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Cisco IOS Software Releases 12.2 S

Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SB New Features and Hardware Support, Product Bulletin 3258

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PB3258

Last Updated: April 2008

This Product Bulletin introduces Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SB and includes the following sections:

1) Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SB Introduction

2) Release 12.2(33)SB Highlights

3) Release 12.2(31)SB2 Highlights

4) Release 12.2(28)SB Highlights

5) Release 12.2SB Additional Information

1) Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SB Introduction

Cisco IOS® Software Release 12.2SB integrates leading-edge Broadband Aggregation and Subscriber Services, Leased Line Aggregation, and MPLS Provider Edge functionality on a comprehensive portfolio of midrange routers, including the Cisco 7200, 7301, 7304, and 10000 Series Routers.
Developed for Service Provider edge aggregation, Release 12.2SB leverages the infrastructure innovation and technology leadership in the Release 12.2S family to deliver the very latest advances in High Availability (HA), MPLS and VPNs, Quality of Service (QoS), and next generation Broadband subscriber and service control with the Cisco Intelligent Services Gateway (ISG). These enhancements allow Service Providers to deliver value-added subscriber services to both business and residential customers across a variety of access technologies. These services enable higher-margin revenue streams while also helping Service Providers to attract and retain new and existing subscribers.
Releases 12.2(33)SB, 12.2(31)SB2, and 12.2(28)SB are available from Cisco.com. Release 12.2(33)SB, the latest release of Release 12.2SB, includes support for more than 50 new Cisco IOS Software features and new hardware for the Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router.
Release 12.2(31)SB2 and Release 12.2(28)SB include new software features and new hardware for the Cisco 7200, 7301, 7304, and Cisco 10000 Series Routers.

Note: Release 12.2(31)SB2 was the last Release 12.2SB release to include support for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers and the Cisco 7301 Router. The Release 12.2SB migration path for new software features and hardware for the Cisco 7200 Series Routers and the Cisco 7301 Router is Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SRC or later.

For detailed information about the features and hardware supported in Releases 12.2(33)SB, 12.2(31)SB2, and 12.2(28)SB, refer to the Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2SB release notes and customer documentation at the following website: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/tsd_products_support_series_home.html
Not all features may be supported on all platforms. Use the Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco IOS Software image support. Access the Cisco Feature Navigator http://tools.cisco.com/ITDIT/CFN/jsp/index.jsp. You must have an account on Cisco.com.

2) Release 12.2(33)SB Feature Highlights

Like all Release 12.2SB releases, Release 12.2(33)SB integrates innovations that span multiple technology areas, including Cisco IOS Broadband, High Availability, Quality of Service, MPLS and VPNs, IP Services, IP Multicast and Routing, IPv6, and Infrastructure and Embedded Management.
Powerful new hardware support in Release 12.2(33)SB includes the Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 4 (ESR-PRE4) and Cisco 10000 Series SPA Interface Processor-600 (10000-SIP-600), and Cisco 10000 Series support for the 1-port 10 Gigabit Ethernet Shared Port Adapter and the 5-port and 2-port Gigabit Ethernet Shared Port Adapters.
Table 1 and the following sections summarize some of the key highlights of Release 12.2(33)SB.

Table 1. Release 12.2(33)SB Highlights

Hardware

Broadband

Layer 2 VPN and Layer 2 Protocols

MPLS and Layer 3 VPN

• Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 4 (ESR-PRE4)
• Cisco 10000 Series SPA Interface Processor-600 (10000-SIP-600)
• Cisco 1-port 10 Gigabit Ethernet, and 5-Port and 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet Shared Port Adapters for Cisco 10000 Series Routers
• Cisco ISG: Service Control Engine Common Control Bus
• Cisco ISG: MQC Support for IP Sessions
• Cisco ISG: IP Session Keepalives (ARP and ICMP)
• L2TP Forwarding of PPPoE Tag Information
• Throttling of AAA Accounting Records
• PPPoE Smart Server Selection
• MLP at LNS
• Any Transport over MPLS: NSF with SSO
• Any Transport over MPLS Interworking
• Link Aggregation Control Protocol (802.3ad) Enhancements
• VPN Provider Edge Router (6VPE) over MPLS for Cisco 10000 Series Routers
• Cisco IOS MPLS LDP Enhancements
• Cisco IOS Software MPLS Layer 3 VPN Enhancements
• Cisco IOS Software MPLS Embedded Management Enhancements

IP Services and Addressing, and IP Routing

Cisco IOS Software Infrastructure and Embedded Management

• VRRP Stateful Switchover/In-Service Software Upgrade
• DHCPv4 Server Management Enhancements
• Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
• OSPFv3 Fast Convergence-LSA and SPF throttling
• Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager
• Cisco IOS Embedded Resource Manager
• Cisco IOS Embedded Syslog Manager
• Command Scheduler (KRON)
• Cisco IOS Scripting with Tcl
• Reliable Delivery and Filtering for Syslog
• ·IP SLAs for MPLS Pseudo Wire (PWE3) via VCCV
• Role-Based Access Control CLI commands
• Configuration Change Notification and Logging
• Contextual Configuration Diff Utility
• Configuration Replace and Configuration Rollback
• Configuration Generation Performance Enhancement
• Configuration Rollback Confirmed Change
• Config Logger Persistency
• NETCONF over SSHv2
• IPv6-Netconf
• Config Change Tracking Identifier

2.1) Hardware

2.1.1) Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 4 (ESR-PRE4)

The Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 4 addresses the demand for increased performance, scalability and hierarchical Quality of Service to support diverse network edge requirements for residential and business services markets. (See Figure 1.)

Figure 1. Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 4

Designed to meet new requirements from Service Providers for high-capacity aggregation with sophisticated IP services, the Cisco 10000 Series PRE-4 uses the latest generation of the Cisco patented Parallel Express Forwarding (PXF) technology. PXF is a parallel multiprocessor architecture that enables deployment of multiple IP services while maintaining peak performance throughput. The Cisco 10000 Series PRE-4 also supports the flexible Hierarchal Queuing Framework (HQF) available on Cisco 10000 Series Routers. The HQF implementation on the Cisco 10000 Series PRE-4 allows three levels (class, logical, and physical) of scheduling to apply queuing and shaping (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Examples of Three-Level Scheduling with HQF and the Cisco 10000 Series PRE-4

Benefits
The Cisco 10000 Series PRE-4 delivers both scalability improvements and new features:

• Provides up to 10 million packets per second (mpps) of processing power for increased throughput

• Delivers Hierarchal Queuing Framework (HQF) for up to three levels of service granularity

• Supports increased bandwidth through link bonding connections between the Cisco 10000 Series PRE-4 and Cisco 10000 Series SPA Interface Processor-600 (10000-SIP-600)

– 11.2 Gbps transmit and receive to each SIP

– 3.2 Gbps transmit and receive to each full-height line card

– 1.6 Gbps transmit and receive to each half-height line card

• Includes 800-MHz route processor with 4GB ECC protected DRAM for new features and scalability improvements

• Delivers enhanced storage options for larger and more complex configurations

– 14 MB Nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)

– 128 MB Compact Flash-fixed internal memory

– 512 MB or 1GB Compact Flash-front panel removable memory

• Uses Cisco patented PXF technology to provide maximum IP service flexibility without performance impact

• Supports processor redundancy-helping enable 99.999-percent network uptime

• Provides a Building Integrated Timing Supply (BITS) interface, a component of the Cisco 10000 Series BITS architecture that will enable network service synchronization

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps133/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Greg Cote ( grcote@cisco.com)

2.1.2) Cisco 10000 Series SPA Interface Processor-600 (10000-SIP-600)

The Cisco ® I-Flex design combines Shared Port Adapters (SPAs) and SPA Interface Processors (SIPs), leveraging an extensible design that enables service prioritization for voice, video and data services. Service Provider customers can benefit from improved slot economics resulting from modular port adapters that are interchangeable across Cisco Systems routing platforms.
The I-Flex design maximizes connectivity options and port density with SPAs that deliver line-rate performance. I-Flex enhances speed-to-service revenue and supports the rich set of QoS features from the Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engines while effectively reducing total cost of ownership.
The Cisco 10000 Series SPA Interface Processor-600 is designed to enable four single-height or two double-height SPAs using two adjacent line-card slots of the Cisco 10000 Series. Using Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) with flexibility to bond together point-to-point links, the SIP provides up to 11.2 Gbps of bandwidth and support for the 10GE interface at line-rate. (See Figure 3.)

Figure 3. Cisco 10000-SIP-600 with GE and 10GE SPAs

Benefits
Key benefits and features of the Cisco 10000-SIP-600 include:

Increased Port Density, Bandwidth and SPA Support-Enables four single-height SPAs; two double-height SPAs or a combination to increase port density per chassis. Link bonding enables greater bandwidth and new connectivity such as modular 10GE SPA.

Modularity-Provides support for up to four SIPs or combination of SIPs plus legacy Cisco 10000 line cards installed in same chassis.

Investment Protection-Same carrier card used for various SPA types supported on the Cisco 10000 Router. In addition, SPA interfaces can be shared across multiple platforms.

Online Insertion and Removal (OIR)-Provides hitless OIR to minimize impact of add, change, and remove operations. Individual SPAs can be removed without impacting traffic on other SPA interfaces.

Link Protection and Link Bundling

– Ethernet-802.3ad/EtherChannel®

– SONET- Automatic Protection Switching (APS)

Managed Oversubscription-Hierarchical QoS provided on PRE3/4 allows oversubscription of interfaces with predictable performance. SIP memory includes 128MB buffering to support ingress bursts of 20Gbps for 50 msec.

Building Integrated Timing Supply (BITS)-Support for BITS enabled SPAs

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6267/prod_module_series_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps133/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Greg Cote ( grcote@cisco.com)

2.1.3) Cisco 1-port 10 Gigabit Ethernet, and 5-Port and 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet Shared Port Adapters for Cisco 10000 Series Routers

The Cisco Gigabit Ethernet SPAs are available on high-end Cisco routing platforms, offering the benefits of network scalability with lower initial costs and ease of upgrades. The Cisco SPA/SIP portfolio continues the company's focus on investment protection along with consistent feature support, broad interface availability, and the latest technology. The Cisco SPA/SIP portfolio allows deployment of different interfaces (Packet over SONET/SDH [PoS], ATM, Ethernet, etc.) on the same interface processor.
The Cisco 1-Port 10-GE SPA, 5-Port GE SPA, and 2-Port GE SPA offer the benefits of network scalability with lower initial costs and ease of upgrades. (See Figure 4 through Figure 6.) Within a central office or data center or in a Metropolitan-Area Network (MAN), 10-GE and GE interfaces are commonly used to interconnect routers or other devices. The Cisco 1-Port 10-GE SPA, 5-Port GE SPA, and 2-Port GE SPA meet the customer need for various applications. With these SPAs, users can mix and match SPA ports with other types of interfaces in the same slot. The SPAs provide standards-based 10-GE and GE implementation for compatibility and interoperability.
The Cisco 1-Port 10-GE SPA, 5-Port GE SPA, and 2-Port GE SPA can be used in any combination for the following applications:

• Residential Triple Play

• Metro Ethernet Services

• Converged Residential and Business Services

• Internet Peering

• Inter- and Intra-Point of Presence (POP) Aggregation

Figure 4. Cisco 1-Port 10-GE SPA with XFP Optics

Figure 5. Cisco 5-Port Gigabit Ethernet SPA, Version 2

Figure 6. Cisco 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet SPA, Version 2

In addition to the two Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP)-based Gigabit Ethernet ports, two additional built-in RJ-45 ports are provided on the 2-port Gigabit Ethernet SPA, Version 2. A combination of these Gigabit Ethernet ports is permitted, limited to a total of 2 Gigabit Ethernet ports (both copper, both optical, or one copper and one optical).
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6267/prod_module_series_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps133/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Greg Cote ( grcote@cisco.com)

2.2) Broadband

2.2.1) Cisco ISG: Service Control Engine (SCE) Common Control Bus

Cisco ISG in Cisco IOS Software and the Service Control Engine (SCE) are critical components of the Cisco NGN SP network. Cisco ISG is becoming the primary mechanism for PPP and IP Session by which subscribers are authenticated and administered into a broadband network of any type. The scaleable, high performance deep-packet-inspection capabilities of SCE make it the platform of choice for the delivery of granular application-based services. Together, they provide an ideal toolset to implement high-touch broadband services.
The ISG-SCE common control bus project provides a mechanism by which Cisco ISG and SCE can communicate to co-manage subscriber sessions, without requiring coordination and orchestration by additional components (namely a policy-server or AAA server). The primary benefit that emerges is the simplification of the design and implementation of these platforms into an operational network. This reduces the dependency on third party components and reduces overall solution cost. (See Figure 7.)
This new, tighter integration between these two Cisco products, with Cisco ISG providing Subscriber Management and Layer 1-4 Policies, and SCE providing Layer 5 through 7 Deep Packet inspection capabilities, open up numerous possible use cases including:

Parental Control-Limit access to restricted websites for a specific user; limit access to specific applications for specific users at specific times of day

Value Added Premium Packages-Offer differential services based on specific application traffic for a specific user

Application Boost-Boost the bandwidth of a specific application

Limit Resources for Basic Subscribers-In tiered services models, the basic level of service could have specific limits placed on specific users

Figure 7. Cisco ISG and SCE Integration

Benefits

Simplified Architecture-Only one interface needs to be utilized to control both ISG and SCE

Advanced Per-User Per-Application Services-By utilizing the best of both ISG and SCE products, new use cases can be created

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6588/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ben Strickland ( bstrickl@cisco.com)

2.2.2) Cisco ISG: MQC Support for IP Sessions

Within ISG Sessions, full Modular QoS CLI (MQC) support was previously only available for dynamic PPP Sessions. With the inclusion of MQC support for IP Sessions in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB, full MQC support is now available for setting QoS shapers and policers on IP Sessions, IP Subnet Sessions, and IP Interface Sessions.
MQC is a Command-Line Interface (CLI) structure that allows users to create traffic polices and attach these polices to interfaces. A traffic policy contains a traffic class and one or more QoS features. A traffic class is used to classify traffic, while the QoS features in the traffic policy determine how to treat the classified traffic.
Benefits
ISG Session Control High Availability enhancements provide a route-processor protection solution with the following benefits:

Common Configuration-The same configuration used to define QoS characteristics for other WAN interfaces now applies to IP sessions

Flexible Services-Increased flexibility in defining QoS behavior for IP sessions beyond simple rate policing

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6588/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ben Strickland ( bstrickl@cisco.com)

2.2.3) Cisco ISG: IP Session Keepalives (ARP and ICMP)

IP Session Keepalives provides end-to-end keepalive support for IP and IP interface sessions, similar to the functionality supplied by PPP keepalives for PPP sessions. (See Figure 8.) This determines if an individual customer premises end-device (PC, set top box, CPE, etc) is still connected to an aggregation network in an IP-only environment. Often in public and private networks, users may walk away with or power down their client devices without gracefully signing-off from the network. This can lead to a longer-lasting session context for the user in a Cisco ISG if the session doesn't periodically ensure user connectivity or existence.
Two types of keepalives are provided by this functionality:

ARP Keepalives-ARP Keepalives are used in a network where the Cisco SG/BRAS is directly connected to the client host device without any Layer 3 device in the circuit. Cisco ISG will be able to reach the client device by Layer 2 ARP Ping. The primary advantages of using ARP ping are that ARP has a relatively low packet overhead and that firewalls usually don't block ARP Pings.

ICMP Keepalives-ICMP Keepalives are used in a network where the Cisco ISG/BRAS is not directly connected to the client host device or if there are any Layer 3 devices between the host and the Cisco ISG/BRAS. In a layer 3 path, only ICMP keepalives will be able to be used.

Session lifecycle management can also be controlled by idle-timers, absolute timers, or disconnect events, but IP Session keepalives allow the system to have greater control of when a user session should be disconnected.
When traffic has not been seen for the configured amount of time, the ICMP or ARP ping is sent directly to the end-device. If no response is received, the session is torn down, the resources are returned to the system, and an accounting stop record is sent to the AAA server.

Figure 8. IP Session Keepalives

Benefits

Advanced Session Life Cycle Management-Cisco ISG can proactively disconnect sessions where the end-device is no longer present, freeing up system resources.

