Table Of Contents
Release Notes for Cisco 7000 Family for Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2
January 2, 2005
Text Part Number: OL-6724-01 B0
These release notes describe changes to the software for the Cisco 7000 family for Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(14)SU2 features Stateful Failover of IPSec security associations (SAs) for site-to-site VPN (see Figure 1), storage of encrypted pre-shared keys in the configuration, Cisco 7200 NPE-G1 processor support, and VAM2 crypto card support (DES and 3DES only). Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(14)SU2 is based on Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU.
Figure 1 shows a sample topology for site-to-site configuration of IPSec Stateful Failover with Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), a tunnel interface not tied to specific "passenger" or "transport" protocols.
GRE supports multicast traffic, critical for V3PN applications.
Figure 1 Site-to-Site VPN Configuration
There are four possible configurations for the Cisco 7200 series routers using Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2:
•non-GRE High Availability (HA) with a virtual IP (VIP), or redundancy groups, on the outside and a VIP on the inside (see Figure 2)
•non-GRE HA with only VIPs on the outside. The route to the outside is provided by Reverse Route Injection (RRI) (see Figure 3)
•GRE HA, with VIPs on the outside and inside interfaces (see Figure 4)
•GRE HA, with only a VIP on the outside, using RRI to inject routes (see Figure 5)
Figure 2 HSRP VIP on Inside and Outside
Figure 3 HSRP VIP on Outside, RRI Injected Routes on Inside
Figure 4 GRE HA with VIPs on the Outside and Inside Faces
Figure 5 GRE HA with Only a VIP on the Outside, Using RRI to Inject Routes
There are no new features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2. However, several caveats have been resolved.
Table 1 provides a summary of the Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2 performance guidelines.
Note Performance may vary depending on the actual features enabled, however these guidelines offer general guidelines for stable deployment. Contact Cisco TAC for guidelines outside of these parameters.
Table 1 Performance Guidelines
Number of tunnels
•2000 tunnels [2000 IKE SA: 4000 IPSec SA] for Cisco 7200 with NPE-G1 or NPE400 with VAM/VAM2
•500 tunnels for Cisco 7200 with NPE225 with VAM/VAM2
1000 GRE/IPSec tunnels
The Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2 shares the same set of limitations as 12.2(14)SU, including the following:
•No EzVPN support for Stateful Failover
•Only single VAM/VAM2 support in the high availability (HA) configuration
•IPSec stateful solution is incompatible with old style IKE keepalives but is compatible with DPD (Note: DPD is not a requirement for IPSec stateful HA solution)
•No AES support in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2
•No NAT-T features
This section includes the following topics:
Table 2 lists the software images and corresponding memory requirements for the Cisco 7200 series routers in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
Note For a complete list of the minimum memory recommendations for the Cisco 7200 series of routers in Cisco IOS Release 12.2, go to the following URL:
Note It is recommended that you upgrade your boot image with the c7200-kboot-mz boot helper image when using Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(14)SU2 supports the Cisco 7200 series routers with NPE- 225, NPE-400, and NPE-G1 processors, as well as the VPN Acceleration Module (VAM) and VAM2 crypto cards (DES and 3DES only).
Note Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(14)SU2 supports only a single VAM/VAM2 in the HA configuration.
For additional information about supported hardware for these platforms, refer to the Hardware/Software Compatibility Matrix in the Cisco Software Advisor at the following URL:
Determining the Software Version
To determine the version of Cisco IOS software running on your router, log in to the router and enter the show version EXEC command:
Note The following example shows output from the Cisco 7200 series router.
router> show versionCisco Internetwork Operating System SoftwareIOS (tm) 7200 series Software c7200-jk9o3s-mz, Version 12.2(14)SU2, RELEASE SOFTWARE
Upgrading to a New Software Release
For general information about upgrading to a new software release, refer to Software Installation and Upgrade Procedures located at the following URL:
Feature Set Tables
The Cisco IOS software is packaged in feature sets consisting of software images—depending on the platform. Each feature set contains a specific set of Cisco IOS features.
