IP Routing: Protocol-Independent Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Release 15M&T
Configuring IP Routing Protocol-Independent Features
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Configuring IP Routing Protocol-Independent Features

Contents

Configuring IP Routing Protocol-Independent Features

This module describes how to configure IP routing protocol-independent features. Some of the features discussed in this module include the Default Passive Interface, Fast-Switched Policy Routing, and Policy-Based Routing.

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table at the end of this module.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Information About Basic IP Routing

Variable-Length Subnet Masks

Dynamic routing protocols, such as the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Version 2, and static routes support variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs). VLSM enables an organization to use more than one subnet mask within the same network address space. VLSM allows you to conserve IP addresses and efficiently use the available address space. Implementing VLSM is often referred to as “subnetting a subnet.”


Note


You may want to carefully consider the use of VLSMs. It is easy to make mistakes during address assignments and difficult to monitor networks that use VLSMs. The best way to implement VLSMs is to keep your existing addressing plan in place and gradually migrate some networks to VLSMs to recover address space.


The following example uses two different subnet masks for the class B network address of 172.16.0.0. A subnet mask of /24 is used for LAN interfaces. The /24 mask allows 256 subnets with 254 host IP addresses on each subnet. The final subnet of the range of possible subnets using a /24 subnet mask (172.16.255.0) is reserved for use on point-to-point interfaces and assigned a longer mask of /30. The use of a /30 mask on 172.16.255.0 creates 64 subnets (172.16.255.0–72.16.255.252) with 2 host addresses on each subnet.


Note


To ensure unambiguous routing, you must not assign 172.16.255.0/24 to a LAN interface in your network.


Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# interface Serial 0/0
Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.255.5 255.255.255.252
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# router rip 
Router(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0

Static Routes

Static routes are user-defined routes that cause packets moving between a source and a destination to take a specified path. Static routes can be important if the router cannot build a route to a particular destination. They are also useful in specifying a gateway of last resort to which all unroutable packets will be sent.

To configure a static route, use the ip route command in global configuration mode.

Static routes remain in the router configuration until you remove them (by using the no form of the ip route command). However, you can override static routes with dynamic routing information through the assignment of administrative distance values. An administrative distance is a rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source, such as an individual router or a group of routers.

Each dynamic routing protocol has a default administrative distance, as listed in the table below. For a configured static route to be overridden, the administrative distance of the static route should be higher than that of the dynamic routing protocol.

Table 1 Default Administrative Distances

Route Source

Default Administrative Distance

Connected interface

0

Static route

1

EIGRP summary route

5

External Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

20

Internal EIGRP

90

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

100

OSPF

110

IS-IS

115

RIP

120

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

140

On-Demand Routing (ODR)

160

External EIGRP

170

Internal BGP

200

Unknown

255

Static routes that point to an interface are advertised through dynamic routing protocols, regardless of whether redistribute static router configuration commands were specified for those routing protocols. Static routes that point to an interface are advertised because the routing table considers these routes as connected routes and hence, these routes lose their static nature. However, if you define a static route to an interface that is not connected to one of the networks defined by a network command, no dynamic routing protocol will advertise the route unless a redistribute static command is specified for the protocols.

When an interface goes down, all static routes associated with that interface are removed from the IP routing table. Also, when the software can no longer find a valid next hop for the address specified as the address of the forwarding router in a static route, the static route is removed from the IP routing table.

Default Routes

Default routes, also known as gateways of last resort, are used to route packets that are addressed to networks not explicitly listed in the routing table. A device might not be able to determine routes to all networks. To provide complete routing capability, network administrators use some devices as smart devices and give the remaining devices default routes to the smart device. (Smart devices have routing table information for the entire internetwork.) Default routes can be either passed along dynamically or configured manually into individual devices.

Most dynamic interior routing protocols include a mechanism for causing a smart device to generate dynamic default information, which is then passed along to other devices.

You can configure a default route by using the following commands:
  • ip default-gateway
  • ip default-network
  • ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

You can use the ip default-gateway global configuration command to define a default gateway when IP routing is disabled on a device. For instance, if a device is a host, you can use this command to define a default gateway for the device. You can also use this command to transfer a Cisco software image to a device when the device is in boot mode. In boot mode, IP routing is not enabled on the device.

Unlike the ip default-gateway command, the ip default-network command can be used when IP routing is enabled on a device. When you specify a network by using the ip default-network command, the device considers routes to that network for installation as the gateway of last resort on the device.

Gateways of last resort configured by using the ip default-network command are propagated differently depending on which routing protocol is propagating the default route. For Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) to propagate the default route, the network specified by the ip default-network command must be known to IGRP or EIGRP. The network must be an IGRP- or EIGRP-derived network in the routing table, or the static route used to generate the route to the network must be redistributed into IGRP or EIGRP or advertised into these protocols by using the network command. The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) advertises a route to network 0.0.0.0 if a gateway of last resort is configured by using the ip default-network command. The network specified in the ip default-network command need not be explicitly advertised under RIP.

Creating a static route to network 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 by using the ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 command is another way to set the gateway of last resort on a device. As with the ip default-network command, using the static route to 0.0.0.0 is not dependent on any routing protocols. However, IP routing must be enabled on the device. IGRP does not recognize a route to network 0.0.0.0. Therefore, it cannot propagate default routes created by using the ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 command. Use the ip default-network command to have IGRP propagate a default route.

EIGRP propagates a route to network 0.0.0.0, but the static route must be redistributed into the routing protocol.

Depending on your release of the Cisco software, the default route created by using the ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 command is automatically advertised by RIP devices. In some releases, RIP does not advertise the default route if the route is not learned via RIP. You might have to redistribute the route into RIP by using the redistribute command.

Default routes created using the ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 command are not propagated by Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS). Additionally, these default routes cannot be redistributed into OSPF or IS-IS by using the redistribute command. Use the default-information originate command to generate a default route into an OSPF or IS-IS routing domain.

Subnet Zero and All-Ones Subnet IP Addressing

When a network address is subnetted, the first subnet obtained is called subnet zero.

Consider a Class B address 172.16.0.0. By default, a Class B address has 16 bits reserved for representing the host portion, thus allowing 65534 (216–2) valid host addresses. If network 172.16.0.0/16 is subnetted by borrowing three bits from the host portion, eight (23) subnets are obtained. The table below shows the subnets obtained by subnetting the address 172.16.0.0, the resulting subnet mask, the corresponding broadcast address, and the range of valid host addresses.

Table 2 Subnets of 172.16.0.0/16

Subnet Address

Subnet Mask

Broadcast Address

Valid Host Addresses Range

172.16.0.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.31.255

172.16.0.1 to 172.16.31.254

172.16.32.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.63.255

172.16.32.1 to 172.16.63.254

172.16.64.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.95.255

172.16.64.1 to 172.16.95.254

172.16.96.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.127.255

172.16.96.1 to 172.16.127.254

172.16.128.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.159.255

172.16.128.1 to 172.16.159.254

172.16.160.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.191.255

172.16.160.1 to 172.16.191.254

172.16.192.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.223.255

172.16.192.1 to 172.16.223.254

172.16.224.0

255.255.224.0

172.16.255.255

172.16.224.1 to 172.16.255.254

In the above table, the first subnet (subnet 172.16.0.0) is called subnet zero.

The class of the network subnetted and the number of subnets obtained after subnetting have no role in determining subnet zero. It is the first subnet obtained when subnetting the network address. Also, when you write the binary equivalent of the subnet zero address, all the subnet bits (bits 17, 18, and 19 in this case) are zeros. Subnet zero is also known as the all-zeros subnet.

When a network address is subnetted, the last subnet obtained is called the all-ones subnet.

With reference to the above table, the last subnet obtained when you subnet network 172.16.0.0 (subnet 172.16.224.0/19) is called the all-ones subnet.

The class of the network subnetted and the number of subnets obtained after subnetting have no role in determining the all-ones subnet. Also, when you write the binary equivalent of the all-ones subnet, all the subnet bits (bits 17, 18, and 19 in this case) are ones, hence the name.

Problems with Subnet Zero and the All-Ones Subnet

According to RFC 950, “It is useful to preserve and extend the interpretation of these special (network and broadcast) addresses in subnetted networks. This means the values of all zeros and all ones in the subnet field should not be assigned to actual (physical) subnets.” Therefore, network engineers who had to calculate the number of subnets obtained by borrowing three bits would calculate 23–2 (6) and not 23 (8). The –2 ensures that subnet zero and the all-ones subnet are not used.

Subnet Zero

Using subnet zero may lead to the creation of a network and a subnet with indistinguishable addresses.

With reference to the above table, if you calculate the subnet address for 172.16.1.10, the answer you arrive at is subnet 172.16.0.0 (subnet zero). Note that this subnet address is identical to the network address 172.16.0.0, which was subnetted in the first place. So whenever you perform subnetting, you get a network and a subnet (subnet zero) with indistinguishable addresses.

Depending on the release, your Cisco IOS software, by default, may not allow an IP address belonging to subnet zero to be configured on an interface. However, some releases allow the use of the ip subnet-zero command in global configuration mode to overcome this restriction. Some releases have the ip subnet-zero command enabled by default, and these releases allow you to configure the no ip subnet-zero command to restrict the use of subnet zero addresses.

All-Ones

The use of the all-ones subnet for addressing may lead to the creation of a network and a subnet with identical broadcast addresses.

