning: Device list is not verified.

Proceed with reload of module?[confirm]
% reset issued for module 8
SUP-HA#
SUP-HA#
Nov 10 18:01:29.624: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Down] Trap
Nov 10 18:01:29.624: SP: The PC in slot 8 is shutting down. Please wait ...
Nov 10 18:01:55.252: SP: PC shutdown completed for module 8
Nov 10 18:01:55.256: %C6KPWR-SP-4-DISABLED: power to module in slot 8 set off (Reset)
Nov 10 18:04:00.195: SP: OS_BOOT_STATUS(8) MP OS Boot Status: finished booting
Nov 10 18:04:42.299: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Up] Trap
Nov 10 18:04:42.271: %DIAG-SP-6-BYPASS: Module 8: Diagnostics is passed
Nov 10 18:04:43.143: %OIR-SP-6-INSCARD: Card inserted in slot 8, interfaces are now online
SUP-PDSN#

Step 3 Once the module is online, copy the R3.0 image to pclc# slot file system by issuing the following command:

copy tftp: tftp file location pclc# linecard #-fs:

The upgrade file uses a special format that makes this process slow. The following example illustrates the upgrade process output:

SUP-PDSN#$/10.77.155.10/pdsn/images/c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005  pclc#8-fs:
Destination filename [c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005]? 
Accessing tftp://10.77.155.10/pdsn/images/c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005...
Loading pdsn/images/c6svc5fmwam-h1is-mz.R30_11092005 from 10.77.155.10 (via Vlan10): 
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!
[OK - 24168088 bytes]

24168088 bytes copied in 192.376 secs (125629 bytes/sec)
SUP-PDSN#
Nov 10 18:09:03.903: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <Application upgrade has started>
Nov 10 18:09:03.903: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <Do not reset the module till upgrade 
completes!!>
Nov 10 18:09:42.022: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <Application upgrade has succeeded>
Nov 10 18:09:42.022: %SVCLC-SP-5-STRRECVD: mod 8: <You can now reset the module>
SUP-PDSN#

Step 4 Now boot the MWAM card back to partition 4, the processor comes back online, and you have an upgraded image on PDSN.

SUP-PDSN#hw-module module 8 reset cf:4                                
Device BOOT variable for reset = <cf:4>
Warning: Device list is not verified.

Proceed with reload of module?[confirm]
% reset issued for module 8
SUP-PDSN#
Nov 10 18:10:34.831: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Down] Trap
Nov 10 18:10:34.831: SP: The PC in slot 8 is shutting down. Please wait ...
Nov 10 18:10:57.387: SP: PC shutdown completed for module 8
Nov 10 18:10:57.391: %C6KPWR-SP-4-DISABLED: power to module in slot 8 set off (Reset)
Nov 10 18:12:13.370: SP: OS_BOOT_STATUS(8) MWAM
Nov 10 18:14:30.447: %SNMP-5-MODULETRAP: Module 8 [Up] Trap
Nov 10 18:14:30.434: %DIAG-SP-6-BYPASS: Module 8: Diagnostics is passed
Nov 10 18:14:31.293: %OIR-SP-6-INSCARD: Card inserted in slot 8, interfaces are now online

Step 5 Join the member PDSN with the cluster environment by configuring the following command on the member PDSN, so that the controller can direct new incoming request to this member PDSN as well.

7600a-pdsn1(config)# no cdma pdsn cluster member prohibit administratively


Note The downgrade process is similar to the upgrade process, where the SUP image should be downgraded first followed by the PDSN image. Additionally, ensure all session redundancy specific configuration on PDSN was removed before downgrading to the YF-based image.



Note If config-on-SUP mode (mwam config-mode supervisor) is used on MWAM, the startup configuration is written on SUP. This will assist you in upgrading/downgrading the images without losing the PDSN configuration between YF and R3.0 images.



Changing Configuration on R3.0 PDSN in a Live Network:

If you need to change the working configuration on a PDSN in a live network environment, perform the following procedure:


Step 1 Bring the standby PDSN out of service. An example would be to unconfigure the cdma pdsn redundancy command on the standby PDSN. This isolates the standby PDSN from the session redundancy setup.

7600a-Stdy(config)# no cdma pdsn redundancy

Step 2 Perform a "write memory" so that running configuration is saved.

Step 3 Now make the necessary configuration changes on the standby PDSN, and save the configuration.

Step 4 Re-configure the cdma pdsn redundancy command, and save the configuration.

Step 5 Issue the reload command to bring the standby PDSN back into the session redundancy setup with the changed configuration. Verify the processor comes back in the SR setup using the following show commands:

7600a-Stdy#show standby brief
                     P indicates configured to preempt.
                     |
Interface   Grp Prio P State    Active          Standby         Virtual IP     
Gi0/0.101   300 110    Standby  20.20.101.10    local           20.20.101.101 

7600a-Stdy# show cdma pdsn redundancy 
CDMA PDSN Redundancy is enabled

CDMA PDSN Session Redundancy system status
  PDSN state = STANDBY HOT
  PDSN-peer state = ACTIVE

CDMA PDSN Session Redundancy Statistics
  Last clearing of cumulative counters never
                      Total              Current
                Synced from active      Connected
  Sessions                15                   15
  SIP Flows               15                   15
  MIP Flows               0                    0
PMIP Flows               0                    0

7600a-Stdy#show redundancy inter-device 
Redundancy inter-device state: RF_INTERDEV_STATE_STDBY
  Scheme: Standby
      Groupname: pdsn-rp-sr1 Group State: Standby
  Peer present: RF_INTERDEV_PEER_COMM
  Security: Not configured

7600a-Stdy#show redundancy states
my state = 8  -STANDBY HOT 
     peer state = 13 -ACTIVE 
           Mode = Duplex
        Unit ID = 0

     Split Mode = Disabled
   Manual Swact = Enabled
 Communications = Up

   client count = 9
 client_notification_TMR = 30000 milliseconds
           RF debug mask = 0x0   

7600a-Stdy#

Step 6 Now make the standby PDSN to takeover as active by reloading the current active PDSN.



Note Some outage might occur while performing this step concerning existing calls on the active PDSN (which is being taken out of service), when synched with newly active unit because of change in configuration.



Step 7 Perform Step 1 to Step 5 on current standby PDSN.


Note Configurations on the active and standby should be the same for PDSN SR to work properly.



Note We recommend that you disable the "HSRP preemption" configuration on the active and standby PDSN before proceeding with the configuration changes.



Loading the IOS Image to the MWAM

The image download process automatically loads an IOS image onto the three Processor complexes on the MWAM. All three complexes on the card run the same version of IOS, so they share the same image source. The software for MWAM bundles the images it needs in flash memory on the PC complex. For more information, refer to the Cisco Multi-processor WAN Application Module Installation and Configuration Note.

Limitations

There are specific limitations and restrictions when loading an IOS image on the MWAM; please find them at the following URL: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5413/prod_release_note09186a00803b8dd5.html#wp70466

Configuring the PDSN Image

The Cisco PDSN can provide four classes of user services: Simple IP, Simple IP with VPDN, Mobile IP, and proxy Mobile IP. The following sections describe the configuration tasks for implementing Cisco PDSN. Each category of tasks indicates whether the tasks are optional or required.

R-P Interface Configuration Tasks (Required for all classes of user services)

The following tasks establish the R-P interface, also referred to as the A10/A11 interface. Configuring the R-P interface is required in all 7200 platform configuration scenarios.

To configure the R-P interface, complete the following tasks:

Enabling PDSN Services

Creating the CDMA Ix Interface

Creating a Loopback Interface

Creating a Virtual Template Interface and Associating It With the PDSN Application

Enabling R-P Interface Signaling

User Session Configuration Tasks (Optional)

To configure the user session, complete the following task.

Configuring User Session Parameters

Session Redundancy Configuration Tasks

To configure Session Redundancy on the PDSN, complete the following tasks:

Configuring HSRP

Enabling HSRP and Configuring an HSRP Master Group

Configuring Follow Groups

Enabling Inter-Device Redundancy

Configuring the Inter-Device Communication Transport

Using the Loopback Interface For the PDSN-AAA Server Interface

AAA and RADIUS Configuration Tasks (Required for All Scenarios)

To configure the AAA and RADIUS in the PDSN environment, complete the following tasks.

Configuring AAA in the PDSN Environment

Configuring RADIUS in the PDSN Environment

Prepaid Configuration Tasks

Configuring Prepaid in the PDSN Environment

VPDN Configuration Tasks (Required for Simple IP with VPDN Scenario)

To configure the VPDN in the PDSN environment, complete the following task:

Enabling VPDN in a PDSN Environment

Mobile IP Configuration Tasks (Required for Mobile IP)

To configure Mobile IP on the PDSN, complete the following task:

Configuring the Mobile IP FA

Configuring IS835-B IPSec for the Cisco PDSN

Configuring Mobile IP Security Associations

Enabling Network Management

PDSN Selection Configuration Tasks (Optional)

To configure PDSN selection, complete the following tasks:

Configuring PDSN Cluster Controller

Configuring PDSN Cluster Member

Network Management Configuration Tasks (Required for Network Management in Any Scenario)

To configure network management, complete the following task:

Enabling Network Management

Other Configuration Tasks

The following tasks are optional on the PDSN:

Configuring Always On Service

Configuring A11 Session Updates

Configuring SDB Indicator Marking

Configuring SDB Indicator Marking for PPP Control Packets

Configuring On Demand Address Pools

Configuring PoD on the PDSN (RADIUS Disconnect)

Configuring Mobile IP Resource Revocation on the PDSN

Configuring Closed-RP Interfaces

Configuring Short Data Burst Flagging

Configuring PDSN Accounting Events

Configuring CDMA RADIUS Attributes

Tuning, Verification, and Monitoring Tasks (Optional)

To tune, verify, and monitor PDSN elements, complete the following tasks:

Monitoring and Maintaining the PDSN

Enabling PDSN Services

To enable PDSN services, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# service cdma pdsn

Enables PDSN services.


Creating the CDMA Ix Interface

To create the CDMA Ix interface, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# interface cdma-Ix1

Defines the CDMA virtual interface for the R-P interface.

Router(config-if)# ip address ip-address mask

Assigns an IP address and mask to the CDMA-Ix virtual interface. This IP address will be used by the RAN to communicate with the PDSN.


Creating a Loopback Interface

We recommend that you create a loopback interface and then associate the loopback interface IP address to the virtual template, rather than directly configuring an IP address on the virtual template.

To create a loopback interface, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# interface loopback number

Creates a loopback interface. A loopback interface is a virtual interface that is always up.

Router(config-if)# ip address ip-address mask

Assigns an IP address to the loopback interface.


Creating a Virtual Template Interface and Associating It With the PDSN Application

Creating a virtual template interface allows you to establish an interface configuration and apply it dynamically.

To create a virtual template interface that can be configured and applied dynamically, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config) interface virtual-template number

Creates a virtual template interface.

Router(config-if)# ip unnumbered loopback number

Assigns the previously defined loopback IP address to the virtual template interface.

Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap pap optional

Enables PPP authentication.

Router(config-if)# ppp accounting none

Disables PPP accounting to enable 3GPP2 accounting.

Router(config-if)# ppp accm 0

Specifies the transmit ACCM table value. The value must be specified as 0.

Router(config-if)# ppp timeout idle value

Specifies the PPP idle timeout.

Router(config-if)# exit

Exit interface configuration mode.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn virtual-template virtual-template-num

Associates a virtual template with the PDSN application.


Enabling R-P Interface Signaling

To enable the R-P interface signaling, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn secure pcf lower_addr [upper_addr] spi {spi_val | [inbound in_spi_val outbound out_spi_val]} key {ascii | hex} string

Defines the PCF security association on the PDSN.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a10 max-lifetime seconds

Specifies the maximum lifetime the PDSN accepts in A11 registration requests from the PCF.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a10 gre sequencing

Enables inclusion of per-session Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) sequence numbers in the outgoing packets on the A10 interface. (This is the default behavior.)

