Server Load-Balancing Guide vA2(3.0), Cisco ACE Application Control Engine Module
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Index

Table Of Contents

Symbols - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - K - L - M - N - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W -

Index

Symbols

"xST" metacharacter for Layer 4 generic data parsing 3-22

A

action list

associating with a Layer 7 policy map 3-54

configuring 3-12

alias IP address 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-17

application response, load-balancing method 1-2, 2-54

asymmetric routing 1-8

asymmetric server normalization 2-70

B

backup

server, configuring 2-62

server farm, behavior with stickiness 5-7

server farm, configuring 2-58, 2-69

server farms 3-58

bandwidth rate limiting 2-10, 2-65

booster, UDP 3-96

C

case-sensitivity matching 3-66, 3-76

cipher suites

HTTPS probes, configuring for 4-28

class map

configuration example 3-127

configuring 3-1, 3-77

description, entering 3-78

Layer 7 3-26

overview 3-2

use with real servers 2-2

configurational examples

HTTP cookie stickiness 5-52

HTTP header stickiness 5-65

IP address stickiness 5-19

probe 4-55

RADIUS load-balancing 3-109, 3-110

real server 2-16

server farms 2-75

SIP load-balancing 3-125, 3-126

SLB traffic policy 3-127

standard firewall 6-31, 6-32

stealth firewall 6-35, 6-36

stickiness 5-119

connection keepalive. See HTTP persistence rebalance

connections

clearing for real servers 2-84

connection failure, specifying server farm action 2-22

connection termination, TCP 4-15

displaying for real servers 2-81

displaying for server farms 2-89

rate limiting 2-10, 2-65

content

length 2-40

matching HTTP 3-29

offset 5-36

cookie

client 5-5

configuring stickiness 5-41

insertion 5-48

length 2-45, 3-71, 5-37, 5-49

match criteria 3-30

maximum bytes to parse 3-64, 3-69, 3-70, 3-76

offset 5-49

sticky client identification 5-5

credentials (mailbox), configuring for IMAP probes 4-37

D

database entries

sticky, clearing 5-117

sticky, displaying 5-114

delimiters, URL 3-67, 3-68

destination IP address 2-39, 2-82, 2-90, 3-2, 3-14, 3-56, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 6-3