With reference to above table, the broadcast address for the last subnet (subnet 172.16.224.0) is 172.16.255.255. This address is identical to the broadcast address of the network 172.16.0.0, which was subnetted in the first place. So whenever you perform subnetting, you get a network and a subnet (all-ones subnet) with identical broadcast addresses. You can configure the address 172.16.230.1/19 on a router, but if that is done, you can no longer differentiate between a local subnet broadcast (172.16.255.255 [/19]) and the Class B broadcast (172.16.255.255[/16]).

Despite the inherent confusion created by the use of subnet zero and all-ones subnet, the entire address space including subnet zero and the all-ones subnet have always been usable. The use of subnet zero is allowed in some Cisco IOS software releases. You can use subnet zero in these releases by entering the ip subnet-zero global configuration command. Today, the use of subnet zero and the all-ones subnet is generally accepted and most vendors support their use. However, on certain networks, particularly the ones using legacy software, the use of subnet zero and the all-ones subnet can lead to problems.

Maximum Number of Paths

By default, most IP routing protocols install a maximum of four parallel paths in a routing table. Static routes always install six paths. The exception is BGP, which by default allows only one path (the best path) to the destination. However, BGP can be configured to use equal and unequal cost multipath load sharing. See the "BGP Multipath Load Sharing for Both eBGP and iBGP in an MPLS-VPN" feature in the BGP Configuration Guide for more information.

The number of parallel paths that you can configure to be installed in the routing table is dependent on the installed version of the Cisco IOS software. To change the maximum number of parallel paths allowed, use the maximum-paths command in router configuration mode.

Multi-Interface Load Splitting

Multi-interface load splitting allows you to efficiently control traffic that travels across multiple interfaces to the same destination. The traffic-share min router configuration command specifies that if multiple paths are available to the same destination, only paths with the minimum metric will be installed in the routing table. The number of paths allowed is never more than six. For dynamic routing protocols, the number of paths is controlled by the maximum-paths router configuration command. The static route source can install six paths. If more paths are available, the extra paths are discarded. If some installed paths are removed from the routing table, pending routes are added automatically.

Routing Information Redistribution

You can configure the Cisco IOS software to redistribute information from one routing protocol to another. For example, you can configure a device to readvertise EIGRP-derived routes using RIP or to readvertise static routes using EIGRP. Redistribution from one routing protocol to another can be configured in all IP-based routing protocols.

You can also conditionally control the redistribution of routes between routing domains by configuring route maps between two domains. A route map is a route filter that is configured with permit and deny statements, match and set clauses, and sequence numbers. To define a route map for redistribution, use the route-map command in global configuration mode.

The metrics of one routing protocol do not necessarily translate into the metrics of another. For example, the RIP metric is hop count and the EIGRP metric is a combination of five metric values. In such situations, a dynamic metric is assigned to the redistributed route. Redistribution in these cases should be applied consistently and carefully in conjunction with inbound filtering to avoid the creation of routing loops.

The following examples illustrate the use of redistribution with and without route maps. The following example shows how to redistribute all OSPF routes into EIGRP:

Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 101 
Router(config-router)# exit 

The following example shows how to redistribute RIP routes, with a hop count equal to 1, into OSPF. These routes will be redistributed into OSPF as external LSAs with a metric of 5, metric-type of type 1, and a tag equal to 1.

Router(config)# router ospf 1 
Router(config-router)# redistribute rip route-map rip-to-ospf 
Router(config-router)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map rip-to-ospf permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match metric 1 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 5 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric-type type 1 
Router(config-route-map)# set tag 1 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 

The following example shows how to redistribute OSPF learned routes with tag 7 as a RIP metric of 15:

Router(config)# router rip 
Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 route-map 5 
Router(config-router)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 5 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match tag 7 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 15 

The following example shows how to redistribute OSPF intra-area and inter-area routes with next-hop routers on serial interface 0/0 into BGP with a metric of 5:

Router(config)# router bgp 50000 
Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 route-map 10 
Router(config-router)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 10 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match route-type internal 
Router(config-route-map)# match interface serial 0 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 5 

The following example redistributes two types of routes into the integrated IS-IS routing table (supporting both IP and CLNS). The first type is OSPF external IP routes with tag 5; these routes are inserted into Level 2 IS-IS link-state packets (LSPs) with a metric of 5. The second type is ISO-IGRP-derived CLNS prefix routes that match CLNS access list 2000; these routes are redistributed into IS-IS as Level 2 LSPs with a metric of 30.

Router(config)# router isis 
Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 route-map 2 
Router(config-router)# redistribute iso-igrp nsfnet route-map 3 
Router(config-router)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 2 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match route-type external 
Router(config-route-map)# match tag 5 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 5 
Router(config-route-map)# set level level-2 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 3 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match address 2000 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 30 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 

In the following example, OSPF external routes with tags 1, 2, 3, and 5 are redistributed into RIP with metrics of 1, 1, 5, and 5, respectively. The OSPF routes with a tag of 4 are not redistributed.

Router(config)# router rip 
Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 101 route-map 1 
Router(config-router)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 1 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match tag 1 2 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 1 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 1 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match tag 3 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 5 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map 1 deny 
Router(config-route-map)# match tag 4 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# route map 1 permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match tag 5 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 5 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 

The following example shows how a route map is referenced by using the default-information router configuration command. Such referencing is called conditional default origination. OSPF will generate the default route (network 0.0.0.0) with a type 2 metric of 5 if 172.16.0.0 is in the routing table.

Router(config)# route-map ospf-default permit 
Router(config-route-map)# match ip address 1 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric 5 
Router(config-route-map)# set metric-type type-2 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# access-list 1 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 
Router(config)# router ospf 101 
Router(config-router)# default-information originate route-map ospf-default 

Supported Automatic Metric Translations

This section describes supported automatic metric translations between routing protocols. The following points are based on the assumption that you have not defined a default redistribution metric that replaces metric conversions:

  • RIP can automatically redistribute static routes. It assigns static routes a metric of 1 (directly connected).
  • BGP does not send metrics in its routing updates.
  • EIGRP can automatically redistribute static routes from other EIGRP-routed autonomous systems as long as the static route and any associated interfaces are covered by an EIGRP network statement. EIGRP assigns static routes a metric that identifies them as directly connected. EIGRP does not change the metrics of routes derived from EIGRP updates from other autonomous systems.

Note


Any protocol can redistribute routes from other routing protocols as long as a default metric is configured.


Protocol Differences in Implementing the no redistribute Command


Caution


Removing options that you have configured for the redistribute command requires careful use of the no redistribute command to ensure that you obtain the result that you are expecting. In most cases, changing or disabling any keyword will not affect the state of other keywords.


Different protocols implement the no redistribute command differently as follows:

  • In Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) configurations, the no redistribute command removes only the specified keywords from the redistribute commands in the running configuration. They use the subtractive keyword method when redistributing from other protocols. For example, in the case of BGP, if you configure no redistribute static route-map interior, only the route map is removed from the redistribution, leaving redistribute static in place with no filter.
  • The no redistribute isis command removes the Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) redistribution from the running configuration. IS-IS removes the entire command, regardless of whether IS-IS is the redistributed or redistributing protocol.
  • The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) used the subtractive keyword method prior to EIGRP component version rel5. Starting with EIGRP component version rel5, the no redistribute command removes the entire redistribute command when redistributing from any other protocol.

Default Passive Interfaces

The Default Passive Interfaces feature simplifies the configuration of distribution devices by allowing all interfaces to be set as passive by default. In ISPs and large enterprise networks, many distribution devices have more than 200 interfaces. Obtaining routing information from these interfaces requires configuration of the routing protocol on all interfaces and manual configuration of the passive-interface command on interfaces where adjacencies were not desired.

Sources of Routing Information Filtering

Filtering sources of routing information prioritizes routing information gathered from different sources because some pieces of routing information may be more accurate than others. An administrative distance is a rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source, such as an individual router or a group of routers. Numerically, an administrative distance is an integer from 0 to 255. In general, the higher the value the lower the trust rating. An administrative distance of 255 means that the routing information source cannot be trusted at all and should be ignored.

In a large network, some routing protocols and some routers can be more reliable than others as sources of routing information. Also, when multiple routing processes are running on the same router for IP, the same route may be advertised by more than one routing process. By specifying administrative distance values, you enable a router to intelligently discriminate between sources of routing information. The router will always pick the route whose routing protocol has the lowest administrative distance.

There are no guidelines for assigning administrative distances because each network has its own requirements. You must determine a reasonable matrix of administrative distances for a network as a whole.


Note


You can use the administrative distance to rate the routing information from routers that are running the same routing protocol. However, using the administrative distance for this purpose can result in inconsistent routing information and forwarding loops.


In the following example, the router eigrp global configuration command configures EIGRP routing in autonomous system 1. The network command specifies EIGRP routing on networks 192.0.2.16 and 172.16.0.0. The first distance router configuration command sets the default administrative distance to 255, which instructs the router to ignore all routing updates from routers for which an explicit distance has not been set. The second distance command sets the administrative distance to 80 for internal EIGRP routes and to 100 for external EIGRP routes. The third distance command sets the administrative distance to 120 for the router with the address 172.16.1.3.

Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
Router(config-router)# network 192.0.2.16 
Router(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 
Router(config-router)# distance 255 
Router(config-router)# distance eigrp 80 100 
Router(config-router)# distance 120 172.16.1.3 0.0.0.0 

Note


The distance eigrp command must be used to set the administrative distance for EIGRP-derived routes.