Router(config)# cdma pdsn retransmit a11-update number

Specifies the maximum number of times an A11 Registration Update message will be re-transmitted.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn timeout a11-update seconds

Specifies A11 Registration Update message timeout value.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn maximum pcf number

Specifies the maximum number of packet control functions (PCF) that can be connected to the PDSN at one time.

Configuring User Session Parameters

To configure user session parameters, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn maximum sessions maxsessions

Specifies the maximum number of mobile sessions allowed on a PDSN.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn ingress-address-filtering

Enables ingress address filtering.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn msid-authentication [imsi number] [min number] [irm number] [profile-password password]

Enables provision of Simple IP service using MSID-based authentication.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn timeout mobile-ip-registration timeout

Specifies the number of seconds before which Mobile IP registration should occur for a user who skips PPP authentication.


Configuring PDSN Session Redundancy Infrastructure

The PDSN-SR feature uses the Cisco IOS Check-point Facility (CF) to send stateful data over Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) to a redundant PDSN. Additionally, in conjunction with Cisco IOS HSRP, the PDSN uses the Cisco IOS Redundancy Facility (RF) to monitor and report transitions on Active and Standby PDSNs.

Before configuring PDSN-SR, you need to configure the inter-device redundancy infrastructure.

Configuring HSRP

The Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) provides high network availability because it routes IP traffic from hosts on networks without relying on the availability of any single router. HSRP is used in a group of routers for selecting an Active router and a Standby router. HSRP monitors both the inside and outside interfaces so that if any interface goes down, the whole device is deemed to be down and the Standby device becomes active and takes over the responsibilities of an Active device.

When configuring HSRP, note that the following recommendation and restrictions apply:

At minimum, HSRP must be enabled and an HSRP a "master" group defined on one interface per PDSN instance. A "follow" group can be configured on all other PDSN interfaces using the standby interface configuration command with the follow keyword option specified. The advantages of using follow groups are:

The follow group feature enables all interfaces on which it is configured to share the HSRP parameters of the master group.

Interfaces that share the same group will follow the state of master interface and will use same priority as master interface. This will ensure that all interfaces are in the same HSRP state. Otherwise there is a possibility of one or more interfaces to assume another role than the master HSRP interface.

This optimizes HSRP group number and minimizes the configuration and maintenance overhead when having large configurations.

It eliminates unnecessary network traffic over all interfaces by eliminating HSRP Hello messages from follow groups, if configured.


Note Do not configure a preemption delay on the Standby PDSN using the standby preempt interface configuration command.


When the standby use-bia command is not used to allow bridge and gateways to learn the virtual MAC address, for optimization purposes, configure the standby mac-refresh command to a value greater than the default (hello messages are sent every 10 seconds) under the main interface (gig0/0). This value is used as the hello message interval.


Note If standby use-bia is configured, then there will be no hello messages sent out of follow group interfaces. It is recommended to use standby use-bia unless explicitly required not to configure.


An ARP multicast packet is sent out when there is a HSRP state change to Active. ARP requests for follow group virtual IP address are responded if HSRP state is Active. Also an ARP multicast is sent on the follow group VLAN when a slave virtual IP address is configured and if the master group is Active.

Use the same group number for each PDSN follow group as is defined for the primary group. Using the same group number for the primary and follow groups facilitates HRSP group setup and maintenance in an environment that contains a large number of PDSN interfaces and HRSP groups.

More information on HSRP configuration and HSRP groups can be found here:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk648/tk362/tk321/tsd_technology_support_sub-protocol_home.html

and

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk648/tk362/technologies_configuration_example09186a0080094e90.shtml

Enabling HSRP and Configuring an HSRP Master Group

To enable HSRP on an interface and configure the primary group, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# standby [group-number] ip [ip-address [secondary]]


Enables the HSRP on the interface.

Router(config-if)# standby [group-number] priority priority

Sets the Hot Standby priority used in choosing the active router. The priority value range is from 1 to 255, where 1 denotes the lowest priority and 255 denotes the highest priority. Specify that, if the local router has priority over the current active router, the local router should attempt to take its place as the active router.

Router(config-if)# standby [group-number] name name

 

Specifies the name of the standby group.

Router(config-if)# standby use-bia [scope interface]

 

(Optional) Configures HSRP to use the burned-in address of an interface as its virtual MAC address instead of the preassigned MAC address.

Configuring Follow Groups

HSRP follow groups are configured to share the HSRP parameters of the primary group by defining a follow group on the interface using the standby interface configuration command with the follow keyword option specified. Interfaces that share a group track states together and have the same priority.

To configure an interface to follow a primary group, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config-if)# standby group-number follow group-name


Specifies the number of the follow group and the name of the primary group to follow and share status.

Note It is recommended that the group number specified is the same as the primary group number.

Router(config-if)# standby group-number ip virtual-ip-address


Specifies the group number and virtual IP address of the follow group.

Note The group number specified above should be same as the master group number.

Enabling Inter-Device Redundancy

To enable inter-device redundancy, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# redundancy inter-device


Configures redundancy and enters inter-device configuration mode.

To remove all inter-device configuration, use the no form of the command.

Router(config-red-interdevice)# scheme standby standby-group-name

Defines the redundancy scheme that is to be used. Currently, standby is the only supported scheme.

standby-group-name-Must match the standby name specified in the standby name interface configuration command (see the "Configuring HSRP" section). Also, the standby name should be the same on both PDSNs.

Router(config-red-interdevice)# exit

Returns to global configuration mode.


Configuring the Inter-Device Communication Transport

Inter-device redundancy requires a transport for communication between the redundant PDSNs. This transport is configured using Interprocess Communication (IPC) commands.

To configure the inter-device communication transport between the two PDSNs, use the following commands beginning in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ipc zone default

Configures the Inter-device Communication Protocol (IPC) and enters IPC zone configuration mode.

Use this command to initiate the communication link between the Active device and the Standby device.

Router(config-ipczone)# association 1

Configures an association between two devices and enters IPC association configuration mode.

In IPC association configuration mode, you configure the details of the association, such as the transport protocol, local port and local IP addresses, and the remote port and remote IP addresses.

Valid association IDs range from 1 to 255. There is no default value.

Router(config-ipczone)# no shutdown

Restarts a disabled association and its associated transport protocol.

Note Shutdown of the association is required for any changes to the transport protocol parameters.

Router(config-ipczone-assoc)# protocol sctp

Configures Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as the transport protocol for this association and enables SCTP protocol configuration mode.

Router(config-ipc-protocol-sctp)# local-port local_port_num

Defines the local SCTP port number to use to communicate with the redundant peer and enables IPC Transport-SCTP local configuration mode.

Valid port numbers range from 1 to 65535. There is no default value.

Note The local port number should be the same as the remote port number on the peer router.

Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# local ip ip_addr

Defines the local IP address that is used to communicate with the redundant peer. The local IP address must match the remote IP address on the peer router.

Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# keepalive [period [retries]]

Enables keepalive packets and specifies the number of times that the Cisco IOS software tries to send keepalive packets with a response before bringing down the interface or tunnel protocol for a specific interface.

Valid value for period is an integer value in seconds great than 0. The default is 10. Valid value for retries is an integer value greater than one and less than 355. The default is the previously used value or 5 if there was no value previously specified.

Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# retransmit-timeout interval

Configures the message retransmission time.

Valid range is 300 to 60000 milliseconds. The minimum default is 1000. The maximum default is 60000.

Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# path-retransmit number

Configures the maximum number of keep-alive retries before the corresponding destination address is marked inactive.

Valid range is 2 to 10. The default is 5.

Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# assoc-retransmit number

Defines the maximum number of retransmissions over all destination addresses before an association is declared failed.

Valid range is 2 to 20. The default is 10.

Router(config-ipc-local-sctp)# exit

Exits IPC transport - SCTP local configuration mode.

Router(config-ipc-protocol-sctp)# remote-port port_nun

Defines the remote SCTP port that is used to communicate with the redundant peer and enables IPC Transport-SCTP remote configuration mode.

Valid port numbers range from 1 to 65535. There is no default.

Note The remote port number should be the same as the local port number on the peer device.

Router(config-ipc-remote-sctp)# remote-ip ip_addr

Defines the remote IP address of the redundant peer that is used to communicate with the local device. All remote IP addresses must refer to the same device.

To remove an association configuration, use the no form of the command.

Using the Loopback Interface For the PDSN-AAA Server Interface

To ensure that the AAA server views the active and standby units as a single NAS, the same NAS IP address should be used by both the units. Now, the NAS IP Address can be configured for the PDSN using the ip radius source-interface command. When configured, the IP address of that interface is used as the NAS IP Address.

However, the CLI does not support virtual IP addresses (HSRP). As a result, the only way to ensure that both the units appear as a single NAS is to configure a loopback interface, and use that interface as the source-interface. In short, the CLI would look something like:

ip radius source-interface Loopback1

Configuring Application Tracking to Handle active-active Situation

Command
Purpose

Router(config) # track object-id application pdsn

Defines a tracking object for PDSN application.

Router(config-if) # standby track object-id [decrement priority]

Associates the tracking object defined for PDSN with the HSRP config. HSRP would start tracking the state of this object. The configured decrement priority is used to change HSRP priority based on the state of the tracking object. If the tracking object if "UP", HSRP will have the configured priority. When the tracking object is "DOWN", HSRP decrements its priority by the decrement priority specified in the standby track command.

Configuring AAA in the PDSN Environment

Access control is the way you manage who is allowed access to the network server and the services they are allowed to use. AAA network security services provide the primary framework through which you set up access control on your router or access server. For detailed information about AAA configuration options, refer to the "Configuring Authentication," and "Configuring Accounting" chapters in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide.

To configure AAA in the PDSN environment, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# aaa new-model

Enables AAA access control.

Router(config)# aaa authentication ppp default group radius

Enables authentication of PPP users using RADIUS.

Router(config)# aaa authorization configuration default group radius

Enables Network Access Identifier (NAI) construction in the absence of CHAP.

Router(config)# aaa authorization config-commands

Re-establishes the default created when the aaa authorization commands level method1 command was issued.

Router(config)# aaa authorization network if-authenticated default group radius

Restricts network access to a user. Runs authorization for all network-related service requests. Uses the group radius authorization method as the default method for authorization.

Router(config)# aaa accounting update periodic minutes

Enables an interim accounting record to be sent periodically to the accounting server. The recommended period of time is 60 minutes.

Router(config)# aaa accounting network pdsn start-stop group radius

Enables AAA accounting of requested services for billing or security purposes when you use RADIUS.

Configuring RADIUS in the PDSN Environment

RADIUS is a method for defining the exchange of AAA information in the network. In the Cisco implementation, RADIUS clients run on Cisco routers and send authentication requests to a RADIUS server that contains all user authentication and network server access information. For detailed information about RADIUS configuration options, refer to the "Configuring RADIUS" chapter in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide.

To configure RADIUS in the PDSN environment, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# radius-server host ip-addr key sharedsecret

Specifies the IP address of the RADIUS server host and specifies the shared secret text string used between the router and the RADIUS server.

Router(config)# radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2

Enables the use of vendor-specific attributes (VSA) as defined by RADIUS IETF attribute 26. Limits the set of recognized vendor-specific attributes to only accounting attributes.

Router(config)# radius-server vsa send authentication 3gpp2

Enables the use of vendor-specific attributes (VSA) as defined by RADIUS IETF attribute 26. Limits the set of recognized vendor-specific attributes to only authentication attributes.

Router(config)# radius-server attribute 55 include-in-acct-req

Enables sending G4 (Event Time) Accounting-Start from PDSN.

