Applying QoS Features Using the MQC

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest caveats and feature information, see Bug Search Tool and the release notes for your platform and software release. To find information about the features documented in this module, and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, see the feature information table.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Restrictions for Applying QoS Features Using the MQC

The MQC-based QoS does not support classification of legacy Layer 2 protocol packets such as Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), DECnet, or AppleTalk. When these types of packets are being forwarded through a generic Layer 2 tunneling mechanism, the packets can be handled by MQC but without protocol classification. As a result, legacy protocol traffic in a Layer 2 tunnel is matched only by a "match any" class or class-default.

The number of QoS policy maps and class maps supported varies by platform and release.


Note

The policy map limitations do not refer to the number of applied policy map instances, only to the definition of the policy maps.


About

The MQC Structure

The MQC (Modular Quality of Service (QoS) Command-Line Interface (CLI)) enables you to set packet classification and marking based on a QoS group value. MQC CLI allows you to create traffic classes and policies, enable a QoS feature (such as packet classification), and attach these policies to interfaces.

The MQC structure necessitates developing the following entities: traffic class, policy map, and service policy.

Elements of a Traffic Class

A traffic class contains three major elements: a traffic class name, a series of match commands, and, if more than one match command is used in the traffic class, instructions on how to evaluate these match commands.

The match commands are used for classifying packets. Packets are checked to determine whether they meet the criteria specified in the match commands; if a packet meets the specified criteria, that packet is considered a member of the class. Packets that fail to meet the matching criteria are classified as members of the default traffic class.

Available match Commands

The table below lists some of the available match commands that can be used with the MQC. The available match commands vary by Cisco IOS XE release. For more information about the commands and command syntax, see the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference.

Table 1. match Commands That Can Be Used with the MQC

Command

Purpose

match access-group

Configures the match criteria for a class map on the basis of the specified access control list (ACL).

match cos

Matches a packet based on a Layer 2 class of service (CoS) marking.

match discard-class

Matches packets of a certain discard class.

match [ip ] dscp

Identifies a specific IP differentiated service code point (DSCP) value as a match criterion. Up to eight DSCP values can be included in one match statement.

match-all

The match-all keyword is used when all of the match criteria in the traffic class must be met in order for a packet to be placed in the specified traffic class

match-any

The match-any keyword is used when only one of the match criterion in the traffic class must be met in order for a packet to be placed in the specified traffic class

match [ip ] precedence

Identifies IP precedence values as match criteria.

match qos-group

Identifies a specific QoS group value as a match criterion.

match service-instance ethernet id

Matches using service instance ID.

Multiple match Commands in One Traffic Class

If the traffic class contains more than one match command, you need to specify how to evaluate the match commands. You specify this by using either the match-any or match-all keyword of the class-map command. Note the following points about the match-any and match-all keywords:

  • If you specify the match-any keyword, the traffic being evaluated by the traffic class must match one of the specified criteria.

  • If you specify the match-all keyword, the traffic being evaluated by the traffic class must match all of the specified criteria.

  • If you do not specify either keyword, the traffic being evaluated by the traffic class must match all of the specified criteria (that is, the behavior of the match-all keyword is used).

Elements of a Traffic Policy

A traffic policy contains three elements: a traffic policy name, a traffic class (specified with the class command), and the command used to enable the QoS feature.

The traffic policy (policy map) applies the enabled QoS feature to the traffic class once you attach the policy map to the interface (by using the service-policy command).


Note

A packet can match only one traffic class within a traffic policy. If a packet matches more than one traffic class in the traffic policy, the first traffic class defined in the policy will be used.


Commands Used to Enable QoS Features

The commands used to enable QoS features vary by Cisco IOS XE release. The table below lists some of the available commands and the QoS features that they enable. For complete command syntax, see the Cisco IOS QoS Command Reference.

For more information about a specific QoS feature that you want to enable, see the appropriate module of the Cisco IOS XE Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide.