The following example assigns the router with the address 192.0.2.1 an administrative distance of 100 and all other routers on subnet 192.0.2.0 an administrative distance of 200:

Router(config-router)# distance 100 192.0.2.1 0.0.0.0 
Router(config-router)# distance 200 192.0.2.0 0.0.0.255 

However, if you reverse the order of these two commands, all routers on subnet 192.0.2.0 are assigned an administrative distance of 200, including the router at address 192.0.2.1:

Router(config-router)# distance 200 192.0.2.0 0.0.0.255 
Router(config-router)# distance 100 192.0.2.1 0.0.0.0 

Note


Administrative distances should be applied carefully and consistently to avoid the creation of routing loops or other network failures.


In the following example, the administrative distance value for learned IP routes is 90. Preference is given to these IP routes rather than routes with the default administrative distance value of 110.

Router(config)# router isis
Router(config-router)# distance 90 ip
 

Policy-Based Routing

Policy-based routing (PBR) is a more flexible mechanism than destination routing for routing packets. It is a process whereby a router puts packets through a route map before routing them. The route map determines which packets are routed to which router next. You can enable PBR if you want certain packets to be routed some way other than the obvious shortest path. Possible applications for policy-based routing include protocol-sensitive routing, source-sensitive routing, routing based on interactive versus batch traffic, and routing based on dedicated links.

To enable PBR, you must identify the route map to be used for PBR and create the route map. The route map specifies the match criteria and the resulting action if all match clauses are met.

A packet arriving on a specified interface will be subject to PBR, except when its destination IP address is the same as the IP address of the router’s interface. To disable fast switching of all packets arriving on this interface, use the ip policy route-map command in interface configuration mode.

To define the route map to be used for PBR, use the route-map command in global configuration mode.

To define the criteria by which packets are examined to learn if they will follow PBR, use either the match length command or the match ip address command or both in route map configuration mode. The match length command allows you to configure policy routing based on the Level 3 length of the packet, and the match ip address command allows you to policy route packets based on the criteria that can be matched with an extended access list.

The following example provides two sources with equal access to two different service providers. Packets that arrive on asynchronous interface 1 from the source 10.1.1.1 are sent to the router at 172.16.6.6 if the router has no explicit route for the destination of the packets. Packets that arrive from the source 172.17.2.2 are sent to the router at 192.168.7.7 if the router has no explicit route for the destination of the packets. All other packets for which the router has no explicit route to the destination are discarded.

Router(config)# access-list 1 permit ip 10.1.1.1 
Router(config)# access-list 2 permit ip 172.17.2.2 
Router(config)# interface async 1 
Router(config-if)# ip policy route-map equal-access 
Router(config-if)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map equal-access permit 10 
Router(config-route-map)# match ip address 1 
Router(config-route-map)# set ip default next-hop 172.16.6.6 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map equal-access permit 20 
Router(config-route-map)# match ip address 2 
Router(config-route-map)# set ip default next-hop 192.168.7.7 
Router(config-route-map)# exit 
Router(config)# route-map equal-access permit 30 
Router(config-route-map)# set default interface null 0 
Router(config-route-map)# exit
 

You can set IP header precedence bits in the router when PBR is enabled. The precedence setting in the IP header determines how packets are treated during times of high traffic. When packets containing these headers arrive at another router, the packets are ordered for transmission according to the precedence set if the queuing feature is enabled. The router does not honor the precedence bits if queuing is not enabled, and the packets are sent in FIFO order. You can change the precedence setting by using either a number or a name.

The table below lists the possible IP Precedence values (numbers and their corresponding names), from the least important to the most important.

Table 3 IP Precedence Values

Number

Name

0

routine

1

priority

2

immediate

3

flash

4

flash-override

5

critical

6

internet

7

network

Fast-Switched Policy Routing

IP policy routing can be fast-switched. Prior to fast-switched policy routing, policy routing could only be process -switched, which meant that on most platforms, the switching rate was approximately 1000 to 10,000 packets per second. Such rates were not fast enough for many applications. With fast-switched policy routing, users who need policy routing to occur at faster speeds can implement policy routing without slowing down the device.

Fast-switched policy routing supports all match commands and most set commands, except for the following:

  • set ip default
  • set interface

The set interface command is supported only over point-to-point links, unless there is a route cache entry that uses the same interface that is specified in the command in the route map.

To configure fast-switched policy routing, use the ip route-cache policy interface configuration command.

Local Policy Routing

Packets that are generated by the router are not normally policy-routed. To enable local policy routing for such packets, you must indicate which route map the router should use. All packets originating on the router will then be subject to local policy routing. To identify the route map to be used for local policy routing, use the ip local policy route-map command in global configuration mode.

Use the show ip local policy command to display the route map used for local policy routing, if one exists.

NetFlow Policy Routing

NetFlow policy routing (NPR) integrates policy routing, which enables traffic engineering and traffic classification, with NetFlow services, which provide billing, capacity planning, and information monitoring on real-time traffic flows. IP policy routing works with Cisco Express Forwarding (formerly known as CEF), distributed Cisco Express Forwarding (formerly known as dCEF), and NetFlow.

NetFlow policy routing leverages the following technologies:

  • Cisco Express Forwarding, which looks at a Forwarding Information Base (FIB) instead of a routing table when switching packets, to address maintenance problems of a demand caching scheme.
  • Distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, which addresses the scalability and maintenance problems of a demand caching scheme.
  • NetFlow, which provides accounting, capacity planning, and traffic monitoring capabilities.

The following are the benefits of NPR:

  • NPR takes advantage of new switching services. Cisco Express Forwarding, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, and NetFlow can now use policy routing.
  • Policy routing can be deployed on a wide scale and on high-speed interfaces.

NPR is the default policy routing mode. No additional configuration tasks are required to enable policy routing with Cisco Express Forwarding, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, or NetFlow. As soon as one of these features is turned on, packets are automatically subjected to policy routing in the appropriate switching path.

The following example shows how to configure policy routing with Cisco Express Forwarding. The route is configured to verify that the next hop 10.0.0.8 of the route map named test is a Cisco Discovery Protocol neighbor before the device tries to policy-route to it.

Device(config)# ip cef 
Device(config)# interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/1 
Device(config-if)# ip route-cache flow 
Device(config-if)# ip policy route-map test 
Device(config-if)# exit 
Device(config)# route-map test permit 10 
Device(config-route-map)# match ip address 1 
Device(config-route-map)# set ip precedence priority 
Device(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 10.0.0.8 
Device(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop verify-availability 
Device(config-route-map)# exit 
Device(config)# route-map test permit 20 
Device(config-route-map)# match ip address 101 
Device(config-route-map)# set interface Ethernet 0/0/3 
Device(config-route-map)# set ip tos max-throughput 
Device(config-route-map)# exit
 

QoS Policy Propogation via BGP

The QoS Policy Propagation via BGP feature allows you to classify packets by IP precedence based on BGP community lists, BGP autonomous system paths, and access lists. After a packet has been classified, you can use other Quality of Service features such as committed access rate (CAR) and Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) to specify and enforce policies to fit your business model.

Before you configure policy propagation via BGP, perform the following basic tasks:

  • Configure BGP and Cisco Express Forwarding or distributed Cisco Express Forwarding. To configure BGP, refer to the BGP Configuration Guide. To configure Cisco Express Forwarding and distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, refer to the Cisco Express Forwarding Configuration Guide.
  • Define a policy.
  • Apply the policy through BGP.
  • Configure the BGP community list, BGP autonomous system path, or an access list and enable the policy on an interface.
  • Enable CAR or WRED to use the policy. To enable CAR, see the chapter “Configuring Committed Access Rate” in the Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide. To configure WRED, see the chapter “Configuring Weighted Random Early Detection” in the Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

Note


Before the QoS Policy Propagation via BGP feature can work, you must enable BGP and Cisco Express Forwarding or distributed Cisco Express Forwarding on the router. Subinterfaces on ATM interfaces that have the bgp-policy command enabled must use Cisco Express Forwarding because distributed Cisco Express Forwarding is not supported. Distributed Cisco Express Forwarding uses the Versatile Interface Processor (VIP) rather than the Route Switch Processor (RSP) to perform forwarding functions.


Authentication Key Management and Supported Protocols

Key management is a method of controlling the authentication keys used by routing protocols. Not all protocols support key management. Authentication keys are available for Director Response Protocol (DRP) Agent, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Version 2.

You can manage authentication keys by defining key chains, identifying the keys that belong to the key chain, and specifying how long each key is valid. Each key has its own key identifier (specified using the key chain configuration command), which is stored locally. The combination of the key identifier and the interface associated with the message uniquely identifies the authentication algorithm and the message digest algorithm 5 (MD5) authentication key in use.

You can configure multiple keys with lifetimes. Only one authentication packet is sent, regardless of how many valid keys exist. The software examines the key numbers in ascending order and uses the first valid key it encounters. The lifetimes allow for overlap during key changes.

How to Configure Basic IP Routing

Redistributing Routing Information

You can redistribute routes from one routing domain into another, with or without controlling the redistribution with a route map. To control which routes are redistributed, configure a route map and reference the route map from the redistribute command.

The tasks in this section describe how to define the conditions for redistributing routes (a route map), how to redistribute routes, and how to remove options for redistributing routes, depending on the protocol being used.

Defining Conditions for Redistributing Routes

Route maps can be used to control route redistribution (or to implement policy-based routing). To define conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another, configure the route-map command. Then use at least one match command in route map configuration mode, as needed. At least one match command is used in this task because the purpose of the task is to illustrate how to define one or more conditions on which to base redistribution.