More Accurate Billing-By disconnecting sessions as soon as the end device is powered off or moved, more accurate usage information is obtained.

Greater Security-Remove sessions as quickly as possible, when no longer in use, to reduce the chance of address spoofing.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6588/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ben Strickland ( bstrickl@cisco.com)

2.2.4) L2TP Forwarding of PPPoE Tag Information

In an Ethernet access aggregation network, there are no unique mappings between the subscriber line ID and Ethernet interface like the Virtual Circuit (VC) in an ATM based network, especially when a separate Virtual LAN (VLAN) per subscriber is not used. DSL Forum TR-101 proposed a method by which the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) sends a DSL Remote-ID and circuit-id in the discovery phase. By obtaining this information, future subscriber decisions can be made at later points during the call set-up phase. However, before this feature was introduced, the implementation did not extend to the LNS in a VPDN environment. This feature allows for the PPPoE tag information containing the DSL-Forum attributes to be forwarded from the L2TP Access Concentrator (LAC) to the LNS. (See Figure 9.)
The DSLAM port information contained within the PPPoE tags can be used by the local Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) servers on the LNS in addition to the LAC. This is especially useful in wholesale environments where the LAC and LNS may belong to different owners.

Figure 9. Forwarding the DSLAM circuit-id over L2TP

Benefits

• Increased LNS security by being able to authenticate users based on DSLAM port information

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6549/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Nachiket Deshpande ( nachiket@cisco.com)

2.2.5) Throttling of AAA Accounting Records

AAA Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol operates over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transport layer and can not take advantage of transport layer built-in flow control mechanisms such as those available in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
The ever increasing demand for reduced capital spending has resulted in development of NAS/BRAS platforms with higher port/interface density and capability to efficiently generate a high volume RADIUS load in a dynamic network environment. Ironically, such improvement in scaling exacerbates the lack of flow control problem in RADIUS. The heavy RADIUS load from the AAA client experiencing changing network conditions such as reload, may cause irrecoverable failure in RADIUS server.
Throttling of AAA records helps to limit RADIUS load on RADIUS servers and its surrounding network, by allowing the customers to configure a required throttling rate to reduce sudden bursts of RADIUS traffic on the RADIUS servers.
Benefits

• Helps protect the health of RADIUS servers by avoiding sudden bursts of RADIUS traffic to the servers

• Avoids loss of critical accounting data at RADIUS servers by preventing sudden bursts of accounting records sent to the AAA server from NAS/BRAS

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6663/products_ios_protocol_option_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Nachiket Deshpande ( nachiket@cisco.com)

2.2.6) PPPoE Smart Server Selection

In a PPPoE broadcast domain (such as in an Ethernet aggregation network) with multiple Broadband Remote Access Servers (BRASs), Service Providers do not have a deterministic way of knowing ahead of time which BRAS (PPPoE server) the call will ultimately terminate on. (See Figure 10.) All BRASs will respond to the PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation (PADI) message from the PPPoE client with a PPPoE Active Discovery Offer (PADO) message. The PPPoE client will establish the connection with PPPoE server whose response reaches the client first.

Figure 10. PPPoE Broadcast Domain with multiple Broadband Remote Access Servers

The PPPoE Smart Server Selection feature allows a Service Provider with multiple redundant PPPoE BRASs to predict the BRAS that a given customer will most likely connect to. This is achieved by establishing an order in which the BRASs respond to PADIs by delaying their responses to PADIs at various degrees (ie: the most preferred BRAS is configured to not delay its response and the least preferred to respond with the highest delay). The preference order could be introduced among the BRASs for all sessions, or for sessions matching a set of circuit id or remote id strings. (See Figure 11.)

Figure 11. Ordering Broadband Remote Access Server Response to PADI Message

Benefits

• Helps Service Providers establish a preference among BRASs on which traffic from a particular source will be terminated (separating residential and business traffic, for example) thus helping them optimize their network

• Allows Service Providers to achieve box-to-box redundancy with provision for preferred BRASs for PPPoE

• Offers Service Providers a deterministic way to terminate PPPoE sessions on preferred BRASs

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6549/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Nachiket Deshpande ( nachiket@cisco.com)

2.2.7) MLP at LNS

In a broadband aggregation environment, Service Providers are considering an Ethernet access network as an alternative to an ATM access network with the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) bridging the ATM/DSL local loop to the Ethernet-based access network, which allows Ethernet-based connectivity to the BRAS. As DSL aggregation networks migrate to Ethernet-based connectivity to BRAS usage, with the mix of Ethernet and ATM access networks, this feature allows Service Providers to support MLP and Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI) on single-link MLP bundles. (Figure 12.) This enables high-priority low-latency packets to be interleaved between fragments of lower-priority higher-latency packets. Voice over IP (VoIP) is an example of a low-latency service.

Figure 12. MLP at LNS

Benefits

• Allows Service Providers to enhance performance of high-priority low-latency applications, such as VoIP, by allowing packets to be interleaved between fragments of lower-priority higher-latency packets.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6549/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Nachiket Deshpande ( nachiket@cisco.com)

2.3) Layer 2 VPN and Layer 2 Protocols

2.3.1) Any Transport over MPLS (AToM): NSF with SSO

Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB delivers High Availability (HA) functionality for Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) for Cisco 10000 Series Routers.
Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) with Stateful Switchover (SSO) improves the availability of a network that uses AToM to provide Layer 2 VPN services. AToM NSF/SSO provides the ability to detect failures and handle them with minimal disruption to the service being provided. AToM NSF is achieved by Stateful Switchover (SSO) and Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) mechanisms. A standby Route Processor (RP) provides control-plane redundancy. The control plane state and data plane provisioning information for the Attachment Circuits (ACs) and AToM Pseudowires (PWs) are checkpointed to the standby RP to provide NSF for AToM L2VPNs upon switchover from the primary RP.
Benefits

• NSF with SSO together for AToM provides the ability to detect failures and handle them with minimal disruption to the AToM service being provided. The following are the AToM services protected by AToM NSF with SSO:

– Ethernet over MPLS

– Frame Relay over MPLS

– ATM AAL5 over MPLS

– ATM Cell Relay over MPLS

– PPP over MPLS

– HDLC over MPLS

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6550/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6603/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Tim McSweeney ( timcswee@cisco.com)

2.3.2) Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) Interworking

The fundamental benefit of an MPLS network is being able to support a multitude of applications over a single infrastructure. Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) is the Cisco Layer 2 (L2) Virtual Private Network (VPN) over MPLS network solution. Prior to the availability of AToM, Enterprises and Service Providers had to build separate networks for providing L2 connectivity based on the subscriber's existing network encapsulation. For example, a provider could be required to build separate Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Frame Relay networks, which would result in increased operational and capital expenses. AToM enables Enterprise and Service Providers to consolidate these different networks, so they can save significant capital and operational expenses.
AToM also allows Enterprise and Service Providers the ability to expand their services portfolio without having to build a new infrastructure to accommodate L2 VPN service. With AToM, the same Provider Edge (PE) router can support both Layer 3 (L3) VPNs as well as L2 VPNs. Adding or removing VPN sites doesn't require network wide changes. Only the adjacent PE routers need provisioning. In the case of connectivity problems, troubleshooting is also narrowed down to the adjacent PEs.
The MPLS L3 VPN approach was the most popular MPLS connectivity service before the advent of AToM. AToM allows subscribers to extend the reach of their network without changing any L3 network implementation or policies.

Figure 13. AToM Architecture

As illustrated in Figure 13, a Pseudowire (PW) is a connection between two PE devices that connects two Pseudowire Emulated Service (PWES) end points. The PWES end points connect to the PE router using various attachment circuit types. Pseudowires are setup using directed Label Distribution Protocol (dLDP) sessions between two PE devices. Ingress (local) PE routers allocate Virtual Circuit (VC) labels for new interfaces and binds to its relative (configured) Virtual Circuit ID (VCID). VC labels are exchanged with the egress (remote) PE router using dLDP label mapping messages. In the forwarding plane, VC labels are appended to the VPN traffic by the local PE router and switched through the pseudowire connection to the remote PE. The remote PE removes the VC label and sends traffic to the subscriber's network in its original encapsulation.
Release 12.2(33)SB includes support for the following AToM encapsulations:

• Ethernet-Port Mode

• Ethernet-VLAN Mode

• Frame Relay-Port Mode

• Frame Relay-DLCI-DLCI Mode

• ATM-ATM over MPLS

• PPP-PPP over MPLS

AToM Interworking builds on AToM functionality by allowing disparate attachment circuits to be interconnected. For example, a corporation may have data centers in the campus as well as at remote ATM sites that need connectivity. This will require interworking support between Ethernet and ATM encapsulations. An interworking function facilitates the translation between different Layer 2 encapsulations on PE devices, making the service transparent to subscriber Customer Edge (CE) devices.
AToM interworking in Release 12.2(33)SB supports the following encapsulations (See Figure 14):

• Ethernet VLAN to ATM

• Ethernet VLAN to Frame Relay

• Ethernet VLAN to PPP

Figure 14. AToM Interworking

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6646/products_ios_protocol_option_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Tim McSweeney ( timcswee@cisco.com)

2.3.3) Link Aggregation Control Protocol (802.3ad) Enhancements

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is part of an IEEE specification (802.3ad) that allows the bundling of several physical ports together to form a single logical channel. The ability to aggregate multiple physical links into a single logical channel on existing platforms allows customers to increase their network capacity without the need to change to faster physical connections or requiring an upgrade to a higher density router.
Release 12.2(33)SB includes support for the following LACP enhancements:

High availability-Stateful Switchover (SSO) and In Service Software Upgrade (ISSU)-On a dual Route Processor (RP) configuration, such as in a Cisco 10000 Series Router, Cisco SSO allows the standby RP to take immediate control and maintain connectivity protocols in the event of a failure of the primary RP. Cisco ISSU allows seamless upgrades of the software running on the RPs. With Release 12.2(33)SB, 802.3ad is now fully SSO and ISSU aware. 802.3ad bundles are preserved upon an RP switchover and during a software upgrade.

Maximum Number of Links Increased-The number of member links per bundle are increased from 4 to 8.

Faster Link Switchover Time-Upon failure of an active link in an 802.3ad bundle, it is now possible to switch to the next highest priority standby in the bundle in less than 250ms.

Minimum Threshold (Number of Active Links)-A configurable option to specify a minimum threshold (number of links) per bundle before forcing the bundle to be declared as down.

Benefits
Key benefits of the LACP enhancements include:

Improved network reliability-Cisco SSO an ISSU support provides minimal impact on services during an RP switchover or software upgrade.

Minimal impact on data forwarding-By providing a faster switchover time in case of link failure in the bundle with a configurable option to specify a minimum threshold (number of links) before the bundle is declared down, service disruption is minimized.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Hari Rakotoranto ( hrakotor@cisco.com)

2.4) MPLS and Layer 3 VPN

2.4.1) IPv6 VPN Provider Edge Router (6VPE) over MPLS for Cisco 10000 Series Routers

The Cisco implementation of IPv6 VPN provider edge router over MPLS is referred to as Cisco 6VPE and enables IPv6 sites in a VPN that communicate with each other over an MPLS IPv4 core network using MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs). (See Figure 15.) This feature relies on multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) extensions in the IPv4 network configuration on the Provider Edge (PE) router to exchange IPv6 VPN reachability information, in addition to an MPLS label for each IPv6 address prefix to be advertised. Edge routers are configured to be dual stack running both IPv4 and IPv6, and IPv4 VPN and IPv6 VPN can co-exist with similar coverage and policies. The implementation also provides IPv6 VRF-Lite support.
6VPE was proposed at the IETF and published as RFC 4659

Figure 15. 6VPE over MPLS Deployment

Benefits
6VPE allows IPv6 VPN to be deployed over existing MPLS Multiservice infrastructure with marginal operational impact/cost /risk. Key benefits for 6VPE include:

• IPv4 or MPLS Core Infrastructure is IPv6-unaware

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers configured as PEs are updated to support Dual Stack/6VPE

• IPv6 VPN reachability exchanged among 6VPEs via iBGP (MP-BGP)

• IPv6 VPN can co-exist with IPv4 VPN-same coverage and policies

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6553/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6557/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Patrick Grossetete ( pgrosset@cisco.com)

2.4.2) Cisco IOS Software MPLS LDP Enhancements

Cisco IOS Software MPLS LDP offers standards-based feature capabilities for MPLS label information signaling between MPLS-enabled routers. In addition to RFC3036-compliant MPLS signaling, Cisco MPLS LDP also offers a number of value-added feature capabilities, which enable improved configuration and usability of MPLS LDP functionality. MPLS LDP feature capabilities are focused on MPLS LDP Command-Line Interface (CLI) configuration enhancements, enhanced security, and coexistence support with the Cisco High Availability (HA) feature set, including Cisco NSF with SSO and ISSU.
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB includes the following MPLS LDP feature enhancements:

• MPLS LDP-Lossless MD5 LDP Session Authentication

• MPLS LDP-Local Label Allocation Filtering

• MPLS LDP-Static Label Support

• MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization (OSPF)

MPLS LDP-Lossless MD5 LDP Session Authentication
The MPLS LDP MD5 Global Configuration feature provides a configuration enhancement for enabling MD5-based session authentication of LDP sessions, which helps prevent unauthorized LDP peer applications from establishing LDP sessions with the local LDP process and also helps to block spoofed TCP messages. This feature enables configuration of LDP MD5 support globally (ie: for all LDP-enabled interfaces on a MPLS-enabled router) instead of on a per-LDP peer basis. In addition, MD5 session authentication can be enabled for a selective set of LDP sessions via access-control lists.
New LDP feature enhancements are introduced, which enable dynamically change and configuration of MD5 keys for LDP session authentication. (See Figure 16.) Through a configurable MD5 keychain, multiple MD5 authentication keys with specific activation intervals can be configured for a given LDP session. The new LDP enhancements complement existing MD5 LDP session authentication capabilities, which only enabled configuration of one single MD5 key per LDP session.

Figure 16. MPLS LDP-Lossless MD5 LDP Session Authentication

MPLS LDP-Local Label Allocation Filtering
LDP allocates a local label for every route learned from its Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). In the absence of any inbound and outbound label filtering, these local labels are stored and advertised to remote LDP peers. The number of labels allocated in LDP and the number of advertisements is proportional to the number of routes learned from the IGP; the number of routes is proportional to the number of peers. During LDP session establishment, LDP may be notified of a large number of routes in succession.
New LDP CLI commands are introduced to control allocation of local MPLS labels and exchange of label mappings with remote nodes via use of prefix lists. The amount of memory used and the number of label binding advertisements by LDP can be reduced via enabling these local label allocation filtering rules, which improves convergence time for LDP.
Benefits
The following are key benefits of the new MPLS LDP feature enhancements:

MPLS LDP-Lossless MD5 LDP Session Authentication-No need to tear down LDP session to activate new MD5 key for LDP session authentication. Configurable key chain enables flexible scheduling of multiple MD5 keys to be used for LDP session authentication.

MPLS LDP-Local Label Allocation Filtering-Enhanced LDP local label filtering capabilities, which reduce memory used by LDP for maintaining its Label Information Base (LIB) and improve LDP convergence (exchange of LDP label information between MPLS-enabled nodes).

MPLS LDP support for static labels-Enables configuration of static bindings between MPLS labels and IPv4 prefixes to support MPLS hop-by-hop forwarding through neighbor router nodes, which don't support LDP label distribution. With this feature static MPLS cross-connects can be configured to support MPLS Label Switched Path (LSP) midpoints in an MPLS network where neighbor router nodes do not support LDP or RSVP label distribution but do support MPLS forwarding.