Table 2. Commands Used to Enable QoS Features

Command

Purpose

bandwidth

Configures a minimum bandwidth guarantee for a class.

bandwidth remaining

Configures an excess weight for a class.

police

Configures traffic policing.

police (percent)

Configures traffic policing on the basis of a percentage of bandwidth available on an interface.

police (two rates)

Configures traffic policing using two rates, the committed information rate (CIR) and the peak information rate (PIR).

priority

Gives priority to a class of traffic belonging to a policy map.

queue-limit

Specifies or modifies the maximum number of packets the queue can hold for a class configured in a policy map.

random-detect

Enables Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED).

random-detect discard-class

Configures the WRED parameters for a discard-class value for a class in a policy map.

random-detect discard-class-based

Configures WRED on the basis of the discard class value of a packet.

random-detect precedence

Configure the WRED parameters for a particular IP Precedence for a class policy in a policy map.

service-policy

Specifies the name of a traffic policy used as a matching criterion (for nesting traffic policies [hierarchical traffic policies] within one another).

set cos

Sets the Layer 2 class of service (CoS) value of an outgoing packet.

set discard-class

Marks a packet with a discard-class value.

set [ip ] dscp

Marks a packet by setting the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value in the type of service (ToS) byte.

set mpls experimental

Designates the value to which the MPLS bits are set if the packets match the specified policy map.

set precedence

Sets the precedence value in the packet header.

set qos-group

Sets a QoS group identifier (ID) that can be used later to classify packets.

shape

Shapes traffic to the indicated bit rate according to the algorithm specified.

Nested Traffic Classes

The MQC does not necessarily require that you associate only one traffic class to one traffic policy.

In a scenario where packets satisfy more than one match criterion, the MQC enables you to associate multiple traffic classes with a single traffic policy (also termed nested traffic classes) using the match class-map command. (We term these nested class maps or MQC Hierarchical class maps.) This command provides the only method of combining match-any and match-all characteristics within a single traffic class. By doing so, you can create a traffic class using one match criterion evaluation instruction (either match-any or match-all) and then use that traffic class as a match criterion in a traffic class that uses a different match criterion type. For example, a traffic class created with the match-any instruction must use a class configured with the match-all instruction as a match criterion, or vice versa.

Consider this likely scenario: Suppose A, B, C, and D were all separate match criterion, and you wanted traffic matching A, B, or C and D (i.e., A or B or [C and D]) to be classified as belonging to a traffic class. Without the nested traffic class, traffic would either have to match all four of the match criterion (A and B and C and D) or match any of the match criterion (A or B or C or D) to be considered part of the traffic class. You would not be able to combine “and” (match-all) and “or” (match-any) statements within the traffic class; you would be unable to configure the desired configuration.

The solution: Create one traffic class using match-all for C and D (which we will call criterion E), and then create a new match-any traffic class using A, B, and E. The new traffic class would have the correct evaluation sequence (A or B or E, which is equivalent to A or B or [C and D]).

match-all and match-any Keywords of the class-map Command

One of the commands used when you create a traffic class is the class-map command. The command syntax for the class-map command includes two keywords: match-all and match-any . The match-all and match-any keywords need to be specified only if more than one match criterion is configured in the traffic class. Note the following points about these keywords:

  • The match-all keyword is used when all of the match criteria in the traffic class must be met in order for a packet to be placed in the specified traffic class.

  • The match-any keyword is used when only one of the match criterion in the traffic class must be met in order for a packet to be placed in the specified traffic class.

  • If neither the match-all keyword nor match-any keyword is specified, the traffic class will behave in a manner consistent with the match-all keyword.

input and output Keywords of the service-policy Command

As a general rule, the QoS features configured in the traffic policy can be applied to packets entering the interface or to packets leaving the interface. Therefore, when you use the service-policy command, you need to specify the direction of the traffic policy by using the input or output keyword.