Configuring Prepaid in the PDSN Environment

For the 1.2 release of the Cisco PDSN software, to configure prepaid, ensure that you include crb-entity-type=1 in the user profile.

In Cisco PDSN release 2.0 and above, to configure IS835C Prepaid, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

router (config)# cdma pdsn accounting prepaid ?

duration

  threshold

volume

Prepaid service based on duration.

Configure threshold percentage per quota.

Prepaid service based on volume.

Enabling VPDN in a PDSN Environment

To configure VPDN in the PDSN environment, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# vpdn enable

Enables VPDN.

Router(config)# vpdn authen-before-forward

Specifies to authenticate a user locally before tunneling.

For more information about VPDNs, refer to the Cisco IOS Release 12.3 documentation modules Cisco IOS Dial Services Configuration Guide: Network Services and Cisco IOS Dial Services Command Reference.

Configuring the Mobile IP FA

Mobile IP operation (as specified by TR-45.6) requires the ability to authenticate a mobile station through a challenge/response mechanism between the PDSN (acting as an FA) and the mobile station.

To configure the Mobile IP FA, use the following commands in global and interface configuration modes:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# router mobile

Enables Mobile IP.

This and other Mobile IP commands are used here to enable R-P signaling. They are required regardless of whether you implement Simple IP or Mobile IP.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn send-agent-adv

Enables agent advertisements to be sent over a newly formed PPP session with an unknown user class that negotiates IPCP address options.

Router(config) interface virtual-template number

Creates a virtual template interface.

Router(config-if)# cdma pdsn mobile-advertisement-burst {[number value] | [interval msec]}

Configures the number of FA advertisements to send and the interval between them when a new PPP session is created.

Router(config-if)# ip mobile foreign-service challenge {[timeout value] | [window num]}

Configure the challenge timeout value and the number of valid recently-sent challenge values.

Router(config-if)# ip mobile foreign-service challenge forward-mfce

Enables the FA to send mobile foreign challenge extensions (MFCE) and mobile node-AAA authentication extensions (MNAE) to the HA in registration requests.

Router(config-if)# ip mobile registration-lifetime seconds

Configures the maximum Mobile IP registration lifetime.

Router(config-if)# ip mobile foreign-service [reverse-tunnel [mandatory]]

Enables Mobile IP FA service on this interface.

Router(config-if)# ip mobile foreign-service registration

Sets the R bit in an Agent Advertisement.


To reduce the virtual-access cloning time in order to increase the CPS rate on a standalone PDSN on a Cisco 7200 router, use the following per interface configurations in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip mobile foreign-service


   ip mobile prefix-length


ip mobile registration-lifetime

Enables foreign agent service on an interface if care-of addresses are configured

Appends the prefix-length extension to the advertisement.

Sets the registration lifetime value advertised.

Router(config)# ip mobile foreign-service challenge


   home-access allowed



   limit




   registration-required




   reverse-tunnel


(Optional) Configures the foreign agent challenge parameters.

(Optional) Controls which home agent addresses mobile nodes can be used to register. The access list can be a string or number from 1 to 99.

(Optional) Number of visitors allowed on the interface. The Busy (B) bit will be advertised when the number of registered visitors reaches this limit.

(Optional) Solicits registration from the mobile node even if it uses collocated care-of addresses. The Registration-required (R) bit will be advertised.

(Optional) Enables reverse tunneling on the foreign agent. For releases prior to 12.3T, you cannot use this keyword when you enable foreign agent service on a subinterface.

The CPS on a standalone PDSN on a Cisco 7200 Internet Router should improve to 100 CPS from the current number of 40.

Configuring IS835-B IPSec for the Cisco PDSN

To configure IS835-B IPSec for the PDSN, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# Router(config)# ip mobile cdma ipsec

Enables or disables the CDMA IPSec feature.

This is only present in crypto images for the Cisco 7200 Series Internet router, and non-crypto images for the Cisco MWAM.

The Crypto Map definition is not complete until:

1. ACL associated with it is defined, and

2. The Crypto-Map applied on Interface. You can configure Crypto MAP for different HAs by using a different sequence number for each HA in one crypto-map set.

Router(config)# ip mobile cdma ipsec profile profile-tag

Converts Crypto Map into a template that can be used to setup an identical policy dynamically.

This command is only present in crypto images for the Cisco 7200 Series Internet router.

It is assumed that crypto-profile has been created earlier. Basically, crypto-map has been marked as profile by the crypto map Tag_1 Seq_No ipsec-isakmp profile Tag_2 command. In this command Tag_2 is profile name, and this will be entered using this CLI.


Here is an example configuration for the IS835-B based IPSec feature:

Router(config)#crypto isakmp policy 1
                          authentication pre-share
Router(config)#crypto isakmp key cisco address 7.0.0.2
Router(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set mobile-set1 esp-3des
Router(config)#crypto ipsec profile testprof
                          set transform-set mobile-set1
Router(config)#crypto identity pdsntest
Router(config)#ip mobile cdma ipsec 
Router(config)# ip mobile cdma ipsec  profile testprof
Router(config)#ip mobile foreign-agent reg-wait 30
	 

Configuring Proxy Mobile IP Attributes Locally

As an alternative to true Mobile IP, which is not supported by all mobile devices, you can configure the Cisco PDSN to provide many of the benefits of Mobile IP through the use of proxy Mobile IP. All proxy Mobile IP attributes can be retrieved from the AAA server. To configure proxy Mobile IP attributes locally, use the following command in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip mobile proxy-host nai username@realm [flags rrq-flags] [ha homeagent] [homeaddr address] [lifetime value] [local-timezone]

Specifies proxy Mobile IP attributes locally on the PDSN.

Configuring Mobile IP Security Associations

To configure security associations for mobile hosts, FAs, and HAs, use one of the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip mobile secure {aaa-download | visitor | home-agent | proxy-host} {lower-address [upper-address] | nai string} {inbound-spi spi-in   outbound-spi spi-out | spi spi} key {hex | ascii} string [replay timestamp [number] algorithm md5 mode prefix-suffix]

Specifies the security associations for IP mobile users.

Router(config)# ip mobile secure proxy-host nai string spi spi key {ascii | hex} string

Specifies the security associations for proxy Mobile IP users.

Configuring PDSN Cluster Controller

To configure the PDSN Cluster Controller attributes locally, use the following commands in global configuration mode.


Note These commands have no effect if the router supports PDSN member functionality from a prior configuration.


Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi spi number [key ascii | hex value ]

Configures one common security association for all PDSNs in a cluster.

Router #cdma pdsn cluster controller interface interface name

Enables the controller functionality for PDSN Controller/Member clustering, specifies which interface to send messages to and from

Router# cdma pdsn cluster controller standby cluster-name

Configures the PDSN to operate as a cluster controller in standby.


Configuring PDSN Cluster Member

To configure the PDSN Cluster Member attributes locally, use the following commands in global configuration mode:


Note These commands have no effect if the router supports PDSN member functionality from a prior configuration.


Configuring Peer-to-Peer PDSN Selection

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi spi_index [key ascii | hex value]

Configures one common security association for all PDSNs in a cluster.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn cluster member controller ipaddr

Configures the PDSN to operate as a cluster member.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn cluster member interface interface name

Configures the PDSN to operate as a cluster member.


A group of Cisco PDSNs can be configured to exchange session information with one another when needed. When a session request is received by the PDSN, it not only checks its own session list for the existence of a session, it also checks the lists of the PDSNs within its group. If a session exists in the group, the Mobile IP registration message for the session is rejected, and an alternate PDSN is recommended. The BSC/PCF can then establish session with the recommended PDSN.

To configure PDSN selection and PDSN load balancing, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn selection interface interface_name

Configures the interface be used to send and receive PDSN selection messages.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn selection session-table-size size

Enables the PDSN selection feature and defines the size of the session table.1

Router(config)# cdma pdsn selection load-balancing [threshold val [alternate]]

Enables the load balancing function of PDSN selection. The Alternate option alternately suggests two other PDSNs with the least load.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn selection keepalive value

Specifies the length of time to track a PDSN that is not responding.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi

{spi_val | [inbound inspi_val outbound outspi_val]} key {ascii|hex} string

Specifies the default mobility security associations for all PDSNs in a cluster, as well as inbound and outbound spi values.

1 You must issue the cdma pdsn selection session-table-size command before you issue the cdma pdsn selection load-balancing command.


Enabling Network Management

To enable SNMP network management for the PDSN, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# snmp-server community string [ro | rw]

Specifies the community access string to permit access to the SNMP protocol.

Router(config)# snmp-server enable traps cdma

Enables network management traps for CDMA.

Router(config)# snmp-server host host-addr traps version {1 | 2 | 3 [auth | noauth | priv]}

Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn failure-history entries

Specifies the maximum number of entries that can be maintained in the SNMP session failure table.

Router(config)#no virtual-template snmp

Prevents the virtual-access subinterfaces from being registered with the SNMP functionality of the router and reduces the amount of memory being used, thereby increasing the call setup performance.


Configuring Always On Service

Always On service maintains the subscriber's packet data session in the local network. The PDSN will not initiate release of the subscriber's packet data session due to PPP idle timer expiry, unless the PDSN determines the user is no longer reachable. The Always On feature is enabled by default. To change the default parameters related to this feature, use following command:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a10 always-on keepalive {interval 1-65535 [attempts 0-255] | attempts 0-255}

Configures always-on service parameters on the PDSN.

The keepalive interval is the duration in seconds, for which the PDSN waits for the LCP echo response from peer before sending next LCP echo. The default value is 3seconds. The no form of this command will return to the default value.

attempts is the number of times LCP echo must be sent before declaring an always-on user is not reachable for tearing down the session after the idle timer expires. The default value is 3. Configuring this variable to 0 is similar to ignoring the always-on property for the user.


Configuring A11 Session Updates

A11 Session Update messages are sent from the PDSN to the PCF to add, change, or update session parameters for an A10 connection. To enable the A11 Session Update feature, perform the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a11 session-update {[always-on] 1-10 [rn-pdit] 0-9}

Enables the A11 Session update feature on the PDSN, and sends an A11 session update for either the Always On, or RNPDIT (or both) attributes that are downloaded from the AAA during the authentication phase.

The default timeout value is 3 seconds. The default retransmit number is 3.

Router#cdma pdsn retransmit a11-update number

Specifies the maximum number of times an A11 Registration Update message is retransmitted. Possible values are 0 through 9. The default is 5 retransmissions.


Configuring SDB Indicator Marking

This feature supports short data burst applications, such as SIP signaling for PTT applications, and proposes the interaction with the PDSN. SIP is used by PTT applications to signal a PTT call. The message is short and needs to be delivered to the end-user. The Short Data Burst support on the RAN can be used to send these to the end-user, especially when the messages are to be terminated to the mobile. This is especially important when the mobile user is actually dormant. Use the following command to configure SDB Indicator Marking:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a11 dormant sdb-indication gre-flags group-number

The group-number represents the classified match criteria. All packets that are set with the specific group-number will be flagged for SDB usage between the PCF and the PDSN.

The B bit (SDB indication) would be set for packets matching the sdb-indication group-number.


Configuring SDB Indicator Marking for PPP Control Packets

While data packets can be sent towards the mobile using SDBs as shown above, SDBs can also be used for delivering PPP control packets. This can be particularly helpful for Always-On sessions, where the session is dormant. Basically, with Always On configured, the PDSN sends out LCP echo requests (and waits for LCP echo replies) to keep the session alive. Hence, when such a session goes dormant, a data channel needs to be setup to deliver these LCP echo requests to the MN. The other option is to use SDBs to deliver the LCP echo requests without setting up a data channel.

