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D

D


D4 framing

See SF.

DAC

dual-attached concentrator. FDDI or CDDI concentrator capable of attaching to both rings of an FDDI or CDDI network. It can also be dual-homed from the master ports of other FDDI or CDDI concentrators.

DACS

Digital Access and Crossconnect System. AT&T's term for a digital crossconnect system.

DAP

Directory Access Protocol. Protocol used between a DUA and a DSA in an X.500 directory system. See LDAP.

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. U.S. government agency that funded research for and experimentation with the Internet. Evolved from ARPA, and then, in 1994, back to ARPA. See also ARPA.

DARPA Internet

Obsolete term referring to the Internet. See Internet.

DAS

1. dual attachment station. Device attached to both the primary and the secondary FDDI rings. Dual attachment provides redundancy for the FDDI ring: if the primary ring fails, the station can wrap the primary ring to the secondary ring, isolating the failure and retaining ring integrity. Also called a Class A station. Compare with SAS.

2. dynamically assigned socket. Socket that is dynamically assigned by DDP upon request by a client. In an AppleTalk network, the sockets numbered 128 to 254 are allocated as DASs.

DATABASE2

See DB2.

database object

Piece of information that is stored in a database.

data bus connector

See DB connector.

data channel

See D channel.

data circuit-terminating equipment

See DCE.

data communications equipment

See DCE.

Data Country Code

See DCC.

data direct VCC

In ATM, a bi-directional point-to-point VCC set up between two LECs. One of three data connections defined by Phase 1 LANE. Data direct VCCs do not offer any type of QOS guarantee, so they are typically used for UBR and ABR connections. Compare with control distribute VCC and control direct VCC.

Data Encryption Standard

See DES.

Data Exchange Interface

See DXI.

data flow control layer

Layer 5 of the SNA architectural model. This layer determines and manages interactions between session partners, particularly data flow. Corresponds to the session layer of the OSI model. See also data-link control layer, path control layer, physical control layer, presentation services layer, transaction services layer, and transmission control layer.

datagram

Logical grouping of information sent as a network layer unit over a transmission medium without prior establishment of a virtual circuit. IP datagrams are the primary information units in the Internet. The terms cell, frame, message, packet, and segment are also used to describe logical information groupings at various layers of the OSI reference model and in various technology circles.

Datagram Delivery Protocol

See DDP.

Datakit

AT&T proprietary packet switching system widely deployed by the RBOCs.

data-link connection identifier

See DLCI.

data-link control layer

Layer 2 in the SNA architectural model. Responsible for the transmission of data over a particular physical link. Corresponds roughly to the data-link layer of the OSI model. See also data flow control layer, path control layer, physical control layer, presentation services layer, transaction services layer, and transmission control layer.

data-link layer

Layer 2 of the OSI reference model. Provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. The data-link layer is concerned with physical addressing, network topology, line discipline, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. The IEEE divided this layer into two sublayers: the MAC sublayer and the LLC sublayer. Sometimes simply called link layer. Roughly corresponds to the data-link control layer of the SNA model. See also application layer, LLC, MAC, network layer, physical layer, PQ, session layer, and transport layer.

data-link switching

See DLSw.

data-link switching plus

See DLSw+ in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

Data Movement Processor

See DMP in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

Data Network Identification Code

See DNIC.

data set ready

See DSR.

data service unit

See DSU.

data sink

Network equipment that accepts data transmissions.

data stream

All data transmitted through a communications line in a single read or write operation.

data terminal equipment

See DTE.

data terminal ready

See DTR.

dB

decibels.

DB2

IBM relational database management system.

DB connector

data bus connector. Type of connector used to connect serial and parallel cables to a data bus. DB connector names are in the format DB-x, where x represents the number of wires within the connector. Each line is connected to a pin on the connector, but in many cases, not all pins are assigned a function. DB connectors are defined by various EIA/TIA standards.

dBm

decibles per milliwatt.

DCA

Defense Communications Agency. U.S. government organization responsible for DDN networks such as MILNET. Now called DISA. See DISA.

DCC

Data Country Code. One of two ATM address formats developed by the ATM Forum for use by private networks. Adapted from the subnetwork model of addressing in which the ATM layer is responsible for mapping network layer addresses to ATM addresses. Compare with ICD.

DCE

1. data communications equipment (EIA expansion).

2. data circuit-terminating equipment (ITU-T expansion). Devices and connections of a communications network that comprise the network end of the user-to-network interface. The DCE provides a physical connection to the network, forwards traffic, and provides a clocking signal used to synchronize data transmission between DCE and DTE devices. Modems and interface cards are examples of DCE. Compare with
DTE.