Hardware

Routers

• MPLS LDP-Lossless MD5 LDP Session Authentication
Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router
• MPLS LDP-Local Label Allocation Filtering
Cisco 10000 Series Routers
• MPLS LDP-Static Label Support
Cisco 10000 Series Routers
• MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization (OSPF)
Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6608/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Harmen van der Linde ( havander@cisco.com)

2.4.3) Cisco IOS Software MPLS Layer 3 VPN Enhancements

Cisco IOS Software Multiprotocol Label Switching Virtual Private Network (MPLS VPN), also known as Layer 3 MPLS VPN, provides efficient and standard-based virtual routing and forwarding using MPLS and Multi-protocol BGP. In addition to IETF standard compliance, Cisco MPLS VPN also offers a number of value-added feature and carrier-grade capabilities such as High Availability including In-Service Software Upgrade, expanded management tools, and advanced inter-provider feature set.
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB includes the following Layer 3 MPLS VPN feature enhancements:

• MPLS VPN-Inter-AS option AB

• MPLS VPN-PE-CE Link Protection

• MPLS VPN-VRF CLI for IPv4 & IPv6 VPNs

Benefits

MPLS VPN Inter-AS option AB Inter-provider Services-Provides an improved inter-as peering solution that retains the benefit of inter-as option A forwarding plane with per VRF IP forwarding and IP QoS on inter-as link. The solution, requiring a single BGP session between peering ASBR, represents a significant control plane scalability improvement when compared with option A peering solution. As an additional enhancement, CSC can be provisioned per VRF.

MPLS VPN PE-CE Link Protection-The MPLS VPN carrier class feature portfolio is further enriched with MPLS VPN PE-CE link protection. Upon PE-CE link failure, VPN end-to-end convergence can be improved with an egress PE (Point of Local Repair) switching VPN traffic to an alternative egress PE before the control plane has converged.

Hardware

Routers

• MPLS VPN-Inter-AS option AB
Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router
• MPLS VPN-PE-CE Link Protection
Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router
• MPLS VPN-VRF CLI for IPv4 & IPv6 VPNs
Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6604/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ted Qian ( tqian@cisco.com), MPLS VPN

2.4.4) Cisco IOS Software MPLS Embedded Management Enhancements

Cisco IOS Software MPLS embedded management offers standards-based management capabilities for IP/MPLS networks. The Cisco industry leading MPLS management feature portfolio offers network operators detailed MPLS resource monitoring and MPLS connectivity troubleshooting capabilities, which include MPLS-specific SNMP MIBs, MPLS OAM, and MPLS-enabled NetFlow features.
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB includes the following MPLS Embedded Management feature enhancements:
MPLS MIBs

• MPLS LSR MIB-RFC3813

• MPLS LDP MIB-RFC3815

• MPLS VPN MIB RFC4382 Upgrade

MPLS OAM

• MPLS LSP Ping for L2VPNs (via VCCV)-RFC4379

• IP SLA automation for MPLS Multi-path (ECMP) Tree Trace

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6605/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Harmen van der Linde ( havander@cisco.com), MPLS Embedded Management

2.5) IP Services and Addressing, and IP Routing

2.5.1) VRRP Stateful Switchover/In-Service Software Upgrade

The Stateful Switchover (SSO)-Aware Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) feature enables the Cisco IOS VRRP subsystem software to detect that a standby Route Processor (RP) is installed and the system is configured in SSO redundancy mode. Further, if the active RP fails, no change occurs to the VRRP group itself and traffic continues to be forwarded through the current active gateway router.
Prior to this feature, when the primary RP failed on the active VRRP router, it would stop participating in the VRRP group and trigger another router in the group to take over as the active VRRP router.
The SSO-Aware VRRP feature is required to preserve the forwarding path for traffic destined to VRRP virtual IP through a RP switchover.
Configuring SSO on the edge router enables the traffic on the Ethernet links to continue during an RP failover without the Ethernet traffic switching over to another VRRP router.
With this feature, VRRP SSO information is synchronized to the standby RP, allowing traffic that is sent using the VRRP virtual IP address to be continuously forwarded during a switchover without a loss of data or a path change.
VRRP supports ISSU and upgrading from one Cisco IOS Software version to another happens seamlessly in a router with two RPs.
Benefits
The addition of SSO to the VRRP redundancy scheme provides unparalleled gateway high availability.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6644/products_ios_protocol_option_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Benoit Lourdelet ( blourdel@cisco.com)

2.5.2) DHCPv4 Server Management Enhancements

The DHCPv4 server is enhanced to offer better manageability in large scale scenarios. Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB includes the following new DHCPv4 server management enhancements:

• DHCP Server MIB

• DHCP Server Per interface lease limit

• DHCP Server Per interface statistics

Benefits
Larger scale DHCPv4 server deployment is easier to manage.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6641/products_ios_protocol_option_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Benoit Lourdelet ( blourdel@cisco.com)

2.5.3) Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a detection protocol designed to provide fast forwarding path failure detection times for all media types, encapsulations, topologies, and routing protocols. This detection is typically accomplished through hardware detection mechanisms. However, not all of the hardware mechanisms have the capability to detect failures, for example Ethernet failures.
BFD also provides a consistent failure detection method for network administrators. Because the network administrator can use BFD to detect forwarding path failures at a uniform rate, rather than the variable rates for different routing protocol hello mechanisms, network profiling and planning is easier, and reconvergence time is consistent and predictable.
Release 12.2(33)SB includes support for the BFD standard implementation, BFD Version 1, and BFD Echo, as well as additional new enhancements that include:

• BFD Static Routes for Cisco 10000 Series Routers

• BFD VRF Aware Support for Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router

• BFD WAN Interfaces Support for Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router

• BFD SSO Phase 1 for Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router

In addition to the above new features, Release 12.2(33)SB also provides support for more than 128 sessions of BFD with aggressive timers (Note: this feature is hardware dependent). As BFD is becoming the de-facto liveliness detection protocol, it is critical to be able to run concurrently, a high number of BFD sessions on a single device.
BFD Static Routes for Cisco 10000 Series Routers
Static routes allow users to manually configure routing information for a prefix. This routing information points to an interface or a gateway in order to reach the specified prefix. The routing information is valid only when the interface or the gateway is reachable. If a static route is no longer valid, then any other alternate route that is learned via a dynamic routing protocol may be used to reach the prefix. It is important to delete the static route information if it is no longer valid, quickly to achieve faster convergence.
Currently, static route information is updated only when the interface or the gateway goes down. Static routes with BFD allow faster detection of an interface or a gateway down, and thereby achieving faster convergence.
BFD VRF Aware Support for Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router
BFD VRF Aware Support extends BFD failure detection capability within a VRF context. With Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(33)SB, network operators can run BFD from a VRF based interface so that any failure in the forwarding path between PE and CE devices can be detected even though the physical link might still be up. The combination of BFD VRF support along with the different embedded OAM MPLS tools such as MPLS Ping and Traceroute give network operators a comprehensive end-to-end solution to address overall network reliability and enhance their L3VPN service availability.
BFD WAN Interfaces Support for Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router
For failure detection on WAN interfaces, network operators usually rely on the physical layer (such as Loss of Signal (LOS) for POS interfaces). For IP traffic over WAN interfaces, situations exist where the next-hop is not reachable but the interface remains up and hence the lack of reachability in the forwarding path is not detected. BFD provides failure detection in the forwarding path.
BFD WAN Interfaces Support enables the use of BFD as fast failure detection in the forwarding path for interfaces such as: ATM, POS, and Frame Relay. Moreover, as part of the BFD WAN Interfaces Support feature, BFD support for VLAN interface (802.1q) is also available.
Deployment Example: Various Service Providers are launching ADSL2+ services aggregated on IP-DSLAMs and carried over Metro Ethernet networks towards the PE. The CPE is connected to the IP-DSLAM via ADSL2+ which is via ATM interfaces. BFD can provide a standard failure detection mechanism in this case for the ATM interfaces.
BFD WAN Interfaces Support in Release 12.2(33)SB includes support for the following interface types:

• ATM interface with AAL5 MUX, AAL5 SNAP, AAL0 encapsulations

• ATM sub interface

• POS interface with Frame Relay Encapsulations

• POS sub interface

• Serial interface, Serial interfaces with FR Encapsulation

• Serial sub interface with FR Encapsulation

• VLAN interface (802.1q)

• IEEE 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN stacking interface

BFD SSO Phase 1 for Cisco 10000 Series Routers and the Cisco 7304 Router
Stateful Switchover (SSO) is a key feature toward achieving a highly available and robust network. On a dual Route Processor (RP) configuration, such as on the Cisco 10000 series routers, SSO allows the standby RP to take immediate control and maintain connectivity protocols in case of failure of the primary RP.
Stateful Switchover (SSO) Phase I implements the capability in case of a planned switchover from the active RP to the standby RP. To avoid remote peers detecting a failure in the forwarding plane following the loss of BFD sessions, the BFD state is transitioned to AdminDown on both the local and remote peers. During planned RP switchovers, BFD sessions can be decommissioned by setting them to Admin Down state. The sessions can be brought back to UP state once the switchover is complete. This prevents the remote peers from informing its clients (ie: Routing) as BFD sessions have gone down.
Benefits

BFD Static Routes

– Minimal impact on data forwarding-By converging static routes faster when an interface or a gateway goes down, the router forwards the traffic along the right path to the final destination quickly.

– Improved network reliability-By quickly converging and using the latest routing information, the impact on services is minimal.

BFD VRF Aware Support-Offers the capability to improve convergence on the PE-CE link and ultimately improves overall layer3 VPN network reliability and availability.

BFD WAN Interfaces Support-Extends BFD support to the most commonly used WAN interface type so that fast failure detection in the forwarding path (based on a single standard protocol) can be achieved and therefore increase overall network availability and reliability.

BFD SSO Phase 1 (AdminDown capability)-Offers the capability during planned switchovers to suppress temporarily failure detections so that the higher level protocols still stay up. This capability allows aggressive BFD timers to be set.

Hardware

Routers

• BFD Static Routes
Cisco 10000 Series Routers
• BFD VRF Aware Support
Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router
• BFD WAN Interfaces Support
Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router
• BFD SSO Phase 1
Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Hari Rakotoranto ( hrakotor@cisco.com), BFD
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com), BFD Static Routes

2.5.4) OSPFv3 Fast Convergence-LSA and SPF Throttling

Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) advertises network topology information using Link-State Advertisements (LSAs). Upon receiving network topology change information, OSPF uses the SPF algorithm to compute a new routing table to incorporate the topology change. If there are frequent topology changes, a node in the network sends frequent updates throughout the network, causing every node in the network to run the SPF algorithm. This can lead to higher CPU consumption on every node and possibly data traffic loss due to changes in routing tables.
This feature limits the frequency of the advertisement of topology changes at the originating node. Similarly, it also limits the frequency of the SPF algorithm computation at every node. By limiting the frequency of advertisements and SPF computations, this feature reduces the CPU consumption on each node and reduces or eliminates the data traffic loss that might happen due to frequent changes in the network.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6629/products_ios_protocol_option_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

2.6) Cisco IOS Infrastructure and Embedded Management

2.6.1) Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager

The Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager (EEM) is a unique subsystem within Cisco IOS Software. EEM is a powerful and flexible tool to automate tasks and customize the behavior of Cisco IOS and the operation of the device. Customers can use EEM to create and run programs or scripts directly on a router or switch. The scripts are referred to as EEM Policies and can be programmed using a simple CLI-based interface or using a scripting language called Tool Command Language (Tcl). EEM allows customers to harness the significant intelligence within Cisco IOS Software to respond to real-time events, automate tasks, create customer commands and take local automated action based on conditions detected by the Cisco IOS Software itself.

Figure 17. EEM System Architecture

Product Architecture
The Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager is a product independent software feature consisting of a series of Event Detectors, an Embedded Event Manager Server, and interfaces to allow action routines called Policies to be invoked. There are also internal application programming interfaces for other Cisco IOS subsystems to take advantage of the EEM subsystem. Figure 17 illustrates the EEM components.
Benefits
Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager provides on-board automation and control, including:

A complete architecture-The EEM subsystem is designed with modularity in mind. It consists of Event Detectors, an Event Manager Server, and action routines called Policies and a consistent implementation across product lines.

CLI interface-An interface to the Cisco IOS CLI to allow automated commands and access to any information that can be displayed.

Policy scheduler-EEM policies are scheduled one at a time or concurrently according to the number of threads configured.

Built-in actions-Policies can invoke a number of built-in actions for easy automation.

Over 15 event detectors-Numerous ways to invoke policies based on real-time events.

Cisco Beyond-Product Extension Community
There is also place for customers to share and download scripts. Don't reinvent the wheel. Build and extend the work of others. Learn by example. See http://www.cisco.com/go/ciscobeyond
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://cisco.com/go/eem

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact

2.6.2) Cisco IOS Embedded Resource Manager

The Embedded Resource Manager (ERM) feature provides a method to monitor internal system resource utilization. Finite resources such as buffer, memory, and processor utilization are monitored.
ERM works by monitoring resource utilization from the perspective of resource owners and resources users. These owners and users are various subsystems with the Cisco IOS Software. Network administrators can define thresholds to create notifications according to the real-time resource consumption. (See Figure 18.)
The ERM infrastructure is designed to be extensible and to allow for very granular monitoring on an IOS task basis. It goes beyond simply monitoring for total CPU utilization for example. Through the use of ERM, network administrators and operators can gain a better understanding of the device's operational characteristics leading to better insight into system scalability and improved system availability.

Figure 18. Embedded Resource Manager Architecture

Benefits
The Embedded Resource Manager feature allows you to:

• Monitor system resource usage to better understand scalability

• Set resource thresholds at a granular level

• Generate alerts when resource utilization reaches specified levels

• Generate internal events using the Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager feature and take local automated action

• Gain a better understanding of how network changes might impact system operation

ERM SNMP support is also included. The ERM MIB will be available on Cisco.com. Visit: http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-netmgmt.shtml
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Rick Williams ( rwill@cisco.com)

2.6.3) Cisco IOS Embedded Syslog Manager

The Embedded Syslog Manager (ESM) feature allows you to filter, escalate, correlate, route, and customize system log messages prior to delivery by the Cisco IOS system message logger.
The Cisco IOS system message logging (syslog) process allows the system to report and save important error and notification messages, either locally or to a remote logging server. These syslog messages include messages in a standardized format (called system logging messages, system error messages, or simply system messages) and output from debug commands. These messages are generated during network operation to assist users and Cisco TAC engineers with identifying the type and severity of a problem, or to aid users in monitoring router activity. System logging messages can be sent to console connections, monitor (TTY) connections, the system buffer, or to remote hosts.
With Embedded Syslog Manager, system messages can be logged independently as standard messages, XML-formatted messages, or ESM filtered messages.
Benefits
Benefits of this feature include:

Customization-Fully customizable processing of system logging messages, with support for multiple, interfacing syslog collectors. ESM provides a programmatic interface to allow you to write custom filters that meet your specific needs in dealing with system logging.

Severity escalation for key messages-The ability to configure your own severity levels for syslog messages instead of using the system-defined severity levels.

Specific message targeting-The ability to route specific messages or message types, based on type of facility or type of severity, to different syslog collectors.

SMTP-base email alerts-Capability for notifications using TCP to external servers, such as TCP-based syslog collectors or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) servers.

Message Limiting-The ability to limit and manage syslog "message storms" by correlating device-level events.

Operates in parallel-ESM operates separately from the standard logging facility. A benefit of separate logging processes is that if, for example, there is some problem with the ESM filter modules, standard logging will not be affected.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Rick Williams ( rwill@cisco.com)

2.6.4) Command Scheduler (KRON)

The Command Scheduler (KRON) Policy for System Startup feature enables support for the Command Scheduler upon system startup.
Command Scheduler has two basic processes. A policy list is configured containing lines of fully-qualified EXEC CLI commands to be run at the same time or same interval. One or more policy lists are then scheduled to run after a specified interval of time, at a specified calendar date and time, or upon system startup. Each scheduled occurrence can be set to run either once only or on a recurring basis.
Benefits

• The Command Scheduler allows customers to schedule fully-qualified EXEC mode CLI commands to run once, at specified intervals, at specified calendar dates and times, or upon system startup.

• Using the CNS image agent feature, remote routers residing outside a firewall or using Network Address Translation (NAT) addresses can use Command Scheduler to launch CLI at intervals, to update the image running in the router.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Udayan Palekar ( upalekar@cisco.com)

2.6.5) Cisco IOS Scripting with Tcl

Cisco IOS Scripting with Tool Command Language (Tcl) provides the ability to run Tcl version 8.3.4 commands from the Cisco IOS Software Command-Line Interface (CLI).
Tcl is a standard scripting language, and a partial implementation of Tcl has been in Cisco IOS Software in support of internal applications, such as Cisco IOS Software Interactive Voice Response (IVR).
Tcl version 8.3.4 provides support for the Embedded Syslog Manager (ESM) feature as well as exposing a Tcl Shell (tclsh) for use in the Cisco IOS Software CLI.
SNMP MIB Object Access
Designed to make access to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) MIB objects easier, a set of UNIX-like SNMP commands has been created. The Tcl shell is enabled either manually or by using a Tcl script, and the new commands can be entered to allow you to perform specified get and set actions on MIB objects. To increase usability, the new commands have names similar to those used for UNIX SNMP access.
Benefits

Powerful scripting capability-Powerful method of custom-processing the events or states within a router, and taking a variety of actions based on them.

