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MPLS Traffic Engineering - DiffServ Aware (DS-TE)

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MPLS Traffic Engineering - DiffServ Aware (DS-TE)

Table Of Contents

MPLS Traffic Engineering - DiffServ Aware (DS-TE)

Feature History

Background and Overview

Benefits

Related Features and Technologies

Related Documents

Platforms and Interfaces Supported

Supported Standards

Prerequisites

Configuration Tasks

New Commands

The ip rsvp bandwidth command

The tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth command

The Configuration Procedure

Level 1: Configuring the Device

Level 2: Configuring the Physical Interface

Level 3: Configuring the Tunnel Interface

Verifying the Configurations

Configuration Examples

Tunnel Head

Midpoint Devices

Tail-End Device

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Configuration

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Examples

Example with Single Destination Prefix

Configuring Tunnel Head-1

Configuring Tunnel Head-2

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Tunnel Tail Configuration

Example with Many Destination Prefixes

Configuration of Tunnel Head-1

Configuration of Tunnel Head-2

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Tunnel Tail Configuration

Command Reference

interface

ip cef

ip router isis

ip rsvp bandwidth

is-type

metric-style wide

mpls traffic-eng

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

mpls traffic-eng area

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

mpls traffic-eng router-id

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

net

passive-interface

router isis

router ospf

show interfaces tunnel

show ip ospf

show ip route

show ip rsvp host

show ip rsvp interface

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

show mpls traffic-eng topology

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

tunnel destination

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Debug Commands

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption

Glossary


MPLS Traffic Engineering - DiffServ Aware (DS-TE)


This guide presents extensions made to Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering (MPLS TE) that make it DiffServ aware. Specifically, the bandwidth reservable on each link for constraint-based routing (CBR) purposes can now be managed through two bandwidth pools: a global pool and a sub-pool. The sub-pool can be limited to a smaller portion of the link bandwidth. Tunnels using the sub-pool bandwidth can then be used in conjunction with MPLS Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms to deliver guaranteed bandwidth services end-to-end across the network.

Feature History

Release
Modification
12.0(11) ST

DS-TE feature introduced.

12.0(14) ST

Support added for Cisco Series 7500(VIP) platform.

Support added for IS-IS Interior Gateway Protocol.

12.0(14) ST-1

Support added for guaranteed bandwidth service directed to many destination prefixes (for example, guaranteed bandwidth service destined to an autonomous system or to a BGP community).

12.2(14)S

Feature integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.


The guide contains the following sections:

Background and Overview, page 2

Platforms and Interfaces Supported, page 4

Prerequisites, page 4

Configuration Tasks, page 4

Configuration Examples, page 10

Command Reference, page 36

Debug Commands, page 123

Glossary, page 125


Note References made to specific page numbers are meant to help readers of the printed (Acrobat™.PDF) form of this guide. On-line readers may simply click on the page number (or the underlined, colored, or bolded text) to go to the referenced page.


Background and Overview

MPLS traffic engineering allows constraint-based routing of IP traffic. One of the constraints satisfied by CBR is the availability of required bandwidth over a selected path. DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering extends MPLS traffic engineering to enable you to perform constraint-based routing of "guaranteed" traffic, which satisfies a more restrictive bandwidth constraint than that satisfied by CBR for regular traffic. The more restrictive bandwidth is termed a sub-pool, while the regular TE tunnel bandwidth is called the global pool. (The sub-pool is a portion of the global pool.) This ability to satisfy a more restrictive bandwidth constraint translates into an ability to achieve higher Quality of Service performance (in terms of delay, jitter, or loss) for the guaranteed traffic.

For example, DS-TE can be used to ensure that traffic is routed over the network so that, on every link, there is never more than 40 per cent (or any assigned percentage) of the link capacity of guaranteed traffic (for example, voice), while there can be up to 100 per cent of the link capacity of regular traffic. Assuming QoS mechanisms are also used on every link to queue guaranteed traffic separately from regular traffic, it then becomes possible to enforce separate "overbooking" ratios for guaranteed and regular traffic. (In fact, for the guaranteed traffic it becomes possible to enforce no overbooking at all—or even an underbooking—so that very high QoS can be achieved end-to-end for that traffic, even while for the regular traffic a significant overbooking continues to be enforced.)

Also, through the ability to enforce a maximum percentage of guaranteed traffic on any link, the network administrator can directly control the end-to-end QoS performance parameters without having to rely on over-engineering or on expected shortest path routing behavior. This is essential for transport of applications that have very high QoS requirements (such as real-time voice, virtual IP leased line, and bandwidth trading), where over-engineering cannot be assumed everywhere in the network.

DS-TE involves extending OSPF (Open Shortest Path First routing protocol), so that the available sub-pool bandwidth at each preemption level is advertised in addition to the available global pool bandwidth at each preemption level. And DS-TE modifies constraint-based routing to take this more complex advertised information into account during path computation.

Benefits

DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering enables service providers to perform separate admission control and separate route computation for discrete subsets of traffic (for example, voice and data traffic).

Therefore, by combining DS-TE with other IOS features such as QoS, the service provider can:

Develop QoS services for end customers based on signaled rather than provisioned QoS

Build the higher-revenue generating "strict-commitment" QoS services, without over-provisioning

Offer virtual IP leased-line, Layer 2 service emulation, and point-to-point guaranteed bandwidth services including voice-trunking

Enjoy the scalability properties offered by MPLS

Related Features and Technologies

The DS-TE feature is related to OSPF, IS-IS, RSVP (Resource reSerVation Protocol), QoS, and MPLS traffic engineering. Cisco documentation for all of these features is listed in the next section.

Related Documents

For OSPF:

"Configuring OSPF" in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 IP and IP Routing Configuration Guide,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/ip_c/ipcprt2/1cdospf.htm

"OSPF Commands" in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 IP and IP Routing Command Reference, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/ip_r/iprprt2/1rdospf.htm

For IS-IS:

"Configuring Integrated IS-IS" in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 IP and IP Routing Configuration Guide, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/ip_c/ipcprt2/1cdisis.htm

"Integrated IS-IS Commands" in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Command Reference,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/ip_r/iprprt2/1rdisis.htm

For RSVP:

"Configuring RSVP" in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/qos_c/qcprt5/qcdrsvp.htm

IP RSVP commands section in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/qos_r/qrdcmd2.htm

For QoS:

Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/qos_c/index.htm

Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/qos_r/index.htm

For MPLS Traffic Engineering:

Cisco IOS Release 12.1(3)T MPLS Traffic Engineering and Enhancements,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121newft/121t/121t3/traffeng.htm

"Multiprotocol Label Switching" in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Switching Services Configuration Guide,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/switch_c/xcprt4

Section containing MPLS commands in Cisco IOS Release 12.1 Switching Services Command Reference,
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/switch_r/xrdscmd3.htm

Platforms and Interfaces Supported

This release supports DS-TE together with QoS on the 7500 Series Router (VIP) over the POS (Packet over Sonet) interface.

To check for changes in platform support since the publication of this document, access Feature Navigator at http://www.cisco.com/go/fn . You must have an account on Cisco.com . Qualified users can establish an account by following directions at http://www.cisco.com/register.

If you have forgotten or lost your account information, send a blank e-mail to cco-locksmith@cisco.com. An automatic check will verify that your e-mail address is registered, and account details with a new random password will then be e-mailed to you.

Supported Standards

Standardization of DiffServ-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering is still in progress in the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). At the time of publication of this feature guide, DS-TE has been documented in the following IETF drafts:

Requirements for Support of Diff-Serv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering by F. Le Faucheur, T. Nadeau, A. Chiu, W. Townsend, D. Skalecki & M. Tatham
http://search.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-tewg-diff-te-reqts-05.txt

Protocol Extensions for Support of Diff-Serv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering by F. Le Faucheur, T. Nadeau, J. Boyle, K. Kompella, W. Townsend & D. Skalecki
http://search.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-tewg-diff-te-proto-01.txt

As the IETF work is still in progress, details are still under definition and subject to change, so DS-TE should be considered as a pre-standard implementation of IETF Diff-Serv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering. However, it is in line with the requirements described in the first document above. The concept of "Class-Type" defined in that IETF draft corresponds to the concept of bandwidth pool implemented by DS-TE. And because DS-TE supports two bandwidth pools (global pool and sub-pool), DS-TE should be seen as supporting two Class-Types (Class-Type 0 and Class-Type 1).

Prerequisites

Your network must support the following Cisco IOS features in order to support guaranteed bandwidth services based on DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

MPLS

IP Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF)

OSPF or ISIS

RSVP-TE

QoS

Configuration Tasks

This section lists the minimum set of commands you need to implement the DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering feature—in other words, to establish a tunnel that reserves bandwidth from the sub-pool.

The subsequent "Configuration Examples" section (page 10), presents these same commands in context and shows how, by combining them with QoS commands, you can build guaranteed bandwidth services.

New Commands

DS-TE commands were developed from the existing command set that configures MPLS traffic engineering. The only difference introduced to create DS-TE was the expansion of two commands:

ip rsvp bandwidth was expanded to configure the size of the sub-pool on every link.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth was expanded to enable a TE tunnel to reserve bandwidth from the sub-pool.

The ip rsvp bandwidth command

The old command was

ip rsvp bandwidth x y

where x = the size of the only possible pool, and y = the size of a single traffic flow (ignored by traffic engineering)

Now the extended command is

ip rsvp bandwidth x y sub-pool z

where x = the size of the global pool, and z = the size of the sub-pool.

(Remember, the sub-pool's bandwidth is less than—because it is part of—the global pool's bandwidth.)

The tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth command

The old command was

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth b

where b = the amount of bandwidth this tunnel requires.

Now you specify from which pool (global or sub) the tunnel's bandwidth is to come. You can enter

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool b

This indicates that the tunnel should use bandwidth from the sub-pool. Alternatively, you can enter

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth b

This indicates that the tunnel should use bandwidth from the global pool (the default).

The Configuration Procedure

To establish a sub-pool TE tunnel, you must enter configurations at three levels:

the device (router or switch router)

the physical interface

the tunnel interface

On the first two levels, you activate traffic engineering; on the third level—the tunnel interface—you establish the sub-pool tunnel. Therefore, it is only at the tunnel headend device that you need to configure all three levels. At the tunnel midpoints and tail, it is sufficient to configure the first two levels.

In the tables below, each command is explained in brief. For a more complete explanation of any command, refer to the page given in the right-hand column.

Level 1: Configuring the Device

At this level, you tell the device (router or switch router) to use accelerated packet-forwarding (known as Cisco Express Forwarding or CEF), MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS), traffic-engineering tunneling, and either the OSPF or IS-IS routing algorithm (Open Shortest Path First or Intermediate System to Intermediate System). This level is often called global configuration mode because the configuration is applied globally, to the entire device, rather than to a specific interface or routing instance. (These commands have not been modified from earlier releases of Cisco IOS.)

You enter the following commands:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# ip cef distributed

Enables CEF—which accelerates the flow of packets through the device. (More on page 42.)

Step 2 

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Enables MPLS, and specifically its traffic engineering tunnel capability. (More on page 61.)

Step 3 

Router(config)# router ospf


[or]
Router(config)# router isis

Invokes the OSPF routing process for IP and puts the device into router configuration mode. (More on page 68.) Proceed now to Steps 9 and 10.

Alternatively, you may invoke the ISIS routing process with this command (more on page 66), and continue with Step 4.

Step 4 

Router (config-router)# net 
network-entity-title

Specifies the IS-IS network entity title (NET) for the routing process. (More on page 63.)

Step 5 

Router (config-router)# metric-style wide

Enables the router to generate and accept IS-IS new-style TLVs (type, length, and value objects). (More on page 48.)

Step 6 

Router (config-router)# is-type level-n

Configures the router to learn about destinations inside its own area or "IS-IS level". (More on page 47.)

Step 7 

Router (config-router)# mpls traffic-eng 
level-n

Specifies the IS-IS level (which must be same level as in the preceding step) to which the router will flood MPLS traffic- engineering link information. (More on page 50).

Step 8 

Router (config-router)# passive-interface 
loopback0

Instructs IS-IS to advertise the IP address of the loopback interface without actually running IS-IS on that interface. (More on page 64.) Continue with Step 9 but don't do Step 10—because Step 10 refers to OSPF.

Step 9 

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback0

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier is the IP address associated with the loopback0 interface. (More on page 60.)

Step 10 

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng area num

Turns on MPLS traffic engineering for a particular OSPF area. (More on page 52.)

Level 2: Configuring the Physical Interface

Having configured the device, you now must configure the interface on that device through which the tunnel will run. To do that, you first put the router into interface-configuration mode.

You then enable Resource Reservation Protocol. RSVP is used to signal (set up) a traffic engineering tunnel, and to tell devices along the tunnel path to reserve a specific amount of bandwidth for the traffic that will flow through that tunnel. It is with this command that you establish the maximum size of the sub-pool.

Finally, you enable the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel feature on this physical interface—and if you will be relying on the IS-IS routing protocol, you enable that as well.

To accomplish these tasks, you enter the following commands:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# interface interface-id

Moves configuration to the interface level, directing subsequent configuration commands to the specific interface identified by the interface-id. (More on page 38.)

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth interface-kbps sub-pool kbps

Enables RSVP on this interface and limits the amount of bandwidth RSVP can reserve on this interface. The sum of bandwidth used by all tunnels on this interface cannot exceed interface-kbps, and the sum of bandwidth used by all sub-pool tunnels cannot exceed sub-pool kbps. (More on page 45.)

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Enables the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel feature on this interface. (More on page 62.)

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# ip router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol on this interface. (More on page 44.) Do not enter this command if you are configuring for OSPF.

Level 3: Configuring the Tunnel Interface

Now you create a set of attributes for the tunnel itself; those attributes are configured on the "tunnel interface" (not to be confused with the physical interface just configured above).

The only command which was modified at this level for DS-TE is tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth (described in detail on page 117).

You enter the following commands:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

Router(config)# interface tunnel1

Creates a tunnel interface (named in this example tunnel1) and enters interface configuration mode. (More on page 38.)

Step 2 

Router(config-if)# tunnel destination A.B.C.D

Specifies the IP address of the tunnel tail device. (More on page 111.)

Step 3 

Router(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the tunnel's encapsulation mode to MPLS traffic engineering. (More on page 113.)

Step 4 

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth {sub-pool | [global]} bandwidth

Configures the tunnel's bandwidth and assigns it either to the sub-pool or the global pool. (More on page 117).

Step 5 

Sets the priority to be used when system determines which existing tunnels are eligible to be preempted. (More on page 121).

Step 6 

Configures the paths (hops) a tunnel should use. The user can enter an explicit path (can specify the IP addresses of the hops) or can specify a dynamic path (the router figures out the best set of hops). (More on page 119).

Verifying the Configurations

To view the complete configuration you have entered, use the EXEC command show running-config and check its output display for correctness.

To check just one tunnel's configuration, enter show interfaces tunnel followed by the tunnel interface number. And to see that tunnel's RSVP bandwidth and flow, enter show ip rsvp interface followed by the name or number of the physical interface.

Here is an example of the information displayed by these two commands. To see an explanation of each field used in the following displays turn to page 69 for show interfaces tunnel and page 83 for show ip rsvp interface.

GSR1#show interfaces tunnel 4
Tunnel4 is up, line protocol is down
  Hardware is Routing Tunnel
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 9 Kbit, DLY 500000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
  Encapsulation TUNNEL, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
  Tunnel source 0.0.0.0, destination 0.0.0.0
  Tunnel protocol/transport GRE/IP, key disabled, sequencing disabled
  Last input never, output never, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Output queue 0/0, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
  Five minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  Five minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets, 0 restarts    

GSR1#show ip rsvp interface pos4/0
interface    allocated  i/f max  flow max sub max 
PO4/0        300K       466500K  466500K  0M 

To view all tunnels at once on the router you have configured, enter show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief. The information displayed when tunnels are functioning properly looks like this (a table explaining the display fields begins on page 109):

GSR1#show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief
Signalling Summary:
LSP Tunnels Process:           running
RSVP Process:                  running
Forwarding:                    enabled
Periodic reoptimization:       every 3600 seconds, next in 3029 seconds
TUNNEL NAME 	DESTINATION      UP IF     DOWN IF   STATE/PROT
GSR1_t0 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/up     
GSR1_t1 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/up     
GSR1_t2 	192.168.1.13     -         PO4/0     up/up     
Displayed 3 (of 3) heads, 0 (of 0) midpoints, 0 (of 0) tails

When one or more tunnels is not functioning properly, the display could instead look like this. (In the following example, tunnels t0 and t1 are down, as indicated in the far right column).

GSR1#show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief
Signalling Summary:
    LSP Tunnels Process:           running
    RSVP Process:                  running
    Forwarding:                    enabled
    Periodic reoptimization:       every 3600 seconds, next in 2279 seconds
TUNNEL NAME 	DESTINATION      UP IF     DOWN IF   STATE/PROT
GSR1_t0 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/down 
GSR1_t1 	192.168.1.13     -         SR3/0     up/down 
GSR1_t2 	192.168.1.13     -         PO4/0     up/up 
Displayed 3 (of 3) heads, 0 (of 0) midpoints, 0 (of 0) tails

To find out why a tunnel is down, insert its name into this same command, after adding the keyword name and omitting the keyword brief. For example:

GSR1#show mpls traffic-eng tunnels name GSR1_t0 
Name:GSR1_t0                            (Tunnel0) Destination:192.168.1.13
  Status:
    Admin:up         Oper:down 	Path: not valid       Signalling:connected

If, as in this example, the Path is displayed as not valid, use the show mpls traffic-eng topology command to make sure the router has received the needed updates. (That command is described on page 106.)

