Directed at adults, but not necessarily pornographic. May include adult clubs (strip clubs, swingers clubs, escort services, strippers); general information about sex, non-pornographic in nature; genital piercing; adult products or greeting cards; information about sex not in the context of health or disease.
Banner and pop-up advertisements that often accompany a web page; other advertising websites that provide advertisement content. Advertising services and sales are classified as “Business and Industry.”
Alcohol as a pleasurable activity; beer and wine making, cocktail recipes; liquor sellers, wineries, vineyards, breweries, alcohol distributors. Alcohol addiction is classified as “Health and Nutrition.” Bars and restaurants are classified as “Dining and Drinking.”
Animals and Pets
Information about domestic animals, livestock, service animals, pets and their care. Veterinary services, medicines, and animal health. Pet and animal training, aquariums, zoos, and animal shows. Includes animal shelters, humane societies, animal centric charities, and sanctuaries, bee keeping, training, and animal husbandry; dinosaurs and extinct animals.
Galleries and exhibitions; artists and art; photography; literature and books; performing arts and theater; musicals; ballet; museums; design; architecture. Cinema and television are classified as “Entertainment.”
Astrology, horoscope, fortune telling, numerology, psychic advice, tarot.
Online and offline auctions, auction houses, and classified advertisements.
Business and Industry
Marketing, commerce, corporations, business practices, workforce, human resources, transportation, payroll, security and venture capital; office supplies; industrial equipment (process equipment), machines and mechanical systems; heating equipment, cooling equipment; materials handling equipment; packaging equipment; manufacturing; solids handling, metal fabrication, construction and building; passenger transportation; commerce; industrial design; construction, building materials; shipping and freight (freight services, trucking, freight forwarders, truckload carriers, freight and transportation brokers, expedited services, load and freight matching, track and trace, rail shipping, ocean shipping, road feeder services, moving and storage).
Websites that focus on the recreational and medicinal consumption of cannabis. Sites may include marketing, discussions about legal and regulatory issues, growth and production, paraphernalia, research, and investment in the cannabis industry. Dispensaries, cannabinoid (CBD oil, THC, etc.) based products are also included.
Chat and Instant Messaging
Web-based instant messaging and chat rooms.
Cheating and Plagiarism
Promoting cheating and selling written work, such as term papers, plagiarism.
Child Abuse Content
Worldwide illegal child sexual abuse content. In Cisco ScanCenter, Cisco blocks all child abuse content for all customers without exception, and for legal reasons keeps no logs. This category is never displayed in Cisco ScanCenter.
In the Cisco Web Security Appliance, when URL categorization is enabled, this category is logged in the access logs regardless of whether the content is blocked.
Cloud and Data Centers
Platforms used to serve cloud infrastructure or data center hosting to support an organization's applications, services, or data processing. Due to the de-centralized nature of these domains and IP addresses, a more specific category cannot be applied based on content or ownership.
Offering security products and services for corporate and home users.
Cisco ScanCenter is included in the Computer Security category. Therefore, any policies created for the Computer Security category will also apply to Cisco ScanCenter. For example, if you add a Web filter policy that blocks the Computer Security category, your access to Cisco ScanCenter will also be blocked. A workaround is to first add the Cisco ScanCenter URL to an allowed list before blocking the Computer Security category.
Computers and Internet
Information about computers and software, such as hardware, software, software support; information for software engineers, programming and networking; website design; the web and Internet in general; computer science; computer graphics and clipart. “Freeware and Shareware” is a separate category.
Conventions, Conferences, and Trade Shows
Seminars, trade shows, conventions and conferences themed around a particular industry, market, or common interest. May include information about acquiring tickets, registration, abstract or presentation proposal guidelines, workshops, sponsorship details, vendor or exhibitor information, and other marketing or promotional material. This category includes academic, professional, as well as pop-culture events, all of which tend to be a short-lived or annual event.
Online brokerages and websites that enable users to trade cryptocurrencies; information regarding cryptocurrencies including analysis, commentary, advice, performance indexes, and price charts. General information about cryptomining and mining businesses are included in this category but domains and IP addresses directly involved in mining activities are categorized as Cryptomining.
Hosts that are actively participating in a cryptocurrency mining pool.
Dating, online personals, matrimonial agencies.
Enabling sending of digital postcards and e-cards.
