Information About OSPF
OSPF is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) designed expressly for IP networks, supporting IP subnetting and tagging of externally derived routing information. OSPF also allows packet authentication and uses IP multicast when sending and receiving packets. The Cisco implementation supports RFC 1253, OSPF management information base (MIB).
The Cisco implementation conforms to the OSPF Version 2 specifications with these key features:
Definition of stub areas is supported.
Routes learned through any IP routing protocol can be redistributed into another IP routing protocol. At the intradomain level, this means that OSPF can import routes learned through EIGRP and RIP. OSPF routes can also be exported into RIP.
Plain text and MD5 authentication among neighboring routers within an area is supported.
Configurable routing interface parameters include interface output cost, retransmission interval, interface transmit delay, router priority, router dead and hello intervals, and authentication key.
Virtual links are supported.
Not-so-stubby-areas (NSSAs) per RFC 1587are supported.
OSPF typically requires coordination among many internal routers, area border routers (ABRs) connected to multiple areas, and autonomous system boundary routers (ASBRs). The minimum configuration would use all default parameter values, no authentication, and interfaces assigned to areas. If you customize your environment, you must ensure coordinated configuration of all routers.
OSPF Nonstop Forwarding
The Device or switch stack supports two levels of nonstop forwarding (NSF):
OSPF NSF Awareness
When the neighboring router is NSF-capable, the Layer 3 Device continues to forward packets from the neighboring router during the interval between the primary Route Processor (RP) in a router crashing and the backup RP taking over, or while the primary RP is manually reloaded for a non-disruptive software upgrade.
This feature cannot be disabled.
OSPF NSF Capability
supports the OSPFv2 NSF IETF format in addition to the OSPFv2 NSF Cisco format that is supported in earlier releases. For information about this feature, see : NSF—OSPF (RFC 3623 OSPF Graceful Restart).
The also supports OSPF NSF-capable routing for IPv4 for better convergence and lower traffic loss following a stack's active switch change.
OSPF NSF requires that all neighbor networking devices be NSF-aware. If an NSF-capable router discovers non-NSF aware neighbors on a network segment, it disables NSF capabilities for that segment. Other network segments where all devices are NSF-aware or NSF-capable continue to provide NSF capabilities.
Use the nsf OSPF routing configuration command to enable OSPF NSF routing. Use the show ip ospf privileged EXEC command to verify that it is enabled.
For more information, see Cisco Nonstop Forwarding: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/ha/configuration/guide/ha-nonstp_fwdg.html
OSPF Area Parameters
You can optionally configure several OSPF area parameters. These parameters include authentication for password-based protection against unauthorized access to an area, stub areas, and not-so-stubby-areas (NSSAs). Stub areas are areas into which information on external routes is not sent. Instead, the area border router (ABR) generates a default external route into the stub area for destinations outside the autonomous system (AS). An NSSA does not flood all LSAs from the core into the area, but can import AS external routes within the area by redistribution.
Route summarization is the consolidation of advertised addresses into a single summary route to be advertised by other areas. If network numbers are contiguous, you can use the area range router configuration command to configure the ABR to advertise a summary route that covers all networks in the range.
Other OSPF Parameters
You can optionally configure other OSPF parameters in router configuration mode.
Route summarization: When redistributing routes from other protocols. Each route is advertised individually in an external LSA. To help decrease the size of the OSPF link state database, you can use the summary-address router configuration command to advertise a single router for all the redistributed routes included in a specified network address and mask.
Virtual links: In OSPF, all areas must be connected to a backbone area. You can establish a virtual link in case of a backbone-continuity break by configuring two Area Border Routers as endpoints of a virtual link. Configuration information includes the identity of the other virtual endpoint (the other ABR) and the nonbackbone link that the two routers have in common (the transit area). Virtual links cannot be configured through a stub area.
Default route: When you specifically configure redistribution of routes into an OSPF routing domain, the route automatically becomes an autonomous system boundary router (ASBR). You can force the ASBR to generate a default route into the OSPF routing domain.
Domain Name Server (DNS) names for use in all OSPF show privileged EXEC command displays makes it easier to identify a router than displaying it by router ID or neighbor ID.
Default Metrics: OSPF calculates the OSPF metric for an interface according to the bandwidth of the interface. The metric is calculated as ref-bw divided by bandwidth, where ref is 10 by default, and bandwidth (bw ) is specified by the bandwidth interface configuration command. For multiple links with high bandwidth, you can specify a larger number to differentiate the cost on those links.
Administrative distance is a rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source, an integer between 0 and 255, with a higher value meaning a lower trust rating. An administrative distance of 255 means the routing information source cannot be trusted at all and should be ignored. OSPF uses three different administrative distances: routes within an area (interarea), routes to another area (interarea), and routes from another routing domain learned through redistribution (external). You can change any of the distance values.
Passive interfaces: Because interfaces between two devices on an Ethernet represent only one network segment, to prevent OSPF from sending hello packets for the sending interface, you must configure the sending device to be a passive interface. Both devices can identify each other through the hello packet for the receiving interface.
Route calculation timers: You can configure the delay time between when OSPF receives a topology change and when it starts the shortest path first (SPF) calculation and the hold time between two SPF calculations.
Log neighbor changes: You can configure the router to send a syslog message when an OSPF neighbor state changes, providing a high-level view of changes in the router.
LSA Group Pacing
The OSPF LSA group pacing feature allows the router to group OSPF LSAs and pace the refreshing, check-summing, and aging functions for more efficient router use. This feature is enabled by default with a 4-minute default pacing interval, and you will not usually need to modify this parameter. The optimum group pacing interval is inversely proportional to the number of LSAs the router is refreshing, check-summing, and aging. For example, if you have approximately 10,000 LSAs in the database, decreasing the pacing interval would benefit you. If you have a very small database (40 to 100 LSAs), increasing the pacing interval to 10 to 20 minutes might benefit you slightly.
OSPF uses the highest IP address configured on the interfaces as its router ID. If this interface is down or removed, the OSPF process must recalculate a new router ID and resend all its routing information out its interfaces. If a loopback interface is configured with an IP address, OSPF uses this IP address as its router ID, even if other interfaces have higher IP addresses. Because loopback interfaces never fail, this provides greater stability. OSPF automatically prefers a loopback interface over other interfaces, and it chooses the highest IP address among all loopback interfaces.