Easy to learn-Industry standard language.

Complete coverage of Cisco IOS Software commands-All Cisco IOS Software CLI commands may be references by Tcl scripts, in both EXEC and CONFIG mode.

Customization of Cisco IOS Software commands-Tcl scripts can be used to create customized commands, grouping multiple IOS commands, processing and customizing output, even creating auto-refreshing commands for real-time refresh at the CLI level.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Madhu Vulpala ( mvulpala@cisco.com)

2.6.6) Reliable Delivery and Filtering for Syslog

Currently, the Cisco IOS Syslog subsystem is capable of providing a single syslog session to a remote logging host via a non reliable UDP or a reliable TCP transport method. However, both UDP and TCP transport methods lack capability in authentication and encryption of syslog messages. These concerns are addressed by supporting Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol (BEEP) and its profiles. RFC 3195, developed in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), describes Reliable Delivery for Syslog.
The Reliable Delivery and Filtering for Syslog feature allows a device to be customized for receipt of syslog messages. This feature provides reliable and secure delivery for syslog messages using BEEP. Additionally, it allows multiple sessions to a single logging host, independent of the underlying transport method (TCP, UDP, and BEEP). (See Figure 19.)

Figure 19. End-to-End View of a Syslog Session

It also provides a filtering mechanism called a message discriminator. Syslog receivers can customize the device with regards to which messages they would like to receive by configuring message discriminators on the devices. A discriminator can act as a filter, as a correlator, or as a rate limiter, or all. (See Figure 20.)

Figure 20. Syslog Sessions with own Message Discriminator

Benefits
Key benefits of Reliable Delivery and Filtering for Syslog include:

• Syslog message authentication, privacy and reliability through retransmission are provided by using BEEP transport protocol

• 8 channels per BEEP session are supported; each channel acts as a single syslog session

• Multiple syslog sessions can also be established via UDP and TCP to the same logging host using different ports; Each syslog session is independent to each other regardless of underlying transport method

• Message Discriminators are useful to filter syslog messages and to rate limit the messages

• Message Discriminators provide filtering capability with no scripting

• Filtering will help reduce a lot of unnecessary network traffic from unwanted syslog messages

• Session Rate Limiting allows users to fine tune independently the rate acceptance level for each syslog session

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Madhu Vulpala ( mvulpala@cisco.com)

2.6.7) IP SLAs for MPLS Pseudo Wire (PWE3) via VCCV

The IP SLAs for MPLS PWE3 via Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification (VCCV) feature allows for automated LSP Echo over PWEs via VCCV. This feature builds upon the IP SLAs LSP Health Monitor family of operations.
The IP SLAs for MPLS PWE3 via VCCV feature provides the fully automated LSP Ping (Echo) Operation via VCCV for either continuous or periodic circuit verification that your network monitoring requirements demand.
IP SLAs include both Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface (CLI) and SNMP methods to provision, schedule, monitor, alert and collect data (SET & GET) from one or more VCCV Echo Operations between two MPLS LSP targets.
Key Advantages of the IP SLAs MPLS LSP Echo via VCCV Operation Type include:

• IP SLAs provides the Automation, Scheduling, and Threshold Alerts for MPLS Pseudo-Wire Verification Checks (PWE3) via Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification (VCCV) through IOS MPLS OAM integration.

• Returned data items from each operation include and can be utilized for alerts and statistics:

– PWE3 VCCV Operation Round Trip Time (RTT)

– PWE3 VCCV Operation Failure

– PWE3 VCCV Operation Timeout

• Can be used to fully Automate MPLS OAM PWE3 via VCCV Network Health and connectivity verification.

• Helps alleviate some of the cost and complexity barriers normally associated with using embedded OAM functionality to simplify the Network Health and Performance Testing through the use of IP SLAs embedded automation facilities.

In more traditional scenarios, network OAM operators would be required to manually, via scripting tools, or via NMS Systems, log onto the Network Element (NE) to execute any single LSP VCCV PWE3 check, and remain logged on to receive the return codes from those checks on the Network Element (NE) itself.
In this traditional model approach to OAM "Automation," these tests might have to be done manually for every NE in an MPLS network. Using IP SLAs Embedded Management Automation with alerting features allows for increases in efficiency in Network Management nearly to the point of "self-management."
The traditional approach is not required when using IP SLAs because each operation can be provisioned, scheduled, and collected separately and uniquely. IP SLAs have facilities to provision each operation to be executed with a unique identifier (number) and the returned data can retrieved instantly or be left to be retrieved at any later time. Alternately, any previous operation data can be simply over written by running the same operation again.
The use of IP SLAs Scheduling Facilities (Random Operation Scheduler, Multiple Operation Scheduler) or Fixed Operation Scheduling allows Network Operators to schedule and run any one operation as frequently as once per second or any other preset date and time interval. Then the network operators can simply wait to capture any configured real-time SNMP alerts that arrive to indicate an out of normal operating condition. These unique SNMP traps can also be generated for any RTT Value, Timeouts, or Failures per/operation in real-time.
This is all provided through the use of our very powerful IP SLAs Automated Embedded Management facilities combined with IOS OAM such as the IP SLAs for MPLS PWE3 via VCCV operation.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6602/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ernie Mikulic ( emikulic@cisco.com)

2.6.8) Role-Based Access Control CLI Commands

Cisco IOS Software supports the ability to organize Command-Line Interface (CLI) commands into a "view" and assign views to a permission level of the user. This allows different users to be able to use only the allowed CLI defined by the view.
In addition to CLI views, Cisco IOS Software allows "super views" to be defined, which are a concatenation of multiple views. This allows administrators to organize the CLI into logical views and assign these logical views to a user. Views can be used in different ways using super views.
Benefits
Key benefits of Role-Based Access Control CLI Commands include:

• CLI views provide a more detailed access control capability for network administrators, thereby, improving the overall security and accountability of Cisco IOS Software.

• Super views allow CLI views to be combined in various combinations to more effectively manage role-based control.

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.9) Configuration Change Notification and Logging

The running configuration in Cisco IOS Software can be changed in one of several ways: Command-Line Interface (CLI), SNMP or HTTP. The Configuration Change logging feature tracks configuration changes in a local config log on a Cisco IOS Software-enabled device. This log tracks each command that is applied in "config terminal" mode, who applied the command, the parser return code for that command, and the time that the command was applied. This feature also adds a notification mechanism that sends asynchronous notifications to registered applications whenever this config log changes.
Benefits

• Allows configuration changes to be tracked with external notification

• Reduces the need to download and diff configurations to identify configuration changes

• Allows configurations to be downloaded only when a configuration actually changes

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.10) Contextual Configuration Diff Utility

The Contextual Configuration Diff Utility allows users to view the differences between any two Cisco IOS configuration files, located locally or remotely, including the startup or running configs. The output includes the submode information to provide the context for the command differences.
Benefits

• Reduces the need to download and compare configuration changes externally from the Cisco device

• Provides a contextual diff rather than character-by-character comparisons

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.11) Configuration Replace and Configuration Rollback

Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace allows network administrators the ability to automatically "undo" changes to the currently running configuration with an archived configuration file. Prior to this feature, rolling back changes to the running configuration requires one of two tasks:

• Manually undoing the original config changes

• Reboot to the start-up config

Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace provides a third option allowing efficiency improvements through automation, increased accuracy and reduced downtime.
Combined with periodic off-site storage of config files (Configuration Archive) over File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), Cisco IOS Config Rollback/Replace allows network operations to rollback to any saved Cisco IOS configuration state without rebooting or manual reconfiguration.
IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace detects and adjusts to situations where a Cisco IOS command in the configuration file is not applicable to the current hardware or software configuration. In these cases, Cisco IOS Config Rollback/Replace will provide a list of commands which could not be applied.
Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace only makes changes to the IOS commands which are different between the current running config and the saved config state. This shortens the time to Rollback as the configuration changes only happen for a subset of commands. The Rollback will add lines which do not appear in the running config and will remove command lines which do not appear in the saved configuration file.
Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace handles order-sensitive commands (such as Access Control Lists) and adjusts appropriately. If needed, Cisco IOS Config Rollback/Replace will perform multiple passes over the running configuration to leave the system in a functional state during rollback.
Benefits

Increased accuracy-With Cisco IOS Config Rollback/Replace, the network administrator has the ability to quickly undo configuration changes back to any well-known state without manual configuration.

Reduced downtime-Using Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace to restore the running config to a well-known state avoids rebooting to the startup config and applying changes manually.

Improved efficiency-Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace allows quick restoration to the last configuration to quickly undo configuration changes without manually configuring through CLI.

Improved configuration speed-Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback/Replace only applies the changes between the configurations improving the speed of applying configuration changes.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.12) Configuration Generation Performance Enhancement

The Configuration Generation Performance Enhancement feature improves the performance of the internal operations performed by Cisco IOS Software to generate the running configuration. Changes to configuration only need to be NVGEN and not NVGEN all nodes. This helps improve the NVGEN performance and reduce generation time.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.13) Configuration Rollback Confirmed Change

The Cisco IOS Configuration Rollback Confirmed Change feature allows configuration changes to be performed with an optional requirement that the changes be confirmed afterwards, otherwise the configuration is returned to the state before the changes were applied. This mechanism provides a safeguard against inadvertent loss of connectivity between a network device and the user or management application due to configuration changes.
When entering configuration mode, a new option allows the user to request confirmation (a confirmation time limit must be supplied). After exiting configuration mode, the user must enter the confirmation command. If no confirmation is entered within the requested time limit, the configuration will revert to the state at the time configuration mode was entered.
Benefits

Increased accuracy-Any errors are automatically unwound if not confirmed

Reduced downtime-Configuration errors which adversely effect performance or connectivity are automatically unwound if not confirmed within the timer window

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.14) Configuration Logger Persistency

The Cisco IOS Configuration Logger logs all changes manually entered by users at the Command-Line Interface (CLI) prompt. Prior to Configuration Logger Persistency, the content of the log did not persist after reloads.
The Configuration Logger Persistency feature provides a mechanism to persist the configuration commands entered by users across reloads. Only the input command (ie: the command typed by the user in "config term" mode) are persisted across reload. This feature uses the Cisco IOS Secure File System to persist the input commands generated by the Configuration Logger.
Benefits

Improved speed-Only the changed configuration lines are applied at reload time.

Reduced config file across reloads-Since only the persistent configuration commands are stored across reloads, the size of the startup config file is significantly reduced.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.15) NETCONF over SSHv2

The NETCONF (NETwork CONFiguration) protocol defines a simple mechanism that allows management of a network device; retrieval of configuration data; and manipulation/uploading of new configuration data. It uses an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based data encoding for the configuration data as well as the protocol messages for the NETCONF protocol.
The NETCONF Server in Cisco IOS Software uses Secure Shell version 2 (SSHv2) as the network transport to a NETCONF Network Manager. The NETCONF Network Manager acts as a NETCONF client to the NETCONF Server in Cisco IOS Software. The NETCONF Server in Cisco IOS Software has the ability to accept multiple client connections from different NETCONF Network Managers.
The userid and password of the SSHv2 session running NETCONF are used for authorization and authentication purposes. The user privilege level is enforced and the client session may not have full access to the NETCONF operations if the privilege level is not high enough. If AAA is configured, the AAA service is used identically as if a user had established a SSH session directly to the device. Using the existing security configuration makes the transition to NETCONF almost seamless.
A new capability has been added to send notifications of any configuration change over NETCONF. A notification is an event indicating that a configuration change has happened. The change can be a new configuration, deleted configuration or changed configuration. The notifications are sent at the end of a successful configuration operation as one message showing the set of changes rather than individual messages for each line in the configuration that is changed.
Benefits

Improved manageability-Reduces the need to make manual configuration changes

Improved accuracy-allows automated access to configuration changes

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.16) IPv6-Netconf

IPv6 supports provide NETCONF support per Government Mandate: OMB Memorandum M-05-22.
Benefits

Manageability-Reduced congestion of IP address ranges

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

2.6.17) Config Change Tracking Identifier

The Config Change Tracking Identifier is a unique identifier which changes whenever the configuration changes. The identifier can be used to determine if the configuration has changed prior to downloading. The config tracking ID Config Change Tracking Identifier (CTID) numbers every change to the Cisco IOS running configuration and does not have semantic significance other than a sequential number.
Benefits

• Improves the accuracy of the configuration retrieval process

• Reduces the need to periodically download the entire configuration if it hasn't changed

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers, Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6555/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Steve Giles ( stgiles@cisco.com)

3) Release 12.2(31)SB2 Feature Highlights

Release 12.2(31)SB2 delivers locally terminated Cisco IOS Broadband high availability for Service Provider edge aggregation networks that run the Cisco 10000 Series Router. These enhancements maximize DSL service availability for Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) subscriber sessions at the IP/MPLS edge by ensuring continuous network operations and by preserving DHCP and RADIUS authentication server mappings during software upgrades and new service deployments. They also provide the resiliency service providers need to meet critical Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This increased availability and resiliency minimizes network downtime, which in turn enables service providers to extend revenue and reduce operational costs.
Cisco Intelligent Services Gateway (ISG), first available in Release 12.2(28)SB, is a Cisco IOS Software feature set that provides a structured framework in which edge access devices can deliver flexible and scalable services to subscribers. Release 12.2(31)SB2 extends Cisco ISG enhancements, including prepaid and postpaid accounting, DHCP proxy control, RADIUS proxy enhancements, and AAA high availability support for local PPPoX sessions, to the Cisco 10000 Series Router. Release 12.2(31)SB2 also introduces PPPoE session limiting on inner QinQ VLANs for the Cisco 10000 Series, 7200 Series, and 7301 Routers.
Powerful new hardware support in Release 12.2(31)SB2 includes the Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 3 (PRE-3), Cisco 7200 Series Network Processing Engine G2 (NPE G2), Cisco 7304 Router Network Services Engine-150 (NSE-150), and the Cisco 7200 Series Port Adapter Jacket Card.
Like all Release 12.2SB releases, Release 12.2(31)SB2 integrates innovations that span multiple technology areas, including Cisco IOS Broadband, High Availability, Quality of Service, MPLS and VPNs, IP Services, IP Multicast and Routing, and Infrastructure and Embedded Management.

Table 2. Release 12.2(31)SB2 Highlights

Hardware

Broadband

Quality of Service

MPLS and VPNs

• Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 3 (PRE-3)
• Cisco 7200VXR Series NPE-G2 Network Processing Engine
• Cisco 7304 NSE-150 Network Services Engine
• Cisco 7200 Series Port Adapter Jacket Card
• Cisco 1-Port OC-3/STM-1 Packet-Over-SONET Port Adapter
• Locally Terminated Broadband High Availability (SSO/ISSU)
• Cisco Intelligent Services Gateway (ISG) Enhancements
• MQC-Multi-Level Priority Queue
• QoS: Percentage-Based Shaping
• VLAN Tag Based QoS
• MQC-Distribution of Remaining Bandwidth via Ratio
• CBQOSMIB Index Persistency
• Cisco IOS MPLS Embedded Management
• IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE) over MPLS for Cisco 10000 Series Routers

IP Addressing and Services

IP Multicast and Routing

Cisco IOS Infrastructure and Embedded Management

• DHCP Stateful Switch Over (SSO) and In Service Software Upgrade (ISSU)
• DHCP Relay option 82 per interface support
• Enhanced Object Tracking List
• Multicast MVPN Inter-AS
• Multicast MVPN Extranet
• Border Gateway Protocol Support for Next-Hop Address Tracking
• Border Gateway Protocol Support for Fast Peering Session Deactivation
• BGP Support for TCP Path MTU Discovery per Session
• BGP Multicast Inter-AS (IAS) VPN
• Border Gateway Protocol Support for Selective Address Tracking
• OSPF Graceful Restart Functionality per RFC 3623
• NetFlow BGP Next Hop
• Flexible NetFlow
• Control Plane Policing
• Control Plane Policing-Time Based
• TCP Enhancements
• Lawful Intercept Support

3.1) Hardware

3.1.1) Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 3 (PRE-3)

Designed to meet new requirements from service providers for high-capacity aggregation with sophisticated IP services, the Cisco 10000 Series PRE-3 uses the latest generation of the Cisco patented Parallel Express Forwarding (PXF) technology. (See Figure 21.) PXF is a parallel multiprocessor architecture that helps enable deployment of multiple IP services while maintaining peak performance throughput. The PRE-3 also introduces the Hierarchal Queuing Framework (HQF) to the Cisco 10000 Series Routers. The HQF implementation on the PRE-3 allows three levels (class, logical, and physical) of scheduling for applying Quality of Service (QoS) queuing and shaping.

