|1. Description of Business
Cisco Systems, Inc. (the "Company" or "Cisco") manufactures and sells networking and communications products and provides services associated with that equipment and its use. The Company’s products are installed at corporations, public institutions, telecommunication companies, and commercial businesses and are also found in personal residences. Cisco provides a broad line of products for transporting data, voice, and video within buildings, across campuses, and around the world.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Fiscal Year The Company’s fiscal year is the 52 or 53 weeks ending on the last Saturday in July. Fiscal 2005 and 2003 were 52-week fiscal years, and fiscal 2004 was a 53-week fiscal year.
Principles of Consolidation The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Cisco Systems, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Cash and Cash Equivalents The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original or remaining maturity of less than three months at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with various financial institutions.
Investments The Company’s investments comprise U.S. government notes and bonds; corporate notes, bonds, and asset-backed securities; municipal notes and bonds; and publicly traded equity securities. Investments with remaining maturities of less than one year are considered to be short-term. These investments are held in the custody of several major financial institutions. The specific identification method is used to determine the cost basis of fixed income securities disposed of. The weighted-average method is used to determine the cost basis of publicly traded equity securities disposed of. At July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004, the Company’s investments were classified as available-for-sale. These investments are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses on these investments, to the extent the investments are unhedged, are included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax.
The Company recognizes an impairment charge when a decline in the fair value of its investments below the cost basis are judged to be other-than-temporary. The Company considers various factors in determining whether to recognize an impairment charge, including the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than the Company’s cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and the Company’s intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
The Company also has investments in privately held companies. These investments are included in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and are primarily carried at cost. The Company monitors these investments for impairment and makes appropriate reductions in carrying values if the Company determines that an impairment charge is required based primarily on the financial condition and near-term prospects of these companies.
Inventories Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost, on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company provides inventory allowances based on excess and obsolete inventories determined primarily by future demand forecasts. The allowance is measured as the difference between the cost of the inventory and market based upon assumptions about future demand and charged to the provision for inventory, which is a component of cost of sales. At the point of the loss recognition, a new, lower-cost basis for that inventory is established, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments The fair value of certain of the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accrued compensation, and other accrued liabilities, approximate cost because of their short maturities. The fair value of investments is determined using quoted market prices for those securities or similar financial instruments.
Concentrations of Risk Cash and cash equivalents are maintained with several financial institutions. Deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand and are maintained with financial institutions of reputable credit and therefore bear minimal credit risk.
The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and, with the exception of certain financing transactions, does not require collateral from its customers. The Company’s customers are primarily in the service provider and enterprise markets. The Company receives certain of its components from sole suppliers. Additionally, the Company relies on a limited number of contract manufacturers and suppliers to provide manufacturing services for its products. The inability of a contract manufacturer or supplier to fulfill supply requirements of the Company could materially impact future operating results.
Revenue Recognition The Company’s networking and communications products are integrated with software that is essential to the functionality of the equipment. Additionally, the Company provides unspecified software upgrades and enhancements related to the equipment through its maintenance contracts for most of its products. Accordingly, the Company accounts for revenue in accordance with Statement of Position No. 97-2, "Software Revenue Recognition," and all related interpretations.
The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. In instances where final acceptance of the product, system, or solution is specified by the customer, revenue is deferred until all acceptance criteria have been met. Technical support services revenue is deferred and recognized ratably over the period during which the services are to be performed, which is typically from one to three years. Advanced services revenue is recognized upon delivery or completion of performance.
When a sale involves multiple elements, such as sales of products that include services, the entire fee from the arrangement is allocated to each respective element based on its relative fair value and recognized when revenue recognition criteria for each element are met. Fair value for each element is established based on the sales price charged when the same element is sold separately.
The Company uses distributors that stock inventory and typically sell to systems integrators, service providers, and other resellers. In addition, certain products are sold through retail partners. The Company refers to these sales through distributors and retail partners as its two-tier system of sales to the end customer. Revenue from distributors and retail partners is recognized based on a sell-through method using information provided by them. Distributors and retail partners participate in various cooperative marketing and other programs, and the Company maintains estimated accruals and allowances for these programs. The Company accrues for warranty costs, sales returns, and other allowances based on its historical experience.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on the Company’s assessment of the collectibility of customer accounts. The Company regularly reviews the allowance by considering factors such as historical experience, credit quality, the age of the accounts receivable balances, and current economic conditions that may affect a customer’s ability to pay.
Lease Receivables The Company provides a variety of lease financing services to its customers to build, maintain, and upgrade their networks. Lease receivables primarily represent the principal balance remaining in sales-type and direct-financing leases under these programs, net of allowances. These leases typically have two- to three-year terms and are usually collateralized by a security interest in the underlying assets.
