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T

T


T1

Digital WAN carrier facility. T1 transmits DS-1-formatted data at 1.544 Mbps through the telephone-switching network, using AMI or B8ZS coding. Compare with E1. See also AMI, B8ZS, and DS-1.

T.120

ITU standard that describes data conferencing. H.323 provides for the ability to establish T.120 data sessions inside of an existing H.323 session.

T3

Digital WAN carrier facility. T3 transmits DS-3-formatted data at 44.736 Mbps through the telephone switching network. Compare with E3. See also DS-3.

TABS

Telemetry Asynchronous Block Serial. AT&T polled point-to-point or multipoint communication protocol that supports moderate data transfer rates over intra-office wire pairs.

TAC

1. Terminal Access Controller. Internet host that accepts terminal connections from dial-up lines.

2. Cisco Technical Assistance Center. See
TAC and TACACS+ in the Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms section.

TACACS

Terminal Access Controller Access Control System. Authentication protocol, developed by the DDN community, that provides remote access authentication and related services, such as event logging. User passwords are administered in a central database rather than in individual routers, providing an easily scalable network security solution. See also TACACS+ in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

TACACS+

See TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus) in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

tag

Identification information, including a number plus other information.

tag switching

High-performance, packet-forwarding technology that integrates network layer (Layer 3) routing and data link layer (Layer 2) switching and provides scalable, high-speed switching in the network core. Tag switching is based on the concept of label swapping, in which packets or cells are assigned short, fixed-length labels that tell switching nodes how data should be forwarded.

tagged traffic

ATM cells that have their CLP bit set to 1. If the network is congested, tagged traffic can be dropped to ensure delivery of higher-priority traffic. Sometimes called DE traffic. See also CLP.

Tandem switching

Dynamic switching of voice calls between VoFR, VoATM, or VoHDLC PVCs and subchannels; also called tandeming. Tandem switching is often encountered in multi-hop VoFR call connection paths.

TARP

TID Address Resolution Protocol. In OSS, a protocol that resolves a TL-1 TID to a CLNP address (NSAP).

TAXI 4B/5B

Transparent Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver Interface 4-byte/5-byte. Encoding scheme used for FDDI LANs as well as for ATM. Supports speeds of up to 100 Mbps over multimode fiber. TAXI is the chipset that generates 4B/5B encoding on multimode fiber. See also 4B/5B local fiber.

TBOS protocol

Telemetry Byte Oriented Serial protocol. Protocol that transmits alarm, status, and control points between NE and OSS. TBOS defines one physical interface for direct connection between the telemetry equipment and the monitored equipment.

TC

transmission convergence. Sublayer of the ATM physical layer that transforms the flow of cells into a steady flow of bits for transmission over the physical medium. When transmitting, the TC sublayer maps the cells into the frame format, generates the HEC, and sends idle cells when there is nothing to send. When receiving, the TC sublayer delineates individual cells in the received bit stream and uses HEC to detect and correct errors. See also HEC and PHY.

T-carrier

TDM transmission method usually referring to a line or cable carrying a DS-1 signal.

TCAP

transaction capabilities application part.

TCC

terminating call control.

TCL Interface

tool command line interface.

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol. Connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack. See also TCP/IP.

TCP and UDP over Lightweight IP

See TULIP.

TCP and UDP over Nonexistent IP

See TUNIP.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Common name for the suite of protocols developed by the U.S. DoD in the 1970s to support the construction of worldwide internetworks. TCP and IP are the two best-known protocols in the suite. See also IP and TCAP.

TCU

trunk coupling unit. In Token Ring networks, a physical device that enables a station to connect to the trunk cable.

TDM

time-division multiplexing. Technique in which information from multiple channels can be allocated bandwidth on a single wire based on preassigned time slots. Bandwidth is allocated to each channel regardless of whether the station has data to transmit. Compare with ATDM, FDM, and statistical multiplexing.

TDR

time domain reflectometer. Device capable of sending signals through a network medium to check cable continuity and other attributes. TDRs are used to find physical layer network problems.

Technical Assistance Center

See TAC.

Technical Office Protocol

See TOP.