Additionally, you can use any of the following show commands to inspect particular aspects of the network, router, or interface concerned:

To see information about...
Use this command
this level
and this item...

Network

Advertised bandwidth allocation information

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements (described on page 94)

Preemptions along the tunnel path

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption (described on page 124)

Available TE link band- width on all head routers

show mpls traffic-eng topology (described on page 106)

Router

Status of all tunnels cur- rently signalled by this router

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control (described on page 92)

Tunnels configured on midpoint routers

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary
(described on page 104)

Interface

Detailed information on current bandwidth pools

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation [interface-name]
(described on page 97)

TE RSVP bookkeeping

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces
(described on page 102

Entire configuration of one interface

show run interface


Configuration Examples

First this section presents the DS-TE configurations needed to create the sub-pool tunnel. Then it presents the more comprehensive design for building end-to-end guaranteed bandwidth service, which involves configuring Quality of Service as well.

As shown in Figure 1, the tunnel configuration involves at least three devices—tunnel head, midpoint, and tail. On each of those devices one or two network interfaces must be configured, for traffic ingress and egress.

Figure 1 Sample Tunnel Topology

Tunnel Head

At the device level:

router-1# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.

router-1(config)# ip cef distributed
router-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-1(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-1(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0010.00
redistribute connected
router-1(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-1(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 22.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-1(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]
router-1(config)# interface Loopback0

At the virtual interface level:

router-1(config-if)# ip address 22.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-1(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface POS2/0/0

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel1

At the tunnel interface level:

router-1(config-if)# bandwidth 110000
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 24.1.1.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 30000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 dynamic
router-1(config-if)# exit
router-1(config)# 

Midpoint Devices

At the device level:

router-2# configure terminal
router-2(config)# ip cef distributed
router-2(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-2(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-2(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0012.00
redistribute connected
router-2(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 11.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 12.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 25.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-2(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]
router-2(config)# interface Loopback0

At the virtual interface level:

router-2(config-if)# ip address 25.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-2(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
router-2(config-if)# exit
At the device level: 
router-1(config)# interface POS4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 11.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000

[If using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:

router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level: 
router-1(config)# interface POS4/1
router-1(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000

[If using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:

router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

Note that there is no configuring of tunnel interfaces at the mid-point devices, only network interfaces and the device globally.

Tail-End Device

At the device level:

router-3# configure terminal
router-3(config)# ip cef distributed
router-3(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-3(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-3(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0013.00
redistribute connected
router-3(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 12.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 24.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-3(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-3(config-router)# exit
[now one resumes the common command set]
router-3(config)# interface Loopback0

At the virtual interface level:

router-3(config-if)# ip address 24.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-3(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit
At the device level: 
router-1(config)# interface POS4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 130000 130000 sub-pool 80000

[If using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:

router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Configuration

Having configured two bandwidth pools, you now can

Use one pool, the sub-pool, for tunnels that carry traffic requiring strict bandwidth guarantees or delay guarantees

Use the other pool, the global pool, for tunnels that carry traffic requiring only Differentiated Service.

Having a separate pool for traffic requiring strict guarantees allows you to limit the amount of such traffic admitted on any given link. Often, it is possible to achieve strict QoS guarantees only if the amount of guaranteed traffic is limited to a portion of the total link bandwidth.

Having a separate pool for other traffic (best-effort or diffserv traffic) allows you to have a separate limit for the amount of such traffic admitted on any given link. This is useful because it allows you to fill up links with best-effort/diffserv traffic, thereby achieving a greater utilization of those links.

Providing Strict QoS Guarantees Using DS-TE Sub-pool Tunnels

A tunnel using sub-pool bandwidth can satisfy the stricter requirements if you do all of the following:

1. Select a queue—or in diffserv terminology, select a PHB (per-hop behavior)—to be used exclusively by the strict guarantee traffic. This shall be called the "GB queue."

If delay/jitter guarantees are sought, the diffserv Expedited Forwarding queue (EF PHB) is used. On the Cisco 7500(VIP) it is the "priority" queue. You must configure the bandwidth of the queue to be at least equal to the bandwidth of the sub-pool.

If only bandwidth guarantees are sought, the diffserv Assured Forwarding PHB (AF PHB) is used. On the Cisco 7500 (VIP) you use one of the existing Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) queues.

2. Ensure that the guaranteed traffic sent through the sub-pool tunnel is placed in the GB queue at the outbound interface of every tunnel hop, and that no other traffic is placed in this queue.

You do this by marking the traffic that enters the tunnel with a unique value in the mpls exp bits field, and steering only traffic with that marking into the GB queue.

3. Ensure that this GB queue is never oversubscribed; that is, see that no more traffic is sent into the sub-pool tunnel than the GB queue can handle.

You do this by rate-limiting the guaranteed traffic before it enters the sub-pool tunnel. The aggregate rate of all traffic entering the sub-pool tunnel should be less than or equal to the bandwidth capacity of the sub-pool tunnel. Excess traffic can be dropped (in the case of delay/jitter guarantees) or can be marked differently for preferential discard (in the case of bandwidth guarantees).

4. Ensure that the amount of traffic entering the GB queue is limited to an appropriate percentage of the total bandwidth of the corresponding outbound link. The exact percentage to use depends on several factors that can contribute to accumulated delay in your network: your QoS performance objective, the total number of tunnel hops, the amount of link fan-in along the tunnel path, burstiness of the input traffic, and so on.

You do this by setting the sub-pool bandwidth of each outbound link to the appropriate percentage of the total link bandwidth (that is, by adjusting the z parameter of the ip rsvp bandwidth command).

Providing Differentiated Service Using DS-TE Global Pool Tunnels

You can configure a tunnel using global pool bandwidth to carry best-effort as well as several other classes of traffic. Traffic from each class can receive differentiated service if you do all of the following:

1. Select a separate queue (a distinct diffserv PHB) for each traffic class. For example, if there are three classes (gold, silver, and bronze) there must be three queues (diffserv AF2, AF3, and AF4).

2. Mark each class of traffic using a unique value in the MPLS experimental bits field (for example gold = 4, silver = 5, bronze = 6).

3. Ensure that packets marked as Gold are placed in the gold queue, Silver in the silver queue, and so on. The tunnel bandwidth is set based on the expected aggregate traffic across all classes of service.

To control the amount of diffserv tunnel traffic you intend to support on a given link, adjust the size of the global pool on that link.

Providing Strict Guarantees and Differentiated Service in the Same Network

Because DS-TE allows simultaneous constraint-based routing of sub-pool and global pool tunnels, strict guarantees and diffserv can be supported simultaneously in a given network.

Guaranteed Bandwidth Service Examples

Given the many topologies in which Guaranteed Bandwidth Services can be applied, there is space here only to present two examples. They illustrate opposite ends of the spectrum of possibilities.

In the first example, the guaranteed bandwidth tunnel can be easily specified by its destination. So the forwarding criteria refer to a single destination prefix.

In the second example, there can be many final destinations for the guaranteed bandwidth traffic, including a dynamically changing number of destination prefixes. So the forwarding criteria are specified by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) policies.

Example with Single Destination Prefix

Figure 2 illustrates a topology for guaranteed bandwidth services whose destination is specified by a single prefix, either Site D (like a voice gateway, here bearing prefix 26.1.1.1) or a subnet (like the location of a web farm, here called "Province" and bearing prefix 26.1.1.0). Three services are offered:

From Site A (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE4/1/0): to host 26.1.1.1, 8 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth with low loss, low delay and low jitter

From Site B (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE4/1/1): towards subnet 26.1.1.0, 32 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth with low loss

From Site C (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE2/1/0): 30 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth with low loss

Figure 2 Sample Topology for Guaranteed Bandwidth Services to a Single Destination Prefix

These three services run through two sub-pool tunnels:

From the Head-1 router, 23.1.1.1, to the router-4 tail

From the Head-2 router, 22.1.1.1, to the router-4 tail

Both tunnels use the same tail router, though they have different heads. (In Figure 2 one midpoint router is shared by both tunnels. In the real world there could of course be many more midpoints.)

All POS interfaces in this example are OC3, whose capacity is 155 Mbps.

Configuring Tunnel Head-1

First we recapitulate commands that establish two bandwidth pools and a sub-pool tunnel (as presented earlier in this Configuration Examples section). Then we present the QoS commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the subpool tunnel. (With the 7500 router, Modular QoS CLI is used.)

Configuring the Pools and Tunnel

At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip cef distributed
router-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-1(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-1(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0010.00
redistribute connected
router-1(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-1(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 23.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-1(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-1(config)# interface Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 23.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-1(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-1(config)# interface pos4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases}:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the tunnel interface:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel1
router-1(config-if)# bandwidth 110000
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 27.1.1.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 40000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 dynamic

To ensure that packets destined to host 26.1.1.1 and subnet 26.1.1.0 are sent into the sub-pool tunnel, we create a static route. At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip route 26.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel1
router-1(config)# exit

And in order to make sure that the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) will not send any other traffic down this tunnel, we disable autoroute announce:

router-1(config)# no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

For Service from Site A to Site D

At the inbound physical interface (FE4/1/0):

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching ACL 100, called "sla-1-class":

class-map match-all sla-1-class
match access-group 100

2. Create an ACL 100 to refer to all packets destined to 26.1.1.1:

access-list 100 permit ip any host 26.1.1.1

3. Create a policy named "sla-1-input-policy", and according to that policy:

a. Packets in the class called "sla-1-class" are rate-limited to:

- a rate of 8 million bits per second

- a normal burst of 1 million bytes

- a maximum burst of 2 million bytes

b. Packets which conform to this rate are marked with MPLS experimental bit 5 and are forwarded.

c. Packets which exceed this rate are dropped.

d. All other packets are marked with experimental bit 0 and are forwarded.

policy-map sla-1-input-policy
class sla-1-class
police 8000000 1000000 2000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 \ 
exceed-action drop
class class-default
set-mpls-exp-transmit 0

4. The policy is applied to packets entering interface FE4/1/0.

interface FastEthernet4/1/0
service-policy input sla-1-input-policy

For Service from Site B to Subnet "Province"

At the inbound physical interface (FE4/1/1):

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching ACL 120, called "sla-2-class":

class-map match-all sla-2-class
match access-group 120

2. Create an ACL, 120, to refer to all packets destined to subnet 26.1.1.0:

access-list 120 permit ip any 26.1.1.0 0.0.0.255

3. Create a policy named "sla-2-input-policy", and according to that policy:

a. Packets in the class called "sla-2-class" are rate-limited to:

- a rate of 32 million bits per second

- a normal burst of 1 million bytes

- a maximum burst of 2 million bytes

b. Packets which conform to this rate are marked with MPLS experimental bit 5 and are forwarded.

c. Packets which exceed this rate are dropped.

d. All other packets are marked with experimental bit 0 and are forwarded.

policy-map sla-2-input-policy
class sla-2-class
police 32000000 1000000 2000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 \ 
exceed-action drop
class class-default
set-mpls-exp-transmit 0

4. The policy is applied to packets entering interface FE4/1/1.

interface FastEthernet4/1/1
service-policy input sla-2-input-policy

For Both Services

The outbound interface (POS4/0) is configured as follows:

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching experimental bit 5, called "exp-5-traffic".

class-map match-all exp-5-traffic
match mpls experimental 5

2. Create a policy named "output-interface-policy". According to that policy, packets in the class "exp-5-traffic" are put in the priority queue (which is rate-limited to 62 kbits/sec).

policy-map output-interface-policy
class exp-5-traffic
priority 32

3. The policy is applied to packets exiting interface POS4/0.

		 interface POS4/0
service-policy output output-interface-policy

The result of the above configuration lines is that packets entering the Head-1 router via interface FE4/1/0 destined to host 26.1.1.1, or entering the router via interface FE4/1/1 destined to subnet 26.1.1.0, will have their MPLS experimental bit set to 5. We assume that no other packets entering the router (on any interface) are using this value. (If this cannot be assumed, an additional configuration must be added to mark all such packets to another experimental value.) Packets marked with experimental bit 5, when exiting the router via interface POS4/0, will be placed into the priority queue.


Note Packets entering the router via FE4/1/0 or FE4/1/1 and exiting POS4/0 enter as IP packets and exit as MPLS packets.


Configuring Tunnel Head-2

First we recapitulate commands that establish two bandwidth pools and a sub-pool tunnel (as presented earlier in this Configuration Examples section). Then we present the QoS commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the sub-pool tunnel.

. Configuring the Pools and Tunnel

At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip cef distributed
router-2(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-2(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-2(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-2(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 11.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 22.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0
router-2(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0


:

router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-2(config)# interface Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 22.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-2(config-if)# no ip directed broadcast
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-2(config)# interface pos0/0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-2(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-2(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-2(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the tunnel interface:

router-2(config)# interface Tunnel2
router-2(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel destination 27.1.1.1
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 30000
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 dynamic
router-2(config-if)# exit

And to ensure that packets destined to subnet 26.1.1.0 are sent into the sub-pool tunnel, we create a static route, at the device level:

router-2(config)# ip route 26.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 Tunnel2
router-2(config)# exit

Finally, in order to make sure that the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) will not send any other traffic down this tunnel, we disable autoroute announce:

router-2(config)# no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

For Service from Site C to Subnet "Province"

At the inbound physical interface (FE2/1/0):

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching ACL 130, called "sla-3-class":

class-map match-all sla-3-class
match access-group 130

2. Create an ACL, 130, to refer to all packets destined to subnet 26.1.1.0:

access-list 130 permit ip any 26.1.1.0 0.0.0.255

3. Create a policy named "sla-3-input-policy", and according to that policy:

a. Packets in the class called "sla-3-class" are rate-limited to:

- a rate of 30 million bits per second

- a normal burst of 1 million bytes

- a maximum burst of 2 million bytes

b. Packets which conform to this rate are marked with MPLS experimental bit 5 and are forwarded.

c. Packets which exceed this rate are dropped.

d. All other packets are marked with experimental bit 0 and are forwarded.

policy-map sla-3-input-policy
class sla-3-class
police 30000000 1000000 2000000 conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 \ 
exceed-action drop
class class-default
set-mpls-exp-transmit 0

4. The policy is applied to packets entering interface FE2/1/0.

interface FastEthernet2/1/0
service-policy input sla-3-input-policy
 
   

The outbound interface POS0/0 is configured as follows:

1. In global configuration mode, create a class of traffic matching experimental bit 5, called "exp-5-traffic".

class-map match-all exp-5-traffic
match mpls experimental 5

2. Create a policy named "output-interface-policy". According to that policy, packets in the class "exp-5-traffic" are put in the priority queue (which is rate-limited to 32 kbits/sec).

policy-map output-interface-policy
class exp-5-traffic
priority 32

3. The policy is applied to packets exiting interface POS0/0:

interface POS0/0
service-policy output output-interface-policy

As a result of all the above configuration lines, packets entering the Head-2 router via interface FE2/1/0 and destined for subnet 26.1.1.0 have their IP precedence field set to 5. It is assumed that no other packets entering this router (on any interface) are using this precedence. (If this cannot be assumed, an additional configuration must be added to mark all such packets with another precedence value.) When exiting this router via interface POS0/0, packets marked with precedence 5 are placed in the priority queue.


Note Packets entering the router via FE2/1/0 and exiting through POS0/0 enter as IP packets and exit as MPLS packets.


Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

All four interfaces on the midpoint router are configured identically to the outbound interface of the head router (except, of course, for the IDs of the individual interfaces):

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-3(config)# ip cef distributed 
router-3(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-3(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-3(config-router)# net 49.0000.2400.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-3(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 11.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 24.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-3(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
network 12.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
network 13.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-3(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-3(config)# interface Loopback0
router-3(config-if)# ip address 24.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-3(config)# interface pos2/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

router-3(config)# interface pos1/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 11.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-3(config)# interface pos3/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

router-3(config)# interface pos4/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 13.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Both interfaces on the midpoint router are configured identically to the outbound interface of the head router (except, of course, for the IDs of the individual interfaces):

Configuring the Pools and Tunnel

At the device level:

router-5(config)# ip cef distributed 
router-5(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-5(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-5(config-router)# net 49.2500.1000.0000.0012.00
redistribute connected
router-5(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 13.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 14.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 25.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-5(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-5(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set] 

Create a virtual interface:

router-5(config)# interface Loopback0
router-5(config-if)# ip address 25.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-5(config)# interface pos1/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 13.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-5(config)# interface pos2/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 14.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Tail Configuration

The inbound interfaces on the tail router are configured identically to the inbound interfaces of the midpoint routers (except, of course, for the ID of each particular interface):

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-4(config)# ip cef distributed
router-4(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-4(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-4(config-router)# net 49.0000.2700.0000.0000.00
redistribute connected
router-4(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 12.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 14.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 27.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-4(config-router)# passive-interface Loopback0
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-4(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-4(config)# interface Loopback0
router-4(config-if)# ip address 27.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-4(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface (ingress):

router-4(config)# interface pos2/1
router-4(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

router-4(config)# interface pos2/2
router-4(config-if)# ip address 14.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

Because the tunnel ends on the tail (does not include any outbound interfaces of the tail router), no outbound QoS configuration is used.

