Server Load-Balancing Guide vA2(1.0), Cisco ACE Application Control Engine Module
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Index

Table Of Contents

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - K - L - M - N - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W -

Index

A

action list

associating with a Layer 7 policy map 3-51

configuring 3-13

alias IP address 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-17

application response, load-balancing method 1-2, 2-44

asymmetric routing 1-8

asymmetric server normalization 2-59

B

backup

server, configuring 2-51

server farm, behavior with stickiness 5-7

server farm, configuring 2-48, 2-59

server farms 3-55

bandwidth rate limiting 2-10, 2-55

booster, UDP 3-90

C

case-sensitivity matching 3-63, 3-71

cipher suites

HTTPS probes, configuring for 4-27

class map

configuration example 3-121

configuring 3-1, 3-72

description, entering 3-73

Layer 7 3-25

overview 3-2

use with real servers 2-2

configurational examples

HTTP cookie stickiness 5-52

HTTP header stickiness 5-65

IP address stickiness 5-19

probe 4-53

RADIUS load-balancing 3-103, 3-104

real server 2-16

server farms 2-64

SIP load-balancing 3-119, 3-120

SLB traffic policy 3-121

standard firewall 6-31, 6-33

stealth firewall 6-35, 6-36

stickiness 5-108

connections

clearing for real servers 2-73

connection failure, specifying server farm action 2-22

connection termination, TCP 4-14

displaying for real servers 2-70

displaying for server farms 2-78

rate limiting 2-10, 2-55

content

length 2-30

matching HTTP 3-28

offset 5-36

cookie

client 5-5

configuring stickiness 5-41

insertion 5-48

length 2-35, 3-67, 5-37, 5-49

match criteria 3-29

maximum bytes to parse 3-61, 3-65, 3-66, 3-71

offset 5-49

sticky client identification 5-5

credentials (mailbox), configuring for IMAP probes 4-35

D

database entries

sticky, clearing 5-107

sticky, displaying 5-103

delimiters, URL 3-64

destination IP address 2-29, 2-72, 2-79, 3-2, 3-15, 3-53, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 6-3

