When it receives IPv6 traffic from one customer site, the ingress provider edge (PE) device uses Multiprotocol Label Switching
(MPLS) to tunnel IPv6 Virtual Private Network (VPN) packets over the backbone toward the egress PE device identified as the
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) next hop. The ingress PE device prepends the IPv6 packets with the outer and inner labels before
putting the packet on the egress interface.
Under normal operation, a provider (P) device along the forwarding path does not look inside the frame beyond the first label.
The provider (P) device either swaps the incoming label with an outgoing one or removes the incoming label if the next device
is a PE device. Removing the incoming label is called penultimate hop popping. The remaining label (BGP label) is used to
identify the egress PE interface toward the customer site. The label also hides the protocol version (IPv6) from the last
P device, which it would otherwise need to forward an IPv6 packet.
A P device is ignorant of the IPv6 VPN routes. The IPv6 header remains hidden under one or more MPLS labels. When the P device
receives an MPLS-encapsulated IPv6 packet that cannot be delivered, it has two options. If the P device is IPv6 aware, it
exposes the IPv6 header, builds an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) for IPv6 message, and sends the message, which
is MPLS encapsulated, to the source of the original packet. If the P device is not IPv6 aware, it drops the packet.