There are no specific prerequisites for this document.
The information in this document is based on the ASA with Version 8.4(1).
The information presented in this document was created from devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If you are working in a live network, ensure that you understand the potential impact of any command before using it.
In this section, you are presented with the information to configure the features described in this document.
Note: The IP addressing schemes used in this configuration are not legally routable on the Internet. They are RFC 1918 addresses, which have been used in a lab environment.
ASA 8.4 Configuration
This document uses these configurations:
ASA 8.4 and Later Configuration
Current configuration: ! version 12.4 service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname R3640_out ! ! username cisco password 0 cisco ! ! ! ! ip subnet-zero ip domain-name cisco.com ! isdn voice-call-failure 0 !
! interface Ethernet0/1 ip address 10.165.200.225 255.255.255.224 no ip directed-broadcast
! ip classless no ip http server ! ! line con 0 exec-timeout 0 0 length 0 transport input none line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password ww login ! end
ASA 8.4 and Later Configuration
ASA#show run : Saved : ASA Version 8.4(1) ! hostname ASA enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted passwd 2KFQnbNIdI.2KYOU encrypted names ! !--- Configure the outside interface.
! interface GigabitEthernet0/0 nameif outside security-level 0 ip address 10.165.200.226 255.255.255.224 !--- Configure the inside interface.
! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 nameif inside security-level 100 ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 ! interface GigabitEthernet0/2 shutdown no nameif no security-level no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/3 shutdown no nameif no security-level no ip address ! interface Management0/0 shutdown no nameif no security-level no ip address management-only ! boot system disk0:/asa841-k8.bin
ftp mode passive ! !--- Creates an object called OBJ_GENERIC_ALL. !--- Any host IP not already matching another configured !--- NAT rule will Port Address Translate (PAT) to the outside interface IP !--- on the ASA (or 10.165.200.226) for Internet bound traffic. ! object network OBJ_GENERIC_ALL subnet 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 ! nat (inside,outside) source dynamic OBJ_GENERIC_ALL interface ! route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.165.200.225 timeout xlate 3:00:00 timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 icmp 0:00:02 timeout sunrpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00 h225 1:00:00 mgcp 0:05:00 mgcp-pat 0:05:00 timeout sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00 sip-invite 0:03:00 sip-disconnect 0:02:00 timeout sip-provisional-media 0:02:00 uauth 0:05:00 absolute timeout tcp-proxy-reassembly 0:01:00 dynamic-access-policy-record DfltAccessPolicy http server enable http 192.168.0.0 255.255.254.0 inside no snmp-server location no snmp-server contact snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication linkup linkdown coldstart crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 28800 crypto ipsec security-association lifetime kilobytes 4608000 telnet timeout 5 ssh timeout 5 console timeout 0 threat-detection basic-threat threat-detection statistics access-list no threat-detection statistics tcp-intercept ! class-map inspection_default match default-inspection-traffic ! ! policy-map type inspect dns preset_dns_map parameters message-length maximum client auto message-length maximum 512 policy-map global_policy class inspection_default inspect dns preset_dns_map inspect ftp inspect h323 h225 inspect h323 ras inspect rsh inspect rtsp inspect esmtp inspect sqlnet inspect skinny inspect sunrpc inspect xdmcp inspect sip inspect netbios inspect tftp inspect ip-options ! service-policy global_policy global prompt hostname context Cryptochecksum:6fffbd3dc9cb863fd71c71244a0ecc5f : end
Note: For more information about the configuration of Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation (PAT) on ASA Version 8.4, refer to Information About NAT.
Try to access a web site via HTTP with a web browser. This example uses a site that is hosted at 198.51.100.100. If the connection is successful, this output can be seen on the ASA CLI:
ASA(config)# show connection address 10.1.1.154 6 in use, 98 most used TCP outside 198.51.100.100:80 inside 10.1.1.154:58799, idle 0:00:06, bytes 937, flags UIO
The ASA is a stateful firewall, and return traffic from the web server is allowed back through the firewall because it matches a connection in the firewall connection table. Traffic that matches a connection that preexists is allowed through the firewall without being blocked by an interface ACL.
In the previous output, the client on the inside interface has established a connection to the 198.51.100.100 host off of the outside interface. This connection is made with the TCP protocol and has been idle for six seconds. The connection flags indicate the current state of this connection. More information about connection flags can be found in ASA TCP Connection Flags.
