Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide, Release 3.3
Chapter 11, SNMP

Table of Contents

11.1 SNMP Overview
11.2 SNMP Basic Components
11.3 SNMP Support
11.4 SNMP Management Information Bases
11.5 SNMP Traps
11.6 SNMP Community Names
11.7 SNMP Remote Network Monitoring


This chapter explains Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) as implemented by the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH.

11.1 SNMP Overview

SNMP is an application-layer communication protocol that allows network devices to exchange management information. SNMP enables network administrators to manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan network growth.

The ONS 15454 SDH uses SNMP to provide asynchronous event notification to a network management system (NMS). ONS SNMP implementation uses standard Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) MIBs to convey node-level inventory, fault, and performance management information for generic read-only management of electrical, SDH, and Ethernet technologies. SNMP allows limited management of the ONS 15454 SDH by a generic SNMP manager, for example HP OpenView Network Node Manager (NNM) or Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) NetExpert.

The Cisco ONS 15454 SDH supports SNMP Version 1 (SNMPv1) and SNMP Version 2c (SNMPv2c). Both versions share many features, but SNMPv2c includes additional protocol operations. This chapter describes both versions and explains how to configure SNMP on the ONS 15454 SDH. Figure 11-1 illustrates a basic network managed by SNMP.

Figure 11-1   A basic network managed by SNMP

11.2 SNMP Basic Components

An SNMP-managed network consists of three primary components: managed devices, agents, and management systems. A managed device is a network node that contains an SNMP agent and resides on an SNMP-managed network. Managed devices collect and store management information and use SNMP to make this information available to management systems that use SNMP. Managed devices include routers, access servers, switches, bridges, hubs, computer hosts, and network elements such as an ONS 15454 SDH.

An agent is a software module that resides in a managed device. An agent has local knowledge of management information and translates that information into a form compatible with SNMP. The SNMP agent gathers data from the MIB, which is the repository for device parameter and network data. The agent can also send traps, or notification of certain events, to the manager. Figure 11-2 illustrates these SNMP operations.

Figure 11-2   An SNMP agent gathering data from an MIB and sending traps to the manager

A management system such as HP OpenView executes applications that monitor and control managed devices. Management systems provide the bulk of the processing and memory resources required for network management. One or more management systems must exist on any managed network. Figure 11-3 illustrates the relationship between the three key SNMP components.

Figure 11-3   Example of the primary SNMP components

11.3 SNMP Support

The ONS 15454 SDH supports SNMP v1 and v2c traps and get requests. The SNMP MIBs in the ONS 15454 SDH define alarms, traps, and status. Through SNMP, NMS applications can query a management agent using a supported MIB. The functional entities include Ethernet switches and SDH multiplexers.

Procedure: Set Up SNMP Support

Step 1   Display the CTC node view.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > SNMP tabs.

Step 3   Click Create at the bottom of the screen.

The Create SNMP Trap Destination dialog box opens (Figure 11-4).

For a description of SNMP traps, see the "SNMP Traps" section.

Figure 11-4   Setting up SNMP

Step 4   Type the IP address of your NMS in the IP Address field.

Step 5   Type the SNMP community name in the Community Name field.

For a description of SNMP community names, see the "SNMP Community Names" section.

Note    The community name is a form of authentication and access control. The community name assigned to the ONS 15454 is case-sensitive and must match the community name of the NMS.

Note    The default UDP port for SNMP is 162.

Step 6   Set the Trap Version field for either SNMPv1 or SNMPv2.

Refer to your NMS documentation to determine whether to use SNMP v1 or v2.

Step 7   Set your maximum traps per second in the Max Traps per Second field.

Note    The Max Traps per Second is the maximum number of traps per second that will be sent to the SNMP manager. If the field is set to 0, there is no maximum and all traps are sent.

Step 8   Click OK.

SNMP settings are now configured. To view SNMP information for each node, highlight the node IP address in the Trap Destinations area of the Trap Destinations screen (Figure 11-5).

Figure 11-5   Viewing trap destinations

11.4 SNMP Management Information Bases

A management information base (MIB) is a hierarchically-organized collection of information. Network-management protocols, such as SNMP, gain access to MIBs. MIBs consist of managed objects and are identified by object identifiers.

The ONS 15454 SDH SNMP agent communicates with an SNMP management application using SNMP messages. Table 11-1 describes these messages.

Table 11-1   SNMP Message Types

Operation  Description 


This coomand retrieves a value from a specific variable.


Retrieves the value following the named variable; this operation is often used to retrieve variables from within a table. With this operation, an SNMP manager does not need to know the exact variable name. The SNMP manager searches sequentially to find the needed variable from within the MIB.


This is the reply to a get-request, get-next-request, get-bulk-request, or set-request sent by an NMS.


This is similar to a get-next-request, but this operation fills the get-response with up to the max-repetition number of get-next interactions.


This is an unsolicited message sent by an SNMP agent to an SNMP manager indicating that an event has occurred.

A managed object (sometimes called a MIB object) is one of any specific characteristics of a managed device. Managed objects consist of one or more object instances (variables). Table 11-2 lists the IETF standard MIBs implemented in the ONS 15454 SDH SNMP Agent.

The ONS 15454 SDH MIBs are included on the software CD that ships with the ONS 15454 SDH. Compile these MIBs in the following order. If you do not follow the order, one or more MIB files might not compile.


2. CERENT-TC.mib

3. CERENT-454.mib


If you cannot compile the ONS 15454 SDH MIBs, call the Technical Assistance Center (TAC). To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Product Overview preference section.