destination server status code, configuring for SMTP probes 4-33

differentiated services code point. See DSCP

displaying

probe configuration information 4-62

real server configuration information 2-66

server farm configuration information 2-74

sticky configuration information 5-103

DNS

load balancing 3-90

probes, configuring 4-31

domain

name, configuring for DNS probes 4-31

DSCP 3-58

E

Echo probes, configuring 4-18

e-commerce

applications, sticky requirements 5-3

using stickiness 5-2

expressions, regular 3-15, 3-18, 3-20, 3-22, 3-29, 3-30, 3-32, 3-36

F

failover

server farm 2-48

Finger probes, configuring 4-19

firewall

alias IP address 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-17

configuration examples 6-31

configurations, displaying 6-31

configurations, supported 6-3

disabling NAT 2-59

load balancing 6-1, 6-3, 6-5, 6-17

overview 6-1

standard configurational diagram 6-4

stealth configurational diagram 6-4

traffic distribution 6-3

types 6-2, 6-3

FTP probes, configuring 4-29

G

generic protocol

data parsing 3-20

load balancing 3-46

graceful server shutdown 2-14, 2-16, 2-58, 4-14

H

hash load-balancing methods

address 1-2, 2-29

content 1-2, 2-29

cookie 1-2, 2-32

header 1-2, 2-32

url 1-2, 2-36

header

deletion 3-19

insertion 3-13, 3-14, 3-53

rewrite 3-13, 3-17

health monitoring

configuring 4-1

real servers 2-6

HTTP

content match criteria 3-28

load balancing 3-47

persistence rebalance 3-67

probes, configuring 4-20, 4-21, 4-42

request method, configuring for probes 4-23

return error code checking 2-46

statistics, displaying 3-130, 3-135

URL match criteria 3-35, 3-40

HTTP content

length 2-30, 5-37

offset 2-30, 5-37

HTTP cookie

length 2-35, 5-49

match criteria 3-29

offset 2-35, 5-49

stickiness 5-41

HTTP header

deletion 3-19

insertion 3-13, 3-14, 3-53

length 3-67

match criteria 3-31, 3-38

maximum bytes to parse 3-61, 3-65, 3-66, 3-71

rewrite 3-13, 3-17

sticky client identification 5-5

HTTP parameter map

case-sensitivity matching 3-63, 3-71

configuring 3-60, 3-62, 3-70

maximum bytes to parse 3-61, 3-65, 3-66, 3-71

maximum parse length exceeded 3-67

persistence rebalance 3-67

statistics, displaying 3-130

TCP server reuse 3-69

URL delimiters 3-64

HTTPS

cipher suite for probes 4-27

probes, configuring 4-26

I

ICMP

probes, configuring 4-13

IMAP probes, configuring 4-34

interface

applying Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy to 3-87

interval, configuring for probes 4-9

IP address

alias 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-17

configuring destination for probes 4-7

configuring stickiness 5-10

destination 2-29, 2-72, 2-79, 3-2, 3-15, 3-53, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 6-3, 6-12, 6-25

entering for real servers 2-6

expected for DNS probes 4-32

match criteria 3-23, 3-43

source 2-29, 2-71, 2-79, 3-14, 3-15, 3-23, 3-43, 3-53, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 5-104, 6-3, 6-8, 6-19

sticky client identification 5-4

sticky configuration requirements 5-8

virtual 2-59, 3-14, 3-53, 3-72, 3-73, 3-77, 3-82, 3-83, 3-86, 5-101, 6-8, 6-15, 6-20, 6-21, 6-28

K

keepalive-appliance protocol (KAL-AP)

clearing statistics 4-61

configuring 4-54

displaying load information 4-60

displaying statistics 4-60

keepalives. See probes

L

Layer 3 and 4 policy map

SLB, configuring 3-77

Layer 3 and Layer 4 class map

associating with policy map 3-78

configuring 3-72

overview 3-2

Layer 3 and Layer 4 SLB policy actions

configuration quick start 3-10

connection parameter map, associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-82

enabling a VIP for load balancing 3-86

enabling UDP per packet load balancing 3-85

enabling VIP address advertising 3-82

enabling VIP reply to ICMP request 3-83

HTTP parameter map, associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-81

Layer 7 policy map, associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-80