Dining and Drinking
Eating and drinking establishments; restaurants, bars, taverns, and pubs; restaurant guides and reviews.
Sites that provide DNS Tunneling as a service. These services can be for PC or mobile and create a VPN connection specifically over DNS to send traffic that may bypass corporate policies and inspection.
DoH and DoT
Encrypted DNS requests using either the DNS over HTTPS (DoH) protocol or the DNS over TLS protocol. These protocols are typically used as a layer of security and privacy by end-users, but the encryption hides the destination of the request and passes it through a third-party.
Do It Yourself (DIY) Projects
Guidance and information to create, improve, modify, decorate, and repair something without the aid of experts or professionals.
Dynamic and Residential
IP addresses of broadband links that usually indicate users attempting to access their home network, for example, for a remote session to a home computer.
Dynamic DNS Provider
Users may use dynamic DNS services to make certain applications or content accessible via the web from endpoints hosted on dynamically assigned IP addresses. Access is granted through a hostname on the domain owned by the dynamic DNS service.
Education-related, such as schools, colleges, universities, teaching materials, and teachers’ resources; technical and vocational training; online training; education issues and policies; financial aid; school funding; standards and testing.
Details or discussion of films; music and bands; television; celebrities and fan websites; entertainment news; celebrity gossip; entertainment venues. Compare with the “Arts” category.
Material of a sexually violent or criminal nature; violence and violent behavior; tasteless, often gory photographs, such as autopsy photos; photos of crime scenes, crime and accident victims; excessive obscene material; shock websites.
Clothing and fashion; hair salons; cosmetics; accessories; jewelry; perfume; pictures and text relating to body modification; tattoos and piercing; modeling agencies. Dermatological products are classified as “Health and Nutrition.”
File Transfer Services
File transfer services with the primary purpose of providing download services and hosted file sharing
Promoting and aiding undetectable and anonymous web usage, including cgi, php and glype anonymous proxy services.
Primarily financial in nature, such as accounting practices and accountants, taxation, taxes, banking, insurance, investing, the national economy, personal finance involving insurance of all types, credit cards, retirement and estate planning, loans, mortgages. Stock and shares are classified as “Online Trading.”
Freeware and Shareware
Downloads of free software and shareware .
Casinos and online gambling; bookmakers and odds; gambling advice; competitive racing in a gambling context; sports booking; sports gambling; services for spread betting on stocks and shares. Websites dealing with gambling addiction are classified as “Health and Nutrition.” Government-run lotteries are classified as “Lotteries.”
Various card games, board games, word games, and video games; combat games; sports games; downloadable games; game reviews; cheat sheets; computer games and Internet games, such as role-playing games.
Government and Law
Government websites; foreign relations; news and information relating to government and elections; information relating to the field of law, such as attorneys, law firms, law publications, legal reference material, courts, dockets, and legal associations; legislation and court decisions; civil rights issues; immigration; patents and copyrights; information relating to law enforcement and correctional systems; crime reporting, law enforcement, and crime statistics; military, such as the armed forces, military bases, military organizations; anti-terrorism.
Discussing ways to bypass the security of websites, software, and computers.
Websites promoting hatred, intolerance, or discrimination on the basis of social group, color, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity; websites promoting racism, sexism, racist theology, hate music, neo-Nazi organizations, supremacism; Holocaust denial.
Health and Nutrition
Health care; diseases and disabilities; medical care; hospitals; doctors; medicinal drugs; mental health; psychiatry; pharmacology; exercise and fitness; physical disabilities; vitamins and supplements; sex in the context of health (disease and health care); tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and gambling in the context of health (disease and health care); food in general; food and beverage; cooking and recipes; food and nutrition, health, and dieting; cooking, including recipe and culinary websites; alternative medicine.
After February 8, 2021, this category will be split into “Recipes and Food” and “Health and Medicine” designed to provide more granular context for sites and more accurate management of web traffic. Thereafter, “Health and Nutrition” will be available only for the reporting of previously generated traffic.
Health and Medicine
Health care; diseases and disabilities; medical care; hospitals; doctors; medicinal drugs; mental health; psychiatry; pharmacology; exercise and fitness; physical disabilities; vitamins and supplements; sex in the context of health (disease and health care); tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and gambling in the context of health (disease and health care).
Jokes, sketches, comics, and other humorous content. Adult humor likely to offend is classified as “Adult.”