Table 11-2   IETF Standard MIBs Implemented in the ONS 15454 SDH SNMP Agent

RFC#  Module Name  Title/Comments 





MIB-II from RFC1213 with enhancement from RFC1907 for v2



Bridge/Spanning Tree (SNMPv1 MIB)



Remote monitoring (RMON) Ethernet



Entity MIB using SMI v2 (version II)



Interface evolution (enhances MIB-II)



Ethernet-like interface (SNMPv2 MIB)












P-Bridge and Q-Bridge MIB

11.5 SNMP Traps

The ONS 15454 SDH can receive SNMP requests from a number of SNMP managers and send traps to eleven trap receivers. The ONS 15454 SDH generates all alarms and events as SNMP traps.

The ONS 15454 SDH generates traps containing an object ID that uniquely identifies the alarm. An entity identifier uniquely identifies the entity that generated the alarm (slot, port, STS, VT, BLSR, STP, etc.). The traps give the severity of the alarm (critical, major, minor, event, etc.) and indicate whether the alarm is service affecting or non-service affecting. The traps also contain a date/time stamp that shows the date and time the alarm occurred. The ONS 15454 SDH also generates a trap for each alarm when the alarm condition clears.

Each SNMP trap contains eleven variable bindings listed in Table 11-3for the ONS 15454 SDH.

Table 11-3   SNMP Trap Variable Bindings for ONS 15454 SDH

Number  Name  Description 



This table holds all the currently-raised alarms. When an alarm is raised, it appears as a new entry in the table. When an alarm is cleared, it is removed from the table and all the subsequent entries move up by one row.



This variable uniquely identifies each entry in an alarm table. When an alarm in the alarm table clears, the alarm indexes change for each alarm located subsequent to the cleared alarm.



This variable provides the entity type that raised the alarm. The NMS should use this value to decide which table to poll for further information about the alarm.



This variable indicates the slot of the object that raised the alarm. If a slot is not relevant to the alarm, the slot number is zero.



This variable provides the port of the object that raised the alarm. If a port is not relevant to the alarm, the port number is zero.



This variable provides the object line that raised the alarm. If a line is not relevant to the alarm, the line number is zero.



Every alarm is raised by an object entry in a specific table. This variable is the index of the objects in each table; if the alarm is interface related, this is the index of the interfaces in the interface table.



This variable provides the exact alarm type.



This variable specifies alarm severity and service-affecting status. Severities are minor, major and critical. Service- affecting statuses are service-affecting and non-service affecting.



This variable gives the time when the alarm occurred. The value is the number of ticks that has lapsed since 1/1/1970.



This variable gives the TL1-style user-visible name which uniquely identifies an object in the system.

The ONS 15454 SDH supports the generic and IETF traps listed in Table 11-4.

Table 11-4   Traps Supported in the ONS 15454 SDH

Trap  From RFC#  Description 



Agent up, cold start



Agent up, warm start



Community string does not match




Sending agent is the new root of the spanning tree





A port in a bridge has changed from Learning to Forwarding or Forwarding to Blocking




The entLastChangeTime value has changed




A dsx1LineStatusChange trap is sent when the value of an instance dsx1LineStatus changes. The trap can be used by an NMS to trigger polls. When the line status change results from a higher-level line status change (ex. DS-3), no traps for the DS-1 are sent.




A dsx3LineStatusLastChange trap is sent when the value of an instance of dsx3LineStatus changes. This trap can be used by an NMS to trigger polls. When the line status change results in a lower-level line status change (ex. DS-1), no traps for the lower-level are sent.




The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry crosses the rising threshold and the entry generates an event that is configured for sending SNMP traps.




The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry crosses the falling threshold and the entry generates an event that is configured for sending SNMP traps.

11.6 SNMP Community Names

You can provision community names for all SNMP requests from the SNMP Trap Destination dialog box in CTC (see the "SNMP Support" section). In effect, SNMP considers any request valid that uses a community name matching a community name on the list of provisioned SNMP trap destinations. Otherwise, SNMP considers the request invalid and drops it.

If an SNMP request contains an invalid community name, the request silently drops and the MIB variable (snmpInBadCommunityNames) increments. All MIB variables managed by the agent grant access to all SNMP requests containing a validated community name.

11.7 SNMP Remote Network Monitoring

The ONS 15454 SDH incorporates Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) to allow network operators to monitor the Ethernet cards. For more information on Ethernet RMONs, see the "Remote Monitoring Specification Alarm Thresholds" section. This feature is not apparent to the typical CTC user, because RMON interoperates with an NMS. However, with CTC you can provision the RMON alarm thresholds. CTC also monitors the five RMON groups implemented by the ONS 15454 SDH.

ONS 15454 SDH RMON implementation is based on the IETF-standard MIB Request for Comment (RFC)1757. The ONS 15454 SDH implements five groups from the standard MIB: Ethernet Statistics, History Control, Ethernet History, Alarm, and Event.

11.7.1 Ethernet Statistics Group

The Ethernet Statistics group contains the basic statistics for each monitored subnetwork in a single table named etherstats.

11.7.2 History Control Group

The History Control group defines sampling functions for one or more monitor interfaces. RFC 1757 defines the historyControlTable.

11.7.3 Ethernet History Group

The ONS 15454 SDH implements the etherHistoryTable as defined in RFC 1757, within the bounds of the historyControlTable.

11.7.4 Alarm Group

The Alarm group consists of a single alarm table. This table provides the network performance alarm thresholds for the network management application. With CTC, you can provision the thresholds in the table.

11.7.5 Event Group

The Event group consists of two tables, eventTable and logTable. The eventTable is read-only. The ONS 15454 SDH implements the logTable as specified in RFC 1757.