Example with Many Destination Prefixes

Figure 3 illustrates a topology for guaranteed bandwidth services whose destinations are a set of prefixes. Those prefixes usually share some common properties such as belonging to the same Autonomous System (AS) or transiting through the same AS. Although the individual prefixes may change dynamically because of route flaps in the downstream autonomous systems, the properties the prefixes share will not change. Policies addressing the destination prefix set are enforced through Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which is described in the following documents:

"Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via Border Gateway Protocol" in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide, Release 12.1 (http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/qos_c/qcprt1/qcdprop.htm)

"Configuring BGP" in the Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Configuration Guide, Release 12.1 (http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/ip_c/ipcprt2/1cdbgp.htm)

"BGP Commands" in the Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Command Reference, Release 12.1 (http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/ip_r/iprprt2/1rdbgp.htm)

"BGP-Policy Command" in the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference, Release 12.1 (http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121cgcr/qos_r/qrdcmd1.htm
#xtocid89313)

In this example, three guaranteed bandwidth services are offered, each coming through a 7500 or a 12000 edge device:

Traffic coming from Site A (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE4/1/0) and from Site C (defined as all traffic arriving at interface FE2/1) destined to AS5

Traffic coming from Sites A and C that transits AS5 but is not destined to AS5. (In the figure, the transiting traffic will go to AS6 and AS7)

Traffic coming from Sites A and C destined to prefixes advertised with a particular BGP community attribute (100:1). In this example, Autonomous Systems #3, #5, and #8 are the BGP community assigned the attribute 100:1.

Figure 3 Sample Topology for Guaranteed Bandwidth Service to Many Destination Prefixes

The applicability of guaranteed bandwidth service is not limited to the three types of multiple destination scenarios described above. There is not room in this document to present all possible scenarios. These three were chosen as representative of the wide range of possible deployments.

The guaranteed bandwidth services run through two sub-pool tunnels:

From the Head-1 router, 23.1.1.1, to the tail

From the Head-2 router, 22.1.1.1, to that same tail

In addition, a global pool tunnel has been configured from each head end, to carry best-effort traffic to the same destinations. All four tunnels use the same tail router, even though they have different heads and differ in their passage through the midpoints. (Of course in the real world there would be many more midpoints than just the two shown here.)

All POS interfaces in this example are OC3, whose capacity is 155 Mbps.

Configuring a multi-destination guaranteed bandwidth service involves:

a. Building a sub-pool MPLS-TE tunnel

b. Configuring DiffServ QoS

c. Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP (QPPB)

d. Mapping traffic onto the tunnels

All of these tasks are included in the following example.

Configuration of Tunnel Head-1

First we recapitulate commands that establish a sub-pool tunnel (commands presented earlier on page 7) and now we also configure a global pool tunnel. Additionally, we present QoS and BGP commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the sub-pool tunnel. (With the 7500(VIP) router, Modular QoS CLI is used).

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip cef distributed
router-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-1(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-1(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0010.00
redistribute connected
router-1(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-1(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 23.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-1(config)# interface Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 23.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-1(config)# interface pos4/0
router-1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-1(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-1(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-1(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-1(config-if)# exit

At one tunnel interface, create a sub-pool tunnel:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel1
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 27.1.1.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 40000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name gbs-path1
router-1(config-if)# exit

and at a second tunnel interface, create a global pool tunnel:

router-1(config)# interface Tunnel2
router-1(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel destination 27.1.1.1
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 80000
router-1(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name \ 
best-effort-path1
router-1(config-if)# exit

In this example explicit paths are used instead of dynamic, to ensure that best-effort traffic and guaranteed bandwidth traffic will travel along different paths.

At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip explicit-path name gbs-path1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 24.1.1.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 27.1.1.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# exit
router-1(config)# ip explicit-path name best-effort-path1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 24.1.1.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 25.1.1.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 27.1.1.1
router-1(config-ip-expl-path)# exit

Note that autoroute is not used, as that could cause the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) to send other traffic down these tunnels.

Configuring DiffServ QoS

At the inbound physical interface (in Figure 3 this is FE4/1/0), packets received are rate-limited to:

a. a rate of 30 Mbps

b. a normal burst of 1 MB

c. a maximum burst of 2 MB

Packets that are mapped to qos-group 6 and that conform to the rate-limit are marked with experimental value 5 and the BGP destination community string, and are forwarded; packets that do not conform (exceed action) are dropped:

router-1(config)# interface FastEthernet4/1/0
router-1(config-if)# rate-limit input qos-group 6 30000000 1000000 2000000 \ 
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
router-1(config-if)# bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level create a class of traffic called "exp5-class" that has MPLS experimental bit set to 5:

router-1(config)# class-map match-all exp5-class
router-1(config-cmap)# match mpls experimental 5
router-1(config-cmap)# exit

Create a policy that creates a priority queue for "exp5-class":

router-1(config)# policy-map core-out-policy
router-1(config-pmap)# class exp5-class
router-1(config-pmap-c)# priority 100000
router-1(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-1(config-pmap)# class class-default
router-1(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 55000
router-1(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-1(config-pmap)# exit

The policy is applied to packets exiting the outbound interface POS4/0.

router-1(config)# interface POS4/0
router-1(config-if)# service-policy output core-out-policy

Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

For All GB Services

Create a table map under BGP to map (tie) the prefixes to a qos-group. At the device level:

router-1(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
router-1(config)# router bgp 2
router-1(config-router)# no synchronization
router-1(config-router)# table-map set-qos-group
router-1(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
router-1(config-router)# neighbor 27.1.1.1 remote-as 2
router-1(config-router)# neighbor 27.1.1.1 update-source Loopback0
router-1(config-router)# no auto-summary
router-1(config-router)# exit

For GB Service Destined to AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. This includes setting the next-hop of packets matching 29.1.1.1 so they will be mapped onto Tunnel #1 (the guaranteed bandwidth service tunnel). At the device level:

router-1(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-1(config-route-map)# match as-path 100
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 29.1.1.1
router-1(config-route-map)# exit
router-1(config)# ip as-path access-list 100 permit ^5$

For GB Service Transiting through AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. (Its traffic will go to AS6 and AS7).

At the device level:

router-1(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-1(config-route-map)# match as-path 101
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 29.1.1.1
router-1(config-route-map)# exit
router-1(config)# ip as-path access-list 101 permit _5_

For GB Service Destined to Community 100:1

Create a distinct route map for all traffic destined to prefixes that have community value 100:1. This traffic will go to AS3, AS5, and AS8.

At the device level:

router-1(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-1(config-route-map)# match community 20
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-1(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 29.1.1.1
router-1(config-route-map)# exit
router-1(config)# ip community-list 20 permit 100:1

Mapping Traffic onto the Tunnels

Map all guaranteed bandwidth traffic onto Tunnel #1:

router-1(config)# ip route 29.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel1

Map all best-effort traffic onto Tunnel #2:

router-1(config)# ip route 30.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel2

Configuration of Tunnel Head-2

As with the Head-1 device and interfaces, the following Head-2 configuration first presents commands that establish a sub-pool tunnel (commands presented earlier on page 7) and then also configures a global pool tunnel. After that it presents QoS and BGP commands that guarantee end-to-end service on the sub-pool tunnel. (Because this is a 7500 (VIP) router, Modular QoS CLI is used).

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip cef distributed
router-2(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-2(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-2(config-router)# net 49.0000.1000.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-2(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 11.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-2(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 22.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-2(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-2(config)# interface Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 22.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-2(config-if)# exit

At the outgoing physical interface:

router-2(config)# interface pos0/0
router-2(config-if)# ip address 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-2(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-2(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 60000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-2(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-2(config-if)# exit

At one tunnel interface, create a sub-pool tunnel:

router-2(config)# interface Tunnel3
router-2(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel destination 27.1.1.1
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth sub-pool 30000
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name gbs-path2
router-2(config-if)# exit

and at a second tunnel interface, create a global pool tunnel:

router-2(config)# interface Tunnel4
router-2(config-if)# ip unnumbered Loopback0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel destination 27.1.1.1
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 0 0
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth 70000
router-2(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name \ 
best-effort-path2
router-2(config-if)# exit

In this example explicit paths are used instead of dynamic, to ensure that best-effort traffic and guaranteed bandwidth traffic will travel along different paths.

At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip explicit-path name gbs-path2
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 24.1.1.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 27.1.1.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# exit
router-2(config)# ip explicit-path name best-effort-path2
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 24.1.1.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 25.1.1.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# next-address 27.1.1.1
router-2(config-ip-expl-path)# exit

Note that autoroute is not used, as that could cause the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) to send other traffic down these tunnels.

Configuring DiffServ QoS

At the inbound physical interface (in Figure 3 this is FE2/1), packets received are rate-limited to:

a. a rate of 30 Mbps

b. a normal burst of 1 MB

c. a maximum burst of 2 MB

Packets that are mapped to qos-group 6 and that conform to the rate-limit are marked with experimental value 5 and the BGP destination community string, and are forwarded; packets that do not conform (exceed action) are dropped:

router-2(config)# interface FastEthernet2/1
router-2(config-if)# rate-limit input qos-group 6 30000000 1000000 2000000 \ 
conform-action set-mpls-exp-transmit 5 exceed-action drop
router-2(config-if)# bgp-policy destination ip-qos-map
router-1(config-if)# exit

At the device level create a class of traffic called "exp5-class" that has MPLS experimental bit set to 5:

router-2(config)# class-map match-all exp5-class
router-2(config-cmap)# match mpls experimental 5
router-2(config-cmap)# exit

Create a policy that creates a priority queue for "exp5-class":

router-2(config)# policy-map core-out-policy
router-2(config-pmap)# class exp5-class
router-2(config-pmap-c)# priority 100000
router-2(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-2(config-pmap)# class class-default
router-2(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 55000
router-2(config-pmap-c)# exit
router-2(config-pmap)# exit

The policy is applied to packets exiting interface POS0/0:

interface POS0/0
service-policy output core-out-policy

As a result of all the above configuration lines, packets entering the Head-2 router via interface FE2/1 and destined for AS5, BGP community 100:1, or transiting AS5 will have their experimental field set to 5. It is assumed that no other packets entering this router (on any interface) are using this exp bit value. (If this cannot be assumed, an additional configuration must be added to mark all such packets with another experimental value.) When exiting this router via interface POS0/0, packets marked with experimental value 5 are placed into the priority queue.


Note Packets entering the router via FE2/1 and exiting through POS0/0 enter as IP packets and exit as MPLS packets.


Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

For All GB Services

Create a table map under BGP to map (tie) the prefixes to a qos-group. At the device level:

router-2(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
router-2(config)# router bgp 2
router-2(config-router)# no synchronization
router-2(config-router)# table-map set-qos-group
router-2(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
router-2(config-router)# neighbor 27.1.1.1 remote-as 2
router-2(config-router)# neighbor 27.1.1.1 update-source Loopback0
router-2(config-router)# no auto-summary
router-2(config-router)# exit

For GB Service Destined to AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. This includes setting the next-hop of packets matching 29.1.1.1 so they will be mapped onto Tunnel #3 (the guaranteed bandwidth service tunnel). At the device level:

router-2(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-2(config-route-map)# match as-path 100
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 29.1.1.1
router-2(config-route-map)# exit
router-2(config)# ip as-path access-list 100 permit ^5$

For GB Service Transiting through AS5

Create a distinct route map for this service. (Its traffic will go to AS6 and AS7).

At the device level:

router-2(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-2(config-route-map)# match as-path 101
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 29.1.1.1
router-2(config-route-map)# exit
router-2(config)# ip as-path access-list 101 permit _5_

For GB Service Destined to Community 100:1

Create a distinct route map for all traffic destined to prefixes that have community value 100:1. This traffic will go to AS3, AS5, and AS8.

At the device level:

router-2(config)# route-map set-qos-group permit 10
router-2(config-route-map)# match community 20
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip qos-group 6
router-2(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 29.1.1.1
router-2(config-route-map)# exit
router-2(config)# ip community-list 20 permit 100:1

Mapping the Traffic onto the Tunnels

Map all guaranteed bandwidth traffic onto Tunnel #3:

router-2(config)# ip route 29.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel3

Map all best-effort traffic onto Tunnel #4:

router-2(config)# ip route 30.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel4

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-1]

All four interfaces on the midpoint router are configured very much like the outbound interface of the head router. The strategy is to have all mid-point routers in this Autonomous System ready to carry future as well as presently configured sub-pool and global pool tunnels.

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-3(config)# ip cef distributed
router-3(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-3(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-3(config-router)# net 49.0000.2400.0000.0011.00
redistribute connected
router-3(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 11.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 24.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
network 12.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
network 13.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-3(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-3(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-3(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-3(config)# interface Loopback0
router-3(config-if)# ip address 24.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-3(config)# interface pos2/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

router-3(config)# interface pos1/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 11.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress), through which two sub-pool tunnels currently exit:

router-3(config)# interface pos3/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress), through which two global pool tunnels currently exit:

router-3(config)# interface pos4/1
router-3(config-if)# ip address 13.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-3(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-3(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-3(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-3(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Midpoint Configuration [Mid-2]

Both interfaces on this midpoint router are configured like the outbound interfaces of the Mid-1 router.

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-5(config)# ip cef distributed
router-5(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right]

router-5(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-5(config-router)# net 49.2500.1000.0000.0012.00
redistribute connected
router-5(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 13.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 14.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 25.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-5(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-5(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-5(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-5(config)# interface Loopback0
router-5(config-if)# ip address 25.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (ingress):

router-5(config)# interface pos1/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 13.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface level (egress):

router-5(config)# interface pos2/1
router-5(config-if)# ip address 14.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
router-5(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-5(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-5(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-5(config-if)# exit

Tunnel Tail Configuration

The inbound interfaces on the tail router are configured much like the outbound interfaces of the midpoint routers:

Configuring the Pools and Tunnels

At the device level:

router-4(config)# ip cef distributed
router-4(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

[now one uses either the IS-IS commands on the left or the OSPF commands on the right. In the case of OSPF, one must advertise two new loopback interfaces—29.1.1.1 and 30.1.1.1 in our example—which are defined in the QoS Policy Propagation section, further along on this page]

router-4(config)# router isis
router ospf 100
router-4(config-router)# net 49.0000.2700.0000.0000.00
redistribute connected
router-4(config-router)# metric-style wide
network 12.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# is-type level-1
network 14.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1
network 27.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-4(config-router)#
network 29.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-4(config-router)#
network 30.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0
router-4(config-router)#
mpls traffic-eng area 0

:

router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback1
router-4(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback2
router-4(config-router)# exit

[now one resumes the common command set]

Create a virtual interface:

router-4(config)# interface Loopback0
router-4(config-if)# ip address 27.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
router-4(config-if)# exit

At the physical interface (ingress):

router-4(config)# interface pos2/1
router-4(config-if)# ip address 12.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

router-4(config)# interface pos2/2
router-4(config-if)# ip address 14.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
router-4(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels
router-4(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth 140000 140000 sub-pool 70000
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

Configuring QoS Policy Propagation

On the tail device, one must configure a separate virtual loopback IP address for each class-of-service terminating here. The headend routers need these addresses to map traffic into the proper tunnels. In the current example, four tunnels terminate on the same tail device but they represent only two service classes, so only two additional loopback addresses are needed:

Create two virtual interfaces:

router-4(config)# interface Loopback1
router-4(config-if)# ip address 29.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit
router-4(config)# interface Loopback2
router-4(config-if)# ip address 30.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
[and if using IS-IS instead of OSPF]:
router-4(config-if)# ip router isis
[and in all cases]:
router-4(config-if)# exit

At the device level, configure BGP to send the community to each tunnel head:

router-4(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
router-4(config)# router bgp 2
router-4(config-router)# neighbor 23.1.1.1 send-community
router-4(config-router)# neighbor 22.1.1.1 send-community
router-4(config-router)# exit

Command Reference

This section documents commands that configure guaranteed bandwidth services using DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering tunnels. Besides the fundamental commands that were presented in the Configuration Tasks and Configuration Examples sections, we have included here advanced commands that enable you to fine-tune the behavior of traffic engineering tunnels.

interface

ip cef

ip router isis

ip rsvp bandwidth

is-type

metric-style wide

mpls traffic-eng

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

mpls traffic-eng area

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

mpls traffic-eng router-id

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (configuration)

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface)

net

passive-interface

router isis

router ospf

show interfaces tunnel

show ip ospf

show ip route

show ip rsvp host

show ip rsvp interface

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

show mpls traffic-eng topology

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

tunnel destination

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

interface

Use the interface global configuration command to configure an interface type and enter interface configuration mode.

interface type number

Cisco 7200 Series and Cisco 7500 Series with a Packet over SONET Interface Processor

interface type slot/port

Cisco 7500 Series with Ports on VIP Cards

interface [type slot/port-adapter/port] [ethernet | serial]

Cisco 7500 Series with Channelized T1 or E1

interface serial slot/port:channel-group

Cisco 4000 Series with Channelized T1 or E1 and the Cisco MC3810

interface serial number:channel-group

Cisco 7500 Series with Ports on VIP Cards (subinterface , global configuration)

interface type slot/port-adapter/port.subinterface-number {multipoint | point-to-point}

Cisco 7200 Series (subinterface , global configuration)

interface type slot/port.subinterface-number {multipoint | point-to-point}

Cisco 7500 Series (subinterface , global configuration)

interface type slot/port-adapter.subinterface-number {multipoint | point-to-point}

Syntax Description

type

Type of interface to be configured. See Table 1.

number

Port, connector, or interface card number. On a Cisco 4000 series router, specifies the NPM number. The numbers are assigned at the factory at the time of installation or when added to a system, and can be displayed with the show interfaces command.

slot

Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for slot and port information.

port

Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for slot and port information.

port-adapter

Refer to the appropriate hardware manual for information about port adapter compatibility.