For a complete list of feature sets supported by the Cisco 7200 series routers in Release 12.2, go to the following URL: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122relnt/xprn122/122reqs.htm#xtocid3
Caution Cisco IOS images with strong encryption (including, but not limited to, 168-bit Triple Data Encryption Standard [3DES] data encryption feature sets) are subject to United States government export controls and have limited distribution. Strong encryption images to be installed outside the United States are likely to require an export license. Customer orders may be denied or subject to delay because of United States government regulations. When applicable, purchaser and user must obtain local import and use authorizations for all encryption strengths. Please contact your sales representative or distributor for more information, or send an E-mail to email@example.com.
New and Changed Information
This section includes the following topics:
New Hardware Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2
There are no new hardware features supported on Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
New Software Features in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2
There are no new software features introduced in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
This section lists the caveats for the Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2, by tracking number (DDTS #) and release number, and indicates whether the caveat has been corrected. An "O" indicates that the caveat is open in the release; a "C" indicates that the caveat is closed in the release, and an "R" indicates that the caveat is resolved in the release.
Note If you are a registered cisco.com user, view Bug Toolkit on cisco.com at the following website:
To become a registered cisco.com user, go to the following website:
Table 3 lists the caveats for the Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
Table 3 Caveats for Cisco IOS Releases 12.2(14)SU2
DDTS Number Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(14)SU2
In this section, the following information is provided for each caveat:
•Symptoms—A description of what is observed when the caveat occurs.
•Conditions—The conditions under which the caveat has been known to occur.
•Workaround—Solutions, if available, to counteract the caveat.
Note If you have an account with Cisco.com, you can use Bug Navigator II to find caveats of any severity for any release. To reach Bug Navigator II, log in to Cisco.com and click Software Center: Cisco IOS Software: Bug Toolkit: Bug Navigator II. Another option is to go to http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/Support/Bugtool/launch_bugtool.pl.
The caveats section includes the following subsections:
Open Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2
This section describes possibly unexpected behavior by Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2. All the caveats listed in this section are open in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2. This section describes severity 1 and 2 caveats and select severity 3 caveats.
Note Many caveats that apply to Cisco IOS Release 12.2 also apply to Cisco IOS Release 12.2(11)S. For information on severity 1 and 2 caveats in Cisco IOS Release 12.2, see the Caveats for Cisco IOS Release 12.2 document located on Cisco.com at the following URL:
There are no open caveats in Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
Resolved and Closed Caveats—Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2
This section describes caveats that have been resolved by Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)SU2.
Cisco Routers running Internetwork Operating System (IOS) that supports Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) are vulnerable to a Denial of Service (DoS) attack on MPLS disabled interfaces.
The vulnerability is only present in Cisco IOS release trains based on 12.1T, 12.2, 12.2T, 12.3 and 12.3T. Releases based on 12.1 mainline, 12.1E and all releases prior to 12.1 are not vulnerable.
Symptoms: On Cisco 7200 routers with NPEs and NSE-1 processors, and on Cisco 7400 routers, a router may crash due to an L3 cache parity error.
Conditions: This symptom is seen in under unpredictable circumstances.
Workaround: The workaround is to disable the L3 cache.
Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Software is vulnerable to a Denial of Service (DoS) attack from crafted IPv6 packets when the device has been configured to process IPv6 traffic. This vulnerability requires multiple crafted packets to be sent to the device which may result in a reload upon successful exploitation.
More details can be found in the security advisory, which is posted at http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20050126-ipv6.shtml.
A Cisco device running Cisco IOS and enabled for the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is vulnerable to a Denial of Service (DoS) attack from a malformed BGP packet. Only devices with the command `bgp log-neighbor-changes' configured are vulnerable. The BGP protocol is not enabled by default, and must be configured in order to accept traffic from an explicitly defined peer. Unless the malicious traffic appears to be sourced from a configured, trusted peer, it would be difficult to inject a malformed packet.
