QoS: Regulating Packet Flow Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3S
Regulating Packet Flow on a Per-Class Basis Using Class-Based Traffic Shaping
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Regulating Packet Flow on a Per-Class Basis Using Class-Based Traffic Shaping

Regulating Packet Flow on a Per-Class Basis Using Class-Based Traffic Shaping

Packet flow on a network can be regulated using a traffic shaping mechanism. One such traffic shaping mechanism is a Cisco feature called Class-Based Traffic Shaping. Class-Based Traffic Shaping allows you to regulate the flow of packets (on a per-traffic-class basis) going out an interface, matching the packet flow to the speed of the interface. This module describes the concepts and tasks related to configuring Class-Based Traffic Shaping.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Prerequisites for Configuring Class-Based Traffic Shaping

Be familiar with the concepts in the "Regulating Packet Flow Using Traffic Shaping" module.

Use Feature Navigator to determine if the platform in use supports Class-Based Traffic Shaping. Access Cisco Feature Navigator at http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​fn .

Distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (dCEF) must be enabled if the customer is using a Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) on the router.

A policy map and a class map must be created first using the Modular Quality of Service (QoS) Command-Line Interface (MQC).

Restrictions for Configuring Class-Based Traffic Shaping

Adaptive traffic shaping for Frame Relay networks is supported for Frame Relay networks only.

Class-Based Traffic Shaping applies to outbound traffic only.

Class-Based Traffic Shaping does not support the following commands:

  • traffic-shape adaptive
  • traffic shape fecn-adaptive
  • traffic-shape group
  • traffic-shape rate

Information About Class-Based Traffic Shaping

Class-Based Traffic Shaping Functionality

Class-Based Traffic Shaping is a traffic shaping mechanism (also known as a "traffic shaper"). A traffic shaper typically delays excess traffic using a buffer, or queueing mechanism, to hold packets and shape the flow when the data rate of the source is higher than expected. It holds and shapes traffic to a particular bit rate by using the token bucket mechanism. For more information about token buckets and traffic shaping, see the "Regulating Packet Flow Using Traffic Shaping" module.

Class-Based Traffic Shaping is the Cisco-recommended traffic shaping mechanism.


Note


Class-Based Traffic Shaping should be used instead of what was previously referred to as Distributed Traffic Shaping (DTS). Class-Based Traffic Shaping can and should be used on the Cisco 7500 series router with a VIP2-40, VIP2-50, or greater processor.


Using the Class-Based Traffic Shaping, you can perform the following tasks:

  • Configure traffic shaping on a per-traffic-class basis. It allows you to fine-tune traffic shaping for one or more classes and it allows you to configure traffic shaping on a more granular level.
  • Specify average rate or peak rate traffic shaping. Specifying peak rate shaping allows you to make better use of available bandwidth by allowing more data than the configured traffic shaping rate to be sent if the bandwidth is available.
  • Configure traffic shaping in a hierarchical policy map structure. That is, traffic shaping is configured in a primary-level (parent) policy map and other QoS features (for instance, CBWFQ and traffic policing) can be configured in the secondary-level (child) policy maps. For more information, see the Hierarchical Policy Map Structure of Class-Based Traffic Shaping.

Benefits of Class-Based Traffic Shaping

All of the benefits associated with traffic shaping also apply to Class-Based Traffic Shaping, but on a more granular level. For information about the benefits of traffic shaping, see the "Regulating Packet Flow Using Traffic Shaping" module.

Hierarchical Policy Map Structure of Class-Based Traffic Shaping

With the Class-Based Traffic Shaping mechanism, traffic shaping can be configured in a hierarchical policy map structure; that is, traffic shaping is enabled in a primary-level (parent) policy map and other QoS features used with traffic shaping, such as CBWFQ and traffic policing, can be enabled in a secondary-level (child) policy map.

Traffic shaping is enabled by using the shape command (and specifying a rate) in a policy map. When traffic shaping is enabled, one the following actions occur:

  • Packets exceeding the specified rate are placed in a queue using an appropriate queueing mechanism.
  • Packets conforming to the specified rate are transmitted.

When packets are placed in a queue, the default queueing mechanism used is weighted fair queueing (WFQ). However, with Class-Based Traffic Shaping, class-based WFQ (CBWFQ) can be configured as an alternative queueing mechanism.

CBWFQ allows you to fine-tune the way traffic is placed in a queue. For instance, you can specify that all voice traffic be placed in a high-priority queue and all traffic from a specific class be placed in a lower-priority queue.