destination server status code, configuring for SMTP probes 4-34

differentiated services code point. See DSCP

displaying

probe configuration information 4-69

real server configuration information 2-77

server farm configuration information 2-85

sticky configuration information 5-113

DNS

load balancing 3-96

probes, configuring 4-32

domain

name, configuring for DNS probes 4-33

DSCP 3-61

E

Echo probes, configuring 4-19

e-commerce

applications, sticky requirements 5-3

using stickiness 5-2

expressions, regular 3-14, 3-17, 3-19, 3-21, 3-30, 3-31, 3-33, 3-37

F

failover

server farm 2-58

Finger probes, configuring 4-20

firewall

alias IP address 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-17

configuration examples 6-31

configurations, displaying 6-31

configurations, supported 6-3

disabling NAT 2-70

load balancing 6-1, 6-3, 6-5, 6-17

overview 6-1

standard configurational diagram 6-4

stealth configurational diagram 6-5

traffic distribution 6-3

types 6-2, 6-3

FTP probes, configuring 4-30

G

generic protocol

data parsing 3-19

load balancing 3-49

graceful server shutdown 2-14, 2-16, 2-69, 4-15

H

hash load-balancing methods

address 1-2, 2-39

content 1-2, 2-39

cookie 1-2, 2-42

header 1-2, 2-43

url 1-2, 2-46

header

deletion 3-18

insertion 3-12, 3-13, 3-55

rewrite 3-12, 3-16

health monitoring

configuring 4-1

real servers 2-6

HTTP

content match criteria 3-29

load balancing 3-49

persistence rebalance 3-73

persistence strict 3-73

probes, configuring 4-20, 4-22, 4-44

request method, configuring for probes 4-23

return error code checking 2-57

statistics, displaying 3-135, 3-143

URL hit count statistics, displaying 3-141

URL match criteria 3-36, 3-41

HTTP content

length 2-40, 5-37

offset 2-40, 5-37

HTTP cookie

length 2-45, 5-49

match criteria 3-30

offset 2-45, 5-49

stickiness 5-41

HTTP header

deletion 3-18

insertion 3-12, 3-13, 3-55

length 3-71

match criteria 3-32, 3-40

maximum bytes to parse 3-64, 3-69, 3-70, 3-76

rewrite 3-12, 3-16

sticky client identification 5-5

HTTP parameter map

case-sensitivity matching 3-66, 3-76

configuring 3-63, 3-65, 3-75

maximum bytes to parse 3-64, 3-69, 3-70, 3-76

maximum parse length exceeded 3-71

persistence rebalance 3-73

persistence rebalance strict 3-73

statistics, displaying 3-135

TCP server reuse 3-74

URL delimiters 3-67, 3-68

HTTPS

cipher suite for probes 4-28

probes, configuring 4-27

I

ICMP

probes, configuring 4-13

IMAP probes, configuring 4-36

interface

applying Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy to 3-92

interval, configuring for probes 4-9

IP address

alias 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-17

configuring destination for probes 4-7

configuring stickiness 5-10

destination 2-39, 2-82, 2-90, 3-2, 3-14, 3-56, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 6-3, 6-12, 6-25

entering for real servers 2-6

expected for DNS probes 4-33

match criteria 3-24, 3-45

source 2-39, 2-82, 2-90, 3-13, 3-14, 3-24, 3-45, 3-55, 3-56, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 5-115, 6-3, 6-8, 6-19

sticky client identification 5-4

sticky configuration requirements 5-8

virtual 2-70, 3-13, 3-55, 3-77, 3-78, 3-82, 3-87, 3-89, 3-91, 5-111, 6-8, 6-15, 6-20, 6-21, 6-28

K

keepalive-appliance protocol (KAL-AP)

clearing statistics 4-68

configuring 4-56, 4-60

displaying load information 4-63, 4-66

displaying statistics 4-67

keepalives. See probes

L

Layer 3 and 4 policy map

SLB, configuring 3-82

Layer 3 and Layer 4 class map

associating with policy map 3-84

configuring 3-77

overview 3-2

Layer 3 and Layer 4 SLB policy actions

configuration quick start 3-9

connection parameter map, associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-87

enabling a VIP for load balancing 3-91

enabling UDP per packet load balancing 3-90

enabling VIP address advertising 3-87

enabling VIP reply to ICMP request 3-89

HTTP parameter map, associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-86

Layer 7 policy map, associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-85