For instance, the service-policy output policy-map1 command would apply the QoS features in the traffic policy to the interface in the output direction. All packets leaving the interface (output) are evaluated according to the criteria specified in the traffic policy named policy-map1.


Note

For Cisco releases, queueing mechanisms are not supported in the input direction. Nonqueueing mechanisms (such as traffic policing and traffic marking) are supported in the input direction. Also, classifying traffic on the basis of the source MAC address (using the match source-address mac command) is supported in the input direction only.


Benefits of Applying QoS Features Using the MQC

The MQC structure allows you to create the traffic policy (policy map) once and then apply it to as many traffic classes as needed. You can also attach the traffic policies to as many interfaces as needed.

How to Apply QoS Features Using the MQC

Creating a Traffic Class

To create a traffic class, use the class-map command to specify the traffic class name. Then use one or more match commands to specify the appropriate match criteria. Packets matching the criteria that you specify are placed in the traffic class. For more information about the match-all and match-any keywords of the class-map comand, see the “match-all and match-any Keywords of the class-map Command” section.


Note

The match cos command is shown in Step 4. The match cos command is simply an example of one of the match commands that you can use. For information about the other available match commands, see the “match-all and match-any Keywords of the class-map Command” section.


SUMMARY STEPS

  1. enable
  2. configure terminal
  3. class-map [match-all | match-any ] class-map-name
  4. match cos cos-number
  5. Enter additional match commands, if applicable; otherwise, continue with step 6.
  6. end

DETAILED STEPS

  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1

enable

Example:


Router> enable

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.

Step 2

configure terminal

Example:


Router# configure terminal

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 3

class-map [match-all | match-any ] class-map-name

Example:


Router(config)# class-map match-any class1

Creates a class to be used with a class map and enters class-map configuration mode.

  • The class map is used for matching packets to the specified class.

  • Enter the class name.

Note 

The match-all keyword specifies that all match criteria must be met. The match-any keyword specifies that one of the match criterion must be met. Use these keywords only if you will be specifying more than one match command.

Step 4

match cos cos-number

Example:


Router(config-cmap)# match cos 2

Matches a packet on the basis of a Layer 2 class of service (CoS) number.

  • Enter the CoS number.

Note 

The match cos command is an example of the match commands you can use. For information about the other match commands that are available, see the “match-all and match-any Keywords of the class-map Command” section.

Step 5

Enter additional match commands, if applicable; otherwise, continue with step 6.

--

Step 6

end

Example:


Router(config-cmap)# end

(Optional) Exits QoS class-map configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

Creating a Traffic Policy


Note

The bandwidth command is shown in Step 5. The bandwidth command is an example of the commands that you can use in a policy map to enable a QoS feature (in this case, Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ). For information about other available commands, see the “Elements of a Traffic Policy” section.


SUMMARY STEPS

  1. enable
  2. configure terminal
  3. policy-map policy-map-name
  4. class {class-name | class-default }
  5. bandwidth {bandwidth-kbps | percent percent}
  6. Enter the commands for any additional QoS feature that you want to enable, if applicable; otherwise, continue with Step 7.
  7. end

DETAILED STEPS

  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1

enable

Example:


Router> enable

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.

Step 2

configure terminal

Example:


Router# configure terminal

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 3

policy-map policy-map-name

Example:


Router(config)# policy-map policy1

Creates or specifies the name of the traffic policy and enters QoS policy-map configuration mode.

  • Enter the policy map name.

Step 4

class {class-name | class-default }

Example:


Router(config-pmap)# class class1 

Specifies the name of a traffic class and enters QoS policy-map class configuration mode.

Note 

This step associates the traffic class with the traffic policy.

Step 5

bandwidth {bandwidth-kbps | percent percent}

Example:


Router(config-pmap-c)# bandwidth 3000 

(Optional) Specifies a minimum bandwidth guarantee to a traffic class in periods of congestion.

  • A minimum bandwidth guarantee can be specified in kb/s or by a percentage of the overall available bandwidth.