If you want to use CBWFQ with the Class-Based Traffic Shaping mechanism, the following conditions must be met:

  • A secondary-level (child) policy map must be created. This secondary-level (child) policy map is then used to configure CBWFQ by enabling the bandwidth command.
  • Traffic shaping must be configured in the primary-level (parent) policy map.

Note


CBWFQ is supported in both the primary-level (parent) policy map and the secondary-level (child) policy map. However, to use CBWFQ at the secondary-level (child) policy map, traffic shaping must be configured in the primary-level (parent) policy map.


The following sample configuration illustrates how the Class-Based Traffic Shaping mechanism is configured in a hierarchical policy map structure:

enable
configure terminal
 policy-map policy_parent        ! This is the primary-level policy map.
  class class-default
   shape average 1000000         ! This enables traffic shaping.
   service-policy policy_child   ! This associates the policy maps.

Traffic shaping must be configured in the primary-level (parent) policy map. With this configuration, WFQ is used as the default queueing mechanism for placing all the traffic in a queue.

In the following secondary-level (child) policy map, the alternative queueing mechanism CBWFQ is configured:

enable
configure terminal
 policy-map policy_child     ! This is the secondary-level policy map.
  class class-default
   bandwidth percent 50      ! This enables CBWFQ.

In the secondary-level (child) policy map, additional QoS features used with traffic shaping (for example, CBWFQ and traffic policing) are typically configured. For Class-Based Traffic Shaping, the only two QoS features supported at the secondary-level (child) policy map are CBWFQ and traffic policing.

How to Configure Class-Based Traffic Shaping

Configuring Class-Based Traffic Shaping in a Primary-Level Policy Map

Traffic shaping is configured in a policy map. Policy maps determine the specific quality of service (QoS) feature that will be applied to traffic on a network. In this module, the QoS feature being applied is traffic shaping.

Traffic shaping is configured in the primary-level (parent) policy map in the hierarchy.

Before You Begin

Before configuring traffic shaping, you must use the MQC to create a policy map and a class map.


Note


Traffic shaping is supported in the primary-level (parent) policy map only.


SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    enable

    2.    configure terminal

    3.    policy-map policy-map-name

    4.    class {class-name | class-default}

    5.    shape [average | peak] mean-rate [burst-size] [excess-burst-size]

    6.    service-policy policy-map-name

    7.    end

    8.    show policy-map

    9.    show policy-map interface type number

    10.    exit


DETAILED STEPS
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1 enable


    Example:
    Router> enable
     

    Enables privileged EXEC mode.

    • Enter your password if prompted.
     
    Step 2 configure terminal


    Example:
    Router# configure terminal
     

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 policy-map policy-map-name


    Example:
    Router(config)# policy-map policy_parent
     

    Specifies the name of the policy map created earlier and enters policy-map configuration mode. See the "Prerequisites" section on page 4 for more information.

    • Enter the policy map name.
     
    Step 4 class {class-name | class-default}


    Example:
    Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
     

    Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create and enters policy-map class configuration mode.

    • Enter the name of the class or enter the class-defaultkeyword.
     
    Step 5 shape [average | peak] mean-rate [burst-size] [excess-burst-size]


    Example:
    Router(config-pmap-c)# shape average 1000000 
     

    Shapes traffic according to the keyword and rate specified.

    • Enter the keyword and rate.
     
    Step 6 service-policy policy-map-name


    Example:
    Router(config-pmap-c)# service-policy policy_child
     

    Uses a service policy as a QoS policy within a policy map (called a hierarchical service policy).

    • Enter the policy map name.
     
    Step 7 end


    Example:
    Router(config-pmap-c)# end 
     

    Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     
    Step 8 show policy-map


    Example:
    Router# show policy-map
     

    (Optional) Displays all configured policy maps.

     
    Step 9 show policy-map interface type number


    Example:
    Router# 
    show policy-map interface serial4/0
     

    (Optional) Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

    • Enter the interface type and number.
     
    Step 10 exit


    Example:
    Router# exit
     

    (Optional) Exits privileged EXEC mode.

     

    What to Do Next

    To configure a secondary-level (child) policy map in the hierarchical policy map structure (an optional task), proceed with the instructions in Configuring the Secondary-Level Policy Map.

    Configuring the Secondary-Level Policy Map


    Note


    CBWFQ is supported in both the primary-level (parent) policy map and the secondary-level (child) policy map. However, to use CBWFQ in the secondary-level (child) policy map, traffic shaping must be configured in the primary-level (parent) policy map. For more information about CBWFQ in a secondary-level (child) policy map, see the Hierarchical Policy Map Structure of Class-Based Traffic Shaping.