specifying 3-85

Layer 4 payload

"xST" metacharacter 3-22

length for sticky 5-27

match criteria for generic data parsing 3-20

offset for sticky 5-27

Layer 7 class map

associating with Layer 7 policy map 3-52

configuration quick start 3-5

configuring 3-26, 3-27

HTTP cookie 3-30

HTTP header 3-32, 3-40

HTTP URL 3-36, 3-41

nesting 3-47

overview 3-2

source IP address 3-24, 3-45

Layer 7 policy map

configuration quick start 3-5

configuring 3-48

defining inline match statements 3-51

Layer 7 class map association 3-52

Layer 7 SLB policy actions

associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 SLB policy 3-63

discarding requests 3-55

forwarding requests 3-55

HTTP header insertion 3-12, 3-13, 3-55

IP differentiated services code point 3-61

load balancing to server farm 3-58

SSL proxy service 3-62

sticky server farm 3-61

least bandwidth, load-balancing method 1-3, 2-47

leastconns, load-balancing method 1-3, 2-48

least loaded, load-balancing method 1-3, 2-51

load balancing

application response 1-2, 2-54

configurational diagram 3-4

configuring real servers and server farms 2-1

configuring traffic policies 3-1

definition 1-1

DNS 3-96

enabling a VIP 3-91

example 3-127

firewall 6-1, 6-3, 6-5, 6-17

hash address 1-2, 2-39

hash content 1-2, 2-39

hash cookie 1-2, 2-42

hash header 1-2, 2-43

hash url 1-2, 2-46

least bandwidth 1-3, 2-47

leastconns 1-3, 2-48

least loaded 1-3

least-loaded 2-51

operating ACE exclusively for 1-8

overview 1-1

predictor method 2-37

RADIUS 3-49, 3-103

RDP 3-49, 3-98

roundrobin 1-3, 2-56

RTSP 3-49, 3-113

SIP 3-49, 3-119

standard firewall 6-5

statistics, clearing 3-144

statistics, displaying 3-131

stealth firewall 6-17

M

mailbox, configuring for IMAP probes 4-37

match criteria

HTTP cookie 3-30

HTTP header 3-32, 3-40

HTTP URL 3-36, 3-41

Layer 4 payload 3-20

nested HTTP class map 3-47

RADIUS calling station ID 3-38

RADIUS username 3-38

RTSP header 3-39

RTSP URL 3-41

single match statement 3-51

SIP header 3-43

source IP address 3-24, 3-45

MD5 hash value, configuring for probes 4-25

method

IMAP probes 4-38

POP3 probes 4-39

N

NAS address, configuring for RADIUS probes 4-47

NAT

disabling 2-70

Network Access Server, configuring for RADIUS probes 4-47

non-RADIUS data forwarding 3-107

P

parameter map

case-sensitivity matching 3-66, 3-76

configuring 3-63, 3-65, 3-75

HTTP statistics, displaying 3-135

maximum bytes to parse 3-64, 3-69, 3-70, 3-76

maximum parse length exceeded 3-71

persistence rebalance 3-73

persistence rebalance strict 3-73

RTSP 3-75

TCP server reuse 3-74

URL delimiters 3-67, 3-68

partial server farm failover 2-58

password credentials

IMAP probes 4-36

POP3 probes 4-39

RADIUS probes 4-47

payload length 5-27

persistence rebalance 3-73

policy map

associated class map 3-84

configuration example 3-127

configuring 3-1

Layer 3 and Layer 4 3-82

Layer 7 3-48

POP3 probe, configuring 4-38

port

number, configuring for probes 4-7

predictor

application response 1-2, 2-54

hash address 1-2, 2-39

hash content 1-2, 2-39

hash cookie 1-2, 2-42

hash header 1-2, 2-43

hash url 1-2, 2-46

least bandwidth 1-3, 2-47

leastconns 1-3, 2-48

least loaded 1-3

least-loaded 2-51

roundrobin 1-3, 2-56

probe

active, defining 4-3

active script file statistics, displaying A-26

associating with server farms 2-35, 2-63

clearing statistics 4-76

configuration example 4-55

configurations, displaying 4-69

configuring 4-2, 4-6

configuring for real servers 2-6

configuring for scripts A-11

description, entering 4-6

DNS 4-32

DNS domain name 4-33

DNS expected IP address 4-33

Echo 4-19

Finger 4-20

FTP 4-30

FTP server status code 4-30

global scripted probe statistics, displaying A-25

HTTP 4-20

HTTP header fields 4-22, 4-44

HTTP MD5 hash value 4-25

HTTP request method 4-23

HTTPS 4-27

HTTP server status code 4-24, 4-42, 4-44

ICMP 4-13

IMAP 4-36

IMAP credentials 4-36