Figure 21. Cisco 10000 Series Performance Routing Engine 3

The Cisco 10000 Series PRE-3 can be used to deliver triple-play services for both ATM and Ethernet transport networks. A service provider can use the flexibility and performance of the PRE-3 to simultaneously deliver data, voice, and video to both residential and business customers.
Benefits
The Cisco 10000 Series PRE-3 delivers both scalability improvements and new features:

• Provides up to 9.5 million packets per second (Mpps) of processing power for increased throughput

• Implements Hierarchal Queuing Framework (HQF) for up to three levels of service granularity

• Supports connection between the PRE-3 and the 51-Gbps chassis backplane

– 3.2 Gbps transmit and receive to each full-height line card

– 1.6 Gbps transmit and receive to each half-height line card

• Includes 800-MHz route processor with 2-GB ECC protected DRAM for new features and scalability improvements

• Delivers enhanced storage options for larger and more complex configurations

– 14 MB Nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)

– 128 MB Compact Flash-fixed internal memory

– 512 MB Compact Flash-front panel removable memory

• Uses Cisco patented PXF technology to provide maximum IP service flexibility without performance impact

• Supports processor redundancy-helping enable 99.999-percent network uptime

Hardware

Routers

Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps133/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Greg Smith ( gregmsmi@cisco.com)

3.1.2) Cisco 7200VXR Series NPE-G2 Network Processing Engine

Increasingly, business applications and services affect aggregation requirements and router-integrated services across the WAN and Metropolitan-Area Network (MAN)-in both the branch office and headquarters. Consequently, to continue to meet the increasing need for performance for integrated services at the branch office and headquarters and to maintain exceptional value and flexibility, Cisco Systems delivers the Cisco 7200VXR NPE-G2 Network Processing Engine. (See Figure 22.) The Cisco NPE-G2 addresses the demand for performance and flexibility by further increasing its processing capacity and enabling the latest Cisco IOS Software features.

Figure 22. Cisco 7200VXR Series NPE-G2

Benefits
Cisco 7200VXR Series NPE-G2 benefits include:

• Provides double the performance compared to the Cisco 7200VXR NPE-G1-up to 2 million pps in Cisco Express Forwarding

• Offers three 10/100/1000-Mbps copper Ethernet ports and optical ports that do not consume any bandwidth points

• Provides one dedicated 10/100-Mbps copper Ethernet port for management

• Provides two USB ports for general storage and security token storage

• Offers 1 GB of DRAM memory by default; Optional upgrade to 2 GB DRAM

• Eliminates the requirement for an I/O controller

• Extends the use of the available I/O slot for a single port adapter or a Cisco 7200VXR VPN Service Adapter (part number C7200-VSA)

• Offers greatly improved price/performance ratio

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7204VXR Router
• Cisco 7206VXR Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps341/

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Young Bae ( ybae@cisco.com)

3.1.3) Cisco 7304 NSE-150 Network Services Engine

In order to provide both a rich feature set and a forwarding rate of up to 3.5 Mpps, the Cisco 7304 NSE-150 Network Services Engine utilizes PXF technology to deliver hardware-accelerated network services and a Route Processor (RP)-based 800MHz microprocessor to leverage various multiprotocol capabilities such as IPX, AppleTalk, DLSw, SNASw, and other features in Cisco IOS Software. (See Figure 23.)

Figure 23. Cisco 7304 NSE-150 Network Services Engine

Benefits
Cisco 7304 NSE-150 Network Services Engine benefits include:

• Robust Cisco IOS Software support via the route processor

• Hardware acceleration for critical Cisco IOS Software features

• Optional redundant processor support provides the industry's most compact, fully redundant, high-availability solution, improving network resiliency, management, and costs

• Enhanced performance

– 4 Gbps bidirectional throughput supported through NSE-150 for line cards

– 800Mhz microprocessor allows non-PXF accelerated features to run at 800 Kpps

– Provides 3.5 Mpps CEF forwarding performance for PXF accelerated services

• 4 fixed on-board GE ports-maximizes LAN connectivity and performance without consuming slot capacity

• 2 GB of SDRAM-provides increased scalability on features

• Modularity provides maximum investment protection and flexibility by enabling upgrades to the NSE-150 network services engine or future Cisco 7304 processors

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps352/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Sheryl Zhang ( shezhang@cisco.com)

3.1.4) Cisco 7200 Series Port Adapter Jacket Card

Increasingly, business applications and services affect aggregation requirements and router-integrated services across the WAN and Metropolitan-Area Network (MAN)-in both the branch and headquarters. Consequently, to continue to meet the increasing needs of flexibility, capacity, and performance and maintain exceptional value and flexibility, Cisco Systems ® introduces the Cisco ® 7200VXR Series Port Adapter Jacket Card (see Figure 24). The jacket card addresses the demand for additional slot density and flexibility by enabling the I/O slot to hold a single port adapter for additional capacity on systems with the Cisco 7200VXR.

Figure 24. Cisco 7200 Series Port Adapter Jacket Card

Benefits
The Cisco 7200 Series Port Adapter Jacket Card offers following benefits:

• Provides one additional slot for single port adapter (selected port/service adapters)

• Allows a high-bandwidth port adapter-such as the hardware based security encryption module SA-VAM2+ and the 2-Port Packet/SONET OC3c/STM1 Port Adapter-to be moved onto a dedicated Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus that the Cisco NPE-G1 or NPE-G2 provides

• Reduces PCI contention among other port adapters

• Provides a cost-effective way to increase the slot density in parallel to the increased switching capacity of the newest engine of the platform-the Cisco NPE-G2

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7204VXR Router
• Cisco 7206VXR Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps341/

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps341/products_qanda_item0900aecd8045055e.shtml

Product Management Contact
Young Bae ( ybae@cisco.com)

3.1.5) Cisco 1-Port OC-3/STM-1 Packet-Over-SONET Port Adapter

The Cisco 1-Port OC-3/STM-1 POS Port Adapter meets the need for increased router features and performance. (See Figure 25.) The Cisco 1-Port OC-3/STM-1 POS Port Adapter is ideal for service providers or large Enterprises that need to deploy line-rate OC-3/STM-1 connectivity with choice of optics.

Figure 25. Cisco 1-Port OC-3/STM-1 Packet-Over-SONET Port Adapter

Benefits
The Cisco 1-Port OC-3/STM-1 POS Port Adapter combines superior performance and an innovative design to provide the following benefits:

• Line-rate performance

• Automatic Protection Switching (APS) failover between cards

• Modular, pluggable optics; three types are available: Multimode (MM), Single-Mode Intermediate Reach (IR1), and Single-Mode Long Reach (LR1)

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7204VXR Router
• Cisco 7206VXR Router
• Cisco 7301 Router
• Cisco 7304 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/modules/ps2033/ps2843/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Sheryl Zhang ( shezhang@cisco.com)

3.2) Broadband

3.2.1) Locally Terminated Broadband High Availability (SSO/ISSU)

Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2 introduces Cisco Stateful Switchover (SSO) and Cisco In Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) support for locally terminated Broadband features, including PPPoEoE, PPPoA, PPPoEoA, PPPoEoVLAN, PPPoEoQinQ, AAA, and DHCP. These enhancements provide seamless Route Processor (RP) switchover for common Broadband services deployed on a Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS).
Cisco SSO protects from hardware or software faults on an active RP by synchronizing Layer 2 protocol and state information with a standby RP. This ensures zero interruption of L2 connections in the event of a switchover. The SSO feature takes advantage of RP redundancy by establishing one of the RPs as the active processor while the other RP is designated as the standby processor, and then synchronizing critical state information between them. Following an initial synchronization between the two processors, SSO dynamically maintains RP state information between them. A switchover from the active to the standby processor occurs when the active RP fails, is removed from the networking device, or is manually taken down for maintenance. Since the standby RP contains L2 protocol state information, it can communicate to its neighboring routers after it takes control and becomes the active RP. At this time, packet forwarding continues while route convergence is completed on the newly active RP.
Cisco ISSU is the industry's first, true, in-service upgrade solution for the Broadband edge, mitigating network downtime due to software upgrades and maintenance activities. Cisco IOS ISSU solution allows customers to upgrade or downgrade complete Cisco IOS Software images with no impact to the control plane and minimal impact to packet forwarding activities of the system. ISSU leverages Cisco's proven Nonstop Forwarding (NSF) with SSO technology and implements powerful message versioning capabilities in Cisco IOS Software to enable true in-service software upgrades across Cisco IOS Software release versions. To perform an in-service upgrade, the standby RP in a dual-RP based platform is first loaded with the desired Cisco IOS Software release. The standby RP then comes up as a hot standby with an upgraded version of the software, and a switchover is performed to transfer control to it and run the upgraded image.
During the ISSU procedure, supported SSO protocols/features maintain their session states and as a result there is no disruption of the L2 protocol sessions. Furthermore, Cisco NSF technology is used to continue packet forwarding during the software upgrade procedure while the routing information is re-created on the newly active RP. The net result is a seamless software upgrade for an IP/MPLS provider edge router with no impact to L2 protocol sessions and minimal impact to packet forwarding.
PPPoA and PPPoE High Availability (SSO/ISSU)
Up to 32K PPPoA or PPPoE subscriber sessions can be terminated on Cisco 10000 Series Router. All sessions are terminated on the active RP, but complete state information for each session is communicated to the standby RP in individual or bulk-sync messages. If the active processor should then fail or be reloaded, all PPP subscribers will immediately be switched over to the standby processor in less than 3 seconds. During this entire process ATM VCs or Ethernet VLANs are maintained throughout the switchover. In addition, features configured on top of PPP such as ACLs and QoS configurations are retained as well.
AAA High Availability (SSO/ISSU)
For PPP Sessions which use AAA for adding session attributes, full HA support is available as well. Any subscriber attributes passed down from a AAA server to be applied to a session will be copied to the standby processor as well. If a failover occurs, the standby processor will have all per-subscriber configurations for each PPP session.
DHCP High Availability (SSO/ISSU)
DHCP Server functionality and DHCP-relay functionality both introduce High Availability in Release 12.2(31)SB2 as well. When either DHCP Server or DHCP-Relay are used to distribute IP addresses to clients over RBE or PPP, copies of all DHCP bindings are copied to the standby route processor. After a failover, all IP sessions will still have access with no noticeable downtime.
Benefits
Locally terminated Broadband High Availability enhancements provide a route-processor protection solution with the following benefits:

Automatic fault detection and seamless recovery-Enables the persistence of PPP sessions during an RP switchover. The control plane recovers gracefully minimizing network churn.

Reduced costs-Decreases downtime expenses, including SLA penalties, lost revenue opportunities, user and administrative productivity costs, and emergency network expenditures.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6549/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ben Strickland ( bstrickl@cisco.com)

3.2.2) Cisco Intelligent Services Gateway Enhancements

Cisco Intelligent Services Gateway (ISG) is a Cisco IOS Software feature set that provides a structured framework in which edge access devices can deliver flexible and scalable services to subscribers. Because almost any IP device can be voice, video, or data enabled, service providers are delivering many services to many screens over converged fixed and mobile networks. Today's consumers of data, voice and video (triple-play) services demand a unified, high-performance experience at home, at work, and on the move.
Cisco ISG controls subscriber access at the network edge to enable the provisioning and management of broadband networks for a broad range of access and edge technologies, subscriber numbers and service types, effectively linking subscriber service requests with distributed policy control to help ensure a high quality of experience for the emerging "connected life."
Cisco ISG provides advanced subscriber awareness, resource provisioning, and access control capabilities. Cisco ISG distributes service intelligence to the Internet Protocol (IP) network edge, which simplifies service creation and speeds delivery of advanced IP services over Cisco IP Next-Generation Networks (IP NGNs).
Cisco ISG handles the following key aspects of subscriber management:

• Subscriber identification

• Service and policy determination

• Session policy enforcement

• Session life-cycle management

• Accounting for access and service usage

• Session state monitoring

Cisco ISG also provides a dynamic element to the provisioning and activation of services through control policies and Change of Authorization (CoA) extensions to the RADIUS protocol. This element allows for "zero-touch" provisioning of an individual subscriber experience, all without impacting service to the end-user.
A Cisco ISG-enabled device may be deployed at the access edge and service edge of a network and is applicable to a range of subscriber network environments, such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), Public Wireless LAN (PWLAN), and mobile wireless. Moreover, Cisco ISG has been designed to accommodate a flexible distribution of subscriber and service information within a given solution. Figure 26 shows a typical DSL deployment for which service profile data may be stored in an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) database and retrieved and cached on demand.

Figure 26. Sample Topology for a DSL Deployment

It is also possible to define services directly on a Cisco ISG-enabled device. In all cases, service activation may be triggered as a result of a locally defined control policy, user profile associations, or CoA commands from an external policy server or portal application.
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2 delivers the following new and extended Cisco ISG functionality on the Cisco 10000 Series Routers:

• Postpaid Accounting

• Prepaid Accounting

Cisco ISG prepaid billing support allows a Cisco ISG-enabled device to check a subscriber's available credit to determine whether to allow the subscriber access to a service and how long the access can last. Cisco ISG prepaid billing works on a repeated reauthorization model in which fragments of credit, called quotas, are allotted by a prepaid billing server. Quotas can be either time-based or volume-based.

• Tariff Switching

Cisco ISG postpaid tariff switching allows changes in tariffs during the lifetime of a connection. This feature applies to time-based or volume-based postpaid sessions in which the tariff changes at certain times of the day.

• Session & Flow Monitoring

Session & Flow monitoring allows an administrator to monitor a session or flow continuously. Status can be observed continuously at specified intervals instead of typing CLI commands repeatedly.

• DHCP Proxy

When Cisco ISG is in the path of DHCP requests, Cisco ISG can influence the IP address pool and DHCP server that are used to assign subscriber IP addresses.

• Time, Volume and Duration Policy Triggers for prepaid and postpaid services.

• MAC/IP/EAP Authentication

• Layer 2 IP Sessions

Cisco ISG supports the following types of Layer 2 access: PPP, PPPoE, PPPoA, L2TP, L2F

• Layer 3 IP Sessions

Cisco ISG supports 3 types of Layer 3 sessions: IP Sessions, IP interface Sessions, and IP Subnet Sessions

• VRF Transfer

Cisco ISG VRF transfer enables a Cisco ISG subscriber session to move from one Virtual Routing or Forwarding (VRF) instance to another following selection of a new primary service. Once a session has transferred into the target VRF, all upstream and downstream packets are routed using the new routing table, and all subscriber features operate in the context of the new VRF.

Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2 also introduces the following new functionality on the Cisco 7200 Series Routers, Cisco 7301 Router, and Cisco 10000 Series Routers:

• PPPoE Session Limiting on inner QinQ VLANs

• PPPoE sessions per VLAN will now be able to be limited both on the outer VLAN and inner VLAN tags in QinQ deployments.

Benefits

Advanced Subscriber Management-Cisco ISG allows for numerous methods of identifying subscribers with the concept of the multi-dimensional id.

Broad Range of Ingress and Egress Methods-Cisco ISG allows a wide range of Layer 2 and Layer 3 access methods to be utilized.