Note 

The bandwidth command enables CBWFQ. The bandwidth command is an example of the commands that you can use in a policy map to enable a QoS feature. For information about the other commands available, see the “Elements of a Traffic Policy” section.

Step 6

Enter the commands for any additional QoS feature that you want to enable, if applicable; otherwise, continue with Step 7.

--

Step 7

end

Example:


Router(config-pmap-c)# end

(Optional) Exits QoS policy-map class configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

Attaching a Traffic Policy to an Interface Using the MQC


Note

Cisco releases do not support the attachment of policies for ATM interfaces that have unspecified bit rate (UBR) configured as the default mode on their VC or virtual path (VP). An attempt to use this configuration results in an error message: CBWFQ: Not supported on ATM interfaces with UBR configuration. You can also specify UBR with a rate in the UBR configuration, if you do not want to use the default UBR value.


SUMMARY STEPS

  1. enable
  2. configure terminal
  3. interface type number
  4. service-policy {input | output } policy-map-name
  5. end

DETAILED STEPS

  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1

enable

Example:


Router> enable

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.

Step 2

configure terminal

Example:


Router# configure terminal

Enters global configuration mode.

Step 3

interface type number

Example:


Router(config)# interface gigabit 0/0/1

Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration mode.

  • Enter the interface type and interface number.

Step 4

service-policy {input | output } policy-map-name

Example:


Router(config-if)# service-policy input policy1 

Attaches a policy map to an interface.

  • Enter either the input or output keyword and the policy map name.

Step 5

end

Example:


Router(config-if)# end

(Optional) Exits interface configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

Verifying the Traffic Class and Traffic Policy Information

The show commands described in this section are optional and can be entered in any order.

SUMMARY STEPS

  1. enable
  2. show class-map
  3. show policy-map policy-map-name class class-name
  4. show policy-map
  5. show policy-map interface type number
  6. exit

DETAILED STEPS

  Command or Action Purpose
Step 1

enable

Example:


Router> enable

Enables privileged EXEC mode.

  • Enter your password if prompted.

Step 2

show class-map

Example:


Router# show class-map
 

(Optional) Displays all class maps and their matching criteria.

Step 3

show policy-map policy-map-name class class-name

Example:


Router#
 
show policy-map policy1 class class1

(Optional) Displays the configuration for the specified class of the specified policy map.

  • Enter the policy map name and the class name.

Step 4

show policy-map

Example:


Router# show policy-map

(Optional) Displays the configuration of all classes for all existing policy maps.

Step 5

show policy-map interface type number

Example:


Router# show policy-map interface gigabit 0/0/1

(Optional) Displays the statistics and the configurations of the input and output policies that are attached to an interface.

  • Enter the interface type and number.

Step 6

exit

Example:


Router# exit

(Optional) Exits privileged EXEC mode.

Configuration Examples for Applying QoS Features Using the MQC

Creating a Traffic Class

In the following example, we create traffic classes and define their match criteria. For the first traffic class (class1), we use access control list (ACL) 101 as match criteria; for the second traffic class (class2), ACL 102. We check the packets against the contents of these ACLs to determine if they belong to the class.


class-map class1
  match access-group 101
  exit
class-map class2
  match access-group 102
  end

Creating a Policy Map

In the following example, we define a traffic policy (policy1) containing the QoS features that we will apply to two classes: class1 and class2. The match criteria for these classes were previously defined in Creating a Traffic Class).

For class1, the policy includes a bandwidth allocation request and a maximum packet count limit for the queue reserved for that class. For class2, the policy specifies only a bandwidth allocation request.


policy-map policy1
  class class1
    bandwidth 3000
    queue-limit 30
    exit
  class class2
    bandwidth 2000
    end

Example: Attaching a Traffic Policy to an Interface

The following example shows how to attach an existing traffic policy to an interface. After you define a traffic policy with the policy-map command, you can attach it to one or more interfaces by using the service-policy command in interface configuration mode. Although you can assign the same traffic policy to multiple interfaces, each interface can have only one traffic policy attached in the input direction and only one traffic policy attached in the output direction.


Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/3/6
Router(config-if)# service instance 1 ethernet 
Router(config-if-srv)# service-policy input co1 
Router(config-if-srv)# encapsulation dot1q 1
Router(config-if-srv)# bridge-domain 1
Router(config-if)# service-policy input policy1
Router(config-if)# end

Configuring a Default Traffic Class

Traffic that does not meet the match criteria specified in the traffic classes (that is, unclassified traffic) is treated as belonging to the default traffic class.

If you do not configure a default class, packets are still treated as members of that class. The default class has no QoS features enabled so packets belonging to this class have no QoS functionality. Such packets are placed into a first-in, first-out (FIFO) queue managed by tail drop, which is a means of avoiding congestion that treats all traffic equally and does not differentiate between classes of service. Queues fill during periods of congestion. When the output queue is full and tail drop is active, packets are dropped until the congestion is eliminated and the queue is no longer full.

The following example configures a policy map (policy1) for the default class (always called class-default) with these characteristics: 10 queues for traffic that does not meet the match criteria of other classes whose policy is defined by class policy1, and a maximum of 20 packets per queue before tail drop is enacted to handle additional queued packets.

In the following example, we configure a policy map (policy1) for the default class (always termed class-default) with these characteristics: 10 queues for traffic that does not meet the match criterion of other classes whose policy is defined by the traffic policy policy1.


policy-map policy1
  class class-default
    shape average 100m

How Commands "class-map match-any" and "class-map match-all" Differ

This example shows how packets are evaluated when multiple match criteria exist. It illustrates the difference between the class-map match-any and class-map match-all commands. Packets must meet either all of the match criteria (match-all ) or one of the match criteria (match-any ) to be considered a member of the traffic class.

The following examples show a traffic class configured with the class-map match-all command:


class-map match-all cisco1
  match qos-group 4
  match access-group 101

If a packet arrives on a router with traffic class cisco1 configured on the interface, we assess whether it matches the IP protocol, QoS group 4, and access group 101. If all of these match criteria are met, the packet is classified as a member of the traffic class cisco1 (a logical AND operator; Protocol IP AND QoS group 4 AND access group 101).


class-map match-all vlan 
  match vlan 1
  match vlan inner 1

The following example illustrates use of the class-map match-any command. Only one match criterion must be met for us to classify the packet as a member of the traffic class (i.e., a logical OR operator; protocol IP OR QoS group 4 OR access group 101):


class-map match-any cisco2
  match protocol ip
  match qos-group 4
  match access-group 101

In the traffic class cisco2, the match criterion are evaluated consecutively until a successful match is located. The packet is first evaluated to determine whether the IP protocol can be used as a match criterion. If so, the packet is matched to traffic class cisco2. If not, then QoS group 4 is evaluated as a match criterion and so on. If the packet matches none of the specified criteria, the packet is classified as a member of the default traffic class (class default-class).

Establishing Traffic Class as a Match Criterion (Nested Traffic Classes)

There are two reasons to use the match class-map command. One reason is maintenance; if a large traffic class currently exists, using the traffic class match criterion is easier than retyping the same traffic class configuration. The second and more common reason is to mix match-all and match-any characteristics in one traffic policy. This enables you to create a traffic class using one match criterion evaluation instruction (either match-any or match-all) and then use that traffic class as a match criterion in a traffic class that uses a different match criterion type.

Consider this likely scenario: Suppose A, B, C, and D were all separate match criterion, and you wanted traffic matching A, B, or C and D (i.e., A or B or [C and D]) to be classified as belonging to a traffic class. Without the nested traffic class, traffic would either have to match all four of the match criterion (A and B and C and D) or match any of the match criterion (A or B or C or D) to be considered part of the traffic class. You would not be able to combine “and” (match-all) and “or” (match-any) statements within the traffic class; you would be unable to configure the desired configuration.