Advertising Costs The Company expenses all advertising costs as incurred, and the amounts were not material for all periods presented.
Software Development Costs Software development costs required to be capitalized pursuant to Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 86, "Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software to Be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed," have not been material to date. Software development costs for internal use required to be capitalized pursuant to Statement of Position No. 98-1, "Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use," have also not been material to date.
Depreciation and Amortization Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Estimated useful lives of 25 years are used for buildings. Estimated useful lives of 30 to 36 months are used for computer equipment and related software and five years for furniture and fixtures. Estimated useful lives of up to five years are used for production, engineering, and other equipment. Depreciation of operating lease assets is computed based on the respective lease terms, which generally range up to three years. Depreciation and amortization of leasehold improvements are computed using the shorter of the remaining lease terms or five years.
Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests in certain circumstances, and written down when impaired. Based on the impairment tests performed, there was no impairment of goodwill in fiscal 2005, 2004, or 2003. Purchased intangible assets other than goodwill are amortized over their useful lives unless these lives are determined to be indefinite. Purchased intangible assets are carried at cost, less accumulated amortization. Amortization is computed over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, generally two to five years.
Income Taxes Income tax expense is based on pretax financial accounting income. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized.
Computation of Net Income Per Share Basic net income per share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares and dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares and excludes dilutive potential common shares outstanding, as their effect is antidilutive. Dilutive potential common shares consist primarily of employee stock options and restricted common stock.
Foreign Currency Translation Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries that operate in a local currency environment, where that local currency is the functional currency, are translated to U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, with the resulting translation adjustments directly recorded to a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income. Income and expense accounts are translated at average exchange rates during the year. Translation adjustments are recorded in other income (loss), net, where the U.S. dollar is the functional currency.
Derivative Instruments The Company recognizes derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and measures those instruments at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation.
For a derivative instrument designated as a fair value hedge, the gain or loss is recognized in earnings in the period of change together with the offsetting loss or gain on the hedged item attributed to the risk being hedged. For a derivative instrument designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income and subsequently reclassified into earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is reported in earnings immediately. For derivative instruments that are not designated as accounting hedges, changes in fair value are recognized in earnings in the period of change.
The fair value of derivative instruments as of July 30, 2005 was $41 million and the amount was not material as of July 31, 2004. The changes in fair value during fiscal 2005 and 2004 were not material. During fiscal 2005 and 2004, there were no significant gains or losses recognized in earnings for hedge ineffectiveness. The Company did not discontinue any hedges because it was probable that the original forecasted transactions would not occur.
Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Interpretation No. 46, “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities” ("FIN 46"), was issued in January 2003. FIN 46 requires that if an entity is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity, the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of the variable interest entity should be included in the consolidated financial statements of the entity. FASB Interpretation No. 46(R), "Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities" ("FIN 46(R)"), was issued in December 2003. The Company adopted FIN 46(R) effective January 24, 2004, and recorded a noncash cumulative stock compensation charge of $567 million, net of tax, relating to the consolidation of Andiamo Systems, Inc. ("Andiamo"). For additional information regarding Andiamo, see Note 3 to these Consolidated Financial Statements. For additional information regarding variable interest entities, see Note 8 to these Consolidated Financial Statements.
Minority Interest The Company consolidated its investment in a venture fund managed by SOFTBANK Corp. and its affiliates (“SOFTBANK”). As of July 30, 2005, minority interest of $7 million represents SOFTBANK’s share of the venture fund. The remaining minority interest of $3 million represents the preferred stockholders’ proportionate share of the equity of Cisco Systems, K.K. (Japan). At July 30, 2005, the Company owned all issued and outstanding common stock, amounting to 99.0% of the aggregate voting rights of Cisco Systems, K.K. (Japan). Each share of preferred stock is convertible into one share of common stock of Cisco Systems, K.K. (Japan) at any time at the option of the holder.
Use of Estimates The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes. Estimates are used for revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts and sales returns, allowance for inventory, warranty costs, investment impairments, goodwill impairments, income taxes, and loss contingencies, among others. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially from management’s estimates.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets Long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangible assets to be held and used are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Determination of recoverability of long-lived assets is based on an estimate of undiscounted future cash flows resulting from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. Measurement of an impairment loss for long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangible assets that management expects to hold and use is based on the fair value of the asset. Long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangible assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
Employee Stock Benefit Plans The Company accounts for stock-based awards to employees and directors using the intrinsic value method of accounting in accordance with Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, "Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees" ("APB 25"). Under the intrinsic value method, because the exercise price of the Company’s employee stock options equals the market price of the underlying stock on the date of grant, no compensation expense is recognized in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Pro forma information regarding option grants made to the Company’s employees and directors and common stock issued pursuant to the Employee Stock Purchase Plan is based on specified valuation techniques that produce estimated compensation charges. The following table reflects the pro forma information (in millions, except per-share amounts):
The value of each option grant is estimated as of the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which was developed for use in estimating the value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable. Because the Company’s employee stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and because changes in the subjective input assumptions can materially affect the estimated value, in management’s opinion, the existing valuation models do not provide a reliable measure of the fair value of the Company’s employee stock options. See Note 10 for additional information regarding this pro forma information.