specifying 3-79

Layer 4 payload

length 5-27

match criteria 3-21

offset 5-27

Layer 7 class map

associating with Layer 7 policy map 3-50

configuration quick start 3-5

configuring 3-25, 3-26

HTTP cookie 3-29

HTTP header 3-31, 3-38

HTTP URL 3-35, 3-40

nesting 3-44

overview 3-2

source IP address 3-23, 3-43

Layer 7 policy map

configuration quick start 3-5

configuring 3-46

defining inline match statements 3-48

Layer 7 class map association 3-50

Layer 7 SLB policy actions

associating with Layer 3 and Layer 4 SLB policy 3-60

discarding requests 3-52

forwarding requests 3-52

HTTP header insertion 3-13, 3-14, 3-53

IP differentiated services code point 3-58

load balancing to server farm 3-55

SSL proxy service 3-59

sticky server farm 3-58

least bandwidth, load-balancing method 1-3, 2-37

leastconns, load-balancing method 1-3, 2-38

least loaded, load-balancing method 1-3, 2-41

load balancing

application response 1-2, 2-44

configurational diagram 3-4

configuring real servers and server farms 2-1

configuring traffic policies 3-1

definition 1-1

DNS 3-90

enabling a VIP 3-86

example 3-121

firewall 6-1, 6-3, 6-5, 6-17

hash address 1-2, 2-29

hash content 1-2, 2-29

hash cookie 1-2, 2-32

hash header 1-2, 2-32

hash url 1-2, 2-36

least bandwidth 1-3, 2-37

leastconns 1-3, 2-38

least loaded 1-3

least-loaded 2-41

operating ACE exclusively for 1-8

overview 1-1

predictor method 2-27

RADIUS 3-47, 3-97

RDP 3-47, 3-93

roundrobin 1-3, 2-46

RTSP 3-47, 3-107

SIP 3-47, 3-113

standard firewall 6-5

statistics, clearing 3-136

statistics, displaying 3-125

stealth firewall 6-17

M

mailbox, configuring for IMAP probes 4-35

match criteria

HTTP cookie 3-29

HTTP header 3-31, 3-38

HTTP URL 3-35, 3-40

Layer 4 payload 3-21

nested HTTP class map 3-44

RADIUS calling station ID 3-37

RADIUS username 3-37

RTSP header 3-38

RTSP URL 3-40

single match statement 3-48

SIP header 3-41

source IP address 3-23, 3-43

MD5 hash value, configuring for probes 4-25

method

IMAP probes 4-36

POP3 probes 4-38

N

NAS address, configuring for RADIUS probes 4-45

NAT

disabling 2-59

Network Access Server, configuring for RADIUS probes 4-45

non-RADIUS data forwarding 3-101

P

parameter map

case-sensitivity matching 3-63, 3-71

configuring 3-60, 3-62, 3-70

HTTP statistics, displaying 3-130

maximum bytes to parse 3-61, 3-65, 3-66, 3-71

maximum parse length exceeded 3-67

RTSP 3-70

TCP server reuse 3-69

URL delimiters 3-64

partial server farm failover 2-48

password credentials

IMAP probes 4-35

POP3 probes 4-37

RADIUS probes 4-45

payload length 5-27

persistence rebalance 3-67

policy map

associated class map 3-78

configuration example 3-121

configuring 3-1

Layer 3 and Layer 4 3-77

Layer 7 3-46

POP3 probe, configuring 4-37

port

number, configuring for probes 4-7

predictor

application response 1-2, 2-44

hash address 1-2, 2-29

hash content 1-2, 2-29

hash cookie 1-2, 2-32

hash header 1-2, 2-32

hash url 1-2, 2-36

least bandwidth 1-3, 2-37

leastconns 1-3, 2-38

least loaded 1-3

least-loaded 2-41

roundrobin 1-3, 2-46

probe

active, defining 4-3

active script file statistics, displaying A-27

associating with server farms 2-25, 2-52

clearing statistics 4-70

configuration example 4-53

configurations, displaying 4-62

configuring 4-2, 4-6

configuring for real servers 2-6

configuring for scripts A-12

description, entering 4-6

DNS 4-31

DNS domain name 4-31

DNS expected IP address 4-32

Echo 4-18

Finger 4-19

FTP 4-29

FTP server status code 4-29

global scripted probe statistics, displaying A-26

HTTP 4-20

HTTP header fields 4-21, 4-42

HTTP MD5 hash value 4-25

HTTP request method 4-23

HTTPS 4-26

HTTP server status code 4-23, 4-40, 4-43

ICMP 4-13

IMAP 4-34

IMAP credentials 4-35

IMAP mailbox 4-35

IMAP request method 4-36

IP destination address 4-7

POP3 4-37

POP3 credentials 4-37

POP3 request method 4-38

port number 4-7

RADIUS 4-44

RADIUS credentials 4-45

RADIUS NAS address 4-45

retry count 4-10

RTSP, configuring 4-41

scripted 4-51

scripted, debugging A-30

scripted probe information, displaying A-23, A-24

scripting quick start A-4

scripting using TCL A-2

script name 4-52

script-writing example A-22

SIP, configuring 4-38

SIP request method 4-40, 4-41

SMTP 4-32

SMTP destination server status code 4-33

SNMP-based server load, configuring 4-46

SSL cipher suite 4-27

SSL version 4-28

statistics, clearing 4-70