Advanced Policy and User LifeCycle Management-Manage users or allow users to manage themselves. With CoA, user sessions can be managed dynamically in real time in ways never before possible.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Router
• Cisco 7301 Router
• Cisco 10000 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6588/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ben Strickland ( bstrickl@cisco.com)

3.3) Quality of Service

3.3.1) MQC-Multi-Level Priority Queue

In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2, the existing Low-Latency Queuing (LLQ) functionality is enhanced with the introduction of Multi-level Priority Queuing (MPQ). This extension brings a second priority queue for latency-sensitive traffic.
Each priority queue has an associated priority level. Traffic in the first priority level is served before the traffic in the second priority level. Non-priority traffic is served after all priority packets. MPQ enables differentiation between two types of traffic with strict latency requirements. As an example, a QoS policy using MPQ can provide isolation between real-time voice and real-time video traffic while still meeting their latency targets.
Benefits
Enables greater differentiation between different types of real-time traffic. Specially, applicable to networks carrying real-time voice and video traffic simultaneously.
Couples with policing mechanisms to guarantee strict priority while preventing the starvation of other priority and non-priority traffic.
Part of Cisco Modular QoS CLI (MQC) configuration framework.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6558/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Bertrand Duvivier ( bduvivie@cisco.com)

3.3.2) QoS: Percentage-Based Shaping

The QoS: Percentage-Based Shaping feature allows you to configure traffic policing and traffic shaping on the basis of a percentage of bandwidth available on the interface. This feature also allows you to specify the committed (conform) burst (bc) size and the excess(peak) burst (be) size (used for configuring traffic shaping) in milliseconds (ms). Configuring traffic shaping in this manner enables you to use the same policy map for multiple interfaces with differing amounts of bandwidth. Bandwidth does not have to be recalculated for each interface or a different policy map configured for each type of interface.
Benefits
Increased flexibility and ease-of-use
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6558/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Bertrand Duvivier ( bduvivie@cisco.com)

3.3.3) VLAN Tag Based QoS

When a VPN customer has many sites connecting to a single MPLS PE device and, more specifically, VLANs originating from the same GigE interface, the VLAN Tag Based QoS feature enables a single QoS policy to be applied to a group of VLANs. The alternative mechanism would have forced the carrier to apply a discrete QoS service policy to each and every VLAN/subinterface. Specific VLANs are identified by their VLAN ID. Each VLAN ID is placed into a VLAN group with a unique identifier. All VLANs in the group are subject to the QoS service policies applied to that group.
Benefits

• Allows application of a QoS policymap to a group of VLANs. The total bandwidth of all the VLANs in the group can be shaped and policed.

• Enables business services to customers using more than one VLAN per connection.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6558/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Bertrand Duvivier ( bduvivie@cisco.com)

3.3.4) MQC-Distribution of Remaining Bandwidth via Ratio

The MQC-Distribution of Remaining Bandwidth via Ratio feature enables the assignment of a weight to a queue to optimize scheduling of uncommitted bandwidth on an interface or subinterface. Without this feature, the unassigned bandwidth on an interface is equally distributed among all defined queues.
The MQC-Distribution of Remaining Bandwidth via Ratio feature provides a more granular alternative to assigning the remaining bandwidth via a ratio compared to assigning a weight via the existing percentage feature. The feature also provides a method of "oversubscribing" a Gigabit Ethernet interface, because the individual ratios do not have to add up to a given maximum sum.
Benefits

• Allows redistribution of unused bandwidth. When customers are using less than there allotted bandwidth, other customers can utilize the extra capacity. The unused bandwidth is shared fairly as defined by the ratio.

• Enables greater oversubscription for provisioning more customers per Cisco 10000 Series Router while still ensuring minimum bandwidth guarantees. Allows greater utilization of ports without compromising committed traffic

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Routers

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6558/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Bertrand Duvivier ( bduvivie@cisco.com)

3.3.5) CBQOSMIB Index Persistency

The Class-based QoS MIB Index Persistency feature in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2 solves the following Class-based QoS MIB indexing problem: previously, Class-based QoS MIB indexes that pointed to CBQoSMIB variables changed each time the system rebooted. This required that network management applications frequently reread the CBQoSMIB to obtain accurate statistical and configuration information. The following three Class-based QoS MIB indexes changed each time the system rebooted:

• cbQosConfigIndex

• cbQosObjectstIndex

• cbQosPolicyIndex

Prior to Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2, each Modular QoS Configuration (MQC) and policy map was indexed by its own separate cbQosObjectstIndex instance, which resulted in degraded CPU performance when extensive policy maps were in use. The Class-based QoS MIB Index Persistency feature solves this problem with the following, new Class-based QoS MIB index scheme:

• Does not use cbQosObjectstIndex instances to index policy maps or Modular QoS Configurations (MQCs). Policy maps are indexed directly by the cbQosPolicyIndex. Modular QoS Configurations (MQCs) are indexed by instances of cbQosConfigIndex.

• Maintains two separate indexes:

– Service Policy Index

– QoS Configuration Index

Benefits

• Significantly reduces to the number of cbQosObjectsIndex instances

• Reduces the complexity of configuring and correlating statistics objects, making it easy for network management application to gather accurate information

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Router
• Cisco 7304-NPE-G100 Router
• Cisco 7304-NSE-100 Router
• Cisco 10000 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6558/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Bertrand Duvivier ( bduvivie@cisco.com)

3.4) MPLS and VPNS

3.4.1) Cisco IOS MPLS Embedded Management

Cisco IOS MPLS embedded management offers standards-based management capabilities for IP/MPLS networks. Cisco's industry leading MPLS management feature portfolio offers network operators detailed MPLS resource monitoring and MPLS connectivity troubleshooting capabilities, which include both MPLS MIBs and MPLS OAM features:

• MPLS MIBs:

– MPLS LSR MIB

– MPLS LDP MIB

– MPLS TE MIB

– MPLS VPN MIB

• MPLS OAM:

– MPLS LSP Ping and Trace

– MPLS Multi-path (ECMP) Tree Trace

The embedded management capabilities for MPLS can be used in various usage scenarios ranging from manual CLI-based trouble shooting to fully automated trouble shooting systems. In addition to the MPLS MIBs and OAM features, Cisco also offers complementary management tools, which can be integrated with the embedded MPLS management capabilities:

• Auto IP SLA-Automatic execution of MPLS OAM probes.

• Cisco MPLS Diagnostics Expert (MDE)-Unique Cisco management application for automated MPLS troubleshooting, which leverages embedded MPLS management capabilities.

Depending on the level of automation and integration needed, an operator may decide to only leverage MPLS OAM capabilities manually via CLI access or to leverage Cisco's Auto IP SLA and MDE solution to deploy a fully automated MPLS management system architecture. (See Figure 27.)

Figure 27. Cisco IOS MPLS Embedded Management

Benefits
Key benefits of Cisco's MPLS embedded management features are:

Enables enhanced MPLS resource monitoring-MPLS MIB modules provide standard SNMP access to a wide variety of MPLS-specific resources supported on Label Switched Routers (LSR), including MPLS label forwarding and LDP session information. Existing SNMP-based management applications can be configured to retrieve and collect MPLS-specific management information via the new MPLS MIB modules.

Increases operational efficiency-MPLS OAM tools, such as LSP Ping and LSP Trace, enable fast detection and isolation of complex MPLS connectivity problems, which improves trouble resolution time and will help reducing network downtime.

Provides a comprehensive solution for addressing MPLS network and service availability-Cisco's MPLS embedded management capabilities, together with Cisco's Auto IP SLA automation and automated trouble resolution capabilities via the Cisco MPLS Diagnostics Expert (MDE), provide a comprehensive end-to-end solution for MPLS network monitoring and trouble resolution.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Router
• Cisco 10000 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guide09186a008063d009.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guide09186a0080528450.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6755/index.html

Product Management Contact

• Harmen van der Linde (havander@cisco.com), MPLS Embedded Management

• Ernie Mikulic (emikulic@cisco.com), Cisco Auto IP SLA

• Stephen Speirs (sspeirs@cisco.com), Cisco MPLS Diagnostics Expert (MDE)

3.4.2) IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE) over MPLS for Cisco 10000 Series Router

The Cisco implementation of IPv6 provider edge router over MPLS is referred to as Cisco 6PE and enables IPv6 sites to communicate with each other over an MPLS IPv4 core network using MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs). This feature relies on multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) extensions in the IPv4 network configuration on the Provider Edge (PE) router to exchange IPv6 reachability information in addition to an MPLS label for each IPv6 address prefix to be advertised. Edge routers are configured to be dual stack running both IPv4 and IPv6, and use the IPv4 mapped IPv6 address for IPv6 prefix reachability exchange. (See Figure 28.)
6PE has been proposed at the IETF under draft-ooms-v6ops-bgp-tunnel
6PE was available in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(28)SB for the Cisco 7200, 7301, and 7304 Routers; Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2 adds 6PE support for the Cisco 10000 Series Routers.

Figure 28. IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE) over MPLS

Benefits
6PE allows IPv6 to be deployed over existing MPLS Multiservice infrastructure with marginal operational impact/cost /risk. Key benefits for 6PE include:

• IPv4 or MPLS Core Infrastructure is IPv6-unaware

• Cisco 10000 Series Router configured as PEs are updated to support Dual Stack/6PE

• IPv6 reachability exchanged among 6PEs via iBGP (MP-BGP)

• IPv6 packets transported from 6PE to 6PE inside MPLS

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6553/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5187/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00801d65ed.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps5187/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00801d6636.html

Product Management Contact
Patrick Grossetete ( pgrosset@cisco.com)

3.5) IP Addressing and Services

3.5.1) DHCP Stateful Switch Over (SSO) and In Service Software Upgrade (ISSU)

In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(31)SB2, the following DHCP subsystems support Stateful Switch Over (SSO) and In Service Software Upgrade (ISSU): DHCP server, DHCP relay on unnumbered interfaces, DHCP proxy and On Demand Address Pool (ODAP). In all cases, there is no disruption in DHCP service during a Route Processor (RP) switchover.
The Cisco IOS DHCP server maintains leases for IP addresses. The IP addresses leases are replicated to the Standby RP to maintain DHCP server operations during an RP switchover.
Cisco IOS DHCP relay can be enabled on unnumbered interfaces. What is unique with unnumbered interfaces requiring additional support from DHCP is the need to add host routes for the DHCP clients which have been serviced from the unnumbered interface. These host routes allow IP packets destined to the DHCP clients to be transmitted out the correct (unnumbered) interface instead of the numbered interface. Thus, when the DHCP relay is operating on an unnumbered interface, it must maintain dynamic state for each DHCP client. When the unnumbered DHCP relay is deployed on a redundant system, these dynamic states are replicated so that the DHCP clients can continue to be serviced (ie: have IP connectivity via the host route and able to renew the lease) following a switchover.
The Cisco IOS DHCP proxy function maintains DHCP client leases on behalf of PPP clients. As the DHCP client leases are replicated on the Standby, DHCP proxy operations are uninterrupted at switchover time.
Cisco IOS ODAP is based on DHCP and designed to efficiently allocate and centralize management of IP addresses. The Cisco IOS ODAP feature allows a DHCP server to dynamically resize its IP address pools based on address utilization, so no single DHCP server can hold up excessive unassigned IP addresses. Cisco IOS ODAP consists of one or more clients, also known as ODAP managers, and a subnet allocation server. The operation is similar to DHCP, but ODAP allocates subnets instead of IP addresses. For allowing the ODAP operations to be maintained when a switchover is occurring, the subnet allocations made by the subnet allocation server and ODAP manager are now replicated by the standby.
Benefits
DHCP operations are uninterrupted by a route processor switchover.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6600/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6350/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080444bf2.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Benoit Lourdelet ( blourdel@cisco.com)

3.5.2) DHCP Relay Option 82 Per Interface Support

Automatic DHCP address allocation is typically based on an IP address, whether it is the gateway IP address or the incoming interface IP address. Mainly in ISP networks, it is necessary to use additional information to further determine which IP addresses to allocate. By using the Relay Agent Information Option, the Cisco IOS Relay Agent can include additional information about itself when forwarding client-originated DHCP packets to a DHCP server. It is also possible to manipulate or check the content of an already present Option 82 content.
Addressing the ISP needs, the above mentioned capability can now be configured at an interface level, dramatically increasing the versatility of the solution. Typically it enables the aggregation of several DHCP services with different Option 82 management policies on the same router. (See Figure 29.)

Figure 29. DHCP Relay Option 82 Per Interface Support

Benefits
Allows for better router resource utilization by aggregating several service types on the same router.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6600/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6350/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080444bf2.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Benoit Lourdelet ( blourdel@cisco.com)

3.5.3) Enhanced Object Tracking List

The Enhanced Object Tracking feature provides complete separation between the objects to be tracked and the action to be taken by a client when a tracked object changes. Thus, several clients such as HSRP, VRRP, or GLPB can register their interest with the tracking process, track the same object, and each take different action when the object changes.
Each tracked object is identified by a unique number that is specified on the tracking Command-Line Interface (CLI). Client processes use this number to track a specific object.
The tracking process periodically polls the tracked objects and notes any change of value. The changes in the tracked object are communicated to interested client processes, either immediately or after a specified delay. The object values are reported as either up or down.
In this release, the tracking capabilities have been enhanced to enable the configuration of a combination of tracked objects in a list, and a flexible method of combining objects using Boolean logic. The enhancements introduced the following capabilities:

• Threshold-The tracked list can be configured to use a weight or percentage threshold to measure the state of the list. Each object in a tracked list can be assigned a threshold weight. The state of the tracked list is determined by whether or not the threshold has been met.

• Boolean "and" function-When a tracked list has been assigned a Boolean "and" function, it means that each object defined within a subset must be in an up state so that the tracked object can become up.

• Boolean "or" function-When the tracked list has been assigned a Boolean "or" function, it means that at least one object defined within a subset must be in an up state so that the tracked object can become up.

Benefits

• Increases the availability and speed of recovery of a router system

• Decreases outages and their duration

• Provides a scalable solution that allows processes such as HSRP, GLBP or VRRP to track objects individually or a list of objects

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6600/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Benoit Lourdelet ( blourdel@cisco.com)

3.6) IP Multicast and Routing

3.6.1) Multicast MVPN Inter-AS

Multicast VPN (MVPN) technology is a method to dynamically provide multicast information across an MPLS enabled network. It is simple to set up, highly scalable, and has minimal administrative overhead. The MVPN architecture introduces an additional set of protocols and procedures that help enable services to support multicast traffic in a VPN. It allows for the transport of a customer's IP Multicast traffic across a customer's VPN backbone, and it is integrated transparently with the Cisco IOS Unicast MPLS VPN solution. It allows a service provider to offer multicast services to its VPN customers in addition to its current Unicast VPN offering. The capability allows transparent connection of multiple multicast sites to be mapped and transported across common multicast tree's built across the MPLS core network.
The Interautonomous System (Inter-AS) feature allows two provider-edge routers to communicate with MVPN across autonomous systems. Support for the Multicast VPN feature can be configured on a VRF router, to enable forwarding of Multicast VPN traffic from one site of a VPN Red in Autonomous System 1 to another site of the VPN Red in Autonomous System 2. Using the Multicast Distribution Tree (MDT) autonomous system, provider-edge routers in different autonomous systems are able to learn about each others' existence and join each other. As defined in the IETF standards all 3 options for Inter-AS MPLS VPN is supported with the Inter-AS MVPN. (See Figure 30.)
The Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) vector is needed for Inter-AS to function properly and allows devices in different AS's to be aware or find the origin of a route used for the RPF check. This is done by adding additional information in the PIM join packet, the intermediate routers are able to select a RPF interface by doing a direct lookup in a special BGP MDT table. The BGP MDT table is used only to set up the MDT tunnel. It is not used for the VPN traffic encapsulated in the MDT tunnel. For intermediate routers that do not run BGP, the RPF vector is used to find the RPF interface.

Figure 30. Diagram of MVPN Inter-AS: PIM Join Sent from PE1 Across AS's to PE1

Benefits

• Scalable and efficient method to transport and replicate customer multicast information across multiple BGP AS's in an Inter-AS Layer 3 MPLS VPN network

• Efficient support of all 3 inter-AS connection options:

– Back to Back ASBR PE's

– ASBR's exchanging VPNv4 routes

– VPNv4 Routes via Multi-Hop MP-eBGP

• Integrated transparently with unicast MPLS VPN services

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6552/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk828/technologies_white_paper0900aecd802aea84.shtml

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ritesh Mukherjee ( ritmukhe@cisco.com)

3.6.2) Multicast MVPN Extranet

A new capability to allow extranet capabilities in MVPN is now available. Extranet allows VPN closed user groups to share information and common multicast information to be distributed across multiple VPN customers.
An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. Extranet is a VPN connecting the corporate site or sites to external business partners or suppliers, to securely share part of a business's information or operations among them. MPLS VPNs inherently provide security, ensuring that users access only appropriate information. The MPLS VPN Extranet service offers users unicast connectivity without comprising the integrity of their corporate data. Multicast VPN Extranet extends this service offering to include multicast connectivity to the extranet community of interest. It allows service providers to offer the next generation of flexible extranet services, helping to enable business partnerships between different Enterprises.
The Multicast VPN Extranet feature allows service providers to source multicast content from VPN Green into VPN Red. (See Figure 31.)