Use the following CLI in conjunction of the above CLI to enable this feature:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a11 dormant sdb-indication match-qos-group group-number ppp-ctrl-pkts

The group-number represents the classified match criteria.


Configuring On Demand Address Pools

To configure the DHCP Server with the ODAP Subnet Allocation Server, perform the following configuration tasks. This configuration can be either on a PDSN Cluster Controller or a Backup Cluster Controller.

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip dhcp pool pdsn-pool



network 13.0.0.0 255.248.0.0



subnet prefix-length 20

Creates a name for the DHCP server address pool and places you in DHCP pool configuration mode (identified by the config-dhcp# prompt).

Specifies the subnet network number and mask of the DHCP address pool.

The prefix length specifies the number of bits that comprise the address prefix. The prefix is an alternative way of specifying the network mask of the client. The prefix length must be preceded by a forward slash (/).

Configures a subnet allocation pool and determine the size subnets that are allocated from the pool. The range is from 1 to 31.

Router(config)# ip dhcp pool pdsn-pool-2

network 14.0.0.0 255.255.0.0

subnet prefix-length 24

Defines a second address pool.

interface GigabitEthernet 0/0.101


encapsulation dot1Q 101

ip address 10.10.1.96 255.255.255.0




  standby 1 ip 10.10.1.16



  standby 1 preempt



  standby 1 name 6509-cluster

Configures a Gigabit Ethernet interface and enter interface configuration mode.

encapsulation dot1Q enables IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation of traffic on a specified subinterface in virtual LANs (VLANs).

standby ip activates the Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP).

standby preempt configures Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) preemption and preemption delay.

standby name configures the name of the standby group.

router ospf 100







log-adjacency-changes


network 10.10.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

router ospf configures an OSPF routing process. The process id is internally used identification parameter for an OSPF routing process. It is locally assigned and can be any positive integer. A unique value is assigned for each OSPF routing process.

Configures the router to send a syslog message when an OSPF neighbor goes up or down


The IOS DHCP Server feature is enabled by default in IOS. If it becomes disabled, use the global service dhcp command to re-enable the feature.

For the ip dhcp pool pdsn-pool command, the subnet is 13.0.0.0 and the mask defines the size of the pool. The subnet prefix-length defines the size of the subnet chunks using standard CIDR bit count notation to determine the number of addresses that are configured in each subnet lease. Here is a sample of the show dhcp ip pool command output:

Pool pdsn-pool :
 Utilization mark (high/low)   : 100 / 0
 Subnet size (first/next)      : 0 / 0 
 Total addresses               : 524288
 Leased addresses              : 4096
 Pending event                 : none
 1 subnet is currently in the pool :
 Current index        IP address range                    Leased addresses
 13.0.48.0            13.0.0.0  - 13.7.255.255                 4096

In this example, one subnet of 4096 addresses has been leased out. It is leased to PDSN1 in this example.

In the following example, a second PDSN pool is shown for reference, pdsn-pool-2. This shows different values used for the pool size and the subnet chunks. Nothing is presently leased.

Pool pdsn-pool-2 :
 Utilization mark (high/low)         : 100 / 0
 Subnet size (first/next)            : 0 / 0 
 Total addresses                     : 65536
 Leased addresses                    : 0
 Pending event                       : none
 1 subnet is currently in the pool :
 Current index        IP address range                    Leased addresses
 14.0.0.0             14.0.0.0  - 14.0.255.255                  0

OSPF is configured to log adjacency changes for network 10.10.1.0, which is the GigEthernet 0/0.101 interface.

Currently, the ODAP Subnet Allocation Server only allows one network command under the ip dhcp pool name-of-pool command. To support disjointed subnets, you must define a pool that is large enough to contain all assigned IP addresses. You can use the following global configuration command:

ip dhcp excluded-address low-address [high-address]

This command informs the ODAP Subnet Allocation Server to not lease these addresses to the ODAP client. Issuing this command help some configurations with disjointed IP address space, but may not work in other cases, depending on the range of IP addresses.

Configure the following ODAP client and OSPF commands on the PDSN:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip dhcp ping packets 0 <<< disables ping test (range 0-10)




ip dhcp ping timeout 100 <<< reduces ping time (range 100-10000 ms)

Specifies the number of packets a Cisco IOS Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server sends to a pool address as part of a ping operation.

Specifies how long a Cisco IOS Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server waits for a ping reply from an address pool.

Router(config)# ip address-pool dhcp-pool <<< enables ODAP client

ip dhcp pool pdsn-pool




utilization mark high



utilization mark low 5



origin dhcp subnet size initial /20 autogrow /20 <<< config address pool as ODAP

Enables the ODAP client.

Creates a name for the DHCP server address pool and places you in DHCP pool configuration mode (identified by the config-dhcp# prompt).

Configures the high utilization mark of the current address pool size.

Configures the low utilization mark of the current address pool size

Configures an address pool as an on-demand address pool (ODAP).

Router (config)# ip dhcp-server 7.0.0.96        

Specifies which Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers to use on your network.


Additionally, perform the following configuration details on the PDSN:

interface Loopback1
 ip address 10.11.2.92 255.255.255.255

interface CDMA-Ix1
 ip address 10.11.1.92 255.255.255.255
 
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1
 encapsulation dot1Q 20
 ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.0.0
 
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.301
 encapsulation dot1Q 301
 ip address 7.0.0.92 255.255.255.0
interface Virtual-Template1
 ip unnumbered Loopback1
 peer default ip address dhcp-pool pdsn-pool <<name of ODAP pool to use
 no keepalive
 ppp accm 0
 ppp authentication chap pap optional
 ppp accounting none

router ospf 100
 log-adjacency-changes
 redistribute connected subnets route-map MAP <<advertises CDMA-Ix interface 
 redistribute static subnets <<advertises the ODAP subnets
 passive-interface Virtual-Template1 <<no OSPF updates out here
 network 10.10.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0

access-list 11 permit 10.11.1.92
access-list 12 deny 128.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
access-list 12 permit any

route-map MAP permit 10 <<only the CDMA-Ix update gets out
 match ip address 11
 set tag 9

route-map DENY-MAP permit 10 <<blocks 128.x.x.x internal network between
 match ip address 12 <<the PC and sibytes on the MWAM card
 set tag 9

or

summary-address 128.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 not-advertise <<also blocks the 128 network

The ip dhcp ping packets 0 command will disable the ODAP client from sending a ping to determine if an address is available. The ODAP default time is 2 seconds to wait for an ICMP echo reply. This will reduce the address allocation time at the risk of detecting duplicate addresses. The ip address-pool dhcp-pool command enables the ODAP client on the PDSN. The pool for the PDSN to use is called pdsn-pool. The origin command tells that it is DHCP, and gives an initial size for the pool to use and a size to grow by. In this case, both the initial and autogrow are set for a subnet size of 4096. The utilization mark (high/low) command can be used to set a percentage of pool usage before the router will schedule a subnet request for a new subnet, or to free a subnet that is no longer being used. The name of the pool must also be configured on the Virtual-Template1 interface. Here is the output of the show command.

PDSN#show ip dhcp pool

Pool pdsn-pool :
 Utilization mark (high/low)     : 95 / 5
 Subnet size (first/next)        : 20 / 20 (autogrow)
 Total addresses                 : 4094
 Leased addresses                : 0
 Pending event                   : none
 1 subnet is currently in the pool :
 Current index        IP address range                    Leased addresses
 13.0.64.1            13.0.64.1        - 13.0.79.254       0

The ip dhcp-server 7.0.0.96 command causes DHCP requests to go to this particular DHCP Server. Otherwise Broadcast messages are sent to discover the DHCP Servers.

For OSPF, the redistribute static subnets command is used to aggregate the ODAP subnet routes on the SUP. The redistribute connected subnets route-map MAP command uses an access-list functionality to only allow the CDMA-Ix1 IP address to be known to the SUP. All other "connected subnets" routing updates are not sent out.

Alternatively, the summary-address 128.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 not-advertise command can be used instead of the route-map DENY-MAP permit 10 command to prevent the 128.0.0.0 route from being seen. The route-map is similar to an access-list, so the summary-address command may be preferable and have less impact on processor performance.

There are additional configuration details for the Catalyst 6500 Series Switch, as well as additional commands that will assist you in configuring ODAP on the PDSN. For more information, refer to the following Cisco 12.3 IOS documentation:

12.3 IOS Documentation, DHCP Server - On-Demand Address Pool Manager

12.3 IOS Documentation, Configuring DHCP (IOS IP configuration guide)

12.3 IOS Documentation, DHCP ODAP Server Support

Configuring PoD on the PDSN

To enable the Packet of Disconnect (RADIUS Disconnect) feature on the PDSN, perform the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn radius disconnect

Enables the RADIUS disconnect feature on the PDSN.

Router(config)# aaa pod server [clients ipaddr1 [ipaddr2] [ipaddr3] [ipaddr4]] [port port-number] [auth-type {any | all | session-key}] server-key [encryption-type] string               

AAA command that enables listening for POD packets.

Router(config)# aaa server radius dynamic-author Router(config-locsvr-radius)#?

RADIUS Application commands:

auth-type   Specify the server authorization type

client      Specify a RADIUS client

default     Set a command to its defaults

exit        Exit from RADIUS application configuration mode

ignore      Override behavior to ignore certain parameters

no          Negate a command or set its defaults

port        Specify port on which local radius server listens

server-key  Encryption key shared with the radius clients

Enters RADIUS application configuration mode, and presents the user with several configuration options.


Configuring Mobile IP Resource Revocation on the PDSN

To enable resource revocation support on PDSN, perform the following task:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# ip mobile foreign-service revocation [timeout

value] [retransmit value] [timestamp]

timeout value is the time interval in seconds between re-transmission of resource revocation message. The wait time is between 0-100, and the default value is 3 seconds.

retransmit value is the number of maximum re-transmissions of MIPv4 resource revocation messages.

The number of retries for a transaction is 0-100. The default value is 3.

Note All foreign-service configurations should be done globally and not under the virtual-template interface.

Timestamp specifies the unit of timestamp field for revocation. The unit of timestamp value for revocation is in milliseconds.


Configuring Closed-RP Interfaces

To enable the Closed-RP feature on the PDSN, perform the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn pcf default closed-rp

Enables the Closed-RP feature on the PDSN. All the PCFs connecting to the PDSN will be treated as Closed-RP PCFs. When this command is configured the 3GPP2 (Open) RP interface will be disabled on the PDSN.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a10 ahdlc trailer

Enables the PDSN such that AHDLC frames are expected to contain the trailer byte. When the no version of the command is configured, each AHDLC frame will be considered a full AHDLC fragment, and the PDSN will start processing the packet.

VPDN Configuration

----------------------

Router(config)#vpdn enable

Router(config)#vpdn authen-before-forward

Router(config)#vpdn ip udp ignore checksum

!

Router(config)#vpdn-group CDMA

Router(config-vpdn)#accept-dialin

Router(config-vpdn-acc-in)#protocol l2tp

Router(config-vpdn)#source-ip CDMA-Ix IP address

Router(config-vpdn)#l2tp tunnel hello value

Router(config-vpdn)#no l2tp tunnel authentication

Router(config-vpdn)#l2tp tunnel timeout no-session never

Enables the virtual private dialup networking on the router and informs the router to look for tunnel definitions in a local database and on a remote authorization server (home gateway).

Configures various Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) tunnel variables.

ip slb serverfarm PDSN-FARM


ip slb vserver PDSN-SLB

virtual 150.150.0.100 udp 1701

serverfarm PDSN-FARM

sticky 65535 group 1 netmask 255.255.254.0

idle 10

inservice

!

Identifies a server farm, and enters server farm configuration mode.

Configures the virtual server.

Sticky forwards requests coming in from each subnet (PCF complex) to the same real server (PDSN instance).