IMAP mailbox 4-37

IMAP request method 4-38

IP destination address 4-7

POP3 4-38

POP3 credentials 4-39

POP3 request method 4-39

port number 4-7

RADIUS 4-46

RADIUS credentials 4-47

RADIUS NAS address 4-47

retry count 4-10

RTSP, configuring 4-42

scripted 4-53

scripted, debugging A-29

scripted probe information, displaying A-22, A-23

scripting quick start A-4

scripting using TCL A-2

script name 4-54

script-writing example A-21

SIP, configuring 4-40

SIP request method 4-41, 4-43

SMTP 4-34

SMTP destination server status code 4-34

SNMP-based server load, configuring 4-48

SSL cipher suite 4-28

SSL version 4-29

statistics, clearing 4-76

statistics, displaying 4-68

status code 4-34

TCP connection termination 4-15

TCP type 4-14

Telnet 4-32

threshold 4-10

time interval 4-9

timeout for a response 4-13

TLS version 4-29

types 2-35

UDP 4-18

wait interval 4-10, 4-12

wait period 4-10

writing scripts for A-11

protocol, generic data parsing 3-19

protocol, generic load balancing 3-49

Q

quick start

HTTP-content stickiness configuration 5-32

HTTP-cookie stickiness configuration 5-43

HTTP-header stickiness configuration 5-55

IP address stickiness configuration 5-10

Layer 3 and Layer 4 SLB traffic policy configuration 3-9

Layer 4 payload stickiness configuration 5-21

Layer 7 Traffic Policy Configuration 3-5

probe scripting A-4

RADIUS-attribute stickiness configuration 5-68

RTSP-Session stickiness configuration 5-75

SIP Call-ID stickiness configuration 5-83

Standard FWLB Configuration for ACE A 6-6

Standard FWLB Configuration for ACE B 6-10

Stealth FWLB Configuration for ACE A 6-18

Stealth FWLB Configuration for ACE B 6-23

R

RADIUS

calling station ID 3-38

load balancing 3-38, 3-49, 3-103

load-balancing configuration examples 3-109, 3-110

match criteria 3-38

probes, configuring 4-46

username 3-38

rate limiting

bandwidth 2-10, 2-65

connection 2-10, 2-65

RDP load balancing 3-49, 3-98

real servers

associating with server farm 2-60

backup 2-62

behavior 2-14

checking health 2-6

clearing connections 2-84

clearing statistics 2-84

configuration examples 2-16

configuration quick start 2-3

configuring 2-1

configuring probes for 2-6

configuring weight (connection capacity) 2-13, 2-61

configuring weight for in server farm 2-61

creating 2-4

displaying configurations and statistics 2-77

displaying connections 2-81

entering description for 2-5

entering IP address 2-6

graceful shutdown 2-14, 2-69, 4-15

managing 2-14

overview 2-2

placing in service 2-14, 2-67

rate limiting 2-10, 2-65

redirecting client requests 2-12

setting connection limits 2-8, 2-65

shutting down, gracefully 2-14, 2-69, 4-15

Real Time Streaming Protocol. See RTSP

regular expressions 3-14, 3-17, 3-19, 3-21, 3-30, 3-31, 3-33, 3-37

Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. See RADIUS

Remote Desktop Protocol. See RDP

request methods

configuring for IMAP probes 4-38

configuring for POP3 probes 4-39

retry

count, configuring for probes 4-10

roundrobin, load-balancing predictor 1-3, 2-56

routing

asymmetric 1-8

RTSP

header 3-39

header match criteria 3-39

load balancing 3-39, 3-41, 3-49, 3-113

match criteria 3-41

maximum number of bytes to parse 3-76

parameter map, configuring 3-75

probe 4-42

URL 3-41

S

scripted probes

configuring 4-53

script name 4-54

scripts

active script file statistics, displaying A-26

configuring probes for A-11

copying A-6

copying and loading A-5

debugging A-29

displaying script file contents A-28

environment variables A-18

exit codes A-19

global scripted probe statistics, displaying A-25

information, displaying A-22, A-23

loading A-9

overview A-2

probe script example A-21

reloading modified A-10

removing from memory A-10

sample A-8

script probe array A-18

supported commands A-12

unzipping A-8

writing for health monitoring A-11

server

reuse 3-74

shutdown, graceful 2-16

server farms