:channel-group

The Cisco 4000 series routers specifies the T1 channel group number in the range of 0 to 23 defined with the channel-group controller configuration command. On a dual port card, it is possible to run channelized on one port and primary rate on the other port.

The Cisco MC3810 specifies the T1/E1 channel group number in the range of 0 to 23 defined with the channel-group controller configuration command.

.subinterface-number

Subinterface number in the range 1 to 4294967293. The number that precedes the period (.) must match the number to which this subinterface belongs.

multipoint | point-to-point

(Optional) Specifies a multipoint or point-to-point subinterface. There is no default.


Defaults

No interface types are configured.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced for the Cisco 7000 series routers.

11.0

This command was introduced for the Cisco 4000 series routers.

11.2

This command was changed to change the posi keyword to pos.

11.3

This command was changed.

12.0

This command was changed to add the switch keyword.


Usage Guidelines

Subinterfaces can be configured to support partially meshed Frame Relay networks. Refer to the part entitled "Configuring Serial Interfaces" in the Cisco IOS Interface Configuration Guide.

There is no correlation between the number of the physical serial interface and the number of the logical LAN Extender interface. These interfaces can have the same or different numbers.

Table 1 interface Type Keywords 

Keyword
Interface Type

async

Port line used as an asynchronous interface.

atm

ATM interface.

bri

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (BRI). This interface configuration is propagated to each of the B channels. B channels cannot be individually configured. The interface must be configured with dial-on-demand commands in order for calls to be placed on that interface.

dialer

Dialer interface.

ethernet

Ethernet IEEE 802.3 interface.

fastethernet

100-Mbps Ethernet interface on the Cisco 4500, Cisco 4700, Cisco 7000 and Cisco 7500 series routers.

fddi

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).

group-async

Master asynchronous interface.

hssi

High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI).

lex

LAN Extender (LEX) interface.

loopback

Software-only loopback interface that emulates an interface that is always up. It is a virtual interface supported on all platforms. The interface-number is the number of the loopback interface that you want to create or configure. There is no limit on the number of loopback interfaces you can create.

null

Null interface.

port-channel

Port channel interface

pos

Packet OC-3 interface on the Packet over SONET Interface Processor

serial

Serial interface.

switch

Switch interface

tokenring

Token Ring interface.

tunnel

Tunnel interface; a virtual interface. The number is the number of the tunnel interface that you want to create or configure. There is no limit on the number of tunnel interfaces you can create.

vg-anylan

100VG-AnyLAN port adapter


Examples

The following example configures serial interface 0 with PPP encapsulation:

interface serial 0 
 encapsulation ppp

The following example enables loopback mode and assigns an IP network address and network mask to the interface. The loopback interface established here will always appear to be up:

interface loopback 0 
 ip address 131.108.1.1 255.255.255.0

The following example for the Cisco 7500 series router shows the interface configuration command for Ethernet port 4 on the EIP that is installed in (or recently removed from) slot 2:

interface ethernet 2/4

The following example begins configuration on the Token Ring interface processor in slot 1 on
port 0 of a Cisco 7500 series routers:

interface tokenring 1/0

The following example shows how a partially meshed Frame Relay network can be configured. In this example, subinterface serial 0.1 is configured as a multipoint subinterface with three Frame Relay PVCs associated, and subinterface serial 0.2 is configured as a point-to-point subinterface.

interface serial 0
 encapsulation frame-relay
interface serial 0.1 multipoint
 ip address 131.108.10.1 255.255.255.0
 frame-relay interface-dlci 42 broadcast
 frame-relay interface-dlci 53 broadcast
interface serial 0.2 point-to-point
 ip address 131.108.11.1 255.255.0
 frame-relay interface-dlci 59 broadcast

The following example configures circuit 0 of a T1 link for Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) encapsulation:

controller t1 4/1
circuit 0 1
interface serial 4/1:0
 ip address 131.108.13.1 255.255.255.0
 encapsulation ppp

The following example configures LAN Extender interface 0:

interface lex 0

Related Commands

Command
Description

controller 

Configures a T1 or E1 controller and enters controller configuration mode.

mac-address

Sets the MAC layer address of the Cisco Token Ring.

ppp

Starts an asynchronous connection using PPP.

show interfaces

Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router or access server.

slip

Starts a serial connection to a remote host using SLIP.


ip cef

To enable Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) on the route processor card, use the ip cef global configuration command. To disable CEF, use the no form of this command.

ip cef [distributed]

no ip cef [distributed]

Syntax Description

distributed

(Optional) Enables distributed CEF (dCEF) operation. Distributes CEF information to line cards. Line cards perform express forwarding.


Defaults

On this platform...
The default is...

Cisco 7000 series equipped with RSP7000

CEF is not enabled.

Cisco 7200 series

CEF is not enabled.

Cisco 7500 series

CEF is enabled.

Cisco 12000 series Gigabit Switch Router

Distributed CEF is enabled.


Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

11.1 CC

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command is not available on the Cisco 12000 series GSR because that router series operates only in distributed CEF mode.

CEF is advanced Layer 3 IP switching technology. CEF optimizes network performance and scalability for networks with dynamic, topologically dispersed traffic patterns, such as those associated with Web-based applications and interactive sessions.

Examples

The following example enables standard CEF operation:

ip cef

The following example enables dCEF operation:

ip cef distributed 

Related Commands

Command
Description

ip route-cache cef

Reenables disabled CEF or DCEF operation on an interface.


ip router isis

To configure an IS-IS routing process for IP on an interface, use the ip router isis interface configuration command. To disable IS-IS for IP, use the no form of this command.

ip router isis [tag]

no ip router isis [tag]

Syntax Description

tag

(Optional) Defines a meaningful name for a routing process. If not specified, a null tag is assumed. It must be unique among all IP router processes for a given router. Use the same text for the argument tag as specified in the router isis global configuration command.


Defaults

No routing processes are specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Before the IS-IS router process is useful, a NET must be assigned with the net command and some interfaces must be enabled with IS-IS.

If you have IS-IS running and at least one ISO-IGRP process, the IS-IS process and the ISO-IGRP process cannot both be configured without a tag. The null tag can be used by only one process. Therefore, if you do not use ISO-IGRP, the IS-IS tag should be null. If you run ISO-IGRP and IS-IS, a null tag can still be used for IS-IS, but not for ISO-IGRP at the same time.

Examples

The following example specifies IS-IS as an IP routing protocol for a process named Finance, and specifies that the Finance process will be routed on interfaces Ethernet 0 and serial 0:

router isis Finance
 net 49.0001.aaaa.aaaa.aaaa.00
interface Ethernet 0
 ip router isis Finance
interface serial 0
 ip router isis Finance

Related Commands

Command
Description

net

Configures an IS-IS network entity title (NET) for the routing process.

router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol.


ip rsvp bandwidth

To enable Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) for IP on an interface, use the ip rsvp bandwidth interface configuration command. To disable RSVP completely, use the no form of this command. To eliminate only the sub-pool portion of the bandwidth, use the no form of this command with the keyword sub-pool.

ip rsvp bandwidth interface-kbps single-flow-kbps [sub-pool kbps]

no ip rsvp bandwidth interface-kbps single-flow-kbps [sub-pool kbps]

Syntax Description

interface-kbps

Amount of bandwidth (in kbps) on interface to be reserved. The range is 1 to 10000000.

single-flow-kbps

Amount of bandwidth (in kbps) allocated to a single flow. [Ignored in DS-TE]. The range is 1 to 10000000.

sub-pool kbps

Amount of bandwidth (in kbps) on interface to be reserved to a portion of the total. The range is from 1 to the value of interface-kbps.


Defaults

RSVP is disabled if this command is not entered. When enabled without the optional arguments, RSVP is enabled and 75 percent of the link bandwidth is reserved for it.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.

12.0(11)ST

Sub-pool option was added.

12.2(14)S

Command integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.


Usage Guidelines

RSVP cannot be configured with VIP-distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF).

RSVP is disabled by default to allow backward compatibility with systems that do not implement RSVP.

Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) or fair queueing must be enabled first.

Related Commands

Command
Description

fair-queue (WFQ)

Enables WFQ for an interface.

ip rsvp neighbor

Enables neighbors to request a reservation.

ip rsvp reservation

Enables a router to behave like it is receiving and forwarding RSVP RESV messages.

ip rsvp sender

Enables a router to behave like it is receiving and forwarding RSVP PATH messages.

ip rsvp udp-multicasts

Instructs the router to generate UDP-encapsulated RSVP multicasts whenever it generates an IP-encapsulated multicast packet.

random-detect (interface)

Enables WRED or DWRED.

show ip rsvp installed

Displays RSVP-related installed filters and corresponding bandwidth information.

show ip rsvp interface

Displays RSVP-related interface information.

show ip rsvp neighbor

Displays current RSVP neighbors.

show ip rsvp reservation

Displays RSVP-related receiver information currently in the database.

show ip rsvp sender

Displays RSVP PATH-related sender information currently in the database.


is-type

To configure the IS-IS level at which the Cisco IOS software operates, use the is-type router configuration command. To reset the default value, use the no form of this command.

is-type {level-1 | level-1-2 | level-2-only}

no is-type {level-1 | level-1-2 | level-2-only}

Syntax Description

level-1

Router acts as a station router. This router will only learn about destinations inside its area. For inter-area routing, it depends on the closest L1L2 router.

level-1-2

Router acts as both a station router and an area router. This router will run two instances of the routing algorithm. It will have one linkstate database (LSDB) for destinations inside the area (L1 routing) and run an SPF calculation to discover the area topology. It will also have another LSDB with LSPs of all other backbone (L2) routers and run another SPF calculation to discover the topology of the backbone, and the existence of all other areas.

level-2-only

Router acts as an area router only. This router is part of the backbone, and does not talk to L1-only routers in its own area.


Defaults

Router acts as both a station router and an area router.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.3

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

It is highly recommended that you configure the type of an IS-IS router.

If there is only one area, there is no need to run two copies of the same algorithm. You have the option to run L1-only or L2-only everywhere. If IS-IS is used for CLNS routing, L1-only must be used everywhere. If IS-IS is used for IP routing, only, it is slightly preferred to run L2-only everywhere, as this allows easy addition of other areas later.

Examples

The following example specifies an area router:

router isis 
 is-type level-2-only

metric-style wide

To configure a router running IS-IS so that it generates and accepts only new-style type, length, and value objects (TLVs), use the metric-style wide router configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

metric-style wide [ transition ] [ { level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2 } ]

no metric-style wide [ transition ] [ { level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2 } ]

Syntax Description

transition

(Optional) Instructs the router to accept both old- and new-style TLVs.

level-1

Enables this command on routing level 1.

level-2

Enables this command on routing level 2.

level-1-2

Enables this command on routing levels 1 and 2.


Defaults

The MPLS traffic engineering image generates only old-style TLVs. To do MPLS traffic engineering, a router must generate new-style TLVs that have wider metric fields.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

Release 12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If you enter the metric-style wide command, a router generates and accepts only new-style TLVs. Therefore, the router uses less memory and other resources than it would if it generated both old-style and new-style TLVs.

This style is appropriate for enabling MPLS traffic engineering across an entire network.


Note This discussion of metric styles and transition strategies is oriented towards traffic engineering deployment. Other commands and models could be appropriate if the new-style TLVs are desired for other reasons. For example, a network might require wider metrics, but might not use traffic engineering.


Examples

In the following example, a router is configured to generate and accept only new-style TLVs on level 1:

Router(config-router)# metric-style wide level-1

Related Commands

Command
Description

metric-style narrow

Configures a router to generate and accept old-style TLVs.

metric-style transition

Configures a router to generate and accept both old-style and new-style TLVs.


mpls traffic-eng

To configure a router running IS-IS so that it floods MPLS traffic engineering link information into the indicated IS-IS level, use the mpls traffic-eng router configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

mpls traffic-eng { level-1 | level-2 }

no mpls traffic-eng { level-1 | level-2 }

Syntax Description

level-1

Floods MPLS traffic engineering link information into IS-IS level 1.

level-2

Floods MPLS traffic engineering link information into IS-IS level 2.


Defaults

Flooding is disabled.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command, which is part of the routing protocol tree, causes link resource information (such as available bandwidth) for appropriately configured links to be flooded in the IS-IS link state database.

Examples

In the following example, MPLS traffic engineering is turned on for IS-IS level 1:

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-1

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng router-id

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface.


mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

To override the Interior Gateway Protocol's (IGPs) administrative weight (cost) of the link, use the mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight interface configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight weight

no mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight

Syntax Description

weight

Cost of the link.


Defaults

IGP cost of the link.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example overrides the IGP's cost of the link and sets the cost to 20:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng administrative-weight 20

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

Sets the user-specified attribute flags for an interface.


mpls traffic-eng area

To configure a router running OSPF MPLS so that it floods traffic engineering for the indicated OSPF area, use the mpls traffic-eng area router configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

mpls traffic-eng area num

no mpls traffic-eng area num

Syntax Description

num

The OSPF area on which MPLS traffic engineering is enabled.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command is in the routing protocol configuration tree, and is supported for both OSPF and IS-IS. The command affects the operation of MPLS traffic engineering only if MPLS traffic engineering is enabled for that routing protocol instance. Currently, only a single level can be enabled for traffic engineering.

Examples

The following example configures a router running OSPF MPLS to flood traffic engineering for OSPF 0:

Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng area 0

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng router-id

Specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface.

network area

Defines the interfaces on which OSPF runs and defines the area ID for those interfaces.

router ospf

Configures an OSPF routing process on a router.


mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

To set the user-specified attribute flags for the interface, use the mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags interface configuration command. The interface is flooded globally so that it can be used as a tunnel head-end path selection criterion. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags attributes

no mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

Syntax Description

attributes

Links attributes to be compared with a tunnel's affinity bits during path selection.

Range is 0x0 to 0xFFFFFFFF, representing 32 attributes (bits) where the value of an attribute is 0 or 1.


Defaults

0x0.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command assigns attributes to a link so that tunnels with matching attributes (represented by their affinity bits) prefer this link instead of others that do not match.

Examples

The following example sets the attribute flags to 0x0101:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags 0x0101

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng administrative weight

Overrides the Interior Gateway Protocol's (IGPs) administrative weight of the link.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

Configures affinity (the properties the tunnel requires in its links) for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.


mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel

To configure the interface to use a backup tunnel in the event of a detected failure on the interface, use the mpls traffic-eng backup tunnel interface command.

mpls traffic-eng backup-path tunnel interface

Syntax Description

interface

IP address associated with the given interface.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Interface

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(8)ST

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows you how to specify the traffic engineering backup tunnel with the ID of 1000:

Router(config_if)# mpls traffic-eng backup-path Tunnel1000

Related Commands

Command
Description

show tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Displays information about fast reroute for MPLS traffic engineering

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Enables an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel to use a backup tunnel in the event of a link failure (assuming a backup tunnel exists).


mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

To set a link's reserved bandwidth thresholds, use the mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds interface configuration command. Use the no form of this command to return to the default settings.

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds {down | up} percent [percent...]

no mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds {down | up}

Syntax Description

down

Sets the thresholds for decreased resource availability.

up

Sets the thresholds for increased resource availability.

percent [percent]

Specifies the bandwidth threshold level. For down, you can enter a number from 0 through 99. For up, you can enter a number from 1 through 100.


Defaults

The default for down is 100, 99, 98, 97, 96, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 60, 45, 30, 15.

The default for up is 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

When a threshold is crossed, MPLS traffic engineering link management advertises updated link information. If no thresholds are crossed, changes may be flooded periodically unless periodic flooding was disabled.

Examples

The following example sets the link's reserved bandwidth for decreased resource availability (down) and for increased resource availability (up) thresholds:

Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds down 100 75 25
Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds up 25 50 100

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng link-management timers periodic-flooding

Sets the length of the interval used for periodic flooding.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Shows local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Shows current local link information.


mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold

To set the length of time that bandwidth is "held" for an RSVP PATH (Set Up) message while waiting for the corresponding RSVP RESV message to come back, use the mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold command

mpls traffic-eng link timers bandwidth-hold hold-time

Syntax Description

hold-time

Sets the length of time that bandwidth can be held. The range is from 1 to 300 seconds.


Defaults

15 seconds

Command Modes

Configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example sets the length of time that bandwidth is held to 10 seconds.

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng link-management timers bandwidth-hold 10

Table 16 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Shows current local link information.


mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding

To set the length of the interval used for periodic flooding, use the mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding command.

mpls traffic-eng link timers periodic-flooding interval

Syntax Description

interval

Length of interval used for periodic flooding (in seconds). The range is 0-3600. If you set this value to 0, you turn off periodic flooding. If you set this value anywhere in the range from 1 to 29, it is treated at 30.


Defaults

3 minutes

Command Modes

Configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to set the length of the interval used for periodic flooding to advertise link state information changes that do not trigger immediate action (for example, a change to the amount of bandwidth allocated that does not cross a threshold).

Examples

The following example sets the interval length for periodic flooding to advertise flooding changes to 120 seconds.