Here is a sample configuration for the Closed-RP feature on the PDSN:

Router#sh run 
Building configuration... 

Current configuration : 3450 bytes 
! 
! Last configuration change at 04:23:40 UTC Tue May 27 2003 
! NVRAM config last updated at 04:24:03 UTC Tue May 27 2003 
! 
version 12.3 
service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime 
service timestamps log datetime msec localtime 
no service password-encryption 
service cdma pdsn 
! 
hostname Router 
! 
boot-start-marker 
boot-end-marker 
! 
! 
aaa new-model 
! 
! 
aaa authentication ppp default group radius 
aaa authorization config-commands 
aaa authorization ipmobile default group radius 
aaa authorization network default group radius 
aaa accounting network pdsn start-stop group radius 
! 
aaa session-id common 
ip subnet-zero 
no ip gratuitous-arps 
ip cef 
no ip domain lookup 
ip dhcp ping packets 0 
! 
! 
vpdn enable 
vpdn authen-before-forward 
vpdn ip udp ignore checksum 
! 
vpdn-group CDMA 
! Default L2TP VPDN group 
 accept-dialin 
  protocol l2tp 
 source-ip 150.150.0.100 
 l2tp tunnel hello 0 
 no l2tp tunnel authentication 
 l2tp tunnel timeout no-session never 
! 
no virtual-template snmp 
! 
! 
! 
interface Loopback0 
 ip address 87.0.0.3 255.0.0.0 
! 
interface CDMA-Ix1 
 ip address 150.150.0.100 255.255.254.0 
 tunnel source 150.150.0.100 
 tunnel key 1 
! 
interface GigabitEthernet0/0 
 no ip address 
! 
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2 
 encapsulation dot1Q 25 
 ip address 9.15.50.173 255.255.0.0 
! 
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.37 
 encapsulation dot1Q 37 
 ip address 37.0.0.3 255.0.0.0 
! 
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.47 
 encapsulation dot1Q 47 
 ip address 47.0.0.43 255.0.0.0 
! 
interface Virtual-Template1 
 ip unnumbered Loopback0 
 peer default ip address pool pdsn-pool 
 no keepalive 
 ppp accm 0 
 ppp authentication chap pap optional 
 ppp accounting none 
! 
router mobile 
! 
ip local pool mobilenodes 30.0.0.2 30.0.0.255 
ip local pool pdsn-pool 122.3.0.1 122.3.16.1 
ip local pool pdsn-pool 122.4.0.1 122.4.16.1 
ip local pool pdsn-pool 122.5.0.1 122.5.16.1 
ip local pool pdsn-pool 122.1.0.1 122.1.16.1 
ip local pool pdsn-pool 122.2.0.1 122.2.16.1 
ip default-gateway 9.15.0.1 
ip classless 
ip route 7.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 16.1.1.60 
ip route 9.100.0.0 255.255.0.0 9.15.0.1 
ip route 10.76.86.41 255.255.255.255 9.15.0.1 
ip route 10.76.86.62 255.255.255.255 9.15.0.1 
ip route 150.150.2.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.2 
ip route 150.150.2.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.3 
ip route 150.150.4.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.4 
ip route 150.150.4.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.5 
ip route 150.150.6.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.6 
ip route 150.150.6.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.7 
ip route 150.150.8.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.8 
ip route 150.150.8.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.9 
ip route 150.150.10.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.10 
ip route 150.150.10.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.11 
no ip http server 
! 
! 
! 
! 
radius-server host 10.76.86.62 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key cisco 
radius-server key cisco 
radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2 
cdma pdsn pcf default closed-rp 
cdma pdsn virtual-template 1
no cdma pdsn a10 ahdlc trailer
! 
control-plane 
! 
line con 0 
 exec-timeout 0 0 
 transport preferred all 
 transport output all 
line vty 0 4 
 exec-timeout 0 0 
 transport preferred all 
 transport input all 
 transport output all 
line vty 5 15 
 exec-timeout 0 0 
 transport preferred all 
 transport input all 
 transport output all 

Note You will also have VPDN configuration tasks, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) tunnel configuration tasks, and Load Balancing configuration tasks to perform. Please refer to the appropriate documentation for more specific information.


For information regarding VPDN configuration details, please refer to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5207/products_command_reference_chapter09186a00801a7e8f.html#wp1167095

For information regarding Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) tunnel configuration details, please refer to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5207/products_command_reference_chapter09186a00801a7e90.html

For information regarding IOS Server Load Balancing, please refer to the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5012/products_feature_guide09186a008020b9f3.html#wp3601032

Configuring Short Data Burst Flagging

This feature adds support for short data burst applications such as SIP signaling for PTT applications, and proposes the interaction with PDSN. SIP is used by PTT applications to signal a PTT call. The message is short and needs to be delivered to the end-user. The Short Data Burst support on the RAN can be used to send these over to the end-user, especially when the messages are to be terminated to the mobile.

To configure SDB on the PDSN so that all packets that are set with the specific group-number will be flagged for SDB usage between the PCF and the PDSN, use the following command in global configuration:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn a11 dormant sdb-indication gre-flags group-number

Configures SDB so that all packets that are set with the specific group-number will be flagged for SDB usage between the PCF and the PDSN.


Configuring PDSN Accounting Events

To configure attributes of PDSN accounting events, use the following commands in global configuration mode:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# clock timezone zone hours-offset [minutes-offset]

Sets the time zone for display purposes.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn accounting local-timezone

Sets the local time stamp for PDSN accounting events.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn accounting time-of-day

Sets triggers for accounting information for different times of day.

Router(config)# cdma pdsn accounting send start-stop

Enables the PDSN to send:

An Accounting Stop record when it receives an active stop airlink record (dormant state)

An Accounting Start record when it receives an active start airlink record (active state)


Configuring CDMA RADIUS Attributes

To configure both authentication and accounting requests on the PDSN, perform the following tasks:

Command
Purpose

Router(config)# cdma pdsn attribute send {a1 { fa-chap | mip-rrq} | a2

{auth-req | fa-chap | mip-rrq} | a3 {auth-req | fa-chap | mip-rrq} |

{c5 {acct-reqs} | f15 {acct-reqs} | f16 {acct-reqs} | f5

{fa-chap} | g1 {acct-start} | g2 {acct-start} | g17 | esn-optional |

meid-optional | is835a}

Enables both authentication and accounting requests on the PDSN.


Monitoring and Maintaining the PDSN

To monitor and maintain the PDSN, use the following commands in privileged EXEC mode:

Command
Purpose

Router# clear cdma pdsn cluster controller session records age days

Clears session records of a specified age.

Router# clear cdma pdsn cluster controller session record all

Clears all the session records of the PDSN cluster controller.

Router# clear cdma pdsn cluster controller statistics

Clears PDSN cluster controller statistics.

Router# clear cdma pdsn cluster member statistics

Clears PDSN cluster member statistics.

Router# clear cdma pdsn selection [pdsn ip-addr | msid octet-stream]

Clears the PDSN selection tables.

Router# clear cdma pdsn session {all | pcf ip-addr | msid octet-stream} {send {all-update | termreq}}

Clears the session.

Router# clear cdma pdsn statistics


Clears the RAN-to-PDSN interface (RP) or PPP statistics on the PDSN.

Router# clear ip mobile binding {all [load standby-group-name] | ip-address | nai string ip_address}

Removes mobility bindings.

Router# clear ip mobile visitor [ip-address | nai string ip_address]

Clears visitor information.

Router#clear vpdn tunnel l2tp ?

all All L2TP tunnels

hostname Based on the hostnames

id Based on the tunnel ID

ip Based on IP address

Clears VPDN L2TP Tunnel information for the Closed-PR feature.

Router# show cdma pdsn

Displays the status and current configuration of the PDSN gateway.

Router# show cdma pdsn accounting

Display the accounting information for all sessions and the corresponding flows.

Router# show cdma pdsn accounting detail

Displays detailed accounting information for all sessions and the corresponding flows.

Router# show cdma pdsn accounting session msid

Displays the accounting information for the session identified by the msid.

Router# show cdma pdsn accounting session msid detail

Displays the accounting information (the counter names) for the session identified by the msid.

Router# show cdma pdsn accounting session msid flow

{mn-ip-address IP_address}

Displays the accounting information for a specific flow that is associated with the session identified by the msid.

Router# show cdma pdsn accounting session msid flow user username

Displays accounting information for a flow with username that is associated with the session identified by the msid.

Router# show cdma pdsn ahdlc slot_number channel [channel_id]

Displays Asynchronous High-Level Data Link Control (AHDLC) engine information.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster controller [configuration | statistics]

Displays configuration and statistics for the PDSN cluster controller.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster controller config

Displays the IP addresses of the members that are registered with a specific controller.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster controller member [load | time | ipaddr]


Displays either the load reported by every PDSN cluster member, or the time until (or past) the seek time of the member, or for detailed information related to the member of the specified ip address.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster controller queueing

Displays statistics associated with controller queueing feature.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster member queueing

Displays statistics associated with member queueing feature.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster controller session [count [age days] | oldest [more 1-20 records] | imsi BCDs [more 1-20 records]

Displays session count, or count by age, or one or a few oldest session records, or session records corresponding to the IMSI entered.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster controller statistics

Displays the IP addresses of the members that are registered with a specific controller.

Router# show cdma pdsn cluster member [configuration | statistics]

Displays configuration and statistics for the PDSN cluster member.

Router# show cdma pdsn flow {mn-ip-address ip_address | msid string | service-type | user string}

Displays flow-based summary of active sessions, and the flows and IP addresses assigned to the mobile numbers in each session.

Router# show cdma pdsn pcf [brief | ip-addr]

Displays the PCF information for those PCFs that have R-P tunnels to this PDSN.

Router# show cdma pdsn pcf secure

Displays security associations for all PCFs configured on this PDSN.

Router# show cdma pdsn resource [slot_number [ahdlc-channel [channel_id]]]

Displays AHDLC resource information.

Router# show cdma pdsn selection {summary | msid octet_stream}

Displays the PDSN selection session table.

Router# show cdma pdsn session [brief | dormant | mn-ip-address address | msid msid | user nai]

Displays the session information on the PDSN.

Router# show cdma pdsn statistics [ ahdlc | rp [pcf ip address] | error] [ppp [pcf ip address ]]

Displays VPDN, PPP, RP interface, prepaid, RADIUS, and error statistics for the PDSN.

Router# show compress detail-ccp

Displays the compression information for all users.

Router# show diag [slot]

Displays diagnostic information about the controller, interface processor, and port adapters associated with a specified slot of a Cisco router.

Router# show interfaces virtual-access number

Displays a description of the configuration of the virtual access interface.

Router# show ip mobile cdma ipsec profile

Displays the configured IPSec profiles.

Router# show ip mobile cdma ipsec security-level

Displays a list of FAs and their security levels.

Router# show ip mobile globals

Displays MIPv4 Registration Revocation support in MIP subsystem.

Router# show ip mobile proxy [host [nai string] | registration | traffic]

Displays information about a proxy Mobile IP host.

Router# show ip mobile secure

Displays mobility security associations for Mobile IP.

Router# show ip mobile traffic

Displays MIPv4 Registration Revocation message related statistics

Router# show ip mobile visitor

Displays a list of visitors.

Router# show ip mobile violation

Displays information about security violations.

Router# show mwam module slot_num port_num

Displays connectivity information regarding the individual processors on the MWAM card.

Router# show tech-support cdma pdsn

Displays PDSN information that is useful to Cisco Customer Engineers for diagnosing problems.

Router#show vpdn

Router#show vpdn session

Router#show vpdn tunnel

Displays VPDN information relevant to the Closed-RP Interface.