Note


A route map is not required to have match commands; it can have only set commands. If there are no match commands, everything matches the route map.



Note


There are many more match commands not shown in this table. For additional match commands, see the Cisco IOS Master Command List.


Command or Action

Purpose

match as-path path-list-number 

Matches a BGP autonomous system path access list.

match community {standard-list-number | expanded-list-number | community-list-name match community[exact]} 

Matches a BGP community.

match ip address {access-list-number [access-list-number... | access-list-name...] | access-list-name [access-list-number...| access-list-name] | prefix-list prefix-list-name [prefix-list-name...]} 

Matches routes that have a destination network address that is permitted to policy route packets or is permitted by a standard access list, an extended access list, or a prefix list.

match metric metric-value

Matches routes with the specified metric.

match ip next-hop {access-list-number | access-list-name} [access-list-number | access-list-name]

Matches a next-hop device address passed by one of the specified access lists.

match tag tag-value [tag-value]

Matches the specified tag value.

match interface type number [type number]

Matches routes that use the specified interface as the next hop.

match ip route-source {access-list-number | access-list-name} [access-list-number | access-list-name]

Matches the address specified by the advertised access lists.

match route-type {local | internal | external [type-1 | type-2] | level-1 | level-2}

Matches the specified route type.

To optionally specify the routing actions for the system to perform if the match criteria are met (for routes that are being redistributed by the route map), use one or more set commands in route map configuration mode, as needed.


Note


A route map is not required to have set commands; it can have only match commands.



Note


There are more set commands not shown in this table. For additional set commands, see the Cisco IOS Master Command List.


Command or Action

Purpose

set community {community-number [additive] [well-known]| none} 

Sets the community attribute (for BGP).

set dampening halflife reuse suppress max-suppress-time

Sets route dampening parameters (for BGP).

set local-preference number-value

Assigns a local preference value to a path (for BGP).

set origin {igp | egp as-number | incomplete} 

Sets the route origin code.

set as-path{tag | prepend as-path-string } 

Modifies the autonomous system path (for BGP).

set next-hop next-hop

Specifies the address of the next hop.

set automatic-tag

Enables automatic computation of the tag table.

set level {level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2 | stub-area | backbone}

Specifies the areas to import routes.

set metric metric-value

Sets the metric value for redistributed routes (for any protocol, except EIGRP).

set metric bandwidth delay reliability load mtu

Sets the metric value for redistributed routes (for EIGRP only).

set metric-type {internal | external | type-1 | type-2}

Sets the metric type for redistributed routes.

set metric-type internal 

Sets the Multi Exit Discriminator (MED) value on prefixes advertised to the external BGP neighbor to match the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metric of the next hop.

set tag tag-value

Sets a tag value to be applied to redistributed routes.

Redistributing Routes from One Routing Domain to Another

Perform this task to redistribute routes from one routing domain into another and to control route redistribution. This task shows how to redistribute OSPF routes into a BGP domain.

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    enable

    2.    configure terminal

    3.    router bgp autonomous-system

    4.    redistribute protocol [process-id] {level-1 | level-1-2 | level-2} [metric metric-value] [metric-type type-value] [match {internal | external type-value}] [tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag] [subnets]

    5.    default-metric number

    6.    end


DETAILED STEPS
     Command or ActionPurpose
    Step 1 enable


    Example:
    Device> enable
     

    Enables privileged EXEC mode.

    • Enter your password if prompted.
     
    Step 2 configure terminal


    Example:
    Device# configure terminal
     

    Enters global configuration mode.

     
    Step 3 router bgp autonomous-system


    Example:
    Device(config)# router bgp 109
     

    Enables a BGP routing process and enters router configuration mode.

     
    Step 4redistribute protocol [process-id] {level-1 | level-1-2 | level-2} [metric metric-value] [metric-type type-value] [match {internal | external type-value}] [tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag] [subnets]


    Example:
    Device(config-router)# redistribute ospf 2 level-1       
    
     

    Redistributes routes from the specified routing domain into another routing domain.

     
    Step 5 default-metric number


    Example:
    Device(config-router)# default-metric 10        
    
     

    Sets the default metric value for redistributed routes.

    Note   

    The metric value specified in the redistribute command supersedes the metric value specified using the default-metric command.

     
    Step 6 end


    Example:
    Device(config-router)# end        
    
     

    Exits router configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

     

    Removing Options for Redistribution Routes


    Caution


    Removing options that you have configured for the redistribute command requires careful use of the no redistribute command to ensure that you obtain the result that you are expecting.


    Different protocols implement the no redistribute command differently as follows:

    • In BGP, OSPF, and RIP configurations, the no redistribute command removes only the specified keywords from the redistribute commands in the running configuration. They use the subtractive keyword method when redistributing from other protocols. For example, in the case of BGP, if you configure no redistribute static route-map interior, only the route map is removed from the redistribution, leaving redistribute static in place with no filter.
    • The no redistribute isis command removes the IS-IS redistribution from the running configuration. IS-IS removes the entire command, regardless of whether IS-IS is the redistributed or redistributing protocol.
    • EIGRP used the subtractive keyword method prior to EIGRP component version rel5. Starting with EIGRP component version rel5, the no redistribute command removes the entire redistribute command when redistributing from any other protocol.
    • For the no redistribute connected command, the behavior is subtractive if the redistribute command is configured under the router bgp or the router ospf command. The behavior is complete removal of the command if it is configured under the router isis or the router eigrp command.

    The following OSPF commands illustrate how various options are removed from the redistribution in router configuration mode.

    Command or Action

    Purpose

    no redistribute connected metric 1000 subnets

    Removes the configured metric value of 1000 and the configured subnets and retains the redistribute connected command in the configuration.

    no redistribute connected metric 1000 

    Removes the configured metric value of 1000 and retains the redistribute connected subnets command in the configuration.

    no redistribute connected subnets 

    Removes the configured subnets and retains the redistribute connected metric metric-value command in the configuration.

    no redistribute connected 

    Removes the redistribute connected command and any of the options that were configured for the command.

    Configuring Routing Information Filtering

    To filter routing protocol information, perform the tasks in this section.


    Note


    When routes are redistributed between OSPF processes, no OSPF metric is preserved.


    Preventing Routing Updates Through an Interface

    To prevent other routers on a local network from dynamically learning routes, you can keep routing update messages from being sent through a router interface. To prevent routing updates through a specified interface, use the passive-interface command in router configuration mode. This command is supported in all IP-based routing protocols, except BGP.

    OSPF and IS-IS behave differently. In OSPF, the interface address that you specify as passive appears as a stub network in the OSPF domain. OSPF routing information is neither sent nor received through the specified router interface. In IS-IS, the specified IP addresses are advertised without actually running IS-IS on those interfaces.

    Configuring Default Passive Interfaces

    Perform this task to set all interfaces on a device, in an Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) environment, as passive by default, and then activate only those interfaces where adjacencies are desired.

    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    enable

      2.    configure terminal

      3.    router eigrp {autonomous-system-number | virtual-instance-number}

      4.    passive-interface [default] [type number]

      5.    no passive-interface [default] [type number]

      6.    network network-address [options]

      7.    end

      8.    show ip eigrp interfaces

      9.    show ip interface


    DETAILED STEPS
       Command or ActionPurpose
      Step 1 enable


      Example:
      Device> enable
       

      Enables privileged EXEC mode.

      • Enter your password if prompted.
       
      Step 2 configure terminal


      Example:
      Device# configure terminal
       

      Enters global configuration mode.

       
      Step 3 router eigrp {autonomous-system-number | virtual-instance-number}


      Example:
      Device(config)# router eigrp 1
       

      Configures an EIGRP process and enters router configuration mode.

      • autonomous-system-number—Autonomous system number that identifies the services to the other EIGRP address-family devices. It is also used to tag routing information. The range is 1 to 65535.
      • virtual-instance-number—EIGRP virtual instance name. This name must be unique among all address-family router processes on a single device, but need not be unique among devices
       
      Step 4 passive-interface [default] [type number]


      Example:
      Device(config-router)# passive-interface default
       

      Sets all interfaces as passive by default.

       
      Step 5no passive-interface [default] [type number]


      Example:
      Device(config-router)# no passive-interface gigabitethernet 0/0/0
       

      Activates only those interfaces that need adjacencies.

       
      Step 6 network network-address [options]


      Example:
      Device(config-router)# network 192.0.2.0
       

      Specifies the list of networks to be advertised by routing protocols.

       
      Step 7end


      Example:
      Device(config-router)# end
       

      Exits router configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

       
      Step 8show ip eigrp interfaces


      Example:
      Device# show ip eigrp interfaces
       

      Verifies whether interfaces on your network have been set to passive.

       
      Step 9show ip interface


      Example:
      Device# show ip interface
       

      Verifies whether interfaces you enabled are active.

       

      Controlling the Advertising of Routes in Routing Updates

      To prevent other devices from learning one or more routes, you can suppress routes from being advertised in routing updates. To suppress routes from being advertised in routing updates, use the distribute-list {access-list-number | access-list-name} out [interface-name | routing-process | as-number] command in router configuration mode.

      You cannot specify an interface name in Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). When used for OSPF, this feature applies only to external routes.

      Controlling the Processing of Routing Updates

      You might want to avoid processing certain routes listed in incoming updates. This feature does not apply to OSPF or IS-IS. To suppress routes in incoming updates, use the distribute-list {access-list-number | access-list-name} in [interface-type interface-number] command in router configuration mode.