Professional or sport hunting, gun clubs and other hunting related sites.
Promoting crime, such as stealing, fraud, illegally accessing telephone networks; computer viruses; terrorism, bombs, and anarchy; websites depicting murder and suicide and explaining ways to commit them.
Providing the ability to download software or other materials, serial numbers, key generators, and tools for bypassing software protection in violation of copyright agreements. Torrents are classified as “Peer File Transfer.”
Information about recreational drugs, drug paraphernalia, drug purchase, and manufacture.
Infrastructure and Content Delivery
Content delivery infrastructure and dynamically generated content; websites that cannot be classified more specifically because they are secured or otherwise difficult to classify.
Internet of Things
Domains used to monitor the general health, activity, or aid in the configuration of Internet of Things (IoT) and other network-aware electronics. Additionally these sites may provide software or firmware updates or allow remote access to administer the device. IoT exists in both consumer and professional segments, in products such as printers, televisions, thermostats, system monitoring, automation, and smart appliances.
Telephonic services using the Internet.
Career advice; resume writing and interviewing skills; job placement services; job databanks; permanent and temporary employment agencies; employer websites.
Lingerie and Swimsuits
Intimate apparel and swimwear, especially when modeled.
Sweepstakes, contests, and state-sponsored lotteries.
Military, such as the armed forces, military bases, military organizations, and anti-terrorism.
Short Message Services (SMS); ringtones and mobile phone downloads. Cellular carrier websites are included in the “Business and Industry” category.
Museums and exhibits, both online and physical, dedicated to preserving information regarding subjects that could be of general interest or highly specialized. Subjects could range from art, history, science, or be of cultural importance.
Natural resources; ecology and conservation; forests; wilderness; plants; flowers; forest conservation; forest, wilderness, and forestry practices; forest management (reforestation, forest protection, conservation, harvesting, forest health, thinning, and prescribed burning); agricultural practices (agriculture, gardening, horticulture, landscaping, planting, weed control, irrigation, pruning, and harvesting); pollution issues (air quality, hazardous waste, pollution prevention, recycling, waste management, water quality, and the environmental cleanup industry); animals, pets, livestock, and zoology; biology; botany.
After February 8, 2021, this category will be split into “Nature and Conservation” and “Animals and Pets” designed to provide more granular context for sites and more accurate management of web traffic. Thereafter, “Nature” will be available only for the reporting of previously generated traffic.
Nature and Conservation
Sites related to natural resources; ecology and conservation; forests; wilderness; plants; flowers; forest conservation; forest, wilderness, and forestry practices; forest management (reforestation, forest protection, conservation, harvesting, forest health, thinning, and prescribed burning); agricultural practices (agriculture, gardening, horticulture, landscaping, planting, weed control, irrigation, pruning, and harvesting); pollution issues (air quality, hazardous waste, pollution prevention, recycling, waste management, water quality, and the environmental cleanup industry).
News, headlines, newspapers, television stations, magazines, weather, ski conditions.
Non-governmental organizations such as clubs, lobbies, communities, non-profit organizations and labor unions.
Nudism and nudity; naturism; nudist camps; artistic nudes.
Affinity groups; special interest groups; web newsgroups; message boards. Excludes websites classified as “Professional Networking” or “Social Networking.”
Online Document Sharing and Collaboration
Cloud-based software used to create, convert, or edit documents. Collaboration and sharing features may be available with access permissions typically configured by the author. Documents may be stored online or available to download.
Online meetings, desktop sharing, remote access, and other tools that facilitate multi-location collaboration.
Online Storage and Backup
Offsite and peer-to-peer storage for backup, sharing, and hosting.
Online brokerages; websites that enable the user to trade stocks online; information relating to the stock market, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, brokers, stock analysis and commentary, stock screens, stock charts, IPOs, stock splits. Services for spread-betting on stocks and shares are classified as “Gambling.” Other financial services are classified as “Finance.”
Websites used to access business email (often via Outlook Web Access).
UFOs, ghosts, cryptid, telekenesis, urban legends, and myths.
Websites that monetize traffic from the domain using paid listings from an ad network, or are owned by “squatters” hoping to sell the domain name for a profit. These also include fake search websites which return paid ad links.
Peer File Transfer
Peer-to-peer file request websites. Using this category in a web filter does not track the file transfers themselves.
Websites about and from private individuals; personal homepage servers; websites with personal contents; personal blogs with no particular theme.