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng timers periodic-flooding 120

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng flooding thresholds

Sets a link's reserved bandwidth threshold.


mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency

To control the frequency at which tunnels with established LSPs are checked for better LSPs, use the mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency command.

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency seconds

Syntax Description

seconds

Sets the frequency of reoptimization, in seconds. A value of 0 disables reoptimization.


Defaults

3600 seconds (1 hour) with a range of 0 to 604800 seconds (1 week).

Command Modes

Configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

A device with traffic engineering tunnels periodically examines tunnels with established LSPs to see if better LSPs are available. If a better LSP seems to be available, the device attempts to signal the better LSP and, if successful, replaces the old and inferior LSP with the new and better LSP.

Examples

The following example sets the reoptimization frequency to one day.

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng reoptimize timers frequency 86400

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimize (exec)

Does a reoptimization check now.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng lockdown

Does not do a reoptimization check on this tunnel.


mpls traffic-eng router-id

To specify that the traffic engineering router identifier for the node is the IP address associated with a given interface, use the mpls traffic-eng router-id router configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

mpls traffic-eng router-id interface-name

no traffic-eng router-id

Syntax Description

interface-name

Interface whose primary IP address should be used for the router identifier.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This router identifier acts as a stable IP address for the traffic engineering configuration. This stable IP address is flooded to all nodes. For all traffic engineering tunnels originating at other nodes and ending at this node, the tunnel destination must be set to the destination node's traffic engineering router identifier, since that is the address the traffic engineering topology database at the tunnel head uses for its path calculation.

Examples

The following example specifies that the traffic engineering router identifier is the IP address associated with interface Loopback0:


Router(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id Loopback0

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng

Turns on flooding of MPLS traffic engineering link information into the indicated IGP level/area.


mpls traffic-eng tunnels

(global configuration mode)

To enable MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on a device, use the mpls traffic-eng tunnels configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

no mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The feature is disabled.

Command Modes

Configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command enables MPLS traffic engineering on a device. To use the feature, MPLS traffic engineering must also be enabled on the desired interfaces.

Examples

The following example turns on the MPLS traffic engineering feature for a device:

Router(config)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on an interface.


mpls traffic-eng tunnels

(interface configuration mode)

To enable MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on an interface, assuming it is enabled already for the device, use the mpls traffic-eng tunnels interface configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature on the interface.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels

no mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The feature is disabled on all interfaces.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command enables MPLS traffic engineering on the interface. MPLS traffic engineering must also be enabled on the device. An enabled interface has its resource information flooded into the appropriate IGP link state database, and accepts traffic engineering tunnel signalling requests.

Examples

The following example turns on MPLS traffic engineering on interface Ethernet0/0:

Router(config)# interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)# mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on a device.


net

To configure an IS-IS network entity title (NET) for the routing process, use the net router configuration command. To remove a NET, use the no form of this command.

net network-entity-title

no net network-entity-title

Syntax Description

network-entity-title

NET that specifies the area address and the system ID for an IS-IS routing process. This argument can be either an address or a name.


Defaults

No NET is configured and the IS-IS process will not start. A NET is mandatory.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Under most circumstances, one and only one NET must be configured.

A NET is an NSAP where the last byte is always zero. On a Cisco router running IS-IS, a NET can be 8 to 20 bytes. The last byte is always the n-selector and must be zero.

The six bytes in front of the n-selector are the system ID. The system ID length is a fixed size and cannot be changed. The system ID must be unique throughout each area (L1) and throughout the backbone (L2).

All bytes in front of the system ID are the area ID.

Even when IS-IS is used to do IP routing only (no CLNS routing enabled), a NET must still be configured. This is needed to instruct the router about its system ID and area ID.

Multiple NETs per router are allowed, with a maximum of three. In rare circumstances, it is possible to configure two or three NETs. In such a case, the area this router is in will have three area addresses. There will still be only one area, but it will have more area addresses.

Configuring multiple NETs can be temporarily useful in the case of network reconfiguration where multiple areas are merged, or where one area is in the process of being split into more areas. Multiple area addresses enable you to renumber an area slowly, without the need of a flag day.

Examples

The following example configures a router with system ID 0000.0c11.11 and area ID 47.0004.004d.0001:

router isis Pieinthesky
 net 47.0004.004d.0001.0000.0c11.1111.00

passive-interface

To disable sending routing updates on an interface, use the passive-interface router configuration command. To reenable the sending of routing updates, use the no form of this command.

passive-interface type number

no passive-interface type number

Syntax Description

type

Interface type.

number

Interface number.


Defaults

Routing updates are sent on the interface.

Command Modes

Router configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

If you disable the sending of routing updates on an interface, the particular subnet will continue to be advertised to other interfaces, and updates from other routers on that interface continue to be received and processed.

For OSPF, OSPF routing information is neither sent nor received through the specified router interface. The specified interface address appears as a stub network in the OSPF domain.

For IS-IS, this command instructs IS-IS to advertise the IP addresses for the specified interface without actually running IS-IS on that interface. The no form of this command for IS-IS disables advertising IP addresses for the specified address.

Enhanced IGRP is disabled on an interface that is configured as passive although it advertises the route.

Examples

The following example sends IGRP updates to all interfaces on network 131.108.0.0 except Ethernet interface 1:

router igrp 109
 network 131.108.0.0
 passive-interface ethernet 1

The following configuration enables IS-IS on interfaces Ethernet 1 and serial 0 and advertises the IP addresses of Ethernet 0 in its Link State PDUs:

router isis Finance
 passive-interface Ethernet 0
interface Ethernet 1
 ip router isis Finance
interface serial 0
 ip router isis Finance

router isis

To enable the IS-IS routing protocol and to specify an IS-IS process, use the router isis global configuration command. To disable IS-IS routing, use the no form of this command.

router isis [tag]

no router isis [tag]

Syntax Description

tag

(Optional) Meaningful name for a routing process. If it is not specified, a null tag is assumed and the process is referenced with a null tag. This name must be unique among all IP router processes for a given router.


Defaults

Disabled

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command is needed to configure a NET and configure an interface with clns router isis or ip router isis.

You can specify only one IS-IS process per router. Only one IS-IS process is allowed whether you run it in integrated mode, ISO CLNS only, or IP only.

Examples

The following example configures IS-IS for IP routing, with system ID 0000.0000.0002 and area ID 01.0001, and enables IS-IS to form adjacencies on Ethernet 0 and serial 0 interfaces. The IP prefix assigned to Ethernet 0 will be advertised to other IS-IS routers:

router isis 
 net 01.0001.0000.0000.0002.00
 is-type level-1
!
interface ethernet 0
 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
 ip router isis
!
interface serial 0
 ip unnumbered ethernet0
 ip router isis

Related Commands

Command
Description

clns router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol and specifies an IS-IS process for ISO CLNS.

ip router isis

Enables the IS-IS routing protocol and specifies an IS-IS process for IP.

net

Configures an IS-IS network entity title (NET) for the routing process.


router ospf

To configure an OSPF routing process, use the router ospf global configuration command. To terminate an OSPF routing process, use the no form of this command.

router ospf process-id

no router ospf process-id

Syntax Description

process-id

Internally used identification parameter for an OSPF routing process. It is locally assigned and can be any positive integer. A unique value is assigned for each OSPF routing process.


Defaults

No OSPF routing process is defined.

Command Modes

Global configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You can specify multiple OSPF routing processes in each router.

Examples

The following example configures an OSPF routing process and assign a process number of 109:

router ospf 109

Related Commands

Command
Description

network area

Defines the interfaces on which OSPF runs and defines the area ID for those interfaces.


show interfaces tunnel

To list tunnel interface information, use the show interfaces tunnel privileged EXEC command.

show interfaces tunnel number [accounting]

Syntax Description

number

Port line number.

accounting

(Optional) Displays the number of packets of each protocol type that have been sent through the interface.


Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show interfaces tunnel command:

Router# show interfaces tunnel 1
Tunnel1 is up, line protocol is up 
  Hardware is Tunnel
  Interface is unnumbered.  Using address of Loopback0 (23.1.1.1)
  MTU 1514 bytes, BW 9 Kbit, DLY 500000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
  Encapsulation TUNNEL, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Tunnel source 23.1.1.1, destination 24.1.1.1
  Tunnel protocol/transport Label Switching, key disabled, sequencing disabled
  Checksumming of packets disabled,  fast tunneling enabled
  Last input never, output 00:00:06, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue 0/0, 8 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops, 0 flushes
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
     92596 packets output, 8278258 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

Table 2 describes significant fields shown in the display.

Table 2 show interfaces tunnel Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Tunnel is {up | down}

Interface is currently active and inserted into ring (up) or inactive and not inserted (down).

On the Cisco 7500 series routers, this displays the interface processor type, slot number, and port number.

line protocol is {up | down | administratively down}

Shows line protocol up if a valid route is available to the tunnel destination. Shows line protocol down if no route is available, or if the route would be recursive.

Hardware

Specifies the hardware type.

MTU

Maximum Transmission Unit of the interface.

BW

Bandwidth of the interface in kilobits per second.

DLY

Delay of the interface in microseconds.

rely

Reliability of the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is 100% reliability), calculated as an exponential average over 5 minutes.

load

Load on the interface as a fraction of 255 (255/255 is completely saturated), calculated as an exponential average over 5 minutes.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation method is always TUNNEL for tunnels.

loopback

Indicates whether loopback is set or not.

keepalive

Indicates whether keepalives are set or not.

Tunnel source

IP address used as the source address for packets in the tunnel.

destination

IP address of the host destination.

Tunnel protocol

Tunnel transport protocol (the protocol the tunnel is using). This is based on the tunnel mode command, which defaults to GRE.

key

ID key for the tunnel interface, unless disabled.

sequencing

Indicates whether the tunnel interface drops datagrams that arrive out of order. Can be disabled.

Last input

Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully received by an interface. Useful for knowing when a dead interface failed.

Last output

Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully transmitted by an interface.

output hang

Number of hours, minutes, and seconds (or never) since the interface was last reset because of a transmission that took too long. When the number of hours in any of the "last" fields exceeds 24 hours, the number of days and hours is printed. If that field overflows, asterisks are printed.

Last clearing

Time at which the counters that measure cumulative statistics (such as number of bytes transmitted and received) shown in this report were last reset to zero. Note that variables that might affect routing (for example, load and reliability) are not cleared when the counters are cleared.

*** indicates the elapsed time is too large to be displayed.
0:00:00 indicates the counters were cleared more than 231ms (and less than 232ms) ago.

Output queue, drops
Input queue, drops

Number of packets in output and input queues. Each number is followed by a slash, the maximum size of the queue, and the number of packets dropped due to a full queue.

Five minute input rate,
Five minute output rate

Average number of bits and packets transmitted per second in the last 5 minutes.

The 5-minute input and output rates should be used only as an approximation of traffic per second during a given 5-minute period. These rates are exponentially weighted averages with a time constant of 5 minutes. A period of four time constants must pass before the average will be within two percent of the instantaneous rate of a uniform stream of traffic over that period.

packets input

Total number of error-free packets received by the system.

bytes

Total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation, in the error free packets received by the system.

no buffer

Number of received packets discarded because there was no buffer space in the main system. Compare with ignored count. Broadcast storms on Ethernet networks and bursts of noise on serial lines are often responsible for no input buffer events.

broadcasts

Total number of broadcast or multicast packets received by the interface.

runts

Number of packets that are discarded because they are smaller than the medium's minimum packet size.

giants

Number of packets that are discarded because they exceed the medium's maximum packet size.

CRC

Cyclic redundancy checksum generated by the originating LAN station or far-end device does not match the checksum calculated from the data received. On a LAN, this usually indicates noise or transmission problems on the LAN interface or the LAN bus itself. A high number of CRCs is usually the result of a station transmitting bad data.

frame

Number of packets received incorrectly having a CRC error and a noninteger number of octets.

overrun

Number of times the serial receiver hardware was unable to hand received data to a hardware buffer because the input rate exceeded the receiver's ability to handle the data.

ignored

Number of received packets ignored by the interface because the interface hardware ran low on internal buffers. These buffers are different than the system buffers mentioned previously in the buffer description. Broadcast storms and bursts of noise can cause the ignored count to be increased.

abort

Illegal sequence of one bits on a serial interface. This usually indicates a clocking problem between the serial interface and the data link equipment.

packets output

Total number of messages transmitted by the system.

bytes

Total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation, transmitted by the system.

underruns

Number of times that the far-end transmitter has been running faster than the near-end router's receiver can handle. This may never be reported on some interfaces.

output errors

Sum of all errors that prevented the final transmission of datagrams out of the interface being examined. Note that this may not balance with the sum of the enumerated output errors, as some datagrams may have more than one error, and others may have errors that do not fall into any of the specifically tabulated categories.

collisions

Number of messages retransmitted due to an Ethernet collision. This usually is the result of an overextended LAN (Ethernet or transceiver cable too long, more than two repeaters between stations, or too many cascaded multiport transceivers). Some collisions are normal. However, if your collision rate climbs to around 4 or 5%, you should consider verifying that there is no faulty equipment on the segment and/or moving some existing stations to a new segment. A packet that collides is counted only once in output packets.

interface resets

Number of times an interface has been reset. The interface may be reset by the administrator or automatically when an internal error occurs.

restarts

Number of times the controller was restarted because of errors.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show interfaces

Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router or access server.

show ip route

Displays the current state of the routing table.


show ip ospf

To display general information about OSPF routing processes, use the show ip ospf EXEC command.

show ip ospf [process-id]

Syntax Description

process-id

(Optional) Process ID. If this argument is included, only information for the specified routing process is included.


Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command when entered without a specific OSPF process ID:

Router# show ip ospf

Routing Process "ospf 201" with ID 192.42.110.200
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route
It is an area border and autonomous system boundary router
Redistributing External Routes from,
   	igrp 200 with metric mapped to 2, includes subnets in redistribution
   	rip with metric mapped to 2
   	igrp 2 with metric mapped to 100
   	igrp 32 with metric mapped to 1
Number of areas in this router is 3
Area 192.42.110.0
   	Number of interfaces in this area is 1
   	Area has simple password authentication
   	SPF algorithm executed 6 times

Table 3 describes significant fields shown in the display.

Table 3 show ip ospf Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Routing process "ospf 201" with ID 192.42.110.200

Process ID and OSPF router ID.

Supports ...

Number of Types of service supported (Type 0 only).

It is ...

Possible types are internal, area border, or autonomous system boundary.

Summary Link update interval

Specify summary update interval in hours:minutes:seconds, and time to next update.

External Link update interval

Specify external update interval in hours:minutes:seconds, and time to next update.

Redistributing External Routes from

Lists of redistributed routes, by protocol.

Number of areas

Number of areas in router, area addresses, and so on.

Link State Update Interval

Specify router and network link state update interval in hours:minutes:seconds, and time to next update.

Link State Age Interval

Specify max-aged update deletion interval and time until next database cleanup in hours:minutes:seconds.


The following is sample output from the show ip ospf command when entered on a router configured for DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

router-2# show ip ospf
 Routing Process "ospf 100" with ID 24.1.1.1
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
 Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
 Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 External flood list length 0
    Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive)
        Number of interfaces in this area is 2
        Area has RRR enabled
        Area has no authentication
        SPF algorithm executed 4 times
        Area ranges are
        Number of LSA 3. Checksum Sum 0x14D81 
        Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x0     
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

show ip route

Use the show ip route EXEC command to display the current state of the routing table.

show ip route [address [mask] [longer-prefixes]] | [protocol [process-id]]

Syntax Description

address

(Optional) Address about which routing information should be displayed.

mask

(Optional) Argument for a subnet mask.

longer-prefixes

(Optional) The address and mask pair becomes a prefix and any routes that match that prefix are displayed.

protocol

(Optional) Name of a routing protocol; or the keyword connected, static, or summary. If you specify a routing protocol, use one of the following keywords: bgp, egp, eigrp, hello, igrp, isis, ospf, or rip.

process-id

(Optional) Number used to identify a process of the specified protocol.


Command Modes

EXEC

Examples

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.

10.3

The process-id argument was added.

11.0

The longer-prefixes keyword was added.

11.3

The output of the show ip route IP-address command was enhanced to display the origination of an IP route in IS-IS networks.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show ip route command when entered without an address:

Router# show ip route

Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived
       C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived
       * - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route
       E1 - OSPF external type 1 route, E2 - OSPF external type 2 route

Gateway of last resort is 131.119.254.240 to network 129.140.0.0

O E2 150.150.0.0 [160/5] via 131.119.254.6, 0:01:00, Ethernet2
E    192.67.131.0 [200/128] via 131.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
O E2 192.68.132.0 [160/5] via 131.119.254.6, 0:00:59, Ethernet2
O E2 130.130.0.0 [160/5] via 131.119.254.6, 0:00:59, Ethernet2
E    128.128.0.0 [200/128] via 131.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    129.129.0.0 [200/129] via 131.119.254.240, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    192.65.129.0 [200/128] via 131.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    131.131.0.0 [200/128] via 131.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    192.75.139.0 [200/129] via 131.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2
E    192.16.208.0 [200/128] via 131.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    192.84.148.0 [200/129] via 131.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2
E    192.31.223.0 [200/128] via 131.119.254.244, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    192.44.236.0 [200/129] via 131.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2
E    140.141.0.0 [200/129] via 131.119.254.240, 0:02:22, Ethernet2
E    141.140.0.0 [200/129] via 131.119.254.240, 0:02:23, Ethernet2

The following is sample output that includes some IS-IS Level 2 routes learned:

Router# show ip route

Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived
       C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived
       i - IS-IS derived
       * - candidate default route, IA - OSPF inter area route
	E1 - OSPF external type 1 route, E2 - OSPF external type 2 route
       L1 - IS-IS level-1 route, L2 - IS-IS level-2 route

Gateway of last resort is not set

     160.89.0.0 is subnetted (mask is 255.255.255.0), 3 subnets
C       160.89.64.0 255.255.255.0 is possibly down,
          routing via 0.0.0.0, Ethernet0
i L2    160.89.67.0 [115/20] via 160.89.64.240, 0:00:12, Ethernet0
i L2    160.89.66.0 [115/20] via 160.89.64.240, 0:00:12, Ethernet0

Table 4 describes significant fields shown in these two displays.