DCOM

Distributed Component Object Model. Protocol that enables software components to communicate directly over a network. Developed by Microsoft and previously called Network OLE, DCOM is designed for use across multiple network transports, including Internet protocols such as HTTP. See IIOP.

DCS

Digital Crossconnect System. Network element providing automatic cross-connection of a digital signal or its constituent parts.

DCT

discrete cosine transform.

D channel

1. data channel. Full-duplex, 16-kbps (BRI) or 64-kbps (PRI) ISDN channel. Compare with B channel, E channel, and H channel.

2. In SNA, a device that connects a processor and main storage with peripherals.

DDM

distributed data management. Software in an IBM SNA environment that provides peer-to-peer communication and file sharing. One of three SNA transaction services. See also DIA and SNADS.

DDN

Defense Data Network. U.S. military network composed of an unclassified network (MILNET) and various secret and top-secret networks. DDN is operated and maintained by DISA. See also DISA and MILNET.

DDP

Datagram Delivery Protocol. AppleTalk network layer protocol that is responsible for the socket-to-socket delivery of datagrams over an AppleTalk internetwork.

DDR

dial-on-demand routing. Technique whereby a router can automatically initiate and close a circuit-switched session as transmitting stations demand. The router spoofs keepalives so that end stations treat the session as active. DDR permits routing over ISDN or telephone lines using an external ISDN terminal adaptor or modem.

DE

discard eligible. See tagged traffic.

deadlock

1. Unresolved contention for the use of a resource.

2. In APPN, when two elements of a process each wait for action by or a response from the other before they resume the process.

decibels

Abbreviated dB.

DECnet

Group of communications products (including a protocol suite) developed and supported by Digital Equipment Corporation. DECnet/OSI (also called DECnet Phase V) is the most recent iteration and supports both OSI protocols and proprietary Digital protocols. Phase IV Prime supports inherent MAC addresses that allow DECnet nodes to coexist with systems running other protocols that have MAC address restrictions. See also DNA.

DECnet routing

Proprietary routing scheme introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation in DECnet Phase III. In DECnet Phase V, DECnet completed its transition to OSI routing protocols (ES-IS and IS-IS).

decryption

Reverse application of an encryption algorithm to encrypted data, thereby restoring that data to its original, unencrypted state. See also encryption.

dedicated LAN

Network segment allocated to a single device. Used in LAN switched network topologies.

dedicated line

Communications line that is indefinitely reserved for transmissions, rather than switched as transmission is required. See also leased line.

de facto standard

Standard that exists by nature of its widespread use. Compare with de jure standard. See also standard.

default route

Routing table entry that is used to direct frames for which a next hop is not explicitly listed in the routing table.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

See DARPA.

Defense Communications Agency

See dBm.

Defense Data Network

See DDN.

Defense Information Systems Agency

See DISA.

Defense Intelligence Agency

See DIA.

de jure standard

Standard that exists because of its approval by an official standards body. Compare with de facto standard. See also standard.

DEK

data encryption key. Used for the encryption of message text and for the computation of message integrity checks (signatures).

delay

Time between the initiation of a transaction by a sender and the first response received by the sender. Also, the time required to move a packet from source to destination over a given path.

demand priority

Media access method used in 100VG-AnyLAN that uses a hub that can handle multiple transmission requests and can process traffic according to priority, making it useful for servicing time-sensitive traffic such as multimedia and video. Demand priority eliminates the overhead of packet collisions, collision recovery, and broadcast traffic typical in Ethernet networks. See also 100VG-AnyLAN.

demarc

Demarcation point between carrier equipment and CPE.

demodulation

Process of returning a modulated signal to its original form. Modems perform demodulation by taking an analog signal and returning it to its original (digital) form. See also modulation.

demultiplexing

Separating of multiple input streams that were multiplexed into a common physical signal back into multiple output streams. See also multiplexing.

dense mode PIM

See PIM dense mode.

Department of Defense

See DoD.

DoD Intelligence Information System Network Security for Information Exchange

See DNSIX.

Dependent LU

See DLU.

Dependent LU Requester

See DLUR.

Dependent LU Server

See DLUS.

DES

1. Data Encryption Standard. Standard cryptographic algorithm developed by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards.