statistics, displaying 4-62

status code 4-33

TCP connection termination 4-14

TCP type 4-14

Telnet 4-30

threshold 4-10

time interval 4-9

timeout for a response 4-12

TLS version 4-28

types 2-25

UDP 4-17

wait interval 4-10, 4-12

wait period 4-10

writing scripts for A-12

protocol, generic data parsing 3-20

protocol, generic load balancing 3-46

Q

quick start

HTTP-content stickiness configuration 5-32

HTTP-cookie stickiness configuration 5-43

HTTP-header stickiness configuration 5-55

IP address stickiness configuration 5-10

Layer 3 and Layer 4 SLB traffic policy configuration 3-10

Layer 4 payload stickiness configuration 5-21

Layer 7 Traffic Policy Configuration 3-5

probe scripting A-4

RADIUS-attribute stickiness configuration 5-68

RTSP-Session stickiness configuration 5-75

SIP Call-ID stickiness configuration 5-83

Standard FWLB Configuration for ACE A 6-6

Standard FWLB Configuration for ACE B 6-10

Stealth FWLB Configuration for ACE A 6-18

Stealth FWLB Configuration for ACE B 6-23

R

RADIUS

calling station ID 3-37

load balancing 3-37, 3-47, 3-97

load-balancing configuration examples 3-103, 3-104

match criteria 3-37

probes, configuring 4-44

username 3-37

rate limiting

bandwidth 2-10, 2-55

connection 2-10, 2-55

RDP load balancing 3-47, 3-93

real servers

associating with server farm 2-49

backup 2-51

behavior 2-14

checking health 2-6

clearing connections 2-73

clearing statistics 2-73

configuration examples 2-16

configuration quick start 2-3

configuring 2-1

configuring probes for 2-6

configuring weight (connection capacity) 2-13, 2-51

configuring weight for in server farm 2-51

creating 2-4

displaying configurations and statistics 2-66

displaying connections 2-70

entering description for 2-5

entering IP address 2-6

graceful shutdown 2-14, 2-58, 4-14

managing 2-14

overview 2-2

placing in service 2-14, 2-57

rate limiting 2-10, 2-55

redirecting client requests 2-12

setting connection limits 2-8, 2-54

shutting down, gracefully 2-14, 2-58, 4-14

Real Time Streaming Protocol. See RTSP

regular expressions 3-15, 3-18, 3-20, 3-22, 3-29, 3-30, 3-32, 3-36

Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. See RADIUS

Remote Desktop Protocol. See RDP

request methods

configuring for IMAP probes 4-36

configuring for POP3 probes 4-38

retry

count, configuring for probes 4-10

roundrobin, load-balancing predictor 1-3, 2-46

routing

asymmetric 1-8

RTSP

header 3-38

header match criteria 3-38

load balancing 3-38, 3-40, 3-47, 3-107

match criteria 3-40

maximum number of bytes to parse 3-71

parameter map, configuring 3-70

probe 4-41

URL 3-40

S

scripted probes

configuring 4-51

script name 4-52

scripts

active script file statistics, displaying A-27

configuring probes for A-12

copying A-8

copying and loading A-6

debugging A-30

displaying script file contents A-29

environment variables A-19

exit codes A-20

global scripted probe statistics, displaying A-26

information, displaying A-23, A-24

loading A-10

overview A-2

probe script example A-22

reloading modified A-11

removing from memory A-11

sample A-9

script probe array A-19

supported commands A-13

unzipping A-9

writing for health monitoring A-12

server

reuse 3-69

shutdown, graceful 2-16

server farms

assigning backup server 2-51

associating probes for 2-25, 2-52

associating real servers for use with 2-49

backup 3-55

backup, behavior with stickiness 5-7

backup, configuring 2-48, 2-59

clearing statistics 2-80

configuration examples 2-64

configuration quick start 2-19

configuring 2-1

creating 2-21

disabling NAT 2-59

displaying configurations 2-74

displaying connections 2-78

displaying statistics 2-75

enabling load balancing for 3-55

entering description for 2-22

failover, partial 2-48

HTTP return error code checking, configuring 2-46

overview 2-2, 2-18

placing real servers in service 2-57

predictor method 2-27

real server weight, configuring 2-51

setting real server connection limits 2-54

specifying failure action 2-22

sticky, configuring 3-58

server load balancing

configurational diagram 3-4

configuration example 3-121

configuring Layer 3 and Layer 4 policy map 3-77

configuring Layer 7 class map 3-25

configuring Layer 7 policy map 3-46

configuring traffic policies 3-1

definition 1-1

operating ACE exclusively for 1-8

overview 1-1

statistics, clearing 3-136

statistics, displaying 3-125