Table 4 show ip route Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

O

Indicates protocol that derived the route. Possible values include the following:

I—IGRP derived

R—RIP derived

O—OSPF derived

C—connected

S—static

E—EGP derived

B—BGP derived

i—IS-IS derived

E2

Type of route. Possible values include the following:

*—Indicates the last path used when a packet was forwarded. It pertains only to the non-fast-switched packets. However, it does not indicate what path will be used next when forwarding a non-fast-switched packet, except when the paths are equal cost.

IA—OSPF interarea route.

E1—OSPF external type 1 route.

E2—OSPF external type 2 route.

L1—IS-IS Level 1 route.

L2—IS-IS Level 2 route.

150.150.0.0

Indicates the address of the remote network.

[160/5]

The first number in the brackets is the administrative distance of the information source; the second number is the metric for the route.

via 131.119.254.6

Specifies the address of the next router to the remote network.

0:01:00

Specifies the last time the route was updated in hours:minutes:seconds.

Ethernet2

Specifies the interface through which the specified network can be reached.


When you specify that you want information about a specific network displayed, more detailed statistics are shown. The following is sample output from the show ip route command when entered with the address 131.119.0.0.

Router# show ip route 131.119.0.0

Routing entry for 131.119.0.0 (mask 255.255.0.0)
   Known via "igrp 109", distance 100, metric 10989
   Tag 0
   Redistributing via igrp 109
   Last update from 131.108.35.13 on TokenRing0, 0:00:58 ago
   Routing Descriptor Blocks:
   * 131.108.35.13, from 131.108.35.13, 0:00:58 ago, via TokenRing0
      Route metric is 10989, traffic share count is 1
      Total delay is 45130 microseconds, minimum bandwidth is 1544 Kbit
      Reliability 255/255, minimum MTU 1500 bytes
      Loading 2/255, Hops 4

When an IS-IS router advertises its link state information, it includes one of its own IP addresses to be used as the originator IP address. When other routers calculate IP routes, they can store the originator IP address with each route in the routing table.

The following example shows the output from the show ip route command when looking at an IP route generated by IS-IS. Each path that is shown under the Routing Descriptor Blocks report displays two IP addresses. The first address (10.22.22.2) is the next hop address, the second is the originator IP address from the advertising IS-IS router. This address helps you determine where a particular IP route has originated in your network. In the example the route to 10.0.0.1/32 was originated by a router with IP address 223.191.255.247.

Router# show ip route 10.0.0.1

Routing entry for 10.0.0.1/32
    Known via "isis", distance 115, metric 20, type level-1
    Redistributing via isis
    Last update from 223.191.255.251 on Fddi1/0, 00:00:13 ago
    Routing Descriptor Blocks:
    * 10.22.22.2, from 223.191.255.247, via Serial2/3
       Route metric is 20, traffic share count is 1
       223.191.255.251, from 223.191.255.247, via Fddi1/0
       Route metric is 20, traffic share count is 1

Compare the report above using the show ip route command with an IP address to the following report using the show ip route isis command:

Router# show ip route isis

10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
  i L1    10.0.0.1/32 [115/20] via 10.22.22.2, Serial2/3
                [115/20] via 223.191.255.251, Fddi1/0
    22.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
i L1    22.22.23.0 [115/20] via 223.191.255.252, Fddi1/0

Table 4 describes significant fields shown in this last display. Table 5 describes significant fields shown when using the show ip route command with an IP address (previous displays).

Table 5 show ip route with Address Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Routing entry for 131.119.0.0 (mask 255.255.0.0)

Network number and mask.

Known via ...

Indicates how the route was derived.

distance

Administrative distance of the information source.

Tag

Integer that is used to implement the route.

Redistributing via ...

Indicates redistribution protocol.

Last update from 131.108.35.13 on ...

Indicates the IP address of a router that is the next hop to the remote network and the router interface on which the last update arrived.

0:00:58 ago

Specifies the last time the route was updated in hours:minutes:seconds.

131.108.35.13, from 131.108.35.13, 0:00:58 ago

Indicates the next hop address, the address of the gateway that sent the update, and the time that has elapsed since this update was received in hours:minutes:seconds.

Routing Descriptor Blocks:

Displays the next hop IP address followed by the information source.

from...via ...

The first address is the next hop IP address, and the other is the information source. This report is followed by the interface for this route.

Route metric

This value is the best metric for this routing descriptor block.

traffic share count

Number of uses for this routing descriptor block.

Total delay

Total propagation delay in microseconds.

minimum bandwidth

Minimum bandwidth encountered when transmitting data along this route.

Reliability 255/255

Likelihood of successful packet transmission expressed as a number between 0 and 255 (255 is 100 percent reliability).

minimum MTU

Smallest MTU along the path.

Loading 2/255

Effective bandwidth of the route in kilobits per second/255 is saturation.

Hops

Hops to the destination or to the router where the route first enters IGRP.


The following is sample output using the longer-prefixes keyword. When the longer-prefixes keyword is included, the address and mask pair becomes the prefix, and any address that matches that prefix is displayed. Therefore, multiple addresses are displayed.

In the following example, the logical AND operation is performed on the source address 128.0.0.0 and the mask 128.0.0.0, resulting in 128.0.0.0. Each destination in the routing table is also logically ANDed with the mask and compared to that result of 128.0.0.0. Any destinations that fall into that range are displayed in the output.

Router# show ip route 128.0.0.0 128.0.0.0 longer-prefixes 

Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default
 
Gateway of last resort is not set
 
S    134.134.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    131.131.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    129.129.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    128.128.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    198.49.246.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.160.97.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.153.88.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.76.141.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.75.138.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.44.237.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.31.222.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    192.16.209.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    144.145.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    140.141.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    139.138.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S    129.128.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     172.19.0.0 255.255.255.0 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C       172.19.64.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     171.69.0.0 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C       171.69.232.32 255.255.255.240 is directly connected, Ethernet0
S       171.69.0.0 255.255.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
Router#

The following is sample output from a router configured for DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

Router-4# show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR

Gateway of last resort is not set

C    2.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Ethernet0
     24.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C       24.1.1.1 is directly connected, Loopback0
     12.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C       12.1.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet1

Related Commands

Command
Description

show interfaces tunnel

Lists tunnel interface information.

show ip route summary

Displays the current state of the routing table in summary format.


show ip rsvp host

To display RSVP terminal point information for receivers or senders, use the show ip rsvp host EXEC command.

show ip rsvp host {host {receivers | senders} | installed | interface | neighbor | request | reservation | sender}

Syntax Description

host

Displays RSVP endpoint senders and receivers information.

installed

Displays RSVP installed reservations.

interface

Displays RSVP interface information.

neighbor

Displays RSVP neighbor information.

request

Displays RSVP reservations upstream information.

reservation

Displays RSVP reservation requests from downstream.

sender

Displays RSVP PATH state information.

temp-psb

Displays RSVP PATH requests awaiting policy decision.

temp-rsb

Displays RSVP reservation requests awaiting policy decisions.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.

12.0(5)S

The keyword host was added.


Examples

The following examples show output from show ip rsvp host receivers command:

show ip rsvp host receivers

To            From          Pro DPort Sport Next Hop      I/F   Fi Serv BPS Bytes
10.0.0.11     10.1.0.4      0   10011 1                         SE LOAD 100K  1K

Table 6 lists the fields displayed in this example

Table 6 show ip rsvp host Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

To

IP address of the receiver.

From

IP address of the sender.

Pro

Protocol code.

DPort

Destination port number.

Sport

Source port number.

Next Hop

IP address of the next hop.

I/F

Interface of the next hop.

Fi

Filter (Wild Card Filter, Shared Explicit Filter, or Fixed Filter).

Serv

Service (value can be RATE or LOAD).

BPS

Reservation rate in bits per second.

Bytes

Bytes of burst size requested.


.

show ip rsvp interface

To display RSVP-related interface information, use the show ip rsvp interface EXEC command.

show ip rsvp interface [interface-type interface-number]

Syntax Description

interface-type

(Optional) The name of the interface.

interface-number

(Optional) The number of the interface.


Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

11.2

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Use this command to show the current allocation budget and maximum allocatable bandwidth.

Examples

The following is sample output from the show ip rsvp interface command:

Router# show ip rsvp interface 

interfac allocate i/f max  flow max per/255 UDP  IP   UDP_IP   UDP M/C
Et1      0M       7500K    7500K    0  /255 0    0    0        0
Se0      0M       1158K    1158K    0  /255 0    0    0        0
Se1      30K      1158K    1158K    6  /255 0    1    0        0

Table 7 describes significant fields shown in this display.

Table 7 show ip rsvp interface Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

interface

Interface name.

allocate

Current allocation budget.

i/f max

Maximum allocatable bandwidth.

flow max

Maximum flow possible on this interface.

per /255

Percent of bandwidth utilized.

UDP

Number of neighbors sending UDP-encapsulated RSVP.

IP

Number of neighbors sending IP-encapsulated RSVP.

UDP_IP

Number of neighbors sending both UDP- and IP-encapsulated RSVP.

UDP M/C

Is router configured for UDP on this interface?


The following is sample output from a router configured for DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

Router-3# show ip rsvp interface
interface    allocated  i/f max  flow max gtd UDP  IP   UDP_IP   UDP M/C 
Et1          0M         1M       1M       1628239120 0    1    0        0       
Hs0          0M         10K      10K      1628239120 0    0    0        0 

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

To show tunnels that are announced to IGP, including interface, destination, and bandwidth, use the show mpls traffic-eng autoroute EXEC command.

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The IGP's enhanced SPF (shortest path first) calculation has been modified to understand traffic engineering tunnels. This command shows which tunnels are currently being used by the IGP in its enhanced SPF calculation (tunnels that are up and have autoroute configured).

Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng autoroute command.

Note that the tunnels are organized by destination. All tunnels to a destination will carry a share of the traffic tunneled to that destination.

Router# show mpls traffic-eng autoroute 

MPLS TE autorouting enabled
  destination 0002.0002.0002.00 has 2 tunnels
    Tunnel1021 (traffic share 10000, nexthop 2.2.2.2, absolute metric 11)
    Tunnel1022 (traffic share 3333, nexthop 2.2.2.2, relative metric -3)
  destination 0003.0003.0003.00 has 2 tunnels
    Tunnel1032 (traffic share 10000, nexthop 3.3.3.3)
    Tunnel1031 (traffic share 10000, nexthop 3.3.3.3, relative metric -1)

Table 8 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 8 show mpls traffic-eng autoroute Field Descriptions

Field
Description

MPLS TE autorouting enabled

IGP automatically routes traffic into tunnels.

destination

MPLS traffic engineering tail-end router system ID.

traffic share

A factor based on bandwidth, indicating how much traffic this tunnel should carry, relative to other tunnels, to the same destination. If two tunnels go to a single destination, one with a traffic share of 200 and the other with a traffic share of 100, the first tunnel carries two thirds of the traffic.

nexthop

MPLS traffic engineering tunnel's tail-end IP address.

absolute metric

MPLS traffic engineering tunnel's metric with mode absolute.

relative metric

MPLS traffic engineering tunnel's metric with mode relative.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show isis mpls traffic-eng tunnel

Displays information about tunnels considered in the IS-IS next hop calculation.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Causes the IGP to use the tunnel (if it is up) in its enhanced SPF calculation.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

Specifies the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel metric that the IGP enhanced SPF calculation will use.


show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

To display the contents of the Fast Reroute database, use the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database EXEC command.

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

[{network [mask | masklength]
| labels low label [-high label] |
interface ifname [ backup-interface ifname ] |
backup-interface ifname}]
[state {active | ready | partial}]
[role {head | middle}]
[detail]

Syntax Description

network

IP address of the destination network. This functions as the prefix of the Fast Reroute rewrite.

mask

Bit combination indicating the portion of the IP address that is being used for the subnet address.

masklength

Number of bits in mask of destination.

labels

Shows only database entries that possess in-labels assigned by this router (local labels). You specify either a starting value or a range of values.

low label

Starting label value or lowest value in the range.

- high label

Highest label value in the range.

interface

Shows only database entries related to the primary outgoing interface.

ifname

Name of the primary outgoing interface.

backup-interface

Shows only database entries related to the backup outgoing interface.

ifname

Name of the backup outgoing interface.

state

Shows entries that match one of four possible states: partial, complete, ready, or active.

partial

State before the FRR rewrite has been fully created; its backup routing information is still incomplete.

complete

State after the FRR rewrite has been assembled: it is either ready or active.

ready

The FRR rewrite has been created, but has not yet been moved into the forwarding database.

active

The FRR rewrite has been put into the forwarding database (where it can be placed onto appropriate incoming packets).

role

Shows entries associated either with the tunnel head or tunnel midpoint.

head

Entry associated with tunnel head.

middle

Entry associated with tunnel midpoint.

detail

Shows long-form information: LFIB-FRR total number of clusters, groups and items (defined in Table 10 on page 89) in addition to the short-form information of prefix, label and state.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(10)ST

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command at a tunnel head link.


router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database 12.0.0.0
Tunnel head fast reroute information:
Prefix 	Tunnel	In-label	Out intf/label	FRR intf/label	Status
12.0.0.0/16	Tu111	Tun hd	PO0/0:Untagged	Tu4000:16	ready  
12.0.0.0/16	Tu449	Tun hd	PO0/0:Untagged	Tu4000:736	ready  
12.0.0.0/16	Tu314	Tun hd	PO0/0:Untagged	Tu4000:757	ready  
12.0.0.0/16	Tu313	Tun hd	PO0/0:Untagged	Tu4000:756	ready 

Table 9 Description of fields in show MPLS traffic-eng fast-reroute database

Field
Description

Prefix

Address to which packets with this label are going.

Tunnel

Tunnel's identifying number.

In Label

Label advertised to other routers to signify a particular prefix. The value "Tunnel head" occurs when no such label has been advertised.

Out intf/
label

Out interface—short name of the physical interface through which traffic goes to the protected link.

Out label:

—At a tunnel head, this is the label advertised by the tunnel destination device. The value "Untagged" occurs when no such label has been advertised.

—At tunnel midpoints, this is the label selected by the next hop device. The "Pop Tag" value occurs when the next hop is the tunnel's final hop.

FRR intf/
label

Fast Reroute interface—the backup tunnel interface.

Fast Reroute label

—At a tunnel head, this is the label selected by the tunnel tail to indicate the destination network. The value "Untagged" occurs when no such label has been advertised.

—At tunnel midpoints, this has the same value as the Out Label.

Status

State of the rewrite: partial, ready, or active. (These terms are defined above, in the Syntax Description section).


The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command with the labels argument specified at a midpoint link:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database labels 250 - 255
Tunnel head fast reroute information:
Prefix 	Tunnel    	 In-label 	Out intf/label   	FRR intf/label  	 Status

LSP midpoint frr information:
LSP identifier                	In-label 	Out intf/label   	FRR intf/label   	Status
10.110.0.10 229 [7334] 	255 	PO0/0:694 	Tu4000:694 	active 
10.110.0.10 228 [7332] 	254 	PO0/0:693 	Tu4000:693 	active 
10.110.0.10 227 [7331] 	253 	PO0/0:692 	Tu4000:692 	active 
10.110.0.10 226 [7334] 	252 	PO0/0:691 	Tu4000:691 	active 
10.110.0.10 225 [7333] 	251 	PO0/0:690 	Tu4000:690 	active 
10.110.0.10 224 [7329] 	250 	PO0/0:689 	Tu4000:689 	active 

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database command with the detail argument included at a tunnel head link:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database 12.0.0.0. detail
LFIB FRR Database Summary:
  Total Clusters:      2
  Total Groups:        2
  Total Items:         789
Link 10:PO5/0 (Down, 1 group)
  Group 51:PO5/0->Tu4000 (Up, 779 members)
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu313, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:773, FRR label Tu4000:773
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu392, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:775, FRR label Tu4000:775
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu111, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:16, FRR label Tu4000:16
    Prefix 12.0.0.0/16, Tu394, active
      Input label Tun hd, Output label PO0/0:774, FRR label Tu4000:774

Table 10 Description of fields when detail keyword is used with
show MPLS traffic-eng fast-reroute database

Field
Description

Total Clusters

A cluster is the physical interface upon which Fast Reroute link protection has been enabled.

Total Groups

A group is a database record that associates the link-protected physical interface with a backup tunnel. A cluster (physical interface) therefore can have one or more groups.

For example, the cluster Ethernet4/0/1 is protected by backup Tunnel1 and backup Tunnel2, and so has two groups.

Total Items

An item is a database record that associates a rewrite with a group. A group therefore can have one or more items.