2. destination end station.

designated bridge

Bridge that incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding a frame from a segment to the root bridge.

designated router

OSPF router that generates LSAs for a multiaccess network and has other special responsibilities in running OSPF. Each multiaccess OSPF network that has at least two attached routers has a designated router that is elected by the OSPF Hello protocol. The designated router enables a reduction in the number of adjacencies required on a multiaccess network, which in turn reduces the amount of routing protocol traffic and the size of the topological database.

destination address

Address of a network device that is receiving data. See also source address.

destination MAC

See DMAC.

destination service access point

See DSAP.

deterministic load distribution

Technique for distributing traffic between two bridges across a circuit group. Guarantees packet ordering between source-destination pairs and always forwards traffic for a source-destination pair on the same segment in a circuit group for a given circuit-group configuration.

Deutsche Industrie Norm

See DIN.

Deutsche Industrie Norm connector

See DIN connector.

device

See node.

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Provides a mechanism for allocating IP addresses dynamically so that addresses can be reused when hosts no longer need them.

DIA

Document Interchange Architecture. Defines the protocols and data formats needed for the transparent interchange of documents in an SNA network. One of three SNA transaction services. See also DDM and SNADS.

dial backup

Feature that provides protection against WAN downtime by allowing the network administrator to configure a backup serial line through a circuit-switched connection.

dial-on-demand routing

See DDR.

dial-up line

Communications circuit that is established by a switched-circuit connection using the telephone company network.

differential encoding

Digital encoding technique whereby a binary value is denoted by a signal change rather than a particular signal level.

differential Manchester encoding

Digital coding scheme where a mid-bit-time transition is used for clocking, and a transition at the beginning of each bit time denotes a zero. This coding scheme is used by IEEE 802.5 and Token Ring networks.

Diffusing Update Algorithm

See DUAL in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

Digital Network Architecture

See DNA.

digital signal level 0

See DS-0.

digital signal level 1

See DS-1.

digital signal level 3

See DS-3.

Dijkstra's algorithm

See SPF.

DIN

Deutsche Industrie Norm. German national standards organization.

DIN connector

Deutsche Industrie Norm connector. Multipin connector used in some Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers, and on some network processor panels.

directed search

Search request sent to a specific node known to contain a resource. A directed search is used to determine the continued existence of the resource and to obtain routing information specific to the node. See also broadcast search.

directed tree

Logical construct used to define data streams or flows. The origin of a data stream is the root. Data streams are unidirectional branches directed away from the root and toward targets, and targets are the leaves of the directed tree.

direct memory access

See DMA.

directory services

Services that help network devices locate service providers.

DISA

Defense Information Systems Agency. Formerly DCA. U.S. military organization responsible for implementing and operating military information systems, including the DDN. See also DDN and dBm.

discard eligible

See DE.

discovery architecture

APPN software that enables a machine configured as an APPN EN to automatically find primary and backup NNs when the machine is brought onto an APPN network.

discovery mode

Method by which an AppleTalk interface acquires information about an attached network from an operational node and then uses this information to configure itself. Also called dynamic configuration.

Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

See DVMRP.

distance vector routing algorithm

Class of routing algorithms that iterate on the number of hops in a route to find a shortest-path spanning tree. Distance vector routing algorithms call for each router to send its entire routing table in each update, but only to its neighbors. Distance vector routing algorithms can be prone to routing loops, but are computationally simpler than link state routing algorithms. Also called Bellman-Ford routing algorithm. See also link-state routing algorithm and SPF.

distortion delay

Problem with a communication signal resulting from nonuniform transmission speeds of the components of a signal through a transmission medium. Also called group delay.

distributed computing (processing)

See client/server computing.

Distributed Data Management

See DDM.

Distributed Queue Dual Bus

See DQDB.

Distributed Relational Database Architecture

See DRDA.

DIT

Directory Information Tree. Global tree of entries corresponding to information objects in the OSI X.500 Directory.

DLCI

data-link connection identifier. Value that specifies a PVC or SVC in a Frame Relay network. In the basic Frame Relay specification, DLCIs are locally significant (connected devices might use different values to specify the same connection). In the LMI extended specification, DLCIs are globally significant (DLCIs specify individual end devices). See also LMI.

DLL

dynamic link library.

DLSw

data-link switching. Interoperability standard, described in RFC 1434, that provides a method for forwarding SNA and NetBIOS traffic over TCP/IP networks using data-link layer switching and encapsulation. DLSw uses SSP instead of SRB, eliminating the major limitations of SRB, including hop-count limits, broadcast and unnecessary traffic, timeouts, lack of flow control, and lack of prioritization schemes. See also SRB and SSP (Switch-to-Switch Protocol).

DLSw+

See DLSw+ (data-link switching plus) in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

DLU

Dependent LU. LU that depends on the SSCP to provide services for establishing sessions with other LUs. See also LU and SSCP.