The solution: Create one traffic class using match-all for C and D (which we will call criterion E), and then create a new match-any traffic class using A, B, and E. The new traffic class would have the correct evaluation sequence (A or B or E, which is equivalent to A or B or [C and D]).

Example: Traffic Policy as a QoS Policy (Hierarchical Traffic Policies)

A traffic policy can be included in a QoS policy when the service-policy command is used in QoS policy-map class configuration mode. A traffic policy that contains a traffic policy is called a hierarchical traffic policy.

A hierarchical traffic policy contains a child policy and a parent policy. The child policy is the previously defined traffic policy that is being associated with the new traffic policy through the use of the service-policy command. The new traffic policy using the preexisting traffic policy is the parent policy. In the example in this section, the traffic policy called child is the child policy and traffic policy called parent is the parent policy.

Hierarchical traffic policies can be attached to subinterfaces and ATM PVCs. When hierarchical traffic policies are used, a single traffic policy (with a child and a parent policy) can be used to shape and prioritize permanent virtual connection (PVC) traffic. In the following example, the child policy is responsible for prioritizing traffic and the parent policy is responsible for shaping traffic. In this configuration, the parent policy allows packets to be sent from the interface, and the child policy determines the order in which the packets are sent.

Router(config)# policy-map child
Router(config-pmap)# class voice
Router(config-pmap-c)# priority ?
384-100000000 Kilo Bits per second
level Multi-Level Priority Queue
percent % of total bandwidth
Router(config-pmap-c)# priority 50
Router(config)# policy-map parent
Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
Router(config-pmap-c)# shape average 10000000
Router(config-pmap-c)# service-policy child

The value used with the shape command is provisioned from the committed information rate (CIR) value from the service provider.

Additional References

Related Documents

Related Topic

Document Title

Cisco IOS commands

Cisco IOS Master Commands List, All Releases

QoS commands: complete command syntax, command modes, command history, defaults, usage guidelines, and examples

Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Command Reference

Packet classification

“Classifying Network Traffic” module

Frame Relay Fragmentation (FRF) PVCs

“FRF .20 Support” module

Selective Packet Discard

“IPv6 Selective Packet Discard” module

Scaling and performance information

“Broadband Scalability and Performance” module of the Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers Software Configuration Guide.

Technical Assistance

Description

Link

The Cisco Support and Documentation website provides online resources to download documentation, software, and tools. Use these resources to install and configure the software and to troubleshoot and resolve technical issues with Cisco products and technologies. Access to most tools on the Cisco Support and Documentation website requires a Cisco.com user ID and password.

http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/support/index.html

Feature Information for Applying QoS Features Using the MQC

The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.
Table 3. Feature Information for Applying QoS Features Using the MQC

Feature Name

Releases

Feature Information

Class-Based Weighted Fair Queueing (CBWFQ)

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S

This feature was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

In Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S, support was added for the Cisco ASR 903 Router.

Modular QoS CLI (MQC)

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S

This module describes how to apply and configure quality of service (QoS) features using the modular QoS CLI (MQC). The MQC allows you to define a traffic class, create a traffic policy (policy map), and attach the traffic policy to an interface. The traffic policy contains the QoS feature that will be applied to the traffic class.

This feature was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

This feature was enhanced to provide infrastructure support for additional features included with Cisco IOS XE Release 2.3.

In Cisco IOS XE Release 3.5S, support was added for the Cisco ASR 903 router.

MQC Hierarchical Class Map

Cisco IOS XE Release 3.2

MQC allows multiple traffic classes (nested traffic classes, which are also called nested class maps or MQC hierarchical class maps) to be configured as a single traffic class. This feature was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Priority Queueing

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This feature was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers.

Weighted Random Early Detection

Cisco IOS XE Release 2.1

This feature was introduced on Cisco ASR 1000 Series Aggregation Services Routers.