server normalization, asymmetric 2-59

server shutdown, graceful 2-58, 4-14

service policy

applying to an interface 3-87

statistics, clearing 3-136

Session Initiation Protocol. See SIP

shared secret credentials, configuring for RADIUS probes 4-45

shutdown, graceful server 2-16, 4-14

SIP

Call-ID 3-41

header match criteria 3-41

load balancing 3-41, 3-47, 3-113

load-balancing configuration examples 3-119, 3-120

probe 4-38

request method, configuring for probes 4-40, 4-41

SLB. See server load balancing

SMTP probes, configuring 4-32

SNMP

SNMP-based server load probe 4-46

sorry server. See backup server

source IP address 2-29, 2-71, 2-79, 3-14, 3-15, 3-23, 3-43, 3-53, 5-3, 5-10, 5-13, 5-16, 5-104, 6-3, 6-8, 6-19

SSL

proxy service, specifying 3-59

Session ID stickiness 5-6

SSL Session-ID stickiness 5-90

version, configuring for probes 4-28

standard firewall

diagram, configurational 6-4

example, configurational 6-31, 6-33

load balancing, configuring 6-5

quick start 6-6, 6-10

statistics

active script files, displaying A-27

HTTP, displaying 3-135

HTTP parameter map, displaying 3-130

load-balancing, clearing 3-136

load-balancing, displaying 3-125

probes, clearing 4-70

probes, displaying 4-62

real servers, clearing 2-73

real servers, displaying 2-66

scripted probes, displaying A-26

server farms, clearing 2-80

server farms, displaying 2-75

service-policy, clearing 3-136

sticky, clearing 5-106

sticky, displaying 5-103

sticky database, displaying 5-103

status code, configuring for SMTP probes 4-33

stealth firewall

diagram, configurational 6-4

example, configurational 6-35, 6-36

IP address, configuring 6-17

load balancing, configuring 6-17

quick start 6-18, 6-23

stickiness

configurational example 5-108

database entries, clearing 5-107

displaying information 5-103

HTTP cookie 5-41

HTTP cookie configuration example 5-52

HTTP header configuration example 5-65

IP address configuration example 5-19

IP addresses, configuring 5-10

quick start, HTTP-content configuration 5-32

quick start, HTTP-cookie configuration 5-43

quick start, HTTP-header stickiness configuration 5-55

quick start, IP address sticky configuration 5-10

quick start, Layer 4 payload configuration 5-21

quick start, RADIUS stickiness configuration 5-68

quick start, RTSP-Session stickiness configuration 5-75

quick start, SIP Call-ID stickiness configuration 5-83

quick start, SSL Session ID 5-92

SLB traffic policy, configuring 5-101

SSL Session ID 5-6, 5-90

statistics, clearing 5-106

statistics, displaying 5-103

stickiness (HTTP-content)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-40

content length, configuring 5-36

content offset, configuring 5-36

quick start 5-32

replicate HTTP-content sticky table entries, enabling 5-36

server farm entry, configuring 5-40

static content, configuring 5-39

sticky group, creating 5-34

timeout, configuring 5-34

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-35

stickiness (HTTP-cookie)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-51

configuration example 5-52

cookie insertion, enabling 5-48

cookie length, configuring 5-49

cookie offset, configuring 5-49

quick start 5-43, 5-55

replicate HTTP-cookie sticky table entries, enabling 5-47

secondary cookie, configuring 5-49

server farm entry, configuring 5-51

static cookie, configuring 5-50

sticky group, creating 5-45

timeout, configuring 5-46

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-47

stickiness (HTTP-header)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-64

configuration example 5-65

cookie length, configuring 5-62

cookie offset, configuring 5-62

replicate HTTP-header sticky table entries, enabling 5-61

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-64

static HTTP-header, configuring 5-63

sticky group, creating 5-57

timeout, configuring 5-60

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-61

stickiness (IP address)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-17

configuration example 5-19

quick start 5-10

replicate IP-address sticky table entries, enabling 5-15

requirements 5-8

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-17

static IP-address table entries, configuring 5-16

sticky IP group, creating 5-13

timeout, configuring 5-14

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-15

stickiness (Layer 4 payload)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-30