Link 10:PO5/0 (Down, 1 group)

This describes a cluster (physical interface):

"10" is the interface's unique IOS-assigned ID number.

":" is followed by the interface's short name.

Parentheses contain the operating state of the interface (Up or Down) and the number of groups associated with it.

Group 51:PO5/0->Tu4000 (Up, 779 members)

This describes a group:

"51" is the ID number of the backup interface.

":" is followed by the group's physical interface short name.

"->" is followed by the backup tunnel interface short name.

Parentheses contain the operating state of the tunnel interface (Up or Down) and the number of items—also called "members"— associated with it.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

Displays contents of Fast Reroute event log.


show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

To display the contents of the Fast Reroute event log, use the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes EXEC command.

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(10)ST

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes command.

router# show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes
When 	 Interface	 Event	 Rewrites	 Duration	 CPU msecs	 Suspends	 Errors
00:27:39	 PO0/0	 Down	 1079 	 30 msecs	 30	 0	 0
00:27:35	 PO0/0	 Up	 1079	 40 msecs	 40	 0	 0

Table 11 Description of Display Fields in show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute log reroutes

Display Field
Description

When

Indicates how long ago the logged event occurred (before this line was displayed on your screen). Displayed as hours, minutes, seconds.

Interface

The physical or tunnel interface where the logged event occurred.

Event

The change to Up or Down by the affected interface.

Rewrites

Total number of reroutes accomplished because of this event.

Duration

Time elapsed during the rerouting process.

CPU msecs

CPU time spent processing those reroutes. (This is less than or equal to the Duration value).

Suspends

Number of times that reroute processing for this event was interrupted to let the CPU handle other tasks.

Errors

Number of unsuccessful reroute attempts.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute database

Displays contents of Fast Reroute database.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

To show which tunnels have been admitted locally, and their parameters (such as priority, bandwidth, incoming and outgoing interface, and state), use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control [interface name]

Syntax Description

interface name

(Optional) Shows only those tunnels that are admitted on the specified interface.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control command:

show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control

System Information::
    Tunnels Count:        1
    Tunnels Selected:     1
TUNNEL ID              UP IF     DOWN IF  PRIORITY STATE           BANDWIDTH 
3.3.25.3 1_1           -         PO1/0/0  1/1      Resv Admitted   10000      R

Table 12 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 12 show mpls traffic-eng link-management admission-control Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Tunnels Count

Total number of tunnels admitted.

Tunnels Selected

Number of tunnels to be displayed.

TUNNEL ID

Tunnel identification.

UP IF

Upstream interface used by the tunnel.

DOWN IF

Downstream interface used by the tunnel.

PRIORITY

Setup priority of the tunnel, followed by the hold priority.

STATE

Admission status of the table.

BANDWIDTH

Bandwidth in bits per second. If an "R" appears after the bandwidth number, it means the bandwidth has been reserved. If an "H" appears after the bandwidth number, it means the bandwidth has been temporarily held for a path message.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

To show local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements command:

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements 

Flooding Status:     ready
Configured Areas:    1
IGP Area[1] ID:: isis level-1
  System Information::
    Flooding Protocol:   ISIS
  Header Information::
    IGP System ID:       0001.0000.0001.00
    MPLS TE Router ID:   10.106.0.6
    Flooded Links:       1
  Link ID:: 0
    Link IP Address:     10.32.0.6
    IGP Neighbor:        ID 0001.0000.0002.00, IP 10.32.0.10
    Admin. Weight:       10
    Physical BW:         155520000 bits/sec
    Reservable BW:       5000000 bits/sec
    Output Bandwidth::
      BW Unreserved[0]:    5000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[1]:    1000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[2]:    1000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[3]:    1000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[4]:    1000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[5]:    1000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[6]:    1000000 bits/sec
      BW Unreserved[7]:    1000000 bits/sec
    Affinity Bits         0x00000000

Table 13 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 13 show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements Field Descriptions

Field
Description

Flooding Status

Enable status of the link management flooding system.

Configured Areas

Number of the IGP areas configured.

IGP Area [1] ID

Name of the first IGP area.

Flooding Protocol

IGP being used to flood information for this area.

IGP System ID

Identification used by IGP flooding this area to identify this node.

MPLS TE Router ID

MPLS traffic engineering router ID.

Flooded Links

Number of links flooded for this area.

Link ID

Index of the link being described.

Link IP Address

Local IP address of this link.

IGP Neighbor

IGP neighbor on this link.

Admin. Weight

Administrative weight associated with this link.

Physical BW

Link's bandwidth capacity (in bits per second).

Reservable BW

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

BW unreserved

Amount of bandwidth that is available for reservation.

Affinity Bits

Link's attribute flags being flooded.


The following is sample output from a router configured for DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

router2 > show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements
Flooding Status:      ready
Configured Areas:     1
IGP Area[1] ID::  ospf area 0
  System Information::
    Flooding Protocol:    OSPF
  Header Information::
    IGP System ID:        24.1.1.1
    MPLS TE Router ID:    24.1.1.1
    Flooded Links:        1
  Link ID::  0
    Link IP Address:      12.1.1.3
    IGP Neighbor:         ID 12.1.1.3, IP 12.1.1.3
    Admin. Weight:        10
    Physical Bandwidth:   10000 kbits/sec
    Max Reservable BW:    1000 kbits/sec
    Reservable GTD BW:    0 kbits/sec
    Downstream::
                          Best-effort   Guaranteed
                          -----------   ----------
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
      Reservable Bandwidth  1000   0 kbits/sec
    Attribute Flags:      0x00000000

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

To show current local link information, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation [interface name]

Syntax Description

interface name

(Optional) Shows only those tunnels that have been admitted on the specified interface.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Advertised information may differ from current information depending on how flooding has been configured.

Examples

The following example shows output from this command:

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation atm0/0.1

System Information::
    Links Count:         3
    Bandwidth Hold Time: max. 15 seconds
Link ID:: AT0/0.1 (10.32.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  155520000 bits/sec
      MPLS TE Bandwidth:   5000000 bits/sec (reserved:0% in, 80% out)
      BW Descriptors:      1
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:   allow-all
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  1
      Up Thresholds:       15 30 45 60 75 80 85 90 95 96 97 98 99 100 (default)
      Down Thresholds:     100 99 98 97 96 95 90 85 80 75 60 45 30 15 (default)
    Outbound Bandwidth Information (bits/second):
      KEEP PRIORITY     BW HELD  BW TOTAL HELD   BW LOCKED  BW TOTAL LOCKED
                  0           0              0           0                0
                  1           0              0     4000000          4000000
                  2           0              0           0          4000000
                  3           0              0           0          4000000
                  4           0              0           0          4000000
                  5           0              0           0          4000000
                  6           0              0           0          4000000
                  7           0              0           0          4000000

Table 14 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 14 show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Links Count

Number of links configured for MPLS traffic engineering.

Bandwidth Hold time

Bandwidth hold time of the link in seconds.

Link ID

Interface name and IP address of the link being described.

Physical Bandwidth

Bandwidth capacity of the link (in bits per second).

MPLS TE Bandwidth

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

BW Descriptors

Number of bandwidth allocations on this link.

MPLS TE Link State

Status of the MPLS traffic engineering-related functions of the link.

Inbound Admission

Admission policy of the link for incoming tunnels.

Outbound Admission

Admission policy of the link for outgoing tunnels.

Admin. Weight

Administrative weight associated with this link.

Up Thresholds

Bandwidth thresholds of the link for allocations.

Down Thresholds

Bandwidth thresholds of the link for deallocations.

IGP Neighbor

List of the IGP neighbors directly reachable over this link.

KEEP PRIORITY

Priority levels for the bandwidth allocations of the link.

BW HELD

Amount of bandwidth (in bits per seconds) temporarily held at this priority for path messages.

BW TOTAL HELD

Bandwidth held at this priority and those above it.

BW LOCKED

Amount of bandwidth reserved at this priority.

BW TOTAL LOCKED

Bandwidth reserved at this priority and those above.


The following is sample output from a router configured for DiffServ-aware Traffic Engineering:

router-2> show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation 
System Information::
    Links Count:          1
    Bandwidth Hold Time:  max. 15 seconds
Link ID::  Et1 (12.1.1.3)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:   10000 kbits/sec
      MPLS BE Bandwidth:    1000 kbits/sec (reserved: 0% in, 0% out)
      MPLS GTD Bandwidth:   0 kbits/sec (reserved: 100% in, 100% out)
      Max Reservable BW:    1000 kbits/sec (reserved: 0% in, 0% out)
      BW Descriptors:       0
      MPLS TE Link State:   MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:    reject-huge
      Outbound Admission:   allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:        10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:   1
      Up Thresholds:        15 30 45 60 75 80 85 90 95 96 97 98 99 100 (default)
      Down Thresholds:      100 99 98 97 96 95 90 85 80 75 60 45 30 15 (default)
    Downstream BE Bandwidth Information (kbits/sec):
      KEEP PRIORITY     BW HELD  BW TOTAL HELD   BW LOCKED  BW TOTAL LOCKED
                  0           0              0           0                0
                  1           0              0           0                0
                  2           0              0           0                0
                  3           0              0           0                0
                  4           0              0           0                0
                  5           0              0           0                0
                  6           0              0           0                0
                  7           0              0           0                0
    Downstream GTD Bandwidth Information (bits/second):
      KEEP PRIORITY     BW HELD  BW TOTAL HELD   BW LOCKED  BW TOTAL LOCKED
                  0           0              0           0                0
                  1           0              0           0                0
                  2           0              0           0                0
                  3           0              0           0                0
                  4           0              0           0                0
                  5           0              0           0                0
                  6           0              0           0                0
                  7           0              0           0                0

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

To show IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) neighbors, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors EXEC command.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors [{igp-id {isis isis-address | ospf ospf-id} | ip A.B.C.D}]

Syntax Description

igp-id

Shows the IGP neighbors using a specified IGP identification.

isis isis-address

Specifies an IS-IS neighbor to display when displaying neighbors by IGP ID.

ospf ospf-id

Specifies an OSPF neighbor to display when displaying neighbors by IGP ID.

ip A.B.C.D

Shows the IGP neighbors using a specified IGP IP address.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors command:

Router# show mpls traffic-eng line-management igp-neighbors 

Link ID::  Et0/2
    Neighbor ID:  0000.0024.0004.02 (area: isis level-1, IP: 0.0.0.0)
Link ID::  PO1/0/0
    Neighbor ID:  0000.0026.0001.00 (area: isis level-1, IP: 170.1.1.2)

Table 15lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 15 show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Link ID

Link by which the neighbor is reached.

Neighbor ID

IGP's identification information for the neighbor.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Shows local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Shows current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Shows per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Shows a summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

To show per-interface resource and configuration information, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces [interface]

Syntax Description

interface

(Optional) Specifies the name of a single interface for which information is to be displayed.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.S

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces command:

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

System Information::
Links Count:         3
Link ID:: Et1/1/1 (10.1.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  10000000 bits/sec
      MPLS TE Bandwidth:   5000000 bits/sec (reserved:0% in, 0% out)
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on
      Inbound Admission:   reject-huge
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  2
      IGP Neighbor:        ID 0000.0000.0000.02, IP 0.0.0.0 (Up)
      IGP Neighbor:        ID 0001.0000.0001.02, IP 0.0.0.0 (Down)
    Flooding Status for each configured area [1]:
      IGP Area[1  isis level-1: not flooded
                  (Reason:Interface has been administratively disabled)
Link ID:: AT0/0.1 (10.32.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  155520000 bits/sec
      MPLS TE Bandwidth:   5000000 bits/sec (reserved:0% in, 80% out)
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:   allow-all
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  1
      IGP Neighbor:        ID 0001.0000.0002.00, IP 10.32.0.10 (Up)
    Flooding Status for each configured area [1]:
      IGP Area[1  isis level-1: flooded

Table 16 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 16 show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces Field Descriptions

Field
Description

Links Count

Number of links that have been enabled for use with MPLS traffic engineering.

Physical Bandwidth

Bandwidth capacity of the link (in bits per second).

MPLS TE Bandwidth

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

MPLS TE Link State

The status of the MPLS link.

Inbound Admission

Admission policy for a link for incoming tunnels.

Outbound Admission

Admission policy for a link for outcoming tunnels.

Admin. Weight

Administrative weight associated with this link.

IGP Neighbor Count

Number of IGP neighbors directly reachable over this link.

IGP Area [1]

Flooding status for the specified configured area.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

To show summary of link management information, use the show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary command in EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary [interface name]

Syntax Description

interface name

(Optional) Specifies the name of a single interface for which information is to be displayed.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary command:

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary atm0/0.1

System Information::
    Links Count:         3
    Flooding System:     enabled
IGP Area ID:: isis level-1
    Flooding Protocol:   ISIS
    Flooding Status:     data flooded
    Periodic Flooding:   enabled (every 180 seconds)
    Flooded Links:       1
    IGP System ID:       0001.0000.0001.00
    MPLS TE Router ID:   10.106.0.6
    IGP Neighbors:       3
Link ID:: AT0/0.1 (10.32.0.6)
    Link Status:
      Physical Bandwidth:  155520000 bits/sec
      MPLS TE Bandwidth:   5000000 bits/sec (reserved:0% in, 80% out)
      MPLS TE Link State:  MPLS TE on, RSVP on, admin-up, flooded
      Inbound Admission:   allow-all
      Outbound Admission:  allow-if-room
      Admin. Weight:       10 (IGP)
      IGP Neighbor Count:  1

Table 17 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 17 show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

Flooding System

Enable status of the MPLS traffic engineering flooding system.

IGP Area ID

Name of the IGP area being described.

Flooding Protocol

IGP being used to flood information for this area.

Flooding Status

Status of flooding for this area.

Periodic Flooding

Status of periodic flooding for this area.

Flooded Links

Number of links flooded.

IGP System ID

IGP for the node associated with this area.

MPLS TE Router ID

MPLS traffic engineering router ID for this node.

IGP Neighbors

Number of reachable IGP neighbors associated with this area.

Link ID

Interface name and IP address of the link being described.

Physical Bandwidth

Bandwidth capacity for the link (in bits per second).

MPLS TE Bandwidth

Amount of reservable bandwidth on this link.

MPLS TE Link State

Status of the MPLS traffic engineering-related functions of the link.

Inbound Admission

Admission policy of the link for incoming tunnels.

Outbound Admission

Admission policy of the link for outgoing tunnels.

Admin. Weight

Administrative weight of the link.

IGP Neighbor Count

List of the IGP neighbors directly reachable over this link.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng link-management advertisements

Displays local link information currently being flooded by MPLS traffic engineering link management into the global traffic engineering topology.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management bandwidth-allocation

Displays current local link information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management igp-neighbors

Displays IGP neighbors.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management interfaces

Displays per-interface resource and configuration information.

show mpls traffic-eng link-management summary

Displays summary of link management information.


show mpls traffic-eng topology

To show the MPLS traffic engineering global topology as currently known at this node, use the show mpls traffic-eng topology command in privileged EXEC mode.

show mpls traffic-eng topology [{A.B.C.D | igp-id {isis nsapaddr | ospf A.B.C.D}] [brief]

Syntax Description

A.B.C.D

Specifies the node by the IP address (router identifier to interface address).

igp-id

Specifies the node by IGP router identifier.

isis nsapaddr

Specifies the node by router identification (nsapaddr) if using IS-IS.

ospf A.B.C.D

Specifies the node by router identifier if using OSPF.

brief

(Optional) The brief form of the output gives a less detailed version of the topology.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(11)ST

The single "Reservable" column was replaced by two columns: one each for "global pool" and for "sub-pool".

12.2(14)S

Command integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.


Examples

The following example shows output from the show mpls traffic-eng topology command:

show mpls traffic-eng topology

My_System_id: 0000.0025.0003.00
 
IGP Id: 0000.0024.0004.00, MPLS TE Id:24.4.4.4 Router Node
      link[0 ]:Intf Address: 150.1.1.4
                  Nbr IGP Id: 0000.0024.0004.02, 
                admin_weight:10, affinity_bits:0x0
                max_link_bw:10000 max_link_reservable: 10000
	 	globalpool	subpool
               	total allocated	reservable 		reservable
               	--------------- 	---------- 	----------
	bw[0]: 	0 	1000	500
	bw[1]:	10 	990	490
	bw[2]: 	600 	390	390
	bw[3]: 	0 	390	390
	bw[4]: 	0 	390	390
	bw[5]: 	0 	390	390

Table 18 lists the fields displayed in this example.

Table 18 show mpls traffic-eng topology Field Descriptions 

Field
Description

My-System_id

Unique identifier of the IGP.

IGP Id

Identification of advertising router.

MPLS TE Id

Unique MPLS traffic engineering identification.

Intf Address

This interface address of the link.

Nbr IGP Id

Neighbor IGP router identifier.

admin_weight

Cost of the link.

affinity_bits

The requirements on the attributes of the links that the traffic crosses.

max_link_bw

Physical line rate.

max_link_reservable

The maximum amount of bandwidth that can be reserved on a link.

total allocated

Amount of bandwidth allocated at that priority.

reservable

Amount of available bandwidth reservable at that priority for each of the two pools, global and sub.


show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

To show information about tunnels, use the show mpls traffic-eng tunnels EXEC command.