      Filtering Sources of Routing Information

      To filter sources of routing information, use the distance ip-address wildcard- mask [ip-standard-acl | ip-extended-acl | access-list-name] command in router configuration mode.

      Configuring Precedence for Policy-Based Routing Default Next-Hop Routes

      Perform this task to configure the precedence of packets and specify where packets that pass the match criteria are output.


      Note


      The set ip next-hop and set ip default next-hop commands are similar but have a different order of operation. Configuring the set ip next-hop command causes the system to first use policy routing and then use the routing table. Configuring the set ip default next-hop command causes the system to first use the routing table and then the policy-route-specified next hop.


      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    enable

        2.    configure terminal

        3.    route-map route-map-name [permit | deny] [sequence-number]]

        4.    set ip precedence {number | name}

        5.    set ip next-hop ip-address [ip-address]

        6.    set interface type number [...type number]

        7.    set ip default next-hop ip-address [ip-address]

        8.    set default interface type number [...type number]

        9.    end


      DETAILED STEPS
         Command or ActionPurpose
        Step 1 enable


        Example:
        Device> enable
         

        Enables privileged EXEC mode.

        • Enter your password if prompted.
         
        Step 2 configure terminal


        Example:
        Device# configure terminal
         

        Enters global configuration mode.

         
        Step 3 route-map route-map-name [permit | deny] [sequence-number]]


        Example:
        Device(config)# route-map rm1
         

        Defines a route map to control redistribution and enters route-map configuration mode.

         
        Step 4 set ip precedence {number | name}


        Example:
        Device(config-route-map)# set ip precedence 5
         

        Sets the precedence value in the IP header.

        Note   

        You can specify either a precedence number or a precedence name.

         
        Step 5 set ip next-hop ip-address [ip-address]


        Example:
        Device(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop 192.0.2.1
         

        Specifies the next hop for routing packets.

        Note   

        The next hop must be an adjacent device.

         
        Step 6 set interface type number [...type number]


        Example:
        Device(config-route-map)# set interface gigabitethernet 0/0/0
         

        Specifies the output interface for the packet.

         
        Step 7 set ip default next-hop ip-address [ip-address]


        Example:
        Device(config-route-map)# set ip default next-hop 172.16.6.6
         

        Specifies the next hop for routing packets if there is no explicit route for this destination.

        Note   

        Like the set ip next-hop command, the set ip default next-hop command must specify an adjacent device.

         
        Step 8 set default interface type number [...type number]


        Example:
        Device(config-route-map)# set default interface serial 0/0/0
         

        Specifies the output interface for the packet if there is no explicit route for the destination.

         
        Step 9 end


        Example:
        Device(config-route-map)# end
         

        Exits route-map configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

         

        Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

        Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP Based on Community Lists

        SUMMARY STEPS

          1.    enable

          2.    configure terminal

          3.    route-map route-map-name [permit | deny [sequence-number]]

          4.    match community {standard-list-number | expanded-list-number | community-list-name [exact]}

          5.    set ip precedence [number | name]

          6.    exit

          7.    router bgp autonomous-system

          8.    table-map route-map-name

          9.    exit

          10.    ip community-list standard-list-number {permit | deny} [community-number]

          11.    interface type number

          12.    bgp-policy {source | destination} ip-prec-map

          13.    exit

          14.    ip bgp-community new-format

          15.    end


        DETAILED STEPS
           Command or ActionPurpose
          Step 1 enable


          Example:
          Device> enable
           

          Enables privileged EXEC mode.

          • Enter your password if prompted.
           
          Step 2 configure terminal


          Example:
          Device# configure terminal
           

          Enters global configuration mode.

           
          Step 3 route-map route-map-name [permit | deny [sequence-number]]


          Example:
          Device(config)# route-map rm1
           

          Defines a route map to control redistribution and enters route-map configuration mode.

           
          Step 4 match community {standard-list-number | expanded-list-number | community-list-name [exact]}


          Example:
          Device(config-route-map)# match community 1
           

          Matches a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) community list.

           
          Step 5 set ip precedence [number | name]


          Example:
          Device(config-route-map)# set ip precedence 5
           

          Sets the IP Precedence field when the community list matches.

          Note   

          You can specify either a precedence number or a precedence name.

           
          Step 6 exit


          Example:
          Device(config-route-map)# exit
           

          Exits route-map configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

           
          Step 7router bgp autonomous-system


          Example:
          Device(config)# router bgp 45000
           

          Enables a BGP process and enters router configuration mode.

           
          Step 8 table-map route-map-name


          Example:
          Device(config-router)# table-map rm1
           

          Modifies the metric and tag values when the IP routing table is updated with BGP learned routes.

           
          Step 9 exit


          Example:
          Device(config-router)# exit
           

          Exits router configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

           
          Step 10ip community-list standard-list-number {permit | deny} [community-number]


          Example:
          Device(config)# ip community-list 1 permit 2
           

          Creates a community list for BGP and controls access to it.

           
          Step 11interface type number


          Example:
          Device(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0/0
           

          Specifies the interface (or subinterface) and enters interface configuration mode.

           
          Step 12 bgp-policy {source | destination} ip-prec-map


          Example:
          Device(config-if)# bgp-policy source ip-prec-map
           

          Classifies packets using IP precedence.

           
          Step 13 exit


          Example:
          Device(config-if)# exit
           

          Exits interface configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

           
          Step 14 ip bgp-community new-format


          Example:
          Device(config)# ip bgp-community new-format
           

          (Optional) Displays the BGP community number in AA:NN (autonomous system:community number/4-byte number) format.

           
          Step 15 end


          Example:
          Device(config)# end
           

          Exits global configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

           

          Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP Based on the Autonomous System Path Attribute

          SUMMARY STEPS

            1.    enable

            2.    configure terminal

            3.    route-map route-map-name [permit | deny [sequence-number]]

            4.    match as-path path-list-number

            5.    set ip precedence [number | name]

            6.    exit

            7.    router bgp autonomous-system

            8.    table-map route-map-name

            9.    exit

            10.    ip as-path access-list access-list-number {permit | deny} as-regular-expression

            11.    interface type number

            12.    bgp-policy {source | destination} ip-prec-map

            13.    end


          DETAILED STEPS
             Command or ActionPurpose
            Step 1 enable


            Example:
            Device> enable
             

            Enables privileged EXEC mode.

            • Enter your password if prompted.
             
            Step 2 configure terminal


            Example:
            Device# configure terminal
             

            Enters global configuration mode.

             
            Step 3 route-map route-map-name [permit | deny [sequence-number]]


            Example:
            Device(config)# route-map rm1
             

            Defines a route map to control redistribution and enters route-map configuration mode.

             
            Step 4match as-path path-list-number


            Example:
            Device(config-route-map)# match as-path 2
             

            Matches a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) autonomous system path access list.

             
            Step 5set ip precedence [number | name]


            Example:
            Device(config-route-map)# set ip precedence 5
             

            Sets the IP Precedence field when the autonomous-system path matches.

            Note   

            You can specify either a precedence number or a precedence name.

             
            Step 6 exit


            Example:
            Device(config-route-map)# exit
             

            Exits route-map configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

             
            Step 7 router bgp autonomous-system


            Example:
            Device(config)# router bgp 45000
             

            Enables a BGP process and enters router configuration mode.

             
            Step 8table-map route-map-name


            Example:
            Device(config-router)# table-map rm1
             

            Modifies the metric and tag values when the IP routing table is updated with BGP learned routes.

             
            Step 9 exit


            Example:
            Device(config-router)# exit
             

            Exits router configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

             
            Step 10ip as-path access-list access-list-number {permit | deny} as-regular-expression


            Example:
            Device(config)# ip as-path access-list 500 permit 45000
             

            Defines an autonomous system path access list.

             
            Step 11 interface type number


            Example:
            Device(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0/0
             

            Specifies the interface (or subinterface) and enters interface configuration mode.

             
            Step 12bgp-policy {source | destination} ip-prec-map


            Example:
            Device(config-if)# bgp-policy source ip-prec-map
             

            Classifies packets using IP precedence.

             
            Step 13 end


            Example:
            Device(config-if)# end
             

            Exits interface configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

             

            Configuring QoS Policy Propagation Based on an Access List

            This section describes how to configure the QoS Policy Propagation via BGP feature based on an access list. This section assumes that you have already configured Cisco Express Forwarding or distributed Cisco Express Forwarding and BGP on your router.

            Perform this task to configure the router to propagate the IP precedence based on an access list:

            SUMMARY STEPS

              1.    enable

              2.    configure terminal

              3.    route-map route-map-name [permit | deny [sequence-number]]

              4.    match ip address access-list-number

              5.    set ip precedence [number | name]

              6.    exit

              7.    router bgp autonomous-system

              8.    table-map route-map-name

              9.    exit

              10.    access-list access-list-number {permit | deny} source

              11.    interface type number

              12.    bgp-policy {source | destination} ip-prec-map

              13.    end


            DETAILED STEPS
               Command or ActionPurpose
              Step 1 enable


              Example:
              Router> enable
               

              Enables privileged EXEC mode.

              • Enter your password if prompted.
               
              Step 2 configure terminal


              Example:
              Router# configure terminal
               

              Enters global configuration mode.

               
              Step 3 route-map route-map-name [permit | deny [sequence-number]]


              Example:
              Router(config)# route-map rm1
               

              Defines a route map to control redistribution and enters route-map configuration mode.