Configuration Examples

This section provides the following configuration examples:

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Simple IP, page 155

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Simple IP with VPDN, page 156

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Mobile IP, page 157

Combined Configuration for Cisco PDSN, page 158

PDSN Cluster Configuration, page 160

Closed RP IOS SLB Load Balancing Configuration, page 176

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Simple IP

Figure 10 and the information that follows is an example of PDSN architecture for Simple IP and its accompanying configuration.

Figure 10 PDSN for Simple IP—A Network Map

service cdma pdsn
!
hostname PDSN1-7206
!
aaa new-model
aaa authentication ppp default group radius
aaa authorization config-commands

aaa authorization network default group radius
aaa authorization configuration default group radius
aaa accounting update periodic 60
aaa accounting network pdsn start-stop group radius
!
no ip gratuitous-arps
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 8.8.8.254 255.255.255.255
!
interface CDMA-Ix1
ip address 6.6.6.6 255.0.0.0
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
! Interface for communication with RADIUS server and NMS
ip address 33.33.33.33 255.255.255.0
!
!
!
interface FastEthernet1/0
! Interface to PCF -  R-P
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
half-duplex
no cdp enable
!
interface FastEthernet2/0
! Interface to external network - Pi
ip address 23.23.23.23 255.255.0.0
!
!
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered Loopback0
peer default ip address pool pdsn-pool
ppp accm 0
ppp authentication chap pap optional
ppp accounting none
ppp timeout idle 2000
!
ip local pool pdsn-pool 8.8.8.1 8.8.8.253
ip classles
!
!
radius-server host 33.33.33.34 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key cisco
radius-server retransmit 3
radius-server vsa send authentication 3gpp2
radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2
cdma pdsn virtual-template 1
cdma pdsn maximum sessions 16000
cdma pdsn a10 max-lifetime 36000
cdma pdsn msid-authentication
cdma pdsn secure pcf 2.2.2.5 spi 100 key ascii cisco
!
!
!
end

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Simple IP with VPDN

The configuration Simple IP with VPDN is identical to the configuration for Simple IP with two additional lines:

vpdn enable
vpdn authen-before-forward

Cisco PDSN Configuration for Mobile IP

Figure 11 and the information that follows is an example of PDSN architecture for Mobile IP service and its accompanying configuration. The example shows the configuration of PDSN1.

Figure 11 PDSN for Mobile IP—A Network Map

service cdma pdsn
!
hostname PDSN1-7206
!
aaa new-model
aaa authentication login default group radius
aaa authentication login CONSOLE none
aaa authentication ppp default group radius
aaa authorization config-commands
aaa authorization network default group radius
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 11.11.11.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface CDMA-Ix1
ip address 5.5.5.5 255.0.0.0
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
description AAA NMS interface
ip address 12.12.12.100 255.0.0.0
!
interface FastEthernet1/0
description R-P interface
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
full-duplex
!
!
interface FastEthernet2/0
description Pi interface
ip address 3.3.3.2 255.255.255.0
full-duplex
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered loopback0
no ip route-cache
no keepalive
ppp authentication chap pap optional
ppp timeout idle 2000
!
router mobile
!
ip classless
no ip http server
ip mobile foreign-agent care-of FastEthernet2/0
ip mobile foreign-service challenge forward-mfce timeout 10 window 10
ip mobile foreign-service reverse-tunnel
radius-server host 12.12.22.12 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key ascii cisco
!
radius-server host 12.12.22.12 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key ascii cisco
radius-server retransmit 3
radius-server vsa send authentication 3gpp2
radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2
cdma pdsn secure pcf 2.2.2.1 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn virtual-template 1
cdma pdsn msid-authentication
!
!
end

Combined Configuration for Cisco PDSN

The following example illustrates a PDSN configured for all scenarios: Simple IP, Simple IP with VPDN, Mobile IP, Proxy Mobile IP, and peer-to-peer PDSN selection.

service cdma pdsn
!
hostname PDSN1
!
aaa new-model
aaa authentication ppp default group radius
aaa authorization config-commands
aaa authorization network default group radius
aaa authorization configuration default group radius
aaa accounting update periodic 60
aaa accounting network pdsn start-stop group radius
!
vpdn enable
vpdn authen-before-forward
virtual-profile aaa
username HA password 0 rosebud
username LNS password 0 cisco
username PDSN password 0 cisco
no ip gratuitous-arps
!
interface Loopback0
ip address 8.8.8.254 255.255.255.255
!
interface CDMA-Ix1
ip address 6.6.6.6 255.0.0.0
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
! Interface for communication with RADIUS server and NMS
ip address 33.33.33.33 255.255.255.0
!
!
!
interface FastEthernet1/0
! Interface to PCF -  R-P
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
!
interface FastEthernet2/0
! Interface to external network - Pi
ip address 23.23.23.23 255.255.0.0
!
!
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered Loopback0
no keepalive
peer default ip address pool pdsn-pool
ppp accm 0
ppp authentication chap pap optional
ppp accounting none
ppp timeout idle 2000
!
router mobile
!
ip local pool pdsn-pool 8.8.8.1 8.8.8.253
ip classless
ip mobile foreign-agent care-of FastEthernet2/0
ip mobile foreign-service challenge forward-mfce timeout 10 window 10
ip mobile foreign-service reverse-tunnel
radius-server host 12.12.22.12 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key ascii cisco
!
!
radius-server host 33.33.33.34 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key cisco
radius-server retransmit 3
radius-server vsa send authentication 3gpp2
radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2
cdma pdsn virtual-template 1
cdma pdsn maximum sessions 16000
cdma pdsn a10 max-lifetime 36000
cdma pdsn msid-authentication
cdma pdsn secure pcf 2.2.2.5 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn selection interface FastEthernet0/0
!
!
!
end

PDSN Cluster Configuration

The following configuration illustrates 3 MWAMs in a 6500 configuration:

Verify hardware configuration on Cat6K:
cat6500 router#sh module
Mod Ports Card Type 
---------------------------------------------- 
  1    2  Catalyst 6000 supervisor 2 (Active) 
  3   48  SFM-capable 48-port 10/100 Mbps RJ45 
  4    2  IPSec VPN Accelerator 
  5   16  SFM-capable 16 port 1000mb GBIC 
  7    3  MWAM Module 
  8    3  MWAM Module (MP) 
  9    3  MWAM Module 

Mod MAC addresses                       Hw    Fw           Sw           Status
--- ---------------------------------- ------ ------------ ------------ -------
  1  0005.7485.8494 to 0005.7485.8495   3.5   6.1(3)       6.2(2.108)   Ok
  3  0001.63d7.2352 to 0001.63d7.2381   4.2   6.3(1)       6.2(2.108)   Ok
  4  0008.7ca8.1386 to 0008.7ca8.1389   0.200 7.2(1)       6.2(2.108)   Ok
  5  0001.63d6.cd92 to 0001.63d6.cda1   4.1   6.3(1)       6.2(2.108)   Ok
  7  0001.0002.0003 to 0001.0002.000a   0.203 7.2(1)       1.0(0.1)     Ok
  8  00e0.b0ff.3a10 to 00e0.b0ff.3a17   0.201 7.2(1)       1.2(0.12)    ShutDown
  9  0002.0002.0003 to 0002.0002.000a   0.203 7.2(1)       1.0(0.1)     Ok

Mod Sub-Module                    Hw     Status
--- --------------------------- ------- -------
  1 Policy Feature Card          2 3.2    Ok
  1 Cat6k MSFC 2 daughterboard     2.2    Ok
cat6500 router#

Controller configuration:
cat6500 router#session slot 7 processor 6
The default escape character is Ctrl-^, then x.
You can also type 'exit' at the remote prompt to end the session
Trying 127.0.0.76 ... Open


Press RETURN to get started!


S76>
S76>
S76>
S76>en
S76#sh run
S76#sh running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1489 bytes
!
! No configuration change since last restart
!
version 12.2
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
service cdma pdsn
!
hostname S76
!
!
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
!
!
!
interface Loopback1
 no ip address
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
 no ip address
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.401
 encapsulation dot1Q 401
 ip address 10.121.68.76 255.255.255.0
 standby 1 ip 10.121.68.98
 standby 1 priority 120
 standby 1 preempt
 standby 1 name 6509-cluster
!
router mobile
!
ip classless
ip route 10.10.72.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.72
ip route 10.10.73.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.73
ip route 10.10.74.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.74
ip route 10.10.75.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.75
ip route 10.10.92.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.92
ip route 10.10.93.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.93
ip route 10.10.94.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.94
ip route 10.10.95.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.95
ip route 128.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 GigabitEthernet0/1
no ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
!
!
!
cdma pdsn secure pcf 10.121.68.62 10.121.68.66 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure pcf 10.121.68.82 10.121.68.86 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi 100 key ascii user
cdma pdsn cluster controller interface GigabitEthernet0/0.401
cdma pdsn cluster controller standby 6509-cluster
cdma pdsn cluster controller timeout 10
cdma pdsn cluster controller window 3
!
line con 0
line vty 0
 no login
line vty 1 4
 login
line vty 5 15
 login
!
end

router#
cat6500 router#session slot 9 processor 6
The default escape character is Ctrl-^, then x.
You can also type 'exit' at the remote prompt to end the session
Trying 127.0.0.96 ... Open

router>
Press RETURN to get started!


router 96#show running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1182 bytes
!
! No configuration change since last restart
!
version 12.2
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
service cdma pdsn
!
hostname router96
!
!
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
!
!
!
!
interface Loopback1
 no ip address
!
interface CDMA-Ix1
 no ip address
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
 no ip address
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.401
 encapsulation dot1Q 401
 ip address 10.121.68.96 255.255.255.0
 standby 1 ip 10.121.68.98
 standby 1 priority 120
 standby 1 preempt
 standby 1 name 6509-cluster
!
router mobile
!
ip classless
ip route 10.10.72.1 255.255.255.255 10.121.68.72
ip route 128.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 GigabitEthernet0/2
no ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
!
!
!
cdma pdsn secure pcf 10.121.68.62 10.121.68.66 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure pcf 10.121.68.82 10.121.68.86 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi 100 key ascii user
cdma pdsn cluster controller interface GigabitEthernet0/0.401
cdma pdsn cluster controller standby 6509-cluster
cdma pdsn cluster controller timeout 10
cdma pdsn cluster controller window 3
!
line con 0
line vty 0
 no login
line vty 1 4
 login
line vty 5 15
 login
!
end

router96#

Verify active controller and standby controller
router76#show standby
GigabitEthernet0/0.401 - Group 1
  State is Active
    2 state changes, last state change 00:27:09
  Virtual IP address is 10.121.68.98
  Active virtual MAC address is 0000.0c07.ac01
    Local virtual MAC address is 0000.0c07.ac01 (default)
  Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec
    Next hello sent in 2.112 secs
  Preemption enabled, min delay 0 sec, sync delay 0 sec
  Active router is local
  Standby router is 10.121.68.96, priority 120 (expires in 9.064 sec)
  Priority 120 (configured 120)
  IP redundancy name is "6509-cluster"
router76#

router96#sh standby
GigabitEthernet0/0.401 - Group 1
  State is Standby
    1 state change, last state change 00:26:57
  Virtual IP address is 10.121.68.98
  Active virtual MAC address is 0000.0c07.ac01
    Local virtual MAC address is 0000.0c07.ac01 (default)
  Hello time 3 sec, hold time 10 sec
    Next hello sent in 2.532 secs
  Preemption enabled, min delay 0 sec, sync delay 0 sec
  Active router is 10.121.68.76, priority 120 (expires in 9.580 sec)
  Standby router is local
  Priority 120 (configured 120)
  IP redundancy name is "6509-cluster"
router96#

Members configuration:
cat6500 router#session slot 7 processor 3
The default escape character is Ctrl-^, then x.
You can also type 'exit' at the remote prompt to end the session
Trying 127.0.0.73 ... Open

router73>

Press RETURN to get started!