DLUR

Dependent LU Requester. Client half of the Dependent LU Requestor/Server enhancement to APPN. The DLUR component resides in APPN ENs and NNs that support adjacent DLUs by securing services from the DLUS. See also APPN, DLU, and DLUS.

DLUR node

In APPN networks, an EN or NN that implements the DLUR component. See also DLUR.

DLUS

Dependent LU Server. Server half of the Dependent LU Requestor/Server enhancement to APPN. The DLUS component provides SSCP services to DLUR nodes over an APPN network. See also APPN, DLU, and DLUR.

DLUS node

In APPN networks, a NN that implements the DLUS component. See also DLUS.

DMA

direct memory access. Transfer of data from a peripheral device, such as a hard disk drive, into memory without that data passing through the microprocessor. DMA transfers data into memory at high speeds with no processor overhead.

DMAC

destination MAC. The MAC address specified in the Destination Address field of a packet. Compare with SMAC. See also MAC address.

DMP

See DMP (Data movement processor) in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

DN

Distinguished Name. Global, authoritative name of an entry in the OSI Directory (X.500).

DNA

Digital Network Architecture. Network architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation. The products that embody DNA (including communications protocols) are collectively referred to as DECnet. See also DECnet.

DNIC

Data Network Identification Code. Part of an X.121 address. DNICs are divided into two parts: the first specifying the country in which the addressed PSN is located and the second specifying the PSN itself. See also X.121.

DNS

Domain Name System. System used in the Internet for translating names of network nodes into addresses. See also authority zone.

DNSIX

Department of Defense Intelligence Information System Network Security for Information Exchange. Collection of security requirements for networking defined by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency.

DOCSIS

Data-over-Cable Service Interface Specifications. Defines technical specifications for equipment at both subscriber locations and cable operators' headends. Adoption of DOCSIS will accelerate deployment of data-over-cable services and ensure interoperability of equipment throughout system operators' infrastructures.

Document Interchange Architecture

See DIA.

DoD

Department of Defense. U.S. government organization that is responsible for national defense. The DoD has frequently funded communication protocol development.

domain

1. In the Internet, a portion of the naming hierarchy tree that refers to general groupings of networks based on organization-type or geography.

2. In SNA, an SSCP and the resources it controls.

3. In IS-IS, a logical set of networks.

Domain

Networking system developed by Apollo Computer (now part of Hewlett-Packard) for use in its engineering workstations.

Domain Name System

See DNS.

domain specific part

See DSP.

dot address

Refers to the common notation for IP addresses in the form n.n.n.n where neach number n represents, in decimal, 1 byte of the 4-byte IP address. Also called dotted notation and four-part dotted notation.

dotted decimal notation

Syntactic representation for a 32-bit integer that consists of four 8-bit numbers written in base 10 with periods (dots) separating them. Used to represent IP addresses in the Internet, as in 192.67.67.20. Also called dotted quad notation.

dotted notation

See dot address.

downlink station

See ground station.

downstream physical unit

See DSPU.

DQDB

Distributed Queue Dual Bus. Data-link layer communication protocol, specified in the IEEE 802.6 standard, designed for use in MANs. DQDB, which permits multiple systems to interconnect using two unidirectional logical buses, is an open standard that is designed for compatibility with carrier transmission standards, and is aligned with emerging standards for BISDN. SIP is based on DQDB. See also MAN.

DRAM

dynamic random-access memory. RAM that stores information in capacitors that must be periodically refreshed. Delays can occur because DRAMs are inaccessible to the processor when refreshing their contents. However, DRAMs are less complex and have greater capacity than SRAMs. See also SRAM.

DRDA

Distributed Relational Database Architecture. IBM proprietary architecture.

drop

Point on a multipoint channel where a connection to a networked device is made.

drop cable

Cable that connects a network device (such as a computer) to a physical medium. A type of AUI. See also AUI.

DRP

See DRP (Director Response Protocol) in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

DS-0

digital signal level 0. Framing specification used in transmitting digital signals over a single channel at 64-kbps on a T1 facility. Compare with DS-1 and DS-3.

DS-1

digital signal level. Framing specification used in transmitting digital signals at 1.544-Mbps on a T1 facility (in the United States) or at 2.108-Mbps on an E1 facility (in Europe). Compare with DS-0 and DS-3. See also E1 and T1.

DS-1 domestic trunk interface

See DS-1/DTI.

DS-1/DTI

DS-1 domestic trunk interface. Interface circuit used for DS-1 applications with 24 trunks.