Virtual private network (VPN) sites or tools that are typically used for personal use and may or may not be approved for corporate use.
Photo Searches and Images
Facilitating the storing and searching for, images, photographs, and clip art.
Websites of politicians; political parties; news and information on politics, elections, democracy, and voting.
Sexually explicit text or depictions. Includes explicit anime and cartoons; general explicit depictions; other fetish material; explicit chat rooms; sex simulators; strip poker; adult movies; lewd art; web-based explicit email.
Private IP Addresses as Host
Private IP addresses which are used as the host part of a URL. Private IP addresses are meant for internal use behind border routers only, so they are not publicly routable.
Social networking for the purpose of career or professional development. See also “Social Networking.”
Information that would support the search for real estate; office and commercial space; real estate listings, such as rentals, apartments, and homes; house building.
Recipes and Food
Sites dedicated to sharing or discussing information about cooking, recipes, and food or non-alcoholic beverages; cultural aspects of cuisine and food; diet descriptions and adherence tips, general nutrition information about foods. Use and instruction on cooking appliances and utensils. Food celebrity, lifestyle, and enthusiast blogs.
City and state guides, maps, time, reference sources, dictionaries, libraries.
Regional Restricted Sites
A new set of categories which contain URLs that are restricted in a particular country due to content which may be unlawful as determined by the regional government. We are unable to share the contents of most of these lists. Poland is an exception as this list is public.
Regional Restricted Sites (Poland)
URLs that are restricted in Poland due to content which may be unlawful as determined by the regional government. Further details may be found here: Ministerstwo Finansów.
Religious content, information about religions, religious communities.
SaaS and B2B
Web portals for online business services; online meetings.
Safe for Kids
Directed at, and specifically approved for, young children.
Science and Technology
Science and technology, such as aerospace, electronics, engineering, mathematics, and other similar disciplines; space exploration; meteorology; geography; environment; energy (fossil, nuclear, renewable); communications (telephones, telecommunications).
Search Engines and Portals
Search engines and other initial points of access to information on the Internet.
Factual websites dealing with sex, sexual health, contraception, pregnancy.
Bartering; online purchasing; coupons and free offers; general office supplies; online catalogs; online malls.
Social networking. See also “Professional Networking.”
Sciences and history related to society; archaeology; anthropology; cultural studies; history; linguistics; geography; philosophy; psychology; women’s studies.
Society and Culture
Family and relationships; ethnicity; social organizations; genealogy; seniors; child-care.
Websites that host updates for software packages.
Sports and Recreation
All sports, professional and amateur; recreational activities; fishing; fantasy sports; public parks; amusement parks; water parks; theme parks; zoos and aquariums; spas.
Real-time streaming audio content including Internet radio and audio feeds.
Real-time streaming video including Internet television, web casts, and video sharing.
Terrorism and Violent Extremism
Terrorist or extremist websites that promote death or violence as part of their ideology. Sites may contain graphic or disturbing images, videos, and text. Some sites may not advocate terrorism but share first-hand material of a violent nature.
Pro-tobacco websites; tobacco manufacturers; pipes and smoking products (not marketed for illegal drug use). Tobacco addiction is classified as “Health and Nutrition.”
Personal transportation; information about cars and motorcycles; shopping for new and used cars and motorcycles; car clubs; boats, airplanes, recreational vehicles (RVs), and other similar items. Note, car and motorcycle racing is classified as “Sports and Recreation.”
Business and personal travel; travel information; travel resources; travel agents; vacation packages; cruises; lodging and accommodation; travel transportation; flight booking; airfares; car rental; vacation homes.
Websites that are not in the Cisco database are recorded as unclassified for reporting purposes. This category may include mistyped URLs.
Domains used to shorten long URLs, brand URLs, or may obscure the final destination of a hyperlink.
Information relating to the purchase or use of conventional weapons such as gun sellers, gun auctions, gun classified ads, gun accessories, gun shows, and gun training; general information about guns; other weapons and graphic hunting sites may be included. Government military websites are classified as “Government and Law.”
Public web-based email services. Websites enabling individuals to access their company or organization’s email service are classified as “Organizational Email.”
Web Cache and Archives
Cached or archived web content often stored for preservation or to decrease load times.
Website hosting; bandwidth services.
Web Page Translation
Translation of web pages between languages.