ASA(config)# show log | in 10.1.1.154
Apr 27 2014 11:31:23: %ASA-6-305011: Built dynamic TCP translation from inside: 10.1.1.154/58799 to outside:10.165.200.226/58799
Apr 27 2014 11:31:23: %ASA-6-302013: Built outbound TCP connection 2921 for outside: 198.51.100.100/80 (198.51.100.100/80) to inside:10.1.1.154/58799 (10.165.200.226/58799)
The ASA Firewall generates syslogs during normal operation. The syslogs range in verbosity based on the logging configuration. The output shows two syslogs that are seen at level six, or 'informational' level.
In this example, there are two syslogs generated. The first is a log message that indicates that the firewall has built a translation, specifically a dynamic TCP translation (PAT). It indicates the source IP address and port and the translated IP address and port as the traffic traverses from the inside to the outside interfaces.
The second syslog indicates that the firewall has built a connection in its connection table for this specific traffic between the client and server. If the firewall was configured in order to block this connection attempt, or some other factor inhibited the creation of this connection (resource constraints or a possible misconfiguration), the firewall would not generate a log that indicates that the connection was built. Instead it would log a reason for the connection to be denied or an indication about what factor inhibited the connection from being created.
NAT Translations (Xlate)
ASA(config)# show xlate local 10.1.1.154 3 in use, 80 most used Flags: D - DNS, e - extended, I - identity, i - dynamic, r - portmap, s - static, T - twice, N - net-to-net TCP PAT from inside:10.1.1.154/58799 to outside:10.165.200.226/58799 flags ri idle 0:02:42 timeout 0:00:30
As part of this configuration, PAT is configured in order to translate the internal host IP addresses to addresses that are routable on the Internet. In order to confirm that these translations are created, you can check the xlate (translation) table. The command show xlate, when combined with the local keyword and the internal host's IP address, shows all of the entries present in the translation table for that host. The previous output shows that there is a translation currently built for this host between the inside and outside interfaces. The inside host IP and port are translated to the 10.165.200.226 address per our configuration. The flags listed, r i ,indicate that the translation is dynamic and a portmap. More information about different NAT configurations can be found here: Information About NAT.
The ASA provides multiple tools with which to troubleshoot connectivity. If the issue persists after you verify the configuration and check the output listed previously, these tools and techniques might help determine the cause of your connectivity failure.
Result: input-interface: inside input-status: up input-line-status: up output-interface: outside output-status: up output-line-status: up Action: allow
The packet tracer functionality on the ASA allows you to specify a simulated packet and see all of the various steps, checks, and functions that the firewall goes through when it processes traffic. With this tool, it is helpful to identify an example of traffic you believe should be allowed to pass through the firewall, and use that 5-tupple in order to simulate traffic. In the previous example, the packet tracer is used in order to simulate a connection attempt that meets these criteria:
The simulated packet arrives on the inside.
The protocol used is TCP.
The simulated client IP address is 10.1.1.154.
The client sends traffic sourced from port 1234.
The traffic is destined to a server at IP address 198.51.100.100.
The traffic is destined to port 80.
Notice that there was no mention of the interface outside in the command. This is by packet tracer design. The tool tells you how the firewall processes that type of connection attempt, which includes how it would route it, and out of which interface. More information about packet tracer can be found in Tracing packets with Packet Tracer.
ASA# capture capin interface inside match tcp host 10.1.1.154 host 198.51.100.100 ASA# capture capout interface outside match tcp any host 198.51.100.100
The ASA firewall can capture traffic that enters or leaves its interfaces. This capture functionality is fantastic because it can definitively prove if traffic arrives at, or leaves from, a firewall. The previous example showed the configuration of two captures named capin and capout on the inside and outside interfaces respectively. The capture commands used the match keyword, which allows you to be specific about what traffic you want to capture.
For the capture capin, you indicated that you wanted to match traffic seen on the inside interface (ingress or egress) that matches tcp host 10.1.1.154 host 198.51.100.100. In other words, you want to capture any TCP traffic that is sent from host 10.1.1.154 to host 198.51.100.100 or vice versa. The use of the match keyword allows the firewall to capture that traffic bidirectionally. The capture command defined for the outside interface does not reference the internal client IP address because the firewall conducts PAT on that client IP address. As a result, you cannot match with that client IP address. Instead, this example uses any in order to indicate that all possible IP addresses would match that condition.
After you configure the captures, you would then attempt the establish a connection again, and proceed to view the captures with the show capture <capture_name> command. In this example, you can see that the client was able to connect to the server as evident by the TCP 3-Way handshake seen in the captures.