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels tunnel_interface [brief]

show mpls traffic-eng tunnels
[destination address]
[source-id {num | ipaddress | ipaddress num}]
[
role {all | head | middle | tail | remote}]
[{
up | down}]
[name string]
[
suboptimal constraints {none | curent | max}]
[{[interface in phys_intf] [interface out phys_intf] | [interface phys_intf]}]
[
brief]

Syntax Description

tunnel_interface

Displays information for the specified tunnelling interface.

brief

(Optional) Displays the information in brief format.

destination address

(Optional) Restricts the display to tunnels destined to the specified IP address.

source-id

Restricts the display to tunnels with a matching source IP address and/or tunnel number.

num

Tunnel number.

ipaddress

Source IP address.

ipaddress num

Source IP address and tunnel number.

role

Restricts the display to tunnels with the indicated role (all, head, middle, tail, or remote).

all

Displays all tunnels.

head

Displays tunnels with their head at this router.

middle

Displays tunnels with a midpoint at this router.

tail

Displays tunnels with a tail at this router.

remote

Displays tunnels with their head at some other router; this is a combination of middle and tail.

up

Displays tunnels if the tunnel interface is up. Tunnel midpoints and tails are typically up or not present.

down

Displays tunnels that are down.

name string

Displays tunnel with the specified name. The tunnel name is derived from the interface description, if specified; otherwise, it is the interface name. The tunnel name is included in the signalling message so it is available at all hops.

suboptimal constraints none

Displays tunnels whose path metric is greater than the shortest unconstrained path. Selected tunnels have a longer path than the IGP's shortest path.

suboptimal constraints current

Displays tunnels whose path metric is greater than the current shortest path, constrained by the tunnel's configured options. Selected tunnels would have a shorter path if they were reoptimized immediately.

suboptimal constraints max

Displays tunnels whose path metric is greater than the current shortest path, constrained by the tunnel's configured options, and considering only the network's capacity. Seleced tunnels would have a shorter path if no other tunnels were consuming network resources.

interface in phys_intf

Displays tunnels that use the specified input interface.

interface out phys_intf

Displays tunnels that use the specified output interface.

interface phys_intf

Displays tunnels that use the specified interface as an input or output interface.

brief

Specifies a format with one line per tunnel.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(10)ST

The new brief format includes input and output interface information. The suboptimal and interface keywords were added to the non-brief format. The non-brief, non-summary formats contain the history of LSP selection.


Examples

The following is sample output from the show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief command:

Router1# show mpls traffic-eng tunnels brief

Signalling Summary:
    LSP Tunnels Process:           running
    RSVP Process:                  running
    Forwarding:                    enabled
    Periodic reoptimization:       every 3600 seconds, next in 1706 seconds
TUNNEL NAME                      DESTINATION      UP IF     DOWN IF   STATE/PROT
Router1_t1                       10.112.0.12      -         Et4/0/1   up/up     
tagsw-r11_t2                     10.112.0.12      -         unknown   up/down   
tagsw-r11_t3                     10.112.0.12      -         unknown   admin-down
tagsw-r11_t1000                  10.110.0.10      -         unknown   up/down   
tagsw-r11_t2000                  10.110.0.10      -         Et4/0/1   up/up     
Displayed 5 (of 5) heads, 0 (of 0) midpoints, 0 (of 0) tails

Table 19 describes the fields displayed in this example.

Table 19 Field Descriptions for show mpls traffic-eng tunnels

Field
Description

LSP Tunnels Process

Status of the LSP tunnels process.

RSVP Process

Status of the RSVP process.

Forwarding

Status of forwarding (enabled or disabled).

Periodic reoptimization

Schedule for periodic reoptimization.

TUNNEL NAME

Name of the interface that is configured at the tunnel head.

DESTINATION

Identifier of the tail-end router.

UP IF

Upstream interface that the tunnel used.

DOWN IF

Downstream interface that the tunnel used.

STATE/PROT

For tunnel heads, admin-down or up. For non-heads, signalled.


Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng reoptimization timers frequency

Controls the frequency with which tunnels with established LSPs are checked for better LSPs.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (configuration)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on a device.

mpls traffic-eng tunnels (interface)

Enables MPLS traffic engineering tunnel signalling on an interface.


tunnel destination

To specify the destination for a tunnel interface, use the tunnel destination interface configuration command. To remove the destination, use the no form of this command.

tunnel destination {hostname | ip-address}

no tunnel destination

Syntax Description

hostname

Name of the host destination.

ip-address

IP address of the host destination expressed in decimal in four-part, dotted notation.


Defaults

No tunnel interface destination is specified.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

10.0

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You cannot have two tunnels using the same encapsulation mode with exactly the same source and destination address. The workaround is to create a loopback interface and source packets off of the loopback interface. Refer to Network Protocols, Part 2 for more information on AppleTalk Cayman tunneling.

Examples

The following example enables Cayman tunneling:

interface tunnel0
 tunnel source ethernet0
 tunnel destination 131.108.164.19
 tunnel mode cayman

The following example enables GRE tunneling:

interface tunnel0
 appletalk cable-range 4160-4160 4160.19
 appletalk zone Engineering
 tunnel source ethernet0
 tunnel destination 131.108.164.19
 tunnel mode gre ip

Related Commands

Command
Description

appletalk cable-range

Enables an extended AppleTalk network.

appletalk zone

Sets the zone name for the connected AppleTalk network.

tunnel mode

Sets the encapsulation mode for the tunnel interface.

tunnel source

Sets the source address of a tunnel interface.


tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

To set the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering, use the tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

no tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

This command specifies that the tunnel interface is for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel and enables the various tunnel MPLS configuration options.

Related Commands

Command
Description

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

Configures tunnel affinity (the properties that the tunnel requires in its links).

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Instructs the IGP to use the tunnel in its SPF/next hop calculation (if the tunnel is up).

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

Configures bandwidth required for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

Configures a path option.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Configures setup and reservation priority for a tunnel.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity

To configure tunnel affinity (the properties the tunnel requires in its links), use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity properties [mask mask]

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity properties [mask mask]

Syntax Description

properties

Attribute values required for links carrying this tunnel (values of bits are either 0 or 1).

mask mask

Which attribute values should be checked. If a bit in the mask is 0, a link's attribute value or that bit is irrelevant. If a bit in the masks is 1, the link's attribute value and the tunnel's required affinity for that bit must match.


Defaults

properties—0X00000000

mask—0X0000FFFF

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following is an example of the tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity command that specifies the attribute value of 1:

Router(config)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng affinity 1

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng attribute-flags

Sets the user-specified attribute-flags for the interface.

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

To instruct the IGP to use the tunnel in its SPF/next hop calculation (if the tunnel is up), use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

The tunnel is not used by the IGP in its SPF/next hop calculation.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

Currently, the only way to cause traffic to be forwarded onto a tunnel is by enabling this feature, or for example, by configuring forwarding explicitly with an interface static route.

Related Commands

Command
Description

ip route

Establishes static routes and defines the next hop for large-scale dialout.

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

To specify the MPLS traffic-engineering tunnel metric used by IGP autoroute, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric {absolute|relative} value

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute metric

Syntax Description

metric

The MPLS traffic engineering tunnel metric.

absolute

The MPLS traffic-engineering tunnel metric mode absolute: a positive metric value can be supplied.

relative

The MPLS traffic-engineering tunnel metric mode relative: a positive, negative, or zero value can be supplied.


Defaults

The default is metric relative 0.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng autoroute

Displays tunnels that are announced to IGP, including interface, destination, and bandwidth.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng autoroute announce

Instructs the IGP to use the tunnel in its SPF/next hop calculation (if the tunnel is up).


tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth

To configure bandwidth required for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth {sub-pool | [global]} bandwidth

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng bandwidth {sub-pool | [global]} bandwidth

Syntax Description

sub-pool

(Optional) Indicates a sub-pool tunnel.

global

(Optional) Indicates a global pool tunnel. Entering this keyword is not necessary, for all tunnels are "global pool" in the absence of the keyword sub-pool. But if users of pre-DS-TE images enter this keyword, it will be accepted.

bandwidth

The bandwidth, in kilobits per second, set aside for the MPLS traffic engineering tunnel. Range is between 1 and 4294967295 .


Defaults

Default bandwidth is 0.

Default is a global pool tunnel.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.

12.0(11)ST

Sub-pool option was added.

12.2(14)S

Command integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.


Usage Guidelines

Enter the bandwidth for either a global pool or sub-pool tunnel, not both. Only the ip rsvp bandwidth command (on page 45) specifies the two bandwidths within one command.

To set up only a global pool tunnel, leave out the keyword sub-pool. If you enter global as a keyword, the system will accept it, but won't write it to NVRAM. This is to avoid the problem of having one's configuration not understood if one upgrades to an image that contains the DS-TE capability and then returns to a non DS-TE image.

Related Commands

Command
Description

show mpls traffic-eng tunnel

Displays information about tunnels.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

To enable an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel to use a backup tunnel in the event of a link failure if a backup tunnel exists, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute interface configuration command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Syntax Description

This command has no arguments or keywords.

Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Interface

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(8)ST

This command was introduced.


Examples

The following example enables an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel to use a backup tunnel if a link fails and a backup tunnel exits:

Router(config_if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Related Commands

Command
Description

mpls traffic-eng backup-path Tunnel

Configures the interface to use a backup tunnel in the event of a detected failure on the interface.

show tunnel mpls traffic-eng fast-reroute

Displays information about fast reroute for MPLS traffic engineering.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option

To configure a path option for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option interface configuration command. Use the no form of this command to disable this feature.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option number {dynamic | explicit {name path-name |
path-number }} [ lockdown ]

no tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option number {dynamic | explicit {name path-name |
path-number }} [ lockdown ]

Syntax Description

number

When several path options are configured, lower numbered options are preferred.

dynamic

LSP's path is dynamically calculated.

explicit

LSP's path is an IP explicit path.

name path-name

Path name of the IP explicit path that the tunnel uses with this option.

path-number

Path number of the IP explicit path that the tunnel uses with this option.

lockdown

The LSP cannot be reoptimized.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

You can configure many path options for a single tunnel. For example, there can be several explicit path options and a dynamic option for one tunnel. Path setup preference is for lower (not higher) numbers, so option 1 is preferred.

Examples

In the following example, the tunnel is configured to use a named IP explicit path:


Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng path-option 1 explicit name test

Related Commands

Command
Description

ip explicit-path

Enters the subcommand mode for IP explicit paths and creates or modifies the specified path.

show ip explicit-paths

Displays the configured IP explicit paths.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

Configures the setup and reservation priority for an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel.


tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority

To configure the setup and reservation priority for an MPLS Traffic Engineering tunnel, use the tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority command in interface configuration mode. To disable this feature, use the no form of this command.

tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority setup-priority [hold-priority]

no tunnel traffic-eng priority setup-priority [hold-priority]

Syntax Description

setup-priority

The priority used when signalling an LSP for this tunnel to determine which existing tunnels can be preempted. Valid values are from 0 to 7, where a lower number indicates a higher priority. Therefore, an LSP with a setup priority of 0 can preempt any LSP with a non-0 priority.

hold-priority

(Optional) The priority associated with an LSP for this tunnel to determine if it should be preempted by other LSPs that are being signaled. Valid values are from 0 to 7, where a lower number indicates a higher priority.


Defaults

setup-priority: 7

hold-priority: The same value at the setup priority.

Command Modes

Interface configuration

Command History

Release
Modification

12.0(5)S

This command was introduced.


Usage Guidelines

The preemption priority mechanism allows a hard-to-fit LSP or a more important LSP to preempt other LSPs so that those other LSPs can be reestablished once the hard-to-fit or more important LSP has been placed.

No distinction is made between sub-pool tunnels and global pool tunnels during preemption: that is, sub-pool tunnels are still preempted by global pool tunnels when the latter possess a higher preemption priority. Similarly, global pool tunnels are preempted by sub-pool tunnels when the latter possess a higher preemption priority. Hence, as sub-pool tunnels typically are more important than global pool tunnels, sub-pool tunnels would typically be configured with higher preemption priority than global pool tunnels.

Typically, setup and hold priorities are configured to be equal. However, a separate hold priority allows a subset on tunnels to not preempt on setup, but to be preempted once established.

Setup priority may not be better than (numerically smaller than) hold priority.

Examples

In the following example, a tunnel is configured with a setup and hold priority of 1.

Router(config-if)# tunnel mpls traffic-eng priority 1

Related Commands

Command
Description

tunnel mode mpls traffic-eng

Sets the mode of a tunnel to MPLS for traffic engineering.


Debug Commands

This section documents the following debug commands referred to earlier in this feature guide:

debug mpls traffic-engineering link-management preemption

All other MPLS Traffic Engineering debug commands are documented in the Cisco IOS Release 12.1(3)T document entitled MPLS Traffic Engineering and Enhancements, which is located at
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios121/121newft/121t/121t3/traffeng.htm

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption

To print information about traffic engineering LSP preemption, use the debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption privileged EXEC command. To disable debugging output, use the no form of this command.

[no] debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption [detail]

Syntax Description

detail

(Optional) Prints detailed debugging information.


Defaults

No default behavior or values.

Command Modes

Privileged EXEC

Command History

Release
Modification

12.1(3)T

This command was introduced.


Examples

In the following example, detailed debugging information is printed about traffic engineering LSP preemption:

debug mpls traffic-eng link-management preemption detail

TE-LM-BW:preempting Downstream bandwidth, 1000000, for tunnel 10.106.0.6 2_2
TE-LM-BW:building preemption list to get bandwidth, 1000000, for tunnel 10.106.0.6 2_2 
(priority 0)
TE-LM-BW:added bandwidth, 3000000, from tunnel 10.106.0.6 1_2 (pri 1) to preemption list
TE-LM-BW:preemption list build to get bw, 1000000, succeeded (3000000)
TE-LM-BW:preempting bandwidth, 1000000, using plist with 1 tunnels
TE-LM-BW:tunnel 10.106.0.6 1_2:being preempted on AT0/0.2 by 10.106.0.6 2_2
TE-LM-BW:preemption of Downstream bandwidth, 1000000, succeeded

Glossary

This section defines acronyms and words that may not be readily understood.

AS—Autonomous System. A collection of networks under a common administration, sharing a common routing strategy and identified by a unique 16-bit number (assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).

BGP—Border Gateway Protocol. The predominant interdomain routing protocol. It is defined by RFC 1163. Version 4 uses route aggregation mechanisms to reduce the size of routing tables.

CBR—Constraint Based Routing. The computation of traffic paths that simultaneously satisfy label-switched path attributes and current network resource limitations.

CEF—Cisco Express Forwarding. A means for accelerating the forwarding of packets within a router, by storing route lookup information in several data structures instead of in a route cache.

CLI—Command Line Interface. Cisco's interface for configuring and managing its routers.

DS-TE—Diff Serv-aware Traffic Engineering. The capability to configure two bandwidth pools on each link, a global pool and a sub-pool. MPLS traffic engineering tunnels using the sub-pool bandwidth can be configured with Quality of Service mechanisms to deliver guaranteed bandwidth services end-to-end across the network. Simultaneously, tunnels using the global pool can convey DiffServ traffic.

flooding—A traffic passing technique used by switches and bridges in which traffic received on an interface is sent out through all of the interfaces of that device except the interface on which the information was originally received.

GB queue—Guaranteed Bandwidth queue. A per-hop behavior (PHB) used exclusively by the strict guarantee traffic. If delay/jitter guarantees are sought, the diffserv Expedited Forwarding queue (EF PHB) is used. If only bandwidth guarantees are sought, the diffserv Assured Forwarding PHB (AF PHB) is used.

Global Pool—The total bandwidth allocated to an MPLS traffic engineering link.

IGP—Interior Gateway Protocol. An internet protocol used to exchange routing information within an autonomous system. Examples of common internet IGPs include IGRP, OSPF, and RIP.

label-switched path (LSP) tunnel—A configured connection between two routers, using label switching to carry the packets.

IS-IS—Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System. A link-state hierarchical routing protocol, based on DECnet Phase V routing, whereby nodes exchange routing information based on a single metric, to determine network topology.

LCAC—Link-level (per-hop) call admission control.

LSP—Label-switched path (see above).
Also Link-state packet—A broadcast packet used by link-state protocols that contains information about neighbors and path costs. LSPs are used by the receiving routers to maintain their routing tables. Also called link-state advertisement (LSA).

MPLS—Multi-Protocol Label Switching (formerly known as Tag Switching). A method for directing packets primarily through Layer 2 switching rather than Layer 3 routing, by assigning the packets short fixed-length labels at the ingress to an MPLS cloud, using the concept of forwarding equivalence classes. Within the MPLS domain, the labels are used to make forwarding decisions mostly without recourse to the original packet headers.

MPLS TE—MPLS Traffic Engineering (formerly known as "RRR" or Resource Reservation Routing). The use of label switching to improve traffic performance along with an efficient use of network resources.

OSPF—Open Shortest Path First. A link-state, hierarchical IGP routing algorithm, derived from the IS-IS protocol. OSPF features include least-cost routing, multipath routing, and load balancing.

RSVP—Resource reSerVation Protocol. An IETF protocol used for signaling requests (to set aside internet services) by a customer before that customer is permitted to transmit data over that portion of the network.

Sub-pool—The more restrictive bandwidth in an MPLS traffic engineering link. The sub-pool is a portion of the link's overall global pool bandwidth.

TE—Traffic engineering. The application of scientific principles and technology to measure, model, and control internet traffic in order to simultaneously optimize traffic performance and network resource utilization.