router73#sh run
router73#sh running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 3192 bytes



! Last configuration change at 04:10:06 UTC Sun Sep 15 2002
!
version 12.2
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
service cdma pdsn
!
hostname router73
!
aaa new-model
!
!
aaa group server radius CSCO-30
 server 10.1.1.244 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646
 server 10.1.1.200 auth-port 2812 acct-port 2813
!
aaa authentication ppp default local group radius
aaa authorization network default local group radius
aaa accounting network pdsn start-stop group radius
aaa session-id common
!
username root nopassword
username cisco password 0 cisco
username pdsn password 0 cisco
ip subnet-zero
ip gratuitous-arps
ip cef
!
!
!
interface Loopback1
 ip address 10.10.173.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface CDMA-Ix1
 ip address 10.10.73.1 255.255.255.0
 tunnel source 10.10.73.1
 tunnel key 16404
 tunnel sequence-datagrams
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
 no ip address
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.310
 encapsulation dot1Q 310
 ip address 10.1.1.73 255.255.255.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.401
 encapsulation dot1Q 401
 ip address 10.121.68.73 255.255.255.0
!
interface Virtual-Template1
 ip unnumbered Loopback1
no keepalive
 peer default ip address pool pdsn-pool
 ppp accm 0
 ppp authentication chap pap optional
 ppp ipcp address unique
 cdma pdsn mobile-advertisement-burst interval 500 number 3
!
router mobile
!
router ospf 100
 log-adjacency-changes
 summary-address 7.3.0.0 255.255.0.0
 redistribute connected subnets route-map MAP-DENY
 network 10.10.73.1 0.0.0.0 area 73
 network 10.10.73.0 0.0.0.255 area 73
 network 10.10.173.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
 network 10.121.68.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
!
ip local pool pdsn-pool 7.3.1.0 7.3.16.255
ip local pool pdsn-pool 7.3.17.0 7.3.32.255
ip local pool pdsn-pool 7.3.33.0 7.3.48.255
ip local pool pdsn-pool 7.3.49.0 7.3.64.255
ip local pool pdsn-pool 7.3.65.0 7.3.78.255
ip local pool pdsn-pool 7.3.79.0 7.3.79.31
ip mobile foreign-agent care-of GigabitEthernet0/0.310
ip classless
ip route 128.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 GigabitEthernet0/1
no ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
ip mobile foreign-service challenge forward-mfce
ip mobile foreign-service reverse-tunnel
cdma pdsn mobile-advertisement-burst interval 500 number 3
!
!
access-list 9 deny   128.0.0.0 0.0.255.255
access-list 9 permit any
!
route-map MAP-DENY permit 10
 match ip address 9
 set tag 9
!
radius-server host 10.1.1.244 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key foo
radius-server host 10.1.1.200 auth-port 2812 acct-port 2813 key foo
radius-server retransmit 3
radius-server deadtime 1
radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2
radius-server vsa send authentication 3gpp2
cdma pdsn accounting local-timezone
cdma pdsn virtual-template 1
cdma pdsn send-agent-adv
cdma pdsn secure pcf 10.121.68.62 10.121.68.66 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure pcf 10.121.68.82 10.121.68.86 spi 100 key ascii cisco
cdma pdsn secure cluster default spi 100 key ascii user
cdma pdsn cluster member controller 10.121.68.98
cdma pdsn cluster member interface GigabitEthernet0/0.401
cdma pdsn cluster member timeout 10
cdma pdsn cluster member window 2
!
line con 0
line vty 5 15
!
end

Show commands on Controllers
PDSN-CONTROLLER#show cdma pdsn cluster controller configuration 
cluster interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1
no R-P signaling proxy
timeout to seek member = 10 seconds 
window to seek member is 2 timeouts in a row if no reply (afterwards the member is 
declared offline)
default:  spi 100, Timestamp +/- 0, key ascii clustering
this PDSN cluster controller is configured

controller redundancy:
  database in-sync or no need to sync
  group: cluster
Controller maximum number of load units = 1000

PDSN-CONTROLLER#show cdma pdsn cluster controller member load
 Secs until   Seq seeks         Member
(past) seek    no reply      IPv4 Addr      State   Load   Sessions
-------------------------------------------------------------------
          6       0          20.6.84.1      ready      0          0
          5       0          20.6.62.1      ready      0          0
          1       0          20.6.64.1      ready      0          0
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Controller IPv4 Addr      20.3.68.60


PDSN-CONTROLLER#show cdma pdsn cluster controller member  20.6.84.1  
PDSN cluster member 20.6.84.1 state      ready
 registered with PDSN controller 20.3.68.60
 reported load 0 percent, will be sought in 7 seconds

  Member 20.6.84.1 statistics:
  Controller seek rcvd 1, Member seek reply rcvd 554
  Member state changed 0 time to ready
  Member state changed 0 time to Admin prohibited
  Session-Up message rcvd 0, Session-Down message received 0
  Member seek not replied in sequence 0


PDSN-CONTROLLER#show cdma pdsn cluster controller statistics 
Controller-Member Interface:
  Cluster Reg Request rcvd 858, accepted 852, discarded 6
  Cluster Reg Request sent 1425
  Cluster Reg Reply rcvd 1427, accepted 1424, discarded 3

  Cluster Reg message errors:
    Reg Request rcvd: Authentication failed 0, ID mismatch 6
    Unrecognized extension 0, Unrecognized application type 0
    Unrecognized data type 0

    Reg Reply rcvd: Authentication failed 0, ID mismatch 3
    Unrecognized extension 0

  Reg Req not sent: Interface cdma-Ix not configured 0
  Invalid Reg message type 0

  Controller seek requests rcvd 852, replies sent 852
  Member seek requests sent 1425, replies rcvd 1424
  Member state transition msgs rcvd 0, replies sent 0
    ready 0, Administratively prohibited 0
  Total A11 Reg Requests forwarded 0
    A11 Reg Requests orig forwarded 0, retry forwarded 0
    Session-Up from member 0, Session-Down from member 0
    No Acknowledgement from member 0

Controller Redundancy Interface:
    Update rcvd 0 sent 2330 orig sent 2276 fail 18
    UpdateAck rcvd 2330 sent 0
    DownloadReq rcvd 0 sent 20 orig sent 19 fail 0
    DownloadReply rcvd 20 sent 0 orig sent 0 fail 0 drop 0
    DownloadAck rcvd 0 sent 20 drop 0

    Errors: Authentication failed 0 ID mismatch 0 
            Ignored due to no redundancy configuration 0

router76#sh cdma pdsn cluster controller session ?
  count   Count of session records
  imsi    Session record for International Mobile Subscriber Identity
  oldest  Oldest session record

router76#sh cdma pdsn cluster controller session ol
router76#sh cdma pdsn cluster controller session oldest ?
  more  The oldest and a few more session records to show
  |     Output modifiers
  <cr>

router76#sh cdma pdsn cluster controller session oldest
           IMSI   Member IPv4 Addr   Age [days]   Anchor changes
----------------------------------------------------------------
62000015434         10.10.73.1
----------------------------------------------------------------

router76#sh cdma pdsn cluster controller session imsi 62000015434
           IMSI   Member IPv4 Addr   Age [days]   Anchor changes
----------------------------------------------------------------
62000015434         10.10.73.1
----------------------------------------------------------------

router76#


Show commands on member:

PDSN-MEMBER#show cdma pdsn cluster member configuration 
cluster interface GigabitEthernet0/0.1
IP address of controller is 20.3.68.60 
no prohibit administratively
timeout to resend status or seek controller = 250 sec or less, randomized
resend a msg for 6 timeouts sequentially if no reply, then inform operator
default:  spi 100, Timestamp +/- 0, key ascii clustering
this PDSN cluster member is configured


PDSN-MEMBER#show cdma pdsn cluster member statistics 
Controller-Member Interface:
  Cluster Reg Request rcvd 593, accepted 593, discarded 0
  Cluster Reg Request sent 3
  Cluster Reg Reply rcvd 1, accepted 1, discarded 0

  Cluster Reg message errors:
    Reg Request rcvd: Authentication failed 0, ID mismatch 0
    Unrecognized extension 0, Unrecognized application type 0
    Unrecognized data type 0

    Reg Reply rcvd: Authentication failed 0, ID mismatch 0
    Unrecognized extension 0

  Reg Req not sent: Interface cdma-Ix not configured 0
  Invalid Reg message type 0

  Controller seek requests rcvd 593, replies sent 593
  Member seek requests sent 3, replies rcvd 1
  Member state transition msgs sent 0, replies rcvd 0
    ready 0, Administratively prohibited 0
  Session-Up msg sent 0, Session-Down msg sent 0
  Session-Up msg Ack rcvd 0, Session-Down msg Ack rcvd 0
  Controller seek not replied in sequence 0
  Member state not replied in sequence 0

Cat6k SUP configuration
cat6500 router#sh running-config
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 9838 bytes
!
! Last configuration change at 00:21:56 UTC Sat Sep 14 2002 by root
! NVRAM config last updated at 14:10:00 UTC Fri Sep 13 2002 by root
!
version 12.2
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log datetime localtime
no service password-encryption
!
hostname cat6500 router
!
boot system slot0:c6sp222-jk9sv-mz
boot device module 4 cf:3
boot device module 5 cf:4
boot device module 6 cf:4
boot device module 7 cf:4
boot device module 8 cf:4
boot device module 9 cf:4
aaa new-model
aaa authentication login default local
aaa authorization exec default local
enable secret level 1 5 $1$T17C$7icHsiM4vHj6nIE6medGj.
enable secret level 6 5 $1$wB/9$.ML91zZopFpYp12VNxA1p.
enable password lab
!
username u0 privilege 0 password 0 cisco
username root nopassword
username u1 password 0 cisco
username u6 privilege 6 password 0 cisco
username u8 privilege 8 password 0 cisco
username cisco password 0 cisco
username u2 privilege 2 nopassword
username u15 privilege 15 nopassword
username u10 privilege 10 nopassword
username v1 nopassword user-maxlinks 1
!
monitor session 1 source interface Fa3/24
monitor session 1 destination interface Fa3/12
redundancy
 main-cpu
  auto-sync standard
ip subnet-zero
!
!
no ip domain-lookup
!
mls flow ip destination
mls flow ipx destination
!
!
no spanning-tree vlan 310
!
!
!
interface Loopback1
 ip address 10.10.10.10 255.255.255.0
!
interface Port-channel1
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/1
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 309
 switchport mode access
!
interface GigabitEthernet1/2
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
 switchport mode access
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/1
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
 switchport mode access
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/1
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 222
!
interface FastEthernet3/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/4
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/5
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 66
 switchport mode access
!
interface FastEthernet3/6
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 66
 switchport mode access
!
interface FastEthernet3/7
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 66
 switchport mode access
!
interface FastEthernet3/8
 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/9
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/10
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
 channel-group 1 mode on
!
interface FastEthernet3/11
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
 channel-group 1 mode on
!
interface FastEthernet3/12
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/13
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/14
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/15
 ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.0
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/16
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/17
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 311
 switchport mode access
!
interface FastEthernet3/18
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/19
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/20
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/21
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/22
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/23
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/24
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/25
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/26
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 401
!
interface FastEthernet3/27
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/28
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/29
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/30
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/31
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/32
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/33
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/34
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/35
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/36
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/37
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/38
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/39
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/40
 no ip address
 shutdown
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 333
!
interface FastEthernet3/41
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/42
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/43
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/44
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/45
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/46
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 310
!
interface FastEthernet3/47
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 333
!
interface FastEthernet3/48
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 333
!
interface GigabitEthernet4/1
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
 switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,1002-1005
 switchport mode trunk
 flowcontrol receive on
 cdp enable
!
interface GigabitEthernet4/2
 no ip address
 snmp trap link-status
 switchport
 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
 switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,1002-1005
 switchport mode trunk
 flowcontrol receive on
 cdp enable
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/1
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/4
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/5
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/6
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/7
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/8
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/9
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/10
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/11
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/12
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/13
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/14
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/15
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface GigabitEthernet5/16
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Vlan1
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Vlan222
 ip address 172.19.23.16 255.255.254.0
 ip nat outside
!
interface Vlan309
 no ip address
!
interface Vlan310
 ip address 10.1.1.222 255.255.255.0
 ip nat inside
!
interface Vlan401
 ip address 10.121.68.200 255.255.255.0
!
router ospf 100
 log-adjacency-changes
 network 10.10.10.10 0.0.0.0 area 0
 network 10.121.68.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
 default-information originate
!
ip nat inside source list 100 interface Vlan222 overload
ip classless
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.19.26.1
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.19.22.1
ip route 5.5.5.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.92
ip route 10.10.113.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.221
ip route 10.10.116.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.221
ip route 10.10.195.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.95
no ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
!
!
ip access-list extended VRZ-101
 permit ip host 10.10.195.1 host 10.10.116.1
access-list 100 permit ip 5.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 any
arp 127.0.0.22 0000.2200.0000 ARPA
arp 127.0.0.12 0000.2100.0000 ARPA
!
route-map MAP deny 10
 match ip address 100
!
snmp-server community public RO
snmp-server community private RW
snmp-server enable traps casa
snmp-server enable traps vtp
snmp-server enable traps hsrp
snmp-server enable traps config
snmp-server enable traps entity
snmp-server enable traps bgp
snmp-server enable traps rsvp
snmp-server enable traps frame-relay
snmp-server enable traps syslog
snmp-server enable traps rtr
snmp-server enable traps dlsw
snmp-server enable traps isdn call-information
snmp-server enable traps isdn layer2
snmp-server host 10.1.1.199 public
!
privilege configure level 8 snmp-server community
privilege configure level 8 username
privilege configure level 8 username u10 privilege 10 nopassword
privilege exec level 6 show running
privilege exec level 8 config terminal
!
line con 0
 exec-timeout 0 0
line vty 0 4
 exec-timeout 0 0
 password lab
 transport input lat pad mop telnet rlogin udptn nasi
line vty 5 10
 exec-timeout 0 0
!
ntp master 3
end