If a misformed packet is received and queued up on the interface, this bug may also be triggered by other means which are not considered remotely exploitable such as the use of the command `show ip bgp neighbors' or running the command `debug ip bgp <neighbor> updates' for a configured bgp neighbor.
Cisco has made free software available to address this problem.
For more details, please refer to this advisory, available at http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20050126-bgp.shtml
A specifically crafted Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection to a telnet or reverse telnet port of a Cisco device running Internetwork Operating System (IOS) may block further telnet, reverse telnet, Remote Shell (RSH), Secure Shell (SSH), and in some cases Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) access to the Cisco device. Telnet, reverse telnet, RSH and SSH sessions established prior to exploitation are not affected.
All other device services will operate normally. Services such as packet forwarding, routing protocols and all other communication to and through the device are not affected.
Cisco will make free software available to address this vulnerability. Workarounds, identified below, are available that protect against this vulnerability.
The Advisory is available at:
Symptoms: A Cisco 7200 router running IPSec with the TED (Tunnel End-point discovery) feature may crash due to a watchdog timeout.
Conditions: The crash is seen on the IKE responder under stress and scalability conditions when TED is configured.
Workaround: Do not use the TED feature; otherwise there is no known workaround.
The configuration for IPSec Stateful Failover builds on the standard Stateful Failover configuration, but with the addition of a tunnel interface for each GRE endpoint, as shown in Figure 1.
1. The crypto parameters on the Stateful Failover Pair must be the same for:
–isakmp policy (encryption, authentication, hash, lifetime, group)
–isakmp key (shared secret with remote peer)
–IPSec security-association lifetimes
–IPSec transform set
2. Crypto map has to be applied to the physical interface (not the tunnel). To get traffic to go to the Tunnel interface there should be a route to the Tunnel IP address from the crypto peer.
3. SSP group can be configured with up to 32 redundancy groups, (with 32 Virtual IP Addresses).
4. There must be an access-list for the gre traffic with the VIP as one of the endpoints.
Following is a sample configuration which uses multiple redundancy groups, and multiple GRE tunnels. Note that this isn't necessarily a realistic deployment, but was used in the lab to illustrate the failover of multiple redundancy groups with multiple GRE tunnels. Ethernet sub-interfaces were used to simulate multiple VIPs.
Note that the other redundant router would have the same configuration except that the physical IP addresses will be different, and the SSP remote address will be pointing to the physical IP address of the private interface of the SSP peer.
Head-end router:ip cef!ssp group 100remote 220.127.116.11redundancy GRE_1redundancy GRE_2redundancy PRIVATE!crypto isakmp policy 1encr 3desauthentication pre-sharecrypto isakmp key gre1 address 18.104.22.168crypto isakmp key gre2 address 22.214.171.124
Note The 20.1.+.1 addresses are the remote peers.
crypto isakmp ssp 100!!crypto ipsec security-association lifetime kilobytes 536870912crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 86400!crypto ipsec transform-set HA_TRANSFORM esp-3des!crypto map gre_1 1 ipsec-isakmpset peer 126.96.36.199set transform-set HA_TRANSFORMmatch address gre_1!crypto map gre_2 1 ipsec-isakmpset peer 188.8.131.52set transform-set HA_TRANSFORMmatch address gre_2!!call rsvp-sync!!interface Tunnel1ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/0.1tunnel source 184.108.40.206tunnel destination 220.127.116.11!interface Tunnel2ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/0.2tunnel source 18.104.22.168tunnel destination 22.214.171.124!!