assigning backup server 2-62

associating probes for 2-35, 2-63

associating real servers for use with 2-60

backup 3-58

backup, behavior with stickiness 5-7

backup, configuring 2-58, 2-69

clearing statistics 2-92

configuration examples 2-75

configuration quick start 2-19

configuring 2-1

creating 2-21

disabling NAT 2-70

displaying configurations 2-85

displaying connections 2-89

displaying statistics 2-86

enabling load balancing for 3-58

entering description for 2-22

failover, partial 2-58

HTTP return error code checking, configuring 2-57

overview 2-2, 2-18

placing real servers in service 2-67

predictor method 2-37

real server weight, configuring 2-61

setting real server connection limits 2-65

specifying failure action 2-22

sticky, configuring 3-61

server load balancing

configurational diagram 3-4

configuration example 3-127

configuring Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-82

configuring Layer 7 class map 3-26

configuring Layer 7 policy map 3-48

configuring traffic policies 3-1

definition 1-1

operating ACE exclusively for 1-8

overview 1-1

statistics, clearing 3-144

statistics, displaying 3-131

server normalization, asymmetric 2-70

server shutdown, graceful 2-69, 4-15

service policy

applying to an interface 3-92

statistics, clearing 3-145

statistics, displaying 3-137

Session Initiation Protocol. See SIP

shared secret credentials, configuring for RADIUS probes 4-47

shutdown, graceful server 2-16, 4-15

SIP

Call-ID 3-43

header match criteria 3-43

load balancing 3-43, 3-49, 3-119

load-balancing configuration examples 3-125, 3-126

probe 4-40

request method, configuring for probes 4-41, 4-43

SLB. See server load balancing

SMTP probes, configuring 4-34

SNMP

SNMP-based server load probe 4-48

sorry server. See backup server

source IP address 2-39, 2-82, 2-90, 3-13, 3-14, 3-24, 3-45, 3-55, 3-56, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 5-115, 6-3, 6-8, 6-19

SSL

proxy service, specifying 3-62

Session ID stickiness 5-6

SSL Session-ID stickiness 5-90

version, configuring for probes 4-29

standard firewall

diagram, configurational 6-4

example, configurational 6-31, 6-32

load balancing, configuring 6-5

quick start 6-6, 6-10

statistics

active script files, displaying A-26

HTTP, displaying 3-143

HTTP parameter map, displaying 3-135

HTTP URL statement hit counts, displaying 3-141

load-balancing, clearing 3-144

load-balancing, displaying 3-131

probes, clearing 4-76

probes, displaying 4-68

real servers, clearing 2-84

real servers, displaying 2-77

scripted probes, displaying A-25

server farms, clearing 2-92

server farms, displaying 2-86

service-policy, clearing 3-145

service policy, displaying 3-137

sticky, clearing 5-117

sticky, displaying 5-113

sticky database, displaying 5-114

status code, configuring for SMTP probes 4-34

stealth firewall

diagram, configurational 6-5

example, configurational 6-35, 6-36

IP address, configuring 6-17

load balancing, configuring 6-17

quick start 6-18, 6-23

stickiness

configurational example 5-119

database entries, clearing 5-117

displaying information 5-113

HTTP cookie 5-41

HTTP cookie configuration example 5-52

HTTP header configuration example 5-65

IP address configuration example 5-19

IP addresses, configuring 5-10

quick start, HTTP-content configuration 5-32

quick start, HTTP-cookie configuration 5-43

quick start, HTTP-header stickiness configuration 5-55

quick start, IP address sticky configuration 5-10

quick start, Layer 4 payload configuration 5-21

quick start, RADIUS stickiness configuration 5-68

quick start, RTSP-Session stickiness configuration 5-75

quick start, SIP Call-ID stickiness configuration 5-83

quick start, SSL Session ID 5-92

SLB traffic policy, configuring 5-111

SSL Session ID 5-6, 5-90

statistics, clearing 5-117

statistics, displaying 5-114

stickiness (HTTP-content)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-40