               
              Step 4 match ip address access-list-number


              Example:
              Router(config-route-map)# match ip address 3
               

              Matches routes that have a destination network address that is permitted by a standard or extended access list.

               
              Step 5set ip precedence [number | name]

              Example:
              Router(config-route-map)# set ip precedence 5
               

              Sets the IP Precedence field when the autonomous system path matches.

              Note   

              You can specify either a precedence number or a precedence name.

               
              Step 6 exit


              Example:
              Router(config-route-map)# exit
               

              Exits route-map configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

               
              Step 7 router bgp autonomous-system


              Example:
              Router(config)# router bgp 45000
               

              Enables a BGP routing process and enters router configuration mode.

               
              Step 8 table-map route-map-name


              Example:
              Router(config-router)# table-map rm1
               

              Modifies the metric and tag values when the IP routing table is updated with BGP learned routes.

               
              Step 9 exit


              Example:
              Router(config-router)# exit
               

              Exits router configuration mode and returns to global configuration mode.

               
              Step 10 access-list access-list-number {permit | deny} source


              Example:
              Router(config)# access-list 2 permit 172.16.0.2
               

              Defines an access list.

               
              Step 11 interface type number


              Example:
              Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
               

              Specifies the interface (or subinterface) and enters interface configuration mode.

               
              Step 12 bgp-policy {source | destination} ip-prec-map


              Example:
              Router(config-if)# bgp-policy source ip-prec-map
               

              Classifies packets using IP precedence.

               
              Step 13 end


              Example:
              Router(config-if)# end
               

              Exits interface configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

               

              Monitoring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

              To monitor the QoS Policy Propagation via the BGP feature configuration, use the following optional commands.

              Command or Action

              Purpose

              show ip bgp

              Displays entries in the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing table to verify whether the correct community is set on the prefixes.

              show ip bgp community-list community-list-number
              

              Displays routes permitted by the BGP community to verify whether correct prefixes are selected.

              show ip cef network

              Displays entries in the forwarding information base (FIB) table based on the specified IP address to verify whether Cisco Express Forwarding has the correct precedence value for the prefix.

              show ip interface

              Displays information about the interface.

              show ip route prefix

              Displays the current status of the routing table to verify whether correct precedence values are set on the prefixes.

              Managing Authentication Keys

              SUMMARY STEPS

                1.    enable

                2.    configure terminal

                3.    key chain name-of-chain

                4.    key number

                5.    key-string text

                6.    accept-lifetime start-time {infinite | end-time | duration seconds}

                7.    send-lifetime start-time {infinite | end-time | duration seconds}

                8.    end

                9.    show key chain


              DETAILED STEPS
                 Command or ActionPurpose
                Step 1 enable


                Example:

                You can configure multiple keys with lifetimes. Only one authentication packet is sent, regardless of how many valid keys exist. The software examines the key numbers in ascending order and uses the first valid key it encounters. The lifetimes allow for overlap during key changes.

                Device> enable
                 

                Enables privileged EXEC mode.

                • Enter your password if prompted.
                 
                Step 2 configure terminal


                Example:
                Device# configure terminal
                 

                Enters global configuration mode.

                 
                Step 3 key chain name-of-chain


                Example:
                Device(config)# key chain chain1
                 

                Defines a key chain and enters key-chain configuration mode.

                 
                Step 4key number


                Example:
                Device(config-keychain)# key key1
                 

                Identifies the key number in key-chain configuration mode and enters key-chain key configuration mode.

                 
                Step 5 key-string text


                Example:
                Device(config-keychain-key)# key-string string1
                 

                Identifies the key string.

                 
                Step 6 accept-lifetime start-time {infinite | end-time | duration seconds}


                Example:
                Device(config-keychain-key)# accept-lifetime 13:30:00 Dec 22 2011 duration 7200
                 

                Specifies the time period during which the key can be received.

                 
                Step 7send-lifetime start-time {infinite | end-time | duration seconds}


                Example:
                Device(config-keychain-key)# send-lifetime 14:30:00 Dec 22 2011 duration 3600
                 

                Specifies the time period during which the key can be sent.

                 
                Step 8end


                Example:
                Device(config-keychain-key)# end
                 

                Exits key-chain key configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                 
                Step 9show key chain


                Example:
                Device# show key chain
                 

                (Optional) Displays authentication key information.

                 

                Monitoring and Maintaining the IP Network

                Clearing Routes from the IP Routing Table

                You can remove all contents of a particular table. Clearing a table may become necessary when the contents of the particular structure have become, or are suspected to be, invalid.

                To clear one or more routes from the IP routing table, use the clear ip route {network [mask] | *} command in privileged EXEC mode.

                Displaying System and Network Statistics

                You can use the following show commands to display system and network statistics. You can display specific statistics such as contents of IP routing tables, caches, and databases. You can also display information about node reachability and discover the routing path that packets leaving your device are taking through the network. This information can an be used to determine resource utilization and solve network problems.

                Command or Action

                Purpose

                show ip cache policy

                Displays cache entries in the policy route cache.

                show ip local policy

                Displays the local policy route map if one exists.

                show ip policy

                Displays policy route maps.

                show ip protocols

                Displays the parameters and current state of the active routing protocols.

                 
                show ip route [ip-address [mask] [longer-prefixes] | protocol [process-id] | list {access-list-number | access-list-name} | static download]

                Displays the current state of the routing table.

                show ip route summary

                Displays the current state of the routing table in summary form.

                show ip route supernets-only

                Displays supernets.

                show key chain [name-of-chain]

                Displays authentication key information.

                show route-map [map-name]

                Displays all route maps configured or only the one specified.

                Configuration Examples for Basic IP Routing

                Example: Configuring Redistribution Routes

                Example: Static Routing Redistribution

                In the example that follows, three static routes are specified, two of which are to be advertised. The static routes are created by specifying the redistribute static router configuration command and then specifying an access list that allows only those two networks to be passed to the EIGRP process. Any redistributed static routes should be sourced by a single router to minimize the likelihood of creating a routing loop.

                Router(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.7.65 
                Router(config)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.7.65 
                Router(config)# ip route 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 10.20.1.2 
                Router(config)# ! 
                Router(config)# access-list 3 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.255.255 
                Router(config)# access-list 3 permit 192.168.5.0 0.0.255.255 
                Router(config)# access-list 3 permit 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.255 
                Router(config)# ! 
                Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# network 10.10.10.0 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute static metric 10000 100 255 1 1500
                Router(config-router)# distribute-list 3 out static 
                

                Example: EIGRP Redistribution

                Each EIGRP routing process provides routing information to only one autonomous system. The Cisco IOS software must run a separate EIGRP process and maintain a separate routing database for each autonomous system that the software services. However, you can transfer routing information among routing databases.

                In the following example, network 10.0.0.0 is configured under EIGRP autonomous system 1 and network 192.168.7.0 is configured under EIGRP autonomous system 101:

                Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router(config)# router eigrp 101 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.7.0 
                

                In the following example, routes from the 192.168.7.0 network are redistributed into autonomous system 1 (without passing any other routing information from autonomous system 101):

                Router(config)# access-list 3 permit 192.168.7.0 
                Router(config)# ! 
                Router(config)# route-map 101-to-1 permit 10 
                Router(config-route-map)# match ip address 3 
                Router(config-route-map)# set metric 10000 100 1 255 1500 
                Router(config-route-map)# exit 
                Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 101 route-map 101-to-1 
                Router(config-router)#! 
                

                The following example is an alternative way to redistribute routes from the 192.168.7.0 network into autonomous system 1.This method does not allow you to set the metric for redistributed routes.

                Router(config)# access-list 3 permit 192.168.7.0 
                Router(config)# ! 
                Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 101 
                Router(config-router)# distribute-list 3 out eigrp 101 
                Router(config-router)# ! 

                Example: Mutual Redistribution Between EIGRP and RIP

                Consider a WAN at a university that uses the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) as an interior routing protocol. Assume that the university wants to connect its WAN to regional network 172.16.0.0, which uses the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) as the routing protocol. The goal in this case is to advertise the networks in the university network to devices in the regional network.

                Mutual redistribution is configured between EIGRP and RIP in the following example:

                Device(config)# access-list 10 permit 172.16.0.0 
                Device(config)# ! 
                Device(config)# router eigrp 1 
                Device(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 
                Device(config-router)# redistribute rip metric 10000 100 255 1 1500 
                Device(config-router)# default-metric 10
                Device(config-router)# distribute-list 10 out rip 
                Device(config-router)# exit
                Device(config)# router rip 
                Device(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 1 
                Device(config-router)# ! 
                

                In this example, an EIGRP routing process is started. The network router configuration command specifies that network 172.16.0.0 (the regional network) is to send and receive EIGRP routing information. The redistribute router configuration command specifies that RIP-derived routing information be advertised in routing updates. The default-metric router configuration command assigns an EIGRP metric to all RIP-derived routes. The distribute-list router configuration command instructs the Cisco software to use access list 10 (not defined in this example) to limit the entries in each outgoing update. The access list prevents unauthorized advertising of university routes to the regional network.

                Example: Mutual Redistribution Between EIGRP and BGP

                In the following example, mutual redistribution is configured between the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

                Routes from EIGRP routing process 101 are injected into BGP autonomous system 50000. A filter is configured to ensure that the correct routes are advertised, in this case, three networks. Routes from BGP autonomous system 50000 are injected into EIGRP routing process 101. The same filter is used.