Note: Sub-interfaces are used to simulate failover of multiple HSRP groups.interface FastEthernet0/0no ip addressno shutdownduplex fullspeed 100!interface FastEthernet0/0.1encapsulation dot1Q 500ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0standby delay minimum 35 reload 60standby 1 ip 188.8.131.52standby timer 1 3standby 1 preemptstandby 1 name GRE_1standby 1 track FastEthernet0/1crypto map gre_1 ssp 100!interface FastEthernet0/0.2encapsulation dot1Q 501ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0standby delay minimum 35 reload 60standby 2 ip 220.127.116.11standby 2 timers 1 3standby 2 preemptstandby 2 name GRE_2standby 2 track FastEthernet0/1crypto map gre_2 ssp 100!!interface FastEthernet0/1ip address 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0duplex fullspeed 100standby delay minimum 35 reload 60standby 255 ip 22.214.171.124standby 255 timers 1 3standby 255 preemptstandby 255 name PRIVATEstandby 255 track FastEthernet0/0!!ip classlessip route 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255 Tunnel1ip route 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.255 Tunnel2ip route 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52ip route 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 220.127.116.11ip route 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 22.214.171.124ip route 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52ip route 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 220.127.116.11ip route 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 22.214.171.124ip route 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52ip route 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.255 220.127.116.11no ip http server!
Note Access-lists are needed to permit GRE traffic to flow.
ip access-list extended gre_1permit gre host 18.104.22.168 host 22.214.171.124ip access-list extended gre_2permit gre host 126.96.36.199 host 188.8.131.52
Cisco 7200 series router hardware documentation is available on cisco.com at this URL:
Cisco IOS Software Documents
Cisco IOS Release 12.2 software documentation is available on cisco.com at this URL:
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Active—Active IPSec High Availability router
DPD—Dead Peer Detection. DPD allows two IPSec peers to determine if the other is still "alive" during the lifetime of a VPN connection.
EzVPN—Cisco Easy Virtual Private Networks (EzVPN) Client on Cisco IOS Software. The Cisco Ez VPN client feature can be configured to create IPSec VPN tunnels between a supported router and another Cisco router that supports this form of IPSec encryption/decryption.
GRE—Generic Routing Encapsulation. Tunneling protocol developed by Cisco that can encapsulate a wide variety of protocol packet types inside IP tunnels, creating a virtual point-to-point link to Cisco routers at remote points over an IP internetwork.
HSRP—Hot Standby Routing Protocol. HSRP provides network redundancy for IP networks, ensuring that user traffic immediately and transparently recovers from first hop failures in network edge devices or access circuits.
IKE—Internet Key Exchange. IKE establishes a shared security policy and authenticates keys for services (such as IPSec) that require keys. Before any IPSec traffic can be passed, each router/firewall/host must verify the identity of its peer. This can be done by manually entering pre-shared keys into both hosts or by a CA service.
IPSec—IP Security. A framework of open standards that provides data confidentiality, data integrity, and data authentication between participating peers. IPSec provides these security services at the IP layer. IPSec uses IKE to handle the negotiation of protocols and algorithms based on local policy and to generate the encryption and authentication keys to be used by IPSec. IPSec can protect one or more data flows between a pair of hosts, between a pair of security gateways, or between a security gateway and a host.
SA—security association. An instance of security policy and keying material applied to a data flow. Both IKE and IPSec use SAs, although SAs are independent of one another. IPSec SAs are unidirectional and they are unique in each security protocol.
SSP—State Synchronization Protocol (SSP) is a protocol developed to transfer state information between the active and standby routers.
Standby—Standby IPSec High Availability router.
Stateful Failover—Feature that enables a backup (standby) router to automatically take over the primary (active) router's tasks in the event of a active router failure with minimal or no loss of traffic. The remote peer sees no difference between the two routers since it is connected to a virtual end point (VEP), owned by either headend router that shares the same IPSec information.
V3PN—Voice and Video Enabled VPN (V3PN), integrates three core technologies: IP Telephony, Quality of Service (QoS), and IP Security (IPSec) VPN to guarantee the timely delivery of latency-sensitive applications such as voice and video.