    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    policy-map policy-map-name

      4.    class {class-name | class-default}

      5.    bandwidth {bandwidth-kbps | remaining percent percentage | percent percentage}

      6.    end

      7.    show policy-map

      8.    show policy-map interface type number

      9.    exit


    DETAILED STEPS
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Router> enable
       

      Enables privileged EXEC mode.

      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Router# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 policy-map policy-map-name


      Example:
      Router(config)# policy-map policy1 
       

      Specifies the name of the policy map created earlier and enters policy-map configuration mode. See the "Prerequisites" section on page 4 for more information.

      Enter the policy map name.

       
      Step 4 class {class-name | class-default}


      Example:
      Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
       

      Specifies the name of the class whose policy you want to create and enters policy-map class configuration mode.

      • Enter the name of the class or enter the class-default keyword.
       
      Step 5 bandwidth {bandwidth-kbps | remaining percent percentage | percent percentage}


      Example:
      Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth percent 50


      Example:
      
      
              
       

      Specifies or modifies the bandwidth allocated for a class belonging to a policy map.

      • Enter the amount of bandwidth as a number of kbps, a relative percentage of bandwidth, or an absolute amount of bandwidth.
      Note   

      The bandwidth command used here is only an example of a QoS feature than can be configured. The bandwidth command configures CBWFQ. You could also use the police command to configure traffic policing.

       
      Step 6 end


      Example:
      Router(config-pmap-c)# end 
       

      Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

       
      Step 7 show policy-map


      Example:
      Router# show policy-map
       

      (Optional) Displays all configured policy maps.

       
      Step 8 show policy-map interface type number


      Example:
      Router# 
      show policy-map interface serial4/0
       

      (Optional) Displays the packet statistics of all classes that are configured for all service policies either on the specified interface or subinterface or on a specific PVC on the interface.

      • Enter the interface type and number.
       
      Step 9 exit


      Example:
      Router# exit
       

      (Optional) Exits privileged EXEC mode.

       

      Configuration Examples for Class-Based Traffic Shaping

      Example Class-Based Traffic Shaping Configuration

      The following is an example of Class-Based Traffic Shaping configured in a hierarchical policy map structure. In this example, two policy maps have been created; the primary-level (parent) policy map called "policy_parent," and a secondary-level (child) policy map called "policy_child." Traffic shaping is configured in the policy_parent policy map, and CBWFQ has been configured in the policy_child policy map.

      The service-policy command associates the two policy maps in the hierarchical policy map structure.

      enable
      configure terminal
       policy-map policy_parent 
        class class-default
         shape average 1000000         ! This enables traffic shaping.
         service-policy policy_child   ! This associates the policy maps.
         exit 
        exit 
       policy-map policy_child
        class class-default
         bandwidth percent 50   ! This enables CBWFQ.
         end
      

      Where to Go Next

      To configure Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS), see the "Regulating Packet Flow on a Per-Interface Basis Using Generic Traffic Shaping" module.

      To configure Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS), see the "MQC-Based Frame Relay Traffic Shaping" module.

      Additional References

      Related Documents

      Related Topic

      Document Title

      Cisco IOS commands

      Cisco IOS Master Commands List, All Releases

      QoS commands: complete command syntax, command modes, command history, defaults, usage guidelines, and examples

      Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference

      Packet classification

      "Classifying Network Traffic" module

      MQC, policy maps, class maps, and hierarchical policy maps

      "Applying QoS Features Using the MQC" module

      CBWFQ and other queueing mechanisms

      "Configuring Weighted Fair Queueing" module

      Overview information about using traffic shaping to regulate packet flow on a network

      "Regulating Packet Flow Using Traffic Shaping" module

      GTS

      "Regulating Packet Flow on a Per-Interface Basis Using Generic Traffic Shaping" module

      FRTS

      "MQC-Based Frame Relay Traffic Shaping" module

      Standards

      Standard

      Title

      No new or modified standards are supported, and support for existing standards has not been modified.

      --

      MIBs

      MIB

      MIBs Link

      No new or modified MIBs are supported, and support for existing MIBs has not been modified.

      To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

      http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

      RFCs

      RFC

      Title

      No new or modified RFCs are supported, and support for existing RFCs has not been modified.

      --

      Technical Assistance

      Description

      Link

      The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

      http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

      Feature Information for Class-Based Traffic Shaping

      The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

      Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

      Table 1 Feature Information for Class-Based Traffic Shaping

      Feature Name

      Software Releases

      Feature Configuration Information

      Distributed Traffic Shaping

      12.2(8)T

      Distributed Traffic Shaping (DTS) is a legacy method for regulating the flow of packets going out an interface. Class-Based Traffic Shaping should be used instead of (DTS).

      Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS)

      15.0(1)S

      The GTS feature was integrated into the Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)S release.