Figure 31. Diagram of Two Extranet Scenario's with Ingress and Egress Edge Router Packet Replication Across VPN's

Benefits

• Scalable and efficient method to transport and replicate customer multicast information across an MPLS network between different VPN's

• Extranet MVPN solves business needs

– Efficient content distribution between Enterprises

– Efficient sharing of multicast resources with external or business partners

– Efficient content distribution from service providers or content provider to its different VPN customers

• Integrated transparently with unicast MPLS VPN services

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6552/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk828/technologies_white_paper0900aecd802aea84.shtml

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Ritesh Mukherjee ( ritmukhe@cisco.com)

3.6.3) Border Gateway Protocol Support for Next-Hop Address Tracking

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Next-Hop Address Tracking allows BGP to converge quickly when a path to a next-hop address changes. (See Figure 32.) BGP speaker A learns routes from another BGP speaker B while the next-hop address for routes may be different from BGP speaker B. By tracking the next-hop address, BGP speaker A converges all routes associated with the next-hop addressed by speaker B very quickly.
An address-tracking filter mechanism is used to filter notifications to the routing information base. This mechanism allows for new path selection to begin as soon as the notification regarding the change in reachability state of the next hop occurs. This results in much faster convergence of traffic to a new path and less impact to traffic flows.
All of these facts mean faster convergence, leading to improved reliability of network for users.

Figure 32. Next-Hop Tracking Speeds Convergence

Next-Hop Tracking will trigger the BGP scanner at PE-1 to run immediately on Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) convergence, so the route through PE-3 will handle traffic upon failure to PE-2.
Benefits

Minimal impact to data forwarding-By converging all routes associated with a next-hop, BGP router forwards the data along the right path to the final destination.

Improved network reliability-By quickly converging and keeping the latest routes, the impact on services is minimal.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

3.6.4) Border Gateway Protocol Support for Fast Peering Session Deactivation

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) support for Fast Peering Session Deactivation accelerates the speed at which the BGP subsystem releases a peering session. The BGP subsystem deactivates the peering session immediately upon indication that the peer is gone and eliminates an internal wait timer. This feature optimizes the software such that multiple failure detection mechanisms are linked to trigger session deactivation.
Benefits

Minimal impact to data forwarding-By deactivating a peer session, BGP converges routes quickly and forwards the data along the right path to the final destination.

Improved network reliability-By quickly converging and keeping the latest routes, the impact on services is minimal.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

3.6.5) BGP Support for TCP Path MTU Discovery per Session

BGP support for TCP path MTU discovery per session between two BGP speakers allows a BGP speaker to discover the maximum update size that the speaker should use to communicate with the other speaker. This will avoid fragmentation by any node in the network, and reassembly of fragments by a BGP speaker. The fragmentation and reassembly leads to delay in processing a message. By avoiding fragmentation and reassembly, BGP can avoid the delay in processing of messages and process updates quickly. This leads to faster convergence of routes and improved performance of the network.
Benefits

Minimal impact to data forwarding-By using appropriate packet sizes for updates, BGP speakers can converge routes quickly and forward the data along the right path to the final destination.

Improved network reliability-By avoiding reassembly of packets of a single update, a BGP speaker can avoid unnecessary CPU utilization.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

3.6.6) BGP Multicast Inter-AS (IAS) VPN

The BGP Multicast Inter-AS (IAS) VPN feature introduces the IPv4 Multicast Distribution Tree (MDT) sub-address family identifier (SAFI) in Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The MDT SAFI is a transitive multicast capable connector attribute that is defined as an IPv4 address family in BGP. The MDT SAFI is designed to support inter-Autonomous System (inter-AS) Virtual Private Network (VPN) peering sessions.
Benefits
Enables multicast sessions across inter-AS VPNs-By allowing multicast distribution tree information exchange across inter-AS VPNs, one multicast receiver from one AS VPN can join another AS VPN.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

3.6.7) Border Gateway Protocol Support for Selective Address Tracking

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Selective Address Tracking allows BGP to track a specific address such as a next hop address or a peer address using a more specific route in the routing table. Next hop tracking and fast peer session deactivations in BGP track a specific address by checking the routing table whether a route exists to reach the address. If there is a default route or a less specific prefix route in the routing table, then the check would succeed and BGP assumes that the next hop or the peer are reachable. Selective address tracking allows BGP to ignore default route or less prefix routes, and look for an address with a specific prefix length in the routing table. This feature enables next-hop tracking or fast peer session deactivation features to function more appropriately.
Benefits

Improved next-hop tracking or fast peer session deactivation in the presence of default or less specific routes-By using a specific prefix length along with a tracking address, BGP can accurately ensure the reachability of an address.

Minimal impact to data forwarding-By converging all routes associated with a next-hop or a peer, BGP router forwards the data along the right path to the final destination.

Improved network reliability-By quickly converging and keeping the latest routes, the impact on services is minimal.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

3.6.8) OSPF Graceful Restart Functionality per RFC 3623

OSPF graceful restart functionality per RFC 3623 supports nonstop forwarding enhancement to the OSPF routing protocol as described in the standard when a peer OSPF router restarts. An OSPF NSF-capable router that is reloading and attempting a graceful restart originates grace-LSAs to notify its neighbors that it will perform graceful restart within the specified amount of time or grace period. During this grace period, the neighboring OSPF routers, called helper routers, continue to announce the restarting router in their LSAs as if it were fully adjacent, as long as the network topology remains static.
Once the router comes up, it synchronizes with the neighbor router (helper router). Once it is synchronized, the router withdraws the grace-LSAs from the neighbor. If network topology changes while a router is being restarted, then the entire synchronization is required between the restarted router and its neighbors.
This process ensures that the network does not notice any changes when a router is being restarted. During this period, the traffic is being forwarded appropriately throughout the network.
Benefits

Non stop forwarding during a router restart-By limiting the knowledge of a router restart to only immediate neighbors in a network, the entire network continues to be fully functional and forward the traffic appropriately.

Improved network reliability-When a router restarts, it quickly converges with only its neighbors without disturbing the network. This quick convergence allows minimal to no impact on services.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

3.7) Embedded Management and Cisco IOS Infrastructure

3.7.1) NetFlow BGP Next Hop

The Cisco IOS NetFlow Aggregation feature summarizes NetFlow export data on a router before the data is exported to the NetFlow collector. The NetFlow BGP Next Hop Support feature provides the BGP next hop and its related aggregation scheme and provides BGP next hop information within each NetFlow record.
Benefits
Without the NetFlow BGP Next Hop Support feature, NetFlow exports only IP next hop information (which provides information for only the next router). This feature adds BGP next hop information to the data export.
The NetFlow BGP Next Hop Support feature lets you find out through which service provider the traffic is going. This functionality is useful if you have arrangements with several other service providers for fault-protected delivery of traffic. The feature lets you charge customers more per packet when traffic has a more costly destination-you can pass on some of the cost associated with expensive trans-oceanic links or charge more when traffic is sent to another ISP with which you have an expensive charge agreement.
This feature requires the NetFlow Version 9 export format for its data export.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6601/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Jean-Charles Griviaud ( jgriviau@cisco.com)

3.7.2) Flexible NetFlow

Flexible NetFlow is the next-generation in flow technology allowing optimization of the network infrastructure, reducing operation costs, improved capacity planning and security incident detection with increased NetFlow flexibility and scalability.
NetFlow has become the standard for acquiring IP operational data for many customers. Visibility into the network is an indispensable tool. In response to new requirements and pressures, network operators are finding it critical to understand how the network is behaving including:

• Application and network usage

• Network productivity and utilization of network resources

• The impact of changes to the network

• Network anomaly and security vulnerabilities

• Long term compliance, business process and audit trail

• Understand who, what, when, where, and how network traffic is flowing

Applications for NetFlow data are constantly being invented but the key applications include:

• Real-time network monitoring

• Application and user profiling

• Network planning and capacity planning

• Security incident detection and classification

• Network data warehousing, forensics and data mining

• Troubleshooting

• Accounting and billing

Cisco is now innovating flow technology to a new level beyond what has been traditionally available. Cisco IOS Flexible NetFlow is Cisco's next-generation flow technology. Flexible NetFlow provides enhanced optimization of the network infrastructure, reduces costs, and improves capacity planning and security detection beyond other flow based technologies available today.
Key Advantages to using Flexible NetFlow include:

• Flexibility, scalability, and customization of flow data

• The ability to monitor a wider range of packet information

• Enhanced network anomaly and security detection

• User configurable flow information to perform customized traffic identification and the ability to focus and monitor specific network behavior

• Convergence of multiple accounting technologies into one accounting mechanism

Flexible NetFlow has the ability to track multiple NetFlow applications simultaneously. (See Figure 33.) For example, the user can create simultaneous and separate flow data for security analysis and traffic analysis. Cisco IOS Flexible NetFlow provides enhanced security detection and or network troubleshooting by allowing customization of flow information. For example, the user can create a specific flow data to focus and analyze a particular network issue or incident. Cisco IOS Flexible NetFlow will enhance the already rich feature NetFlow capabilities allowing the tracking of information at Layer 2 for switching environments, Layer 3 and 4 for IP information and up to Layer 7 with deep packet inspection for application monitoring.

Figure 33. Flexible NetFlow Customizable Flow Monitors

Benefits

• Flexibility, Scalability, and Customization-The user has the flexibility to select specific network information to be characterized by NetFlow. User selection improves usage and the scalability of NetFlow data.

• Broad Range of Packet Tracking Options-Flexible NetFlow allows the tracking of Layer 2 though Layer 7 packet information to provide the broadest range of flow monitoring information available.

• Increased Visibility and Troubleshooting Capabilities-Flexible NetFlow allows the creation of virtual Flow Monitors to provide more visibility and troubleshooting capabilities for improved specific network behavior and incident detection.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router

Considerations
Parallel eXpress Forwarding (PXF) hardware acceleration for Flexible NetFlow is not supported on the Cisco 7304 Router.
Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6601/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Jean-Charles Griviaud ( jgriviau@cisco.com)

3.7.3) Control Plane Policing

Continuous service means preventing any cause of downtime. Downtime can result from fault conditions and also from malicious acts. Therefore protecting the network infrastructure from excessive traffic designed to cause downtime is of utmost importance.
Challenge overview:

• Denial of Service (DoS) attacks target the network infrastructure by generating IP traffic streams to the router control plane at very high rates

• The router control plane is forced to spend an inordinate amount of time, processing this malicious traffic

• Results in excessive CPU utilization and CPU resource hijacking by the hackers

The Control Plane Policing feature allows users to configure a Quality of Service (QoS) filter that manages the traffic flow of control plane packets to protect the control plane of Cisco IOS routers and switches against reconnaissance and Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. In this way, the Control Plane (CP) can help maintain packet forwarding and protocol states despite an attack or heavy traffic load on the router or switch.
Benefits

Streamlines incoming rate of traffic destined to the control plane

Protects against attacks targeted towards the network infrastructure

Easily defines global policy commands to address the aforementioned security goals using the Cisco MQC infrastructure

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Release 12.2(31)SB2 add support for the Cisco 10000 Series Routers.
Additional Information
Product Management Contact

3.7.4) Control Plane Policing-Time Based

The Control Plane Policing-Time Based feature allows for rate limiting based on Packets Per Second (PPS).
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router
• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Release 12.2(31)SB2 adds support for the Cisco 10000 Series Routers.
Additional Information
Product Management Contact

3.7.5) TCP Enhancements

3.7.5.1) TCP-Explicit Congestion Notification
The TCP Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) feature provides a method for an intermediate router to notify the end hosts of impending network congestion. It also provides enhanced support for TCP sessions associated with applications that are sensitive to delay or packet loss including Telnet, Web browsing, and transfer of audio and video data. The benefit of this feature is the reduction of delay and packet loss in data transmissions.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router

Additional Information
Product Management Contact
Rick Williams ( rwill@cisco.com)
3.7.5.2) TCP Applications Flags Enhancement
The TCP Applications Flags Enhancement feature enables the user to display (using the show tcp command) additional flags with reference to TCP applications. There are two types of flags: status and option. The status flags indicate the status of TCP connections; for example, retransmission timeouts, application closed, and synchronized (SYNC) handshakes for listen. The additional flags indicate the state of set options; for example, whether or not a Virtual Private Network (VPN) routing and forwarding (VRF) identification is set, whether or not a user is idle, and whether or not a keepalive timer is running.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router

Additional Information
Product Management Contact
Rick Williams ( rwill@cisco.com)
3.7.5.3) TCP Show Extension
The TCP Show Extension feature introduces the capability to display addresses in IP format instead of hostname format and to display the Virtual Private Network (VPN) routing and forwarding (VRF) table associated with the connection.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router

Additional Information
Product Management Contact
Rick Williams ( rwill@cisco.com)
3.7.5.4) TCP Window Scaling
The TCP Window Scaling feature adds support for the Window Scaling option in RFC 1323. A larger window size is recommended to improve TCP performance in network paths with large bandwidth, long-delay characteristics that are called Long Fat Networks (LFNs) . This TCP Window Scaling enhancement provides that support.
The window scaling extension in Cisco IOS Software expands the definition of the TCP window to
32 bits and then uses a scale factor to carry this 32-bit value in the 16-bit window field of the TCP header. The window size can increase to a scale factor of 14. Typical applications use a scale factor of 3 when deployed in LFNs.
The Cisco IOS window scaling feature complies with RFC 1323, TCP Extensions for High Performance. The maximum window size has been increased to 1,073,741,823 bytes. The larger scalable window size will allow TCP to perform better over LFNs.
Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 7200 Series Router
• Cisco 7301 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router

Additional Information
Product Management Contact
Rick Williams ( rwill@cisco.com)

3.7.6) Lawful Intercept Support

Release 12.2(31)SB2 includes support for the following Lawful Intercept functionality:

• Lawful Intercept support based on Service Independent Intercept (SII) architecture

– CISCO-USER-CONNECTION-TAP-MIB

– CISCO-TAP2-MIB AND CISCO-IP-TAP-MIB

• Radius-Based Lawful Intercept

Hardware

Routers

• CISCO-USER-CONNECTION-TAP-MIB
• Cisco 10000 Series Routers
• Cisco 7200VXR Series Routers running NPE-225, NPE-400, NPE-G1, NPE-G2
• CISCO-TAP2-MIB AND CISCO-IP-TAP-MIB
• Cisco 10000 Series Routers as of Release 12.2(28)SB
• Cisco 7200 Series Routers running NPE-225, NPE-400, NPE-G1 as of Release 12.2(28)SB6; NPE-G2 support added in Release 12.2(31)SB2
• Radius-Based Lawful Intercept
• Cisco 10000 Series Routers as of Release 12.2(28)SB
• Cisco 7200 Series Routers, Cisco 7301 Router as of Release 12.2(28)SB

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guide09186a008060dece.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guide09186a008060de94.html

http://www.cisco.com/application/pdf/en/us/guest/products/ps133/c1090/ccmigration_09186a008071ab8d.pdf

Product Management Contact
Adam Taylor ( adtaylor@cisco.com), Martina Beitat ( mbeitat@cisco.com)

4) Release 12.2(28)SB Feature Highlights

Release 12.2(28)SB delivers industry-leading Cisco IOS High Availability advancements to service provider edge aggregation networks that run the Cisco 10000 Series Router. These enhancements maximize service availability at the IP/MPLS edge by ensuring continuous network operations during software upgrades and new service deployments. They also provide the resiliency service providers need to meet critical Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This increased availability and resiliency minimizes network downtime, which in turn enables service providers to extend revenue and reduce operational costs.
Release 12.2(28)SB also lays the foundation for the next phase of Broadband subscriber and service control with the introduction of Cisco ISG, the premier policy management solution from Cisco. Cisco ISG provides dynamic control of subscriber services, including multi-dimensional identity, MPLS integration, and standards-based Change of Authorization (CoA) for push/pull service models. Release 12.2(28)SB delivers Cisco ISG functionality on the Cisco 7200 and 7301 Series Routers for IP and PPP sessions, and the Cisco 10000 Series Router for PPP sessions.
The following sections highlight some of the key software and hardware features available in Release 12.2(28)SB.