content length, configuring 5-36

content offset, configuring 5-36

quick start 5-32

replicate HTTP-content sticky table entries, enabling 5-36

server farm entry, configuring 5-40

static content, configuring 5-39

sticky group, creating 5-34

timeout, configuring 5-34

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-35

stickiness (HTTP-cookie)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-51

configuration example 5-52

cookie insertion, enabling 5-48

cookie length, configuring 5-49

cookie offset, configuring 5-49

quick start 5-43, 5-55

replicate HTTP-cookie sticky table entries, enabling 5-47

secondary cookie, configuring 5-49

server farm entry, configuring 5-51

static cookie, configuring 5-50

sticky group, creating 5-45

timeout, configuring 5-46

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-47

stickiness (HTTP-header)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-64

configuration example 5-65

cookie length, configuring 5-62

cookie offset, configuring 5-62

replicate HTTP-header sticky table entries, enabling 5-61

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-64

static HTTP-header, configuring 5-63

sticky group, creating 5-57

timeout, configuring 5-60

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-61

stickiness (IP address)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-17

configuration example 5-19

quick start 5-10

replicate IP-address sticky table entries, enabling 5-15

requirements 5-8

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-17

static IP-address table entries, configuring 5-16

sticky IP group, creating 5-13

timeout, configuring 5-14

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-15

stickiness (Layer 4 payload)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-30

overview 5-20

parameters, configuring 5-26

quick start 5-21

replicate Layer 4 payload sticky table entries, enabling 5-25

server farm entry, configuring 5-30

static entry, configuring 5-29

timeout, configuring 5-24

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-25

stickiness (RADIUS-attribute)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-72

quick start 5-68

replicate RADIUS-attribute sticky table entries, enabling 5-72

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-72

sticky group, creating 5-70

timeout, configuring 5-71

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-71

stickiness (RTSP-Session)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-81

cookie length, configuring 5-79

cookie offset, configuring 5-79

quick start 5-75

replicate RTSP-Session sticky table entries, enabling 5-79

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-81

static RTSP-Session, configuring 5-80

sticky group, creating 5-77

timeout, configuring 5-78

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-78

stickiness (SIP Call-ID)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-89

quick start 5-83

replicate SIP Call-ID sticky table entries, enabling 5-87

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-89

static SIP Call-ID, configuring 5-88

sticky group, creating 5-86

timeout, configuring 5-86

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-87

stickiness (SSL Session ID)

32-byte configuration example 5-99

configuration requirements and considerations 5-92

offset, length, and beginning pattern, configuring 5-97

overview 5-90

quick start 5-92

server farm entry, configuring 5-96

SSL Session ID learning, enabling 5-96

sticky group, creating 5-95

sticky timeout, configuring 5-95

sticky

configuration examples 5-19, 5-52, 5-65

cookies for client identification 5-5

database entries, clearing 5-117

database entries, displaying 5-114

displaying information 5-113

e-commerce application requirements 5-3

groups 5-3

HTTP header for client identification 5-5

IP address for client identification 5-4

methods 5-3

overview 5-2

purpose 5-2

statistics, clearing 5-114

statistics, displaying 5-114

table 5-7

T

TCL

copying and loading scripts A-5

copying scripts A-6

environment variables A-18

exit codes A-19

loading scripts A-9

reloading modified scripts A-10

removing scripts from memory A-10

scripts overview A-2

supported script commands A-12

unzipping scripts A-8

TCP

connection termination 4-15

probe, configuring 4-14

server reuse, configuring 3-74

Telnet

probes, configuring 4-32

threshold, configuring for probes 4-10

timeout period, configuring for probe response 4-13

TLS

version, configuring for probes 4-29

Toolkit Command Language. See TCL. A-1

traffic, distribution across firewalls 6-1, 6-3

traffic classification process 3-2

traffic policies

configurational diagram 3-4

configuration example 3-127

configuring 3-1

configuring for stickiness 5-111

overview 3-2

U

UDP

booster 3-96

per packet load balancing 3-90

probe, configuring 4-18

URL

delimiters, defining 3-67, 3-68

length 3-71

maximum bytes to parse 3-64, 3-69, 3-70, 3-76

username

credentials, configuring 4-36, 4-39, 4-47

V

VIP

address, advertising 3-87

defining match criteria 3-79, 4-59, 4-61, 5-111, 6-8, 6-20, 6-21

disabling translation 2-70

enabling for load balancing 3-91, 6-15, 6-28

reply to ICMP request 3-89

UDP per packet load balancing 3-90

virtual IP address. See VIP

W

wait interval, configuring for probes 4-10, 4-12

wait period, configuring for probes 4-10

weight, setting for real servers 2-13, 2-61

weighted roundrobin. See roundrobin