You can also use a floating summary route when configuring the summary-address command. The floating summary route is created by applying a default route and administrative distance at the interface level. The following scenario illustrates the behavior of this enhancement.
Figure 1 shows a network with three routers, Router-A, Router-B, and Router-C. Router-A learns a default route from elsewhere in the network and then advertises this route to Router-B. Router-B is configured so that only a default summary route is advertised to Router-C. The default summary route is applied to interface 0/1 on Router-B with the following configuration:
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config)# router eigrp 100
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-eigrp)# address-family ipv4
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-eigrp-af)# interface GigabitEthernet 0/3/0/0
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-eigrp-af-if)# summary-address 18.104.22.168 0.0.0.0
Figure 1. Floating Summary Route Is Applied to Router-B
The configuration of the default summary route on Router-B sends a 0.0.0.0/0 summary route to Router-C and blocks all other routes, including the 10.1.1.0/24 route, from being advertised to Router-C. However, this configuration also generates a local discard route on Router-B, a route for 0.0.0.0/0 to the null 0 interface with an administrative distance of 5. When this route is created, it overrides the EIGRP learned default route. Router-B is no longer able to reach destinations that it would normally reach through the 0.0.0.0.0/0 route.
This problem is resolved by applying a floating summary route to the interface on Router-B that connects to Router-C. The floating summary route is applied by relating an administrative distance to the default summary route on the interface of Router-B with the following statement:
RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# summary-address 100 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 250
The administrative distance of 250, applied in the above statement, is now assigned to the discard route generated on Router-B. The 0.0.0.0/0, from Router-A, is learned through EIGRP and installed in the local routing table. Routing to Router-C is restored.
If Router-A loses the connection to Router-B, Router-B continues to advertise a default route to Router-C, which allows traffic to continue to reach destinations attached to Router-B. However, traffic destined for networks to Router-A or behind Router-A is dropped when the traffic reaches Router-B.
Figure 2 shows a network with two connections from the core: Router-A and Router-D. Both routers have floating summary routes configured on the interfaces connected to Router-C. If the connection between Router-E and Router-C fails, the network continues to operate normally. All traffic flows from Router-C through Router-B to the hosts attached to Router-A and Router-D.
Figure 2. Floating Summary Route Applied for Dual-Homed Remotes
However, if the link between Router-D and Router-E fails, the network may dump traffic into a black hole because Router-E continues to advertise the default route (0.0.0.0/0) to Router-C, as long as at least one link (other than the link to Router-C) to Router-E is still active. In this scenario, Router-C still forwards traffic to Router-E, but Router-E drops the traffic creating the black hole. To avoid this problem, you should configure the summary address with an administrative distance on only single-homed remote routers or areas in which only one exit point exists between the segments of the network. If two or more exit points exist (from one segment of the network to another), configuring the floating default route can cause a black hole to form.