                Device(config)# ! All networks that should be advertised from R1 are controlled with ACLs: 
                Device(config)# access-list 1 permit 172.18.0.0 0.0.255.255 
                Device(config)# access-list 1 permit 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 
                Device(config)# access-list 1 permit 172.25.0.0 0.0.255.255
                Device(config)# ! Configuration for router R1:
                Device(config)# router bgp 50000 
                Device(config-router)# network 172.18.0.0 
                Device(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0 
                Device(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.10.1 remote-as 2 
                Device(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.10.15 remote-as 1 
                Device(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.10.24 remote-as 3 
                Device(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 101 
                Device(config-router)# distribute-list 1 out eigrp 101 
                Device(config-router)# exit 
                Device(config)# router eigrp 101 
                Device(config-router)# network 172.25.0.0
                Device(config-router)# redistribute bgp 50000 
                Device(config-router)# distribute-list 1 out bgp 50000 
                Device(config-router)# ! 

                Caution


                BGP should be redistributed into an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) when there are no other suitable options. Redistribution from BGP into any IGP should be applied with proper filtering by using distribute lists, IP prefix lists, and route map statements to limit the number of prefixes.


                Examples: OSPF Routing and Route Redistribution

                OSPF typically requires coordination among many internal devices, area border routers (ABRs), and Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs). At a minimum, OSPF-based devices can be configured with all default parameter values, with no authentication, and with interfaces assigned to areas.

                This section provides the following configuration examples:

                • The first example shows simple configurations illustrating basic OSPF commands.
                • The second example shows configurations for an internal device, ABR, and ASBR within a single, arbitrarily assigned OSPF autonomous system.
                • The third example illustrates a more complex configuration and the application of various tools available for controlling OSPF-based routing environments.
                Example: Basic OSPF Configurations

                The following example shows a simple OSPF configuration that enables OSPF routing process 1, attaches Ethernet interface 0/0 to Area 0.0.0.0, and redistributes RIP into OSPF and OSPF into RIP:

                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf cost 1 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 1/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.17.1.1 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.18.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute rip metric 1 subnets 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router(config)# router rip 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.17.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# default-metric 1 
                Router(config-router)# ! 
                

                The following example shows the assignment of four area IDs to four IP address ranges. In the example, OSPF routing process 1 is initialized, and four OSPF areas are defined: 10.9.50.0, 2, 3, and 0. Areas 10.9.50.0, 2, and 3 mask specific address ranges, whereas Area 0 enables OSPF for all other networks.

                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.18.20.0 0.0.0.255 area 10.9.50.0 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.18.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 2 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.19.10.0 0.0.0.255 area 3 
                Router(config-router)# network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! Ethernet interface 0/0 is in area 10.9.50.0: 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.18.20.5 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! Ethernet interface 1/0 is in area 2: 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 1/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.18.1.5 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! Ethernet interface 2/0 is in area 2: 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 2/0
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.18.2.5 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! Ethernet interface 3/0 is in area 3:
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 3/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.19.10.5 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! Ethernet interface 4/0 is in area 0: 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 4/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.19.1.1 255.255.255.0
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! Ethernet interface 5/0 is in area 0: 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 5/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.0.0 
                Router(config-if)# ! 
                

                Each network router configuration command is evaluated sequentially, so the specific order of these commands in the configuration is important. The Cisco IOS software sequentially evaluates the address wildcard-mask pair for each interface. See the IP Routing: Protocol-Independent Command Reference for more information.

                Consider the first network command. Area ID 10.9.50.0 is configured for the interface on which subnet 172.18.20.0 is located. Assume that a match is determined for Ethernet interface 0/0. Ethernet interface 0/0 is attached to Area 10.9.50.0 only.

                The second network command is evaluated next. For Area 2, all interfaces (except Ethernet interface 0/0) are evaluated. Assume that a match is determined for Ethernet interface 1/0. OSPF is then enabled for that interface, and Ethernet 1/0 is attached to Area 2.

                This process of attaching interfaces to OSPF areas continues for all network commands. Note that the last network command in this example is a special case. With this command, all available interfaces (not explicitly attached to another area) are attached to Area 0.

                Example: Internal Router ABR and ASBR Configurations

                The figure below provides a general network map that illustrates a sample configuration for several routers within a single OSPF autonomous system.

                Figure 1. Example OSPF Autonomous System Network Map

                In this configuration, the following five routers are configured in OSPF autonomous system 1:

                • Router A and Router B are both internal routers within area 1.
                • Router C is an OSPF ABR. Note that for Router C, area 1 is assigned to E3 and Area 0 is assigned to S0.
                • Router D is an internal router in Area 0 (backbone area). In this case, both network router configuration commands specify the same area (Area 0 or the backbone area).
                • Router E is an OSPF ASBR. Note that BGP routes are redistributed into OSPF and that these routes are advertised by OSPF.

                Note


                You don't have to include definitions of all areas in an OSPF autonomous system in the configuration of all routers in the autonomous system. You must define only the directly connected areas. In the example that follows, routes in Area 0 are learned by routers in area 1 (Router A and Router B) when the ABR (Router C) injects summary LSAs into Area 1.


                Autonomous system 60000 is connected to the outside world via the BGP link to the external peer at IP address 172.16.1.6.

                Here is an example configuration for the general network map shown in the figure above.

                Router A Configuration—Internal Router
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 1/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router B Configuration—Internal Router
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 2/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 
                Router(config-router)# exit
                Router C Configuration—ABR
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 3/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Serial 0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.2.3 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# exit
                Router D Configuration—Internal Router
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 4/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.4 255.0.0.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Serial 1 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.2.4 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# exit
                Router E Configuration—ASBR
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 5/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.5 255.0.0.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Serial 2 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.5 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute bgp 50000 metric 1 metric-type 1 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router(config)# router bgp 50000 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.1.6 remote-as 60000
                
                Example: Complex OSPF Configuration

                The following example configuration accomplishes several tasks in setting up an ABR. These tasks can be split into the following two general categories:

                • Basic OSPF configuration
                • Route redistribution

                The figure below illustrates the network address ranges and area assignments for interfaces.

                Figure 2. Interface and Area Specifications for the OSPF Configuration

                The basic configuration tasks in this example are as follows:

                • Configure address ranges for Ethernet interface 0 through Ethernet interface 3.
                • Enable OSPF on each interface.
                • Set up an OSPF authentication password for each area and network.
                • Assign link-state metrics and other OSPF interface configuration options.
                • Create a stub area with area ID 10.0.0.0. (Note that the authentication and stub options of the area router configuration command are specified with separate area command entries, but they can be merged into a single area command.)
                • Specify the backbone area (Area 0).

                Configuration tasks associated with route redistribution are as follows:

                • Redistribute EIGRP and RIP into OSPF with various options set (including metric-type, metric, tag, and subnet).
                • Redistribute EIGRP and OSPF into RIP.

                The following is a sample OSPF configuration:

                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.110.201 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf authentication-key abcdefgh 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf cost 10 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 1/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.19.251.201 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf authentication-key ijklmnop 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf cost 20 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf retransmit-interval 10 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf transmit-delay 2 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf priority 4 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 2/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.19.254.201 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf authentication-key abcdefgh 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf cost 10 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 3/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 10.56.0.201 255.255.0.0 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf authentication-key ijklmnop 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf cost 20 
                Router(config-if)# ip ospf dead-interval 80 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                

                In the following configuration, OSPF is on network 172.19.0.0:

                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 10.0.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.110.0 0.0.0.255 area 192.68.110.0 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.19.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# area 0 authentication 
                Router(config-router)# area 10.0.0.0 stub 
                Router(config-router)# area 10.0.0.0 authentication 
                Router(config-router)# area 10.0.0.0 default-cost 20 
                Router(config-router)# area 192.168.110.0 authentication 
                Router(config-router)# area 10.0.0.0 range 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# area 192.168.110.0 range 192.168.110.0 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-router)# area 0 range 172.19.251.0 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-router)# area 0 range 172.19.254.0 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 200 metric-type 2 metric 1 tag 200 subnets 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute rip metric-type 2 metric 1 tag 200 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                

                In the following configuration, EIGRP autonomous system 1 is on 172.19.0.0:

                Router(config)# router eigrp 1 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.19.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router(config)# ! RIP for 192.168.110.0: 
                Router(config)# router rip 
                Router(config-router)# network 192.168.110.0 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 1 metric 1 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute ospf 201 metric 1 
                Router(config-router)# exit
                 

                Example: Default Metric Values Redistribution

                The following example shows how a router in autonomous system 1 is configured to run both RIP and EIGRP. The example advertises EIGRP-derived routes using RIP and assigns the EIGRP-derived routes a RIP metric of 10.