Closed RP IOS SLB Load Balancing Configuration

The following configuration example illustrates the IOS Server Load Balancing for the Closed-RP feature on the PDSN. This example includes 6 instances of the PDSN.

Supervisor Configuration


SLB-6500#show running-config 
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 6422 bytes
!
! Last configuration change at 00:37:57 UTC Thu Jun 5 2003
! NVRAM config last updated at 02:54:07 UTC Wed May 28 2003
!
version 12.2
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname SLB-6500
!
logging snmp-authfail
!
clock calendar-valid
mwam module 5 port 1 allowed-vlan 1-1000
mwam module 5 port 2 allowed-vlan 1-1000
mwam module 5 port 3 allowed-vlan 1-1000
mwam module 7 port 1 allowed-vlan 1-1000
mwam module 7 port 2 allowed-vlan 1-1000
mwam module 7 port 3 allowed-vlan 1-1000
vtp mode transparent
ip subnet-zero
!
!
no ip domain-lookup
!
!
ip slb serverfarm PDSN-FARM
 real 37.0.0.2
  weight 1
  inservice
 !
 real 37.0.0.3
  weight 1
  inservice
 !
 real 37.0.0.4
  weight 1
  inservice
 !
 real 37.0.0.5
  weight 1
  inservice
 !
 real 37.0.0.6
  weight 1
  inservice
!
ip slb vserver PDSN-SLB
 virtual 150.150.0.100 udp 1701
 serverfarm PDSN-FARM
 sticky 65535 group 1 netmask 255.255.254.0
 idle 10
 inservice
!
mpls ldp logging neighbor-changes
mls flow ip destination
mls flow ipx destination
mls verify ip length minimum 
mls verify ipx length minimum 
!
!
!
!
!
!
spanning-tree mode pvst
no spanning-tree vlan 24
diagnostic cns publish cisco.cns.device.diag_results
diagnostic cns subscribe cisco.cns.device.diag_commands
!
redundancy
 mode rpr-plus
 main-cpu
  auto-sync running-config
  auto-sync standard
!
vlan internal allocation policy ascending
!
vlan 4-5,7-9,11,16,20,24-25,36-37,47,99-100,199-200,300 
!
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/1
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 4
 switchport mode access
!
interface GigabitEthernet2/2
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 7
!
interface FastEthernet3/1
 ip address 10.76.86.60 255.255.255.192
!
interface FastEthernet3/2
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/3
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/4
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 4
!
interface FastEthernet3/5
 no ip address
 speed 100
 duplex full
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 4
!
interface FastEthernet3/6
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 4
!
interface FastEthernet3/7
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 8
!
interface FastEthernet3/8
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 8
!
interface FastEthernet3/9
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 9
!
interface FastEthernet3/10
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/11
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 100
!
interface FastEthernet3/12
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 47
!
interface FastEthernet3/13
 no ip address
 speed 100
 duplex half
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 100
!
interface FastEthernet3/14
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 100
!
interface FastEthernet3/15
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/16
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 4
!
interface FastEthernet3/17
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/18
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/19
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 199
!
interface FastEthernet3/20
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 20
!
interface FastEthernet3/21
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/22
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/23
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/24
 no ip address
 duplex half
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 7
!
interface FastEthernet3/25
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/26
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/27
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/28
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/29
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/30
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/31
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/32
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/33
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/34
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/35
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 25
!
interface FastEthernet3/36
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 36
!
interface FastEthernet3/37
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/38
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/39
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/40
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/41
 no ip address
!
interface FastEthernet3/42
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 200
!
interface FastEthernet3/43
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 16
!
interface FastEthernet3/44
 no ip address
 switchport
 switchport access vlan 16
!
interface FastEthernet3/45
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/46
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/47
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface FastEthernet3/48
 no ip address
 shutdown
!
interface Vlan1
 no ip address
!
interface Vlan4
 ip address 150.150.0.2 255.255.254.0
!
interface Vlan5
 no ip address
!
interface Vlan7
 ip address 7.0.0.111 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan9
 no ip address
!
interface Vlan16
 ip address 16.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan20
 ip address 15.1.1.50 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan25
 ip address 9.15.50.4 255.255.0.0
!
interface Vlan36
 ip address 36.0.0.20 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan37
 ip address 37.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan47
 ip address 47.0.0.111 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan99
 ip address 99.99.11.1 255.0.0.0
!
interface Vlan100
 ip address 20.1.1.50 255.0.0.0
!
ip default-gateway 9.15.0.1
ip classless
ip route 9.100.0.0 255.255.0.0 9.15.0.1
ip route 64.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.76.86.1
no ip http server
!
!
!
!
!
dial-peer cor custom
!
!
!
alias exec cls clear ip slb sessions
alias exec clr clear counters
alias exec cpu show proc cpu | inc CPU
alias exec hist show proc cpu history
alias exec clss clear ip slb sessions
alias exec clsc clear ip slb counters
alias exec clc clear counters
!
line con 0
 exec-timeout 0 0
line vty 0 4
 exec-timeout 0 0
 privilege level 15
 no login
line vty 5 15
 exec-timeout 0 0
 privilege level 15
 no login
!
!
monitor session 1 source interface Fa3/6
ntp clock-period 17179954
ntp master
ntp server 9.15.50.4
end

SLB-6500#


PDSN Configuration


MWAM-PDSN2#sh run
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 3872 bytes
!
! Last configuration change at 00:34:06 UTC Thu Jun 5 2003
! NVRAM config last updated at 00:35:49 UTC Thu Jun 5 2003
!
version 12.3
service timestamps debug datetime msec localtime
service timestamps log datetime msec localtime
no service password-encryption
service cdma pdsn
!
hostname MWAM-PDSN2
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
no logging buffered
!
username MWAM-PDSN2 password 0 cisco
username HA password 0 cisco
aaa new-model
!
!
aaa authentication ppp default group radius
aaa authorization config-commands
aaa authorization network default group radius 
aaa accounting network pdsn start-stop group radius
!
aaa session-id common
ip subnet-zero
no ip gratuitous-arps
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
ip dhcp ping packets 0
!
!
vpdn enable
vpdn authen-before-forward
vpdn ip udp ignore checksum
!
vpdn-group CDMA
! Default L2TP VPDN group
 accept-dialin
  protocol l2tp
 source-ip 150.150.0.100
 l2tp tunnel hello 0
 no l2tp tunnel authentication
 l2tp tunnel timeout no-session never
!
no virtual-template snmp
!
!
!
interface Loopback0
 ip address 87.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
!
interface CDMA-Ix1
 ip address 150.150.0.100 255.255.254.0
 tunnel source 150.150.0.100
 tunnel key 1
 tunnel sequence-datagrams
 tunnel bandwidth transmit 0
 tunnel bandwidth receive 0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
 no ip address
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.2
 encapsulation dot1Q 25
 ip address 9.15.50.172 255.255.0.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.7
 encapsulation dot1Q 7
 ip address 7.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.8
 encapsulation dot1Q 8
 ip address 8.0.0.11 255.0.0.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.37
 encapsulation dot1Q 37
 ip address 37.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
!
interface GigabitEthernet0/0.47
 encapsulation dot1Q 47
 ip address 47.0.0.42 255.0.0.0
!
interface Virtual-Template1
 ip unnumbered Loopback0
 peer default ip address pool pdsn-pool
 no keepalive
 ppp accm 0
 ppp authentication chap pap optional
 ppp accounting none
!
router mobile
!
ip local pool pdsn-test 13.2.0.1 13.2.0.100
ip local pool pdsn-pool 121.1.0.1 121.1.16.1
ip local pool pdsn-pool 121.2.0.1 121.2.16.1
ip local pool pdsn-pool 121.3.0.1 121.3.16.1
ip local pool pdsn-pool 121.4.0.1 121.4.16.1
ip local pool pdsn-pool 121.5.0.1 121.5.16.1
ip default-gateway 9.15.0.1
ip classless
ip route 9.100.0.0 255.255.0.0 9.15.0.1
ip route 10.76.86.8 255.255.255.255 9.15.0.1
ip route 10.76.86.41 255.255.255.255 9.15.0.1
ip route 10.76.86.62 255.255.255.255 9.15.0.1
ip route 150.150.2.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.2
ip route 150.150.2.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.3
ip route 150.150.4.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.4
ip route 150.150.4.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.5
ip route 150.150.6.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.32
ip route 150.150.6.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.6
ip route 150.150.6.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.33
ip route 150.150.6.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.7
ip route 150.150.8.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.8
ip route 150.150.8.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.9
ip route 150.150.10.2 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.10
ip route 150.150.10.3 255.255.255.255 47.0.0.11
ip mobile foreign-agent care-of GigabitEthernet0/0.7
no ip http server
!
!
!
!
radius-server host 10.76.86.62 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646 key cisco
radius-server vsa send accounting 3gpp2
cdma pdsn pcf default closed-rp
cdma pdsn virtual-template 1
no cdma pdsn a10 ahdlc trailer
!
control-plane
!
alias exec cls clear cdma pdsn session all
alias exec cpu show proc cpu | i CPU
alias exec crad clear radius statistics
alias exec tclear clear vpdn tunnel l2tp all
alias exec cstats clear cdma pdsn statistics
alias exec sip show cdma pdsn | i Simple
alias exec hist sh proc cpu hist
!
line con 0
 exec-timeout 0 0
 transport preferred all
 transport output all
line vty 0 4
 exec-timeout 0 0
 transport preferred all
 transport input all