Technology prefix

Discriminators used to distinguish between gateways having specific capabilities within a given zone. In the exchange between the gateway and the gatekeeper, the technology prefix is used to select a gateway after the zone has been selected. Technology prefixes can be used to tell the gatekeeper that a certain technology is associated with a particular call (for example, 15# could mean a fax transmission), or it can be used like an area code for more generic routing. No standard defines what the numbers in a technology prefix mean; by convention, technology prefixes are designated by a pound (#) symbol as the last character.

TEI

terminal endpoint identifier. Field in the LAPD address that identifies a device on an ISDN interface. See also TE.

TE

terminal equipment. Any ISDN-compatible device that can be attached to the network, such as a telephone, fax, or computer.

telco

Abbreviation for telephone company.

Telecommunication Management Network

See TMN.

telecommunications

Term referring to communications (usually involving computer systems) over the telephone network.

Telecommunications Industry Association

See TIA.

telephony

Science of converting sound to electrical signals and transmitting it between widely removed points.

Telemetry Asynchronous Block Serial

See TABS.

telex

Teletypewriter service allowing subscribers to send messages over the PSTN.

telemetry

Capability of transmitting or retrieving data over long distance communication links, such as satellite or telephone.

Telnet

Standard terminal emulation protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. Telnet is used for remote terminal connection, enabling users to log in to remote systems and use resources as if they were connected to a local system. Telnet is defined in RFC 854.

Tempest

U.S. military standard. Electronic products adhering to the Tempest specification are designed to withstand EMP. See also EMP.

TERENA

Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association. Organization that promotes information and telecommunications technologies development in Europe. Formed by the merger of EARN and RARE. See also EARN and RARE.

termid

SNA cluster controller identification for switched lines only. Also called Xid.

terminal

Simple device at which data can be entered or retrieved from a network. Generally, terminals have a monitor and a keyboard, but no processor or local disk drive.

Terminal Access Controller

See TAC.

Terminal Access Controller Access System

See TACACS.

terminal adapter

Device used to connect ISDN BRI connections to existing interfaces such as EIA/TIA-232. Essentially, an ISDN modem.

terminal emulation

Network application in which a computer runs software that makes it appear to a remote host as a directly attached terminal.

terminal endpoint identifier

See TEI.

terminal equipment

See TE.

terminal server

Communications processor that connects asynchronous devices such as terminals, printers, hosts, and modems to any LAN or WAN that uses TCP/IP, X.25, or LAT protocols. Terminal servers provide the internetwork intelligence that is not available in the connected devices.

terminator

Device that provides electrical resistance at the end of a transmission line to absorb signals on the line, thereby keeping them from bouncing back and being received again by network stations.

TEST

test.

Texas Higher Education Network

See THEnet.

TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Simplified version of FTP that allows files to be transferred from one computer to another over a network.

TH

transmission header. SNA header that is appended to the SNA basic information unit (BIU). The TH uses one of a number of available SNA header formats. See also FID0, FID1, FID2, FID3, and FID4.

THC over X.25

See THC over X.25 in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

THEnet

Texas Higher Education Network. Regional network comprising over 60 academic and research institutions in the Texas (United States) area.

Thinnet

Term used to define a thinner, less expensive version of the cable specified in the IEEE 802.3 10Base2 standard. Compare with Cheapernet. See also 10Base2, Ethernet, and IEEE 802.3.

three-way handshake

Process whereby two protocol entities synchronize during connection establishment.

throughput

Rate of information arriving at, and possibly passing through, a particular point in a network system.

TIA

Telecommunications Industry Association. Organization that develops standards relating to telecommunications technologies. Together, the TIA and the EIA have formalized standards, such as EIA/TIA-232, for the electrical characteristics of data transmission. See also EIA.

TIC

Token Ring interface coupler. Controller through which an FEP connects to a Token Ring.

TID

Terminal Identifier.

TINA-C

Telecommunications Information Networking Architecture. Services applications built in C and corresponding to TINA guidelines.

TIOS

Transpath Input Output Subsystem

TIRKS

Trunk Information Record Keeping System. Bellcore OSS that provides record keeping for interoffice trunk facilities. See also OSS.

time-division multiplexing

See TDM.

time domain reflectometer

See TDR.