                Router(config)# router rip 
                Router(config-router)# default-metric 10 
                Router(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 1 
                Router(config-router)# exit
                 

                Example: Configuring Default Passive Interfaces

                The following example shows how to configure network interfaces, set all interfaces that are running OSPF as passive, and then enable serial interface 0/0:

                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.19.64.38 255.255.255.0 secondary 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.19.232.70 255.255.255.240 
                Router(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface Serial 0/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.24.101.14 255.255.255.252 
                Router(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast 
                Router(config-if)# no ip mroute-cache 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# interface TokenRing 0 
                Router(config-if)# ip address 172.20.10.4 255.255.255.0 
                Router(config-if)# no ip directed-broadcast 
                Router(config-if)# no ip mroute-cache 
                Router(config-if)# ring-speed 16 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router ospf 1 
                Router(config-router)# passive-interface default 
                Router(config-router)# no passive-interface Serial 0/0 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.19.232.0 0.0.0.255 area 4 
                Router(config-router)# network 172.24.101.0 0.0.0.255 area 4 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                

                Example: IP Default Gateway as a Static IP Next Hop When IP Routing Is Disabled

                The following example shows how to configure IP address 172.16.5.4 as the default route when IP routing is disabled:

                Device> enable
                Device# configure terminal
                Device(conf)# no ip routing
                Device(conf)# ip default-gateway 172.16.15.4

                Example: Configuring QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

                The following example shows how to create route maps to match access lists, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) community lists, and BGP autonomous system paths, and apply IP precedence to routes learned from neighbors.

                In the figure below, Device A learns routes from autonomous system 10 and autonomous system 60. The quality of service (QoS) policy is applied to all packets that match defined route maps. Any packets from Device A to autonomous system 10 or autonomous system 60 are sent the appropriate QoS policy, as the numbered steps in the figure indicate.

                Figure 3. Device Learning Routes and Applying QoS Policy

                Device A Configuration

                interface serial 5/0/0/1:0
                ip address 10.28.38.2 255.255.255.0
                bgp-policy destination ip-prec-map
                no ip mroute-cache
                no cdp enable
                frame-relay interface-dlci 20 IETF
                router bgp 30
                 table-map precedence-map
                 neighbor 10.20.20.1 remote-as 10
                 neighbor 10.20.20.1 send-community
                !
                ip bgp-community new-format
                !
                ! Match community 1 and set the IP precedence to priority
                route-map precedence-map permit 10
                 match community 1
                 set ip precedence priority
                !
                ! Match community 2 and set the IP precedence to immediate
                route-map precedence-map permit 20
                 match community 2
                 set ip precedence immediate
                !
                ! Match community 3 and set the IP precedence to flash
                route-map precedence-map permit 30
                 match community 3
                 set ip precedence flash
                !
                ! Match community 4 and set the IP precedence to flash-override
                route-map precedence-map permit 40
                 match community 4
                 set ip precedence flash-override
                !
                ! Match community 5 and set the IP precedence to critical
                route-map precedence-map permit 50
                 match community 5
                 set ip precedence critical
                !
                ! Match community 6 and set the IP precedence to internet
                route-map precedence-map permit 60
                 match community 6
                 set ip precedence internet
                !
                ! Match community 7 and set the IP precedence to network
                route-map precedence-map permit 70
                 match community 7
                 set ip precedence network
                !
                ! Match ip address access list 69 or match autonomous system path 1
                ! and set the IP precedence to critical
                route-map precedence-map permit 75
                 match ip address 69
                 match as-path 1
                 set ip precedence critical
                !
                ! For everything else, set the IP precedence to routine
                route-map precedence-map permit 80
                 set ip precedence routine
                !
                ! Define community lists 
                ip community-list 1 permit 60:1
                ip community-list 2 permit 60:2
                ip community-list 3 permit 60:3
                ip community-list 4 permit 60:4
                ip community-list 5 permit 60:5
                ip community-list 6 permit 60:6
                ip community-list 7 permit 60:7
                !
                ! Define the AS path
                ip as-path access-list 1 permit ^10_60
                !
                ! Define the access list
                access-list 69 permit 10.69.0.0

                Device B Configuration

                router bgp 10
                 neighbor 10.30.30.1 remote-as 30
                 neighbor 10.30.30.1 send-community
                 neighbor 10.30.30.1 route-map send_community out
                !
                ip bgp-community new-format
                !
                ! Match prefix 10 and set community to 60:1
                route-map send_community permit 10
                 match ip address 10
                 set community 60:1
                !
                ! Match prefix 20 and set community to 60:2
                route-map send_community permit 20
                 match ip address 20
                 set community 60:2
                !
                ! Match prefix 30 and set community to 60:3
                route-map send_community permit 30
                 match ip address 30
                 set community 60:3
                !
                ! Match prefix 40 and set community to 60:4
                route-map send_community permit 40
                 match ip address 40
                 set community 60:4
                !
                ! Match prefix 50 and set community to 60:5
                route-map send_community permit 50
                 match ip address 50
                 set community 60:5
                !
                ! Match prefix 60 and set community to 60:6
                route-map send_community permit 60
                 match ip address 60
                 set community 60:6
                !
                ! Match prefix 70 and set community to 60:7
                route-map send_community permit 70
                 match ip address 70
                 set community 60:7
                !
                ! For all others, set community to 60:8
                route-map send_community permit 80
                 set community 60:8
                !
                ! Define access lists
                access-list 10 permit 10.61.0.0
                access-list 20 permit 10.62.0.0
                access-list 30 permit 10.63.0.0
                access-list 40 permit 10.64.0.0
                access-list 50 permit 10.65.0.0
                access-list 60 permit 10.66.0.0
                access-list 70 permit 10.67.0.0

                Example: Managing Authentication Keys

                The following example shows how to configure a key chain named kc1. In this example, the software will always accept and send ks1 as a valid key. The key ks2 will be accepted from 1:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. and be sent from 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. The overlap allows for migration of keys or discrepancy in the set time of the router.

                Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0 
                Router(config-if)# ip rip authentication key-chain kc1 
                Router(config-if)# ip rip authentication mode md5 
                Router(config-if)# exit 
                Router(config)# router rip
                Router(config-router)# network 172.19.0.0 
                Router(config-router)# version 2 
                Router(config-router)# exit 
                Router(config)# key chain kc1 
                Router(config-keychain)# key 1 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# key-string ks1 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# key 2 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# key-string ks2 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# accept-lifetime 13:30:00 Jan 25 2005 duration 7200 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# send-lifetime 14:00:00 Jan 25 2005 duration 3600  
                Router(config-keychain-key)# key 3 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# key-string ks3 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# accept-lifetime 14:30:00 Jan 25 2005 duration 7200 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# send-lifetime 15:00:00 Jan 25 2005 duration 3600 
                Router(config-keychain-key)# exit 
                

                Additional References

                Related Documents

                Related Topic

                Document Title

                Cisco IOS commands

                Cisco IOS Master Commands List, All Releases

                IP Routing Protocol-Independent commands

                Cisco IOS IP Routing: Protocol-Independent Command Reference

                IPv6 Routing: Static Routing

                IP Routing Protocol -Independent Configuration Guide

                Standards and RFCs

                Standard/RFC

                Title

                No new or modified standards or RFCs are supported, and support for existing standards or RFCs has not been modified.

                MIBs

                MIB

                MIBs Link

                None

                To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco software releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

                http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​mibs

                Technical Assistance

                Description

                Link

                The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

                http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​cisco/​web/​support/​index.html

                Feature Information for Configuring IP Routing Protocol-Independent Features

                The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

                Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

                Table 4 Feature Information for Configuring IP Routing Protocol-Independent Features

                Feature Name

                Releases

                Feature Information

                Default Passive Interface

                12.0

                In ISPs and large enterprise networks, many distribution routers have more than 200 interfaces. Obtaining routing information from these interfaces requires configuration of the routing protocol on all interfaces and manual configuration of the passive-interface command on interfaces where adjacencies were not desired. The Default Passive Interface feature simplifies the configuration of distribution routers by allowing all interfaces to be set as passive by default.

                The following commands were introduced or modified: no passive-interface, passive-interface default.

                Fast-Switched Policy Routing

                11.3

                IP policy routing can be fast-switched. Prior to fast-switched policy routing, policy routing could only be process-switched, which meant that on most platforms, the switching rate was approximately 1000 to 10,000 packets per second. Such rates were not fast enough for many applications. Users who need policy routing to occur at faster speeds can implement policy routing without slowing down the router.

                IP Routing

                11.0

                The IP Routing feature introduces basic IP routing features.

                NetFlow Policy Routing

                12.0(3)T

                15.3(1)S

                NetFlow policy routing (NPR) integrates policy routing, which enables traffic engineering and traffic classification, with NetFlow services, which provide billing, capacity planning, and monitoring information on real-time traffic flows. IP policy routing works with Cisco Express Forwarding, distributed Cisco Express Forwarding, and NetFlow.

                Policy-Based Routing

                11.0

                15.3(1)S

                The Policy-Based Routing feature introduces a more flexible mechanism than destination routing for routing packets. Policy-based routing (PBR) is a process where a router puts packets through a route map before routing the packets. The route map determines which packets are routed to which router next.

                The following command was introduced by this feature: ip policy route-map.

                Policy-Based Routing Default Next-Hop Route

                12.1(11)E

                15.3(1)S

                The Policy-Based Routing Default Next-Hop Route feature introduces the ability for packets that are forwarded as a result of the set ip default next-hop command to be switched at the hardware level.

                The following command was modified by this feature: set ip default next-hop.

                Policy Routing Infrastructure

                12.2(15)T

                The Policy Routing Infrastructure feature provides full support of IP policy-based routing in conjunction with Cisco Express Forwarding and NetFlow. When both policy routing and NetFlow are enabled, redundant processing is avoided.

                QoS Policy Propagation via BGP

                12.0

                The QoS Policy Propagation via BGP feature allows you to classify packets by IP precedence based on BGP community lists, BGP autonomous system paths, and access lists. After a packet has been classified, you can use other QoS features such as committed access rate (CAR) and Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) to specify and enforce policies to fit your business model.