overview 5-20

parameters, configuring 5-26

quick start 5-21

replicate Layer 4 payload sticky table entries, enabling 5-25

server farm entry, configuring 5-30

static entry, configuring 5-29

timeout, configuring 5-24

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-25

stickiness (RADIUS-attribute)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-72

quick start 5-68

replicate RADIUS-attribute sticky table entries, enabling 5-72

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-72

sticky group, creating 5-70

timeout, configuring 5-71

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-71

stickiness (RTSP-Session)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-81

cookie length, configuring 5-79

cookie offset, configuring 5-79

quick start 5-75

replicate RTSP-Session sticky table entries, enabling 5-79

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-81

static RTSP-Session, configuring 5-80

sticky group, creating 5-77

timeout, configuring 5-78

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-78

stickiness (SIP Call-ID)

associating server farm with sticky group 5-89

quick start 5-83

replicate SIP Call-ID sticky table entries, enabling 5-87

server farm sticky group, configuring 5-89

static SIP Call-ID, configuring 5-88

sticky group, creating 5-86

timeout, configuring 5-86

timeout for active connections, configuring 5-87

stickiness (SSL Session ID)

32-byte configuration example 5-99

configuration requirements and considerations 5-92

offset, length, and beginning pattern, configuring 5-97

overview 5-90

quick start 5-92

server farm entry, configuring 5-96

SSL Session ID learning, enabling 5-96

sticky group, creating 5-95

sticky timeout, configuring 5-95

sticky

configuration examples 5-19, 5-52, 5-65

cookies for client identification 5-5

database entries, clearing 5-107

database entries, displaying 5-103

displaying information 5-103

e-commerce application requirements 5-3

groups 5-3

HTTP header for client identification 5-5

IP address for client identification 5-4

methods 5-3

overview 5-2

purpose 5-2

statistics, clearing 5-103

statistics, displaying 5-103

table 5-7

T

TCL

copying and loading scripts A-6

copying scripts A-8

environment variables A-19

exit codes A-20

loading scripts A-10

reloading modified scripts A-11

removing scripts from memory A-11

scripts overview A-2

supported script commands A-13

unzipping scripts A-9

TCP

connection termination 4-14

probe, configuring 4-14

server reuse, configuring 3-69

Telnet

probes, configuring 4-30

threshold, configuring for probes 4-10

timeout period, configuring for probe response 4-12

TLS

version, configuring for probes 4-28

Toolkit Command Language. See TCL. A-1

traffic, distribution across firewalls 6-1, 6-3

traffic classification process 3-2

traffic policies

configurational diagram 3-4

configuration example 3-121

configuring 3-1

configuring for stickiness 5-101

overview 3-2

U

UDP

booster 3-90

per packet load balancing 3-85

probe, configuring 4-17

URL

delimiters, defining 3-64

length 3-67

maximum bytes to parse 3-61, 3-65, 3-66, 3-71

username

credentials, configuring 4-35, 4-37, 4-45

V

VIP

address, advertising 3-82

defining match criteria 3-73, 4-57, 5-101, 6-8, 6-20, 6-21

disabling translation 2-59

enabling for load balancing 3-86, 6-15, 6-28

reply to ICMP request 3-83

UDP per packet load balancing 3-85

virtual IP address. See VIP

W

wait interval, configuring for probes 4-10, 4-12

wait period, configuring for probes 4-10

weight, setting for real servers 2-13, 2-51

weighted roundrobin. See roundrobin