Performing Identity Procedure in response to
authentication failures results in fewer subscribers losing network
connectivity due to Authentication Rejects. In the network, authentication
rejects due to authentication failures such as Sync failure, GSM authentication
unacceptable, and MAC failure, cause loss of network connectivity to
subscribers. Often uthentication failure is due to incorrectly sent
authentication vectors, which could be due to a P-TMSI (Packet Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity) collision in the network.
When a 3G MS/UE
attaches and sends a RAU Request with P-TMSI identity, this means that this
was registered in the SGSN,
received this P-TMSI identity
from the SGSN,
left the SGSN, and
has returned to this SGSN.
And in the time between leaving and
returning, another subscriber, a 2G subscriber, has registered with this SGSN
and has the same P-TMSI.
The SGSN tries to
authenticate the returning 3G subscriber with the authentication vectors of the
2G subscriber. This causes the MS/UE to send authentication failure with cause
"GSM authentication unacceptable" because the SGSN has sent RAND from the 2G
subscriber when the 3G subscriber's MS/UE was expecting quintets.
When a 2G MS sends a
RAU Request (new SGSN RAU) with a P-TMSI identity, the SGSN tries to
authenticate the new 2G subscriber with the authentication vectors of a
different 2G subscriber. In this scenario, it appears as if IMSI-PTMSI
collision occurs within the SGSN or it is due to the peer-SGSN sending vectors
of another subscriber or an incorrect IMSI in the Context Response. This
results in authentication failure with cause "MAC failure".
In most cases, these
forms of authentication failure can be resolved by the subscriber
restarting their device - if the subscriber knows to try
The SGSN supports performing
an Identity Procedure on receiving MAC Failure in 3G and on MAC
Failure during 2G Attach.
Beginning with release
19.2, the SGSN also supports performing Identity
Procedure on MAC Failure in 2G New-ISRAU.
the SGSN gets MAC failure for the first time from an MS/UE, the
SGSN sends an SGSN-Context-ACK Failure message
to the peer-SGSN and starts an Identity Procedure.
Once the SGSN receives the IMSI from the MS/UE in
an Identity Response, if the IMSI is different from the
IMSI received from the peer-SGSN then the SGSN will authenticate
by fetching vectors from the HLR.
Next the SGSN tries to get the context from the peer-SGSN
by initiating a new Context Request, including the IMSI
obtained from the MS/UE, and the MS/UE
validated flag is set.
The SGSN proceeds with the call.
the IMSI is not found in the peer-SGSN, the SGSN
sends RAU Reject with cause "MS Identity Cannot Be Derived
by the Network". In accordance with the 3GPP specification, the
MS/UE tries to register again using its IMSI.
GSM Authentication Unacceptable
with Release 19.2, the SGSN performs Identity
Procedure on receiving GSM Authentication Unacceptable failure for
3G Attach, for 3G New-ISRAU, for 3G Intra-RAU, and for
If the SGSN gets the correct
IMSI in the Identity Response, then the SGSN will try to authenticate
the MS/UE again using the vectors from the HLR. If
the authentication fails again, the SGSN send Authentication
Reject to the MS/UE.
How It Works
3GPP specification TS 24.008, section
188.8.131.52 (c) suggest
that "Upon the first receipt of an AUTHENTICATION FAILURE message
from the MS with reject cause "MAC failure" or "GSM authentication
unacceptable", the network may initiate the identification
procedure. This is to allow the network to obtain the IMSI
from the MS. When the SGSN receives authentication failure
message with cause as GSM authentication unacceptable or MAC failure
from a 3G/2G subscriber respectively, it will
start identity procedure and authenticate the subscriber with vectors
fetched using IMSI. This will avoid network loss to subscribers
due to such PTMSI collision cases.
With Release 19.2, the
SGSN performs Identity Procedure in accordance with 3GPP recommendations, as
3G Attach Request from a UE
with P-TMSI (with the same P-TMSI the SGSN gave to a 2G subscriber now
registered in the SGSN)
3G New-ISRAU with a P-TMSI
In the above
scenarios, if authentication fails due to cause "GSM authentication
unacceptable", then the SGSN performs the identity procedure and authenticates
using vectors from the HLR.
In the case of a 3G
Intra-RAU or Inter-RAT, if the arriving MS/UE is a different subscriber than
the already registered one, then the SGSN rejects the RAU with cause "MS
Identity Cannot be Derived by the Network", so the UE will use the IMSI at the
MAC Failure in 2G
The SGSN will perform identity procedure if
MAC failure is received for any of the following scenario:
2G Atach Request from a UE with P-TMSI (with
a P-TMSI given to a different 2G subscriber now registered
in the SGSN).
2G New-ISRAU with a P-TMSI
Configuring Performance of Identity Procedure
The default behavior of the SGSN is to perform identity procedure when
authentication failures occur. The configuration noted below, allows the
operator to disable or to re-enable the SGSN's default behavior.
With Release 19.2, the default behavior has been extended to enable
the SGSN to initiate the identity procedure on receiving authentication
failures with either cause "MAC Failure" or cause "GSM Authentication Failure".
The following command sequence configures the SGSN so that performance
of the identity procedure upon receipt of an authentication failure is
If the default behavior
has been disabled with the command sequence noted above, then to re-enable
performance of the identity procedure upon receipt of an authentication
failure, re-enter the sequence but do not include the
no prefix with the