High Availability

High Availability

High Availability

IP Routing

Hardware

• Cisco IOS In-Service Software Upgrade
• MPLS Nonstop Forwarding and Stateful Switchover-MPLS LDP, MPLS VPN
• 1:1 Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cables
• Cisco IOS BGP Nonstop Routing Support with Stateful Switchover
• Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Channelized T3 Half-Height Line Card

4.1) Cisco IOS In-Service Software Upgrade

Cisco IOS In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) is the industry's first, true, In-Service upgrade solution for the IP/MPLS edge mitigating network downtime due to software upgrades and maintenance activities. Cisco IOS ISSU solution allows customers to upgrade or downgrade complete Cisco IOS Software images with no impact to the control plane and minimal impact to packet forwarding activities of the system. ISSU leverages Cisco's proven Nonstop Forwarding with Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO) technology and implements powerful message versioning capabilities in Cisco IOS Software to enable true in-service software upgrades across Cisco IOS Software release versions. To perform an in-service upgrade, the Standby Route-Processor (RP) in a dual-RP based platform is first loaded with the desired Cisco IOS Software release. The standby RP then comes up as a hot standby with an upgraded version of the software, and a switchover is performed to transfer control to it and run the upgraded image. (See Figure 34.)
During the ISSU procedure, supported SSO protocols/features maintain their session states and as a result there is no disruption of the L2 protocol sessions. Furthermore, Cisco NSF technology is used to continue packet forwarding during the software upgrade procedure while the routing information is re-created on the newly active RP. The net result is a seamless software upgrade for an IP/MPLS provider edge router with no impact to L2 protocol sessions and minimal impact to packet forwarding.
This comprehensive Cisco IOS ISSU capability addresses the entire spectrum of software upgrade needs from "applying a bug-fix or a set of bug-fixes" via Cisco IOS Software maintenance rebuild releases to "deploying new features/services" via Cisco IOS Software maintenance/feature releases. ISSU capability is further complemented with extensive tooling support and information on Cisco's feature navigator and software selection websites in order to assist customers in obtaining ISSU software version and feature compatibility information across Cisco IOS Software releases for platforms supporting ISSU.

Figure 34. Cisco IOS In-Service Software Upgrade

Benefits
Key benefits for ISSU include:

Enables rapid, non-disruptive deployment of new features/services-By preserving user sessions and minimizing packet loss during software upgrades, ISSU enables rapid, non-disruptive deployments for new features/services at IP/MPLS provider edge

Provides a comprehensive solution for addressing planned network downtime-ISSU addresses the entire spectrum of software upgrade needs from "applying bug-fixes" to "deploying new features/services" and delivers a comprehensive solution for addressing planned network downtime

Reduces operational expenses and increases operational efficiency-ISSU provides the ability to minimize and streamline planned downtime windows and enables operational process changes for software deployment that significantly decrease planned downtime effort and expenses

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6550/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Tom Cramer ( tcramer@cisco.com)

4.2) MPLS Nonstop Forwarding and Stateful Switchover-MPLS LDP, MPLS VPN

MPLS NSF/SSO enhancements extend the proven Cisco NSF/ SSO technologies for MPLS forwarding, MPLS LDP, and MPLS VPNs (including InterAS and CsC). With these new enhancements, NSF/SSO delivers seamless route processor switchover and ensures nonstop VPN services availability at the IP/MPLS provider edge. SSO protects from hardware or software faults on an active route processor by synchronizing Layer 2 protocol and state information with a standby router processor. This ensures zero interruption of L2 connections in the event of a switchover. The SSO feature takes advantage of RP redundancy by establishing one of the RPs as the active processor while the other RP is designated as the standby processor, and then synchronizing critical state information between them. Following an initial synchronization between the two processors, SSO dynamically maintains RP state information between them. A switchover from the active to the standby processor occurs when the active RP fails, is removed from the networking device, or is manually taken down for maintenance. Since the Standby RP contains L2 protocol state information, it can communicate to its neighboring routers after it takes control and becomes the active RP. At this time, packet forwarding continues while route convergence is completed on the newly active RP. This continuous forwarding technique is accomplished via the Cisco NSF feature.
Cisco NSF works with SSO to minimize the amount of time a network is unavailable to its users following a switchover. Cisco NSF helps to suppress routing flaps, thus improving network stability. Cisco NSF allows for the forwarding of data packets to continue along known routes while the routing protocol information is being restored on the newly active RP following a switchover via IETF graceful restart extensions for the routing protocols. With Cisco NSF, peer networking devices do not experience routing flaps.
The following features comprise MPLS NSF/SSO enhancements:

NSF/SSO-MPLS LDP and MPLS LDP Graceful Restart-Tthis feature works with LDP sessions between directly connected peers as well as with peers that are not directly connected (targeted sessions) and allows a router to recover during an RP switchover without losing its MPLS forwarding state and with minimal packet loss. There are two conditions where this capability is invoked:

– LDP Restart-An LDP restart occurs due to an RP failure in a redundant system. If the route processors are configured with this feature, the backup route processor retains the MPLS forwarding state and re-establishes communication with the LDP neighbors. Then the backup route processor ensures that the MPLS forwarding state is recovered.

– LDP Session Reset-An LDP session reset occurs due to an LDP session failure on an RP. The LDP session might have been interrupted due to a TCP or UDP communication problem. If the route processor is configured with this feature, the route processor associates a new session with the previously interrupted session. The LDP bindings and MPLS forwarding states are recovered when the new session is established.

NSF/SSO-MPLS VPN-this feature allows a router to recover during an RP switchover without losing its VPN prefix information and with minimal packet loss. The following VPN types are supported:

– Basic MPLS VPNs

– MPLS VPN-Carrier Supporting Carrier

– MPLS VPN-Inter-autonomous (Inter-AS) Systems

MPLS L3VPN NSF/SSO works with Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Graceful Restart, which preserves BGP sessions between BGP peers during a RP switchover. Without MPLS L3VPN NSF/SSO support, all BGP sessions (including BGP sessions on Provider Edge (PE) routers) are reset. The PE restarts all sessions, repopulates all the routes in its routing table, and then re-converges. This process can take several seconds to minutes, during which traffic is lost. With MPLS L3VPN SSO/NSF, BGP sessions restart gracefully and state information is recovered from neighbors while the line cards continue to forward VPN traffic leveraging the NSF capability.
SSO allows zero interruption in Layer 2 connectivity and works with NSF to allow continuous packet forwarding with minimal packet loss.
Benefits
MPLS NSF/SSO enhancements provide a route-processor protection solution with the following benefits:

Provides automatic fault detection and seamless recovery-MPLS NSF/SSO enhancements allow continuous forwarding for MPLS LDP and VPN traffic during an RP switchover scenario. The control plane recovers gracefully delivering faster LDP and MPLS VPN convergence as well as minimizing network churn.

Eliminates service disruption-By preserving user sessions and minimizing packet loss, MPLS NSF/SSO reduces the impact of service outages on network users and delivers increased network uptime at the IP/MPLS provider edge.

Reduces costs-MPLS NSF/SSO decreases downtime expenses, including SLA penalties, lost revenue opportunities, user and administrative productivity costs, and emergency network expenditures.

Increased operational efficiency-Enhanced availability and resiliency that MPLS NSF/SSO delivers helps to increase operational efficiency by reducing network troubleshooting and maintenance costs.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Router
• Cisco 7304 Series Router supported since Release 12.2(25)S3

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6550/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Tom Cramer ( tcramer@cisco.com), Harmen Van Der Linde ( havander@cisco.com)

4.3) 1:1 Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cables

1:1 line card redundancy with Y-cables for the Cisco 10000 Series Router four port, half-height CT3 line card delivers seamless failover to a standby y-cable connected line card in the event of a failure of currently active line card. The new 4xC3 module provides enhanced hardware support for Y-cable connectivity.
1:1 line card redundancy takes advantage of 4xC3 module Y-cable connectivity to establish an active-standby CT3 line card configuration whereby all ports of active line cards are connected with corresponding ports of standby line card via Y-cables. Complete protection from a line card failure can then be provided such that in the event of any hardware or software failure on the active LC, the standby Y-cabled line card ports take over from the failed line card ports with no disruption to any higher layer protocols and applications and minimal disruption to traffic forwarding in the system. (See Figure 35.)

Figure 35. 1:1 Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cables

Benefits
1:1 line card redundancy with Y-cables provides a router high availability solution with the following benefits:

Reduced downtime and lower operational costs-Line card redundancy feature allows significant reduction in mean-time-to-recovery for line card failure (from minutes to less than 3 seconds). Operational cost savings can be realized by further optimizing emergency dispatch and repair operations and reducing network troubleshooting and maintenance costs.

Incremental revenue via improved SLAs-Coupled with NSF/SSO and ISSU, line card redundancy feature offers enhanced SLA capabilities at IP/MPLS edge providing incremental revenue opportunities.

Higher customer satisfaction-By preserving user connectivity during line card failures in scenarios which are hitherto single point of failure, the line card redundancy feature reduces the impact of service outages on network users and delivers increased network uptime at the IP/MPLS provider edge.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Half-Height CT3 Line Card

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6550/products_ios_technology_home.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6566/products_feature_guides_list.html

Product Management Contact
Tom Cramer ( tcramer@cisco.com)

4.4) Cisco IOS BGP Nonstop Routing Support with Stateful Switchover

Currently BGP supports NSF (via BGP Graceful re-start) under SSO conditions as part of the HA offerings in Cisco IOS Software. BGP NonStop Routing (NSR) extends the HA routing capabilities to the next level by "maintaining all necessary" BGP routing and session information across a RP switchover.
Cisco IOS Software support for NSR allows service providers to maintain BGP routing information from customer routers during a switchover process from an active RP to a standby RP without having to require re-synchronization from the remote customer edge router. The Customer Edge (CE) routers do not need to have NSF-awareness in order to benefit from Cisco's BGP NSR capabilities on the PE. This allows NSR to be interoperable with all types of CE routers from Cisco as well as other vendors. (See Figure 36.)
Ultimately, BGP NSR support allows service providers to provide no routing and no forwarding impact on traffic to and from the customer sites during an RP switchover or during a planned ISSU software upgrade of a PE router. Only the PE router needs to be upgraded to support NSR while the CE routers do not have to be upgraded.

Figure 36. Cisco IOS BGP Nonstop Routing Support with Stateful Switchover

Benefits

• Reduces impact on customer traffic during RP switchovers (scheduled or unscheduled events)

• Incremental deployment by upgrading PE with new NSR capability

• No coordination or NSF-awareness needed with the customer side CE routers; allows interoperability with all types of Cisco and non-Cisco routers

• Dynamically detects NSF-aware peers and runs Graceful Restart with those CEs

• Provides continuous packet forwarding with minimal or no packet loss

• Eliminates route flaps between BGP peers by keeping BGP state on both active and standby RP

• Enables transparent route convergence-Layer 3 BGP routing information is kept across a switchover

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Considerations
Allows support for up to three hundred BGP NSR CE peers with additional peers being non-NSR BGP peering sessions.
Additional Information
Product Management Contact
Suresh Katukam ( skatukam@cisco.com)

4.5) Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Channelized T3 Half-Height Line Card

The Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Half-Height Channelized T3 Line Card sets a new standard for high availability, scalability, and performance in the T1 and T3 aggregation market. This half-height line card supports four T3 physical connections (eight per Cisco 10000 Series Router line-card slot) with each T3 capable of supporting a full "clear-channel" DS-3 or DS-3 Channelized down to DS-1 or N x DS-0. (See Figure 37.)
Coupled with native edge-aggregation services such as HA, MPLS, and QoS, the Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Half-Height Channelized T3 Module provides a comprehensive set of enhanced aggregation services, including higher port density per Cisco 10000 Series Router line-card slot, 1:1 line-card failover protection through Y-cables, and enhanced Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) and loopback testing capabilities.
Using channelized interfaces to receive multiplexed T1 circuits on a single pair of coaxial cables, Service providers can save dramatically on power, floor space, local-loop charges, and equipment costs. The Cisco 4-port half-height CT3 module can accept both clear-channel T3 traffic and multiplexed circuits from T1 and N x DS-0.
With this combination of features and performance, Cisco Systems ® provides a versatile interface for an upgrade to the advanced network architectures provided by Cisco 10000 Series Routers. Service provider Points of Presence (POPs) can use the 4-port half-height CT3 line card to enable rapid, efficient addition of circuits where density, performance, and high availability are required.
The Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Half-Height Channelized T3 Line Card is ideal for several applications, including:

• Service provider edge offices or data centers aggregating circuits from multiple customer sites and locations to provide direct Internet access and other T1-related services.

• Cell site aggregation for mobile wireless providers offering high-speed wireless data connections as an alternative to DSL or cable broadband access.

• Cisco Broadband Local Integrated Services Solutions for T1 (BLISS)-The Cisco BLISS framework provides the network foundation and call control and application intelligence to deliver integrated data and voice services over a single connection for Small and Medium-sized Businesses (SMBs). It can support Metro Ethernet, DSL, cable, and T1 access. The Cisco 10000 Series Router has been tested and approved for the T1 aggregation portion of the Cisco BLISS solution and enables several providers to offer the services that SMBs require.

Figure 37. Cisco 10000 Series Router 4-Port Half-Height Channelized T3 Line Card

Benefits
The 4-port half-height CT3 line card delivers numerous new features to the ESR 10000 Series Router:

4-port half-height form factor-The line card adds 2 ports per Cisco 10000 Series Router line-card slot, while providing the ability to add new ports in lower increments, reducing costs and saving valuable POP real estate.

1:1 line-card redundancy-Failover protection is provided within a single Cisco 10000 Series Router line-card slot in case a CT3 line card fails. Two line cards and 8 BNC Y-cables are required to support 1:1 redundancy: one as the working or active module, the other as the protect or standby module.

Enhanced testing capabilities-These capabilities include the following:

– New BERT patterns (3-in-24, 1-in-8, and 2-in-8)

– Support for up to 12 simultaneous T1 BERTs (limited to six under the first two T3s and six under the second two)

– Addition of "show BERT" command

– Support for transmission of 2-in-5 and 3-in-5 inband remote loopback commands in Extended Super Frame (ESF) and SF modes (module will not respond to these in-band commands)

– A wide range of troubleshooting tools to ensure that customer connections are configured and operating per service provider specifications

256 channels per port-The 4-port half-height CT3 module doubles the number of available channels per port when compared with the 128 channels per port available on the 6-port CT3. Ports 0, 1, and 2 support 256 channels, and port 3 supports 255, giving service providers additional flexibility when adding new customers and services to their existing network. Note that the last port supports only 255 channels, for a line-card total of 1023 channels.

T1 status LEDs-The addition of T1-level Alarm and Loopback LEDs provides fast, local fault indication when an alarm condition exists on any one of the 28 T1s contained in the DS-3 signal.

Hardware

Routers

• Cisco 10000 Series Router

Additional Information

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps133/index.html

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps133/products_installation_guide_book09186a00804c9489.html

Product Management Contact
Greg Smith ( gregmsmi@cisco.com)

5) Release 12.2SB Additional Information

Cisco IOS Software Release Feedback and Questions

Release 12.2S Information

Cisco IOS Software Product Lifecycle Dates and Milestones

Cisco IOS Software Center

Download Cisco IOS Software releases and access software upgrade planners.

Cisco Software Advisor (Requires Cisco.com Account)

Determine the minimum supported software for platforms.

Cisco Feature Navigator (Requires Cisco.com Account)

A Web-based application that allows you to quickly match Cisco IOS Software releases, features, and hardware.

Cisco IOS Planner (Requires Cisco.com Account)

View all major releases, all platforms, and all software features from a single interface.

Cisco MIB Locator

MIB Locator finds MIBs in Cisco IOS Software releases.

Cisco Bug Toolkit (Requires Cisco.com Account)

Search for known bugs based on software version, feature set and keywords.