Time Notify

See TNotify.

timeout

Event that occurs when one network device expects to hear from another network device within a specified period of time, but does not. The resulting timeout usually results in a retransmission of information or the dissolving of the session between the two devices.

Time To Live

See TR VLAN.

TL-1

Transaction Language One. Bellcore term for intelligent network elements.

TLAP

TokenTalk Link Access Protocol. Link-access protocol used in a TokenTalk network. TLAP is built on top of the standard Token Ring data-link layer.

TM

traffic management.

TMN

Telecommunication Management Network. ITU-T generic model for transporting and processing OAM&P information for a telecommunications network. See also OAM&P.

TN3270

Terminal emulation software that allows a terminal to appear to an IBM host as a 3278 Model 2 terminal.

TNotify

Time Notify. Specifies how often SMT initiates neighbor notification broadcasts. See also SMT.

token

Frame that contains control information. Possession of the token allows a network device to transmit data onto the network. See also token passing.

token bus

LAN architecture using token passing access over a bus topology. This LAN architecture is the basis for the IEEE 802.4 LAN specification. See also
IEEE 802.4.

token passing

Access method by which network devices access the physical medium in an orderly fashion based on possession of a small frame called a token. Contrast with circuit switching and contention. See also token.

Token Ring

Token-passing LAN developed and supported by IBM. Token Ring runs at 4 or 16 Mbps over a ring topology. Similar to IEEE 802.5. See also IEEE 802.5, ring topology, and token passing.

Token Ring interface coupler

See TIC.

TokenTalk Link Access Protocol

See TLAP.

TokenTalk

Apple Computer's data-link product that allows an AppleTalk network to be connected by Token Ring cables.

TOP

Technical Office Protocol. OSI-based architecture developed for office communications.

topology

Physical arrangement of network nodes and media within an enterprise networking structure.

ToS

type of service. See CoS.

TP0

Transport Protocol Class 0. OSI connectionless transport protocol for use over reliable subnetworks. Defined by ISO 8073.

TP4

Transport Protocol Class 4. OSI connection-based transport protocol. Defined by ISO 8073.

TPD

Mechanism used by some ATM switches that allows the remaining cells supporting an AAL5 frame to be discarded when one or more cells of that AAL5 frame are dropped. This avoids sending partial AAL5 frames through the ATM network when they will have to be retransmitted by the sender. Compare with EPD.

TPPMD

twisted-pair physical medium dependent.

traceroute

Program available on many systems that traces the path a packet takes to a destination. It is mostly used to debug routing problems between hosts. There is also a traceroute protocol defined in RFC 1393.

traffic management

Techniques for avoiding congestion and shaping and policing traffic, Allows links to operate at high levels of utilization by scaling back lower-priority, delay-tolerant traffic at the edge of the network when congestion begins to occur.

Traffic path

Route of a bearer channel that carries voice traffic.

traffic policing

Process used to measure the actual traffic flow across a given connection and compare it to the total admissible traffic flow for that connection. Traffic outside of the agreed upon flow can be tagged (where the CLP bit is set to 1) and can be discarded en route if congestion develops. Traffic policing is used in ATM, Frame Relay, and other types of networks. Also know as admission control, permit processing, rate enforcement, and UPC. See also tagged traffic.

traffic profile

Set of CoS attribute values assigned to a given port on an ATM switch. The profile affects numerous parameters for data transmitted from the port including rate, cell drop eligibility, transmit priority, and inactivity timer. See also CoS.

traffic shaping

Use of queues to limit surges that can congest a network. Data is buffered and then sent into the network in regulated amounts to ensure that the traffic will fit within the promised traffic envelope for the particular connection. Traffic shaping is used in ATM, Frame Relay, and other types of networks. Also known as metering, shaping, and smoothing.

trailing packet discard

See TPD.

trailer

Control information appended to data when encapsulating the data for network transmission. Compare with header.

transaction

Result-oriented unit of communication processing.

transaction services layer

Layer 7 in the SNA architectural model. Represents user application functions, such as spreadsheets, word-processing, or e-mail, by which users interact with the network. Corresponds roughly with the application layer of the OSI reference model. See also data flow control layer, data-link control layer, path control layer, physical control layer, presentation services layer, and transaction services layer.

transceiver

See MAU.

transceiver cable

See AUI.

Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association

See TERENA.

transfer syntax

Description on an instance of a data type that is expressed as a string of bits.

transit bridging

Bridging that uses encapsulation to send a frame between two similar networks over a dissimilar network.

translational bridging

Bridging between networks with dissimilar MAC sublayer protocols. MAC information is translated into the format of the destination network at the bridge. Contrast with encapsulation bridging.

transmission control layer

Layer 4 in the SNA architectural model. This layer is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating SNA sessions, sequencing data messages, and controlling session level flow. Corresponds to the transport layer of the OSI model. See also data flow control layer, data-link control layer, path control layer, physical control layer, presentation services layer, and transaction services layer.

Transmission Control Protocol

See TCAP.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

See TCP/IP.

transmission convergence

See TC.

transmission group

In SNA routing, one or more parallel communications links treated as one communications facility.

transmission header

See TH.

transmission link

See link.

TRANSPAC

Major packet data network run by France Telecom.

Transparent Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver Interface 4-byte/5-byte

See TAXI 4B/5B.

transparent bridging

Bridging scheme often used in Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 networks in which bridges pass frames along one hop at a time based on tables associating end nodes with bridge ports. Transparent bridging is so named because the presence of bridges is transparent to network end nodes. Contrast with SRB.

TransPath component

The part of your signaling controller system where signals are identified, converted, and routed.

transport layer

Layer 4 of the OSI reference model. This layer is responsible for reliable network communication between end nodes. The transport layer provides mechanisms for the establishment, maintenance, and termination of virtual circuits, transport fault detection and recovery, and information flow control. Corresponds to the transmission control layer of the SNA model. See also application layer, data-link layer, network layer, physical layer, PQ, and session layer.

Transport Protocol Class 0

See TP0.

Transport Protocol Class 4

See TP4.

trap

Message sent by an SNMP agent to an NMS, console, or terminal to indicate the occurrence of a significant event, such as a specifically defined condition or a threshold that was reached. See also alarm and event.

tree topology

LAN topology similar to a bus topology, except that tree networks can contain branches with multiple nodes. Transmissions from a station propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations. Compare with bus topology, ring topology, and star topology.

TRIP

See TRIP (Token Ring Interface Processor) in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

TRISL

Token Ring Inter-Switch Link

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

See TFTP.

trunk

Physical and logical connection between two switches across which network traffic travels. A backbone is composed of a number of trunks.

trunk coupling unit

See TCU.

trunk up-down

See TUD.

TR VLAN

Token Ring virtual LAN

TSI

transmitting subscriber information. Frame that can be sent by the caller with the caller's telephone number that can be used to screen calls.

TSP

tag-switched path.

TTL

Time To Live. Field in an IP header that indicates how long a packet is considered valid.

tunneling

Architecture that is designed to provide the services necessary to implement any standard point-to-point encapsulation scheme. See also encapsulation.

TUD

trunk up-down. Protocol used in ATM networks that monitors trunks and detects when one goes down or comes up. ATM switches send regular test messages from each trunk port to test trunk line quality. If a trunk misses a given number of these messages, TUD declares the trunk down. When a trunk comes back up, TUD recognizes that the trunk is up, declares the trunk up, and returns it to service. See also trunk.

TULIP

TCP and UDP over Lightweight IP. Proposed protocol for running TCP and UDP applications over ATM.

TUNIP

TCP and UDP over Nonexistent IP. Proposed protocol for running TCP and UPD applications over ATM.

TUV

German test agency that certifies products to European safety standards.

two-way simultaneous

See TWS in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

twisted pair

Relatively low-speed transmission medium consisting of two insulated wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern. The wires can be shielded or unshielded. Twisted pair is common in telephony applications and is increasingly common in data networks. See also STP and UTP.

TYMNET

See XStream.

Type 1 operation

IEEE 802.2 (LLC) connectionless operation.

Type 2 operation

IEEE 802.2 (LLC) connection-oriented operation.

type of service

See ToS.


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Posted: Tue Sep 21 15:25:09 PDT 1999
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