DS-3

digital signal level 3. Framing specification used for transmitting digital signals at 44.736 Mbps on a T3 facility. Compare with DS-0 and DS-1. See also E3 and T.120.

DSA

Directory System Agent. Software that provides the X.500 Directory Service for a portion of the directory information base. Generally, each DSA is responsible for the directory information for a single organization or organizational unit.

DSAP

destination service access point. SAP of the network node designated in the Destination field of a packet. Compare with SSAP. See also SAP (service access point).

DSL

digital subscriber line. Public network technology that delivers high bandwidth over conventional copper wiring at limited distances. There are four types of DSL: ADSL, HDSL, SDSL, and VDSL. All are provisioned via modem pairs, with one modem located at a central office and the other at the customer site. Because most DSL technologies do not use the whole bandwidth of the twisted pair, there is room remaining for a voice channel. See also ADSL, HDSL, SDSL, and VDSL.

DSP

domain specific part. Part of an NSAP-format ATM address that contains an area identifier, a station identifier, and a selector byte. See also NSAP.

DSPU

downstream physical unit. In SNA, a PU that is located downstream from the host. See also DSPU concentration in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

DSPU concentration

See DSPU concentration in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

DSR

data set ready. EIA/TIA-232 interface circuit that is activated when DCE is powered up and ready for use.

DSU

data service unit. Device used in digital transmission that adapts the physical interface on a DTE device to a transmission facility such as T1 or E1. The DSU is also responsible for such functions as signal timing. Often referred to together with CSU, as CSU/DSU. See also CSU.

DSX-1

Crossconnection point for DS-1 signals.

DTE

data terminal equipment. Device at the user end of a user-network interface that serves as a data source, destination, or both. DTE connects to a data network through a DCE device (for example, a modem) and typically uses clocking signals generated by the DCE. DTE includes such devices as computers, protocol translators, and multiplexers. Compare with DCE.

DTL

designated transit list. List of nodes and optional link IDs that completely specify a path across a single PNNI peer group.

DTMF

dual tone multifrequency. Use of two simultaneous voice-band tones for dialing (such as touch tone).

DTR

data terminal ready. EIA/TIA-232 circuit that is activated to let the DCE know when the DTE is ready to send and receive data.

DUA

Directory User Agent. Software that accesses the X.500 Directory Service on behalf of the directory user. The directory user can be a person or another software element.

DUAL

See DUAL (Diffusing update algorithm) in the "Cisco Systems Terms and Acronyms" section.

dual-attached concentrator

See DAC.

dual attachment station

See DAS.

dual counter-rotating rings

Network topology in which two signal paths, whose directions are opposite each other, exist in a token-passing network. FDDI and CDDI are based on this concept.

dual-homed station

Device attached to multiple FDDI rings to provide redundancy.

dual homing

Network topology in which a device is connected to the network by way of two independent access points (points of attachment). One access point is the primary connection, and the other is a standby connection that is activated in the event of a failure of the primary connection.

Dual IS-IS

See Integrated IS-IS.

dual tone multifrequency

See DTMF.

DVMRP

Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol. Internetwork gateway protocol, largely based on RIP, that implements a typical dense mode IP multicast scheme. DVMRP uses IGMP to exchange routing datagrams with its neighbors. See also IGMP.

DXI

Data Exchange Interface. ATM Forum specification, described in RFC 1483, that defines how a network device such as a bridge, router, or hub can effectively act as an FEP to an ATM network by interfacing with a special DSU that performs packet segmentation and reassembly.

dynamic adaptive routing

Automatic rerouting of traffic based on a sensing and analysis of current actual network conditions, not including cases of routing decisions taken on predefined information.

dynamic address resolution

Use of an address resolution protocol to determine and store address information on demand.

Dynamic Buffer Management

Frame Relay and ATM service modules are equipped with large buffers and the patented Dynamic Buffer Management scheme for allocating and scaling traffic entering or leaving a node on a per-VC basis. The WAN switch dynamically assigns buffers to individual virtual circuits based upon the amount of traffic present and service-level agreements. This deep pool of available buffers readily accommodates large bursts of traffic into the node.

dynamic configuration

See discovery mode.

Dynamic IISP

Dynamic Interim-Interswitch Signaling Protocol. Basic call routing protocol that automatically reroutes ATM connections in the event of link failures. Dynamic IISP is an interim solution until PNNI Phase 1 is completed. Contrast with IISP.

dynamic random-access memory

See DRAM.

dynamic routing

Routing that adjusts automatically to network topology or traffic changes. Also called adaptive routing.

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Posted: Tue Sep 21 15:14:29 PDT 1999
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