Recent Accounting Pronouncement In December 2004, the FASB issued Statement No. 123 (revised 2004), "Share-Based Payment" ("SFAS 123(R)"), which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based compensation payments and supersedes the Company’s current accounting under APB 25. SFAS 123(R) is effective for all annual periods beginning after June 15, 2005. In March 2005, the Securities and Exchange Commission issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107 (“SAB 107”) relating to the adoption of SFAS 123(R).
The Company adopted SFAS 123(R) in the first quarter of fiscal 2006 and will continue to evaluate the impact of SFAS 123(R) on its operating results and financial condition. The pro forma information presented above and in Note 10 presents the estimated compensation charges under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123, “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation.” The Company’s assessment of the estimated compensation charges is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables and the related tax impact. These variables include, but are not limited to, the Company’s stock price volatility and employee stock option exercise behaviors. The Company will recognize the compensation cost for stock-based awards issued after July 30, 2005 on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
Reclassifications Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year balances in order to conform to the current year’s presentation.
3. Business Combinations
The Company completed the following purchase acquisitions and asset purchases in fiscal 2005:
A summary of the acquisitions and asset purchases is as follows (in millions):
- Acquisition of Actona Technologies, Inc. to expand the functionality of its branch-office access routers with intelligent network services that are designed to allow users at remote sites to access and transfer files as quickly and easily as users at headquarters sites. The acquired technology is also designed to allow enterprises to centralize file servers and storage and better protect and manage their remote office data.
- Acquisition of Airespace, Inc. to add to its portfolio of wireless local-area networking (WLAN) solutions and to add advanced features and capabilities to its existing WLAN product portfolio.
- Acquisition of dynamicsoft, Inc. to add Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based solutions to its solutions portfolio for the broadband communications market that are designed to allow telecommunications service providers to deliver interactive communications, such as conferencing, voice, and instant messaging, over an IP network.
- Acquisition of FineGround Networks, Inc. to integrate technology with Cisco’s to provide customers with advanced application-acceleration access networks for highly secure and optimized delivery of Web-based applications.
- Acquisition of Jahi Networks Inc. to add network management appliances aimed at simplifying interfaces for device management, deployment, and configuration of networks.
- Purchase of assets of NetSift, Inc. to accelerate the integration of additional packet processing capabilities into future core Cisco platforms, such as modular switching.
- Acquisition of NetSolve, Incorporated to add remote network-management services, including real-time monitoring of IP communications networks, network security software, and network devices, to its solutions offered to specialized resellers.
- Acquisition of Parc Technologies Limited to add to its planning and optimization tools for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) traffic engineering. The acquired technology, route server algorithms, is designed to break up network routing problems involving complex prioritization constraints and to help service providers deliver higher-quality services while improving network utilization and reducing capital expenditures.
- Acquisition of P–Cube Inc. to provide additional control and management capabilities for advanced IP services, such as identifying subscribers, classifying applications, and accurately billing for content-based services, to service providers.
- Acquisition of Perfigo, Inc. to expand the offerings in the Network Admission Control (NAC) program, an industrywide initiative, which is designed to enforce endpoint policy compliance and improve the security of networks. The acquired technology is designed to analyze endpoint devices, such as computers, and scan for vulnerabilities.
- Acquisition of the intellectual property and select other assets of, and hiring of a majority of the engineering team from, Procket Networks, Inc. to add to its portfolio of intellectual property and to add a team of silicon and software architects.
- Acquisition of Protego Networks, Inc. to add network security monitoring and management products designed with the capability to detect, correlate, and mitigate network threats.
- Acquisition of Sipura Technology, Inc. to provide voice over IP (VoIP) technology and expertise for the Linksys division’s line of VoIP networking devices.
- Acquisition of Topspin Communications, Inc. to add server fabric switches, a new class of server networking equipment that is designed to help improve resource utilization and reduce equipment and management costs, to its switching product portfolio consisting of network and storage switches.
Under the terms of the definitive agreements, the purchase consideration for the acquisitions in fiscal 2005 consisted of cash and shares of Cisco common stock and stock options assumed. The purchase consideration for the Company’s acquisitions is also allocated to tangible assets and deferred stock-based compensation. Deferred stock-based compensation represents the intrinsic value of the unvested portion of any restricted shares exchanged, options assumed, or options canceled and replaced with the Company’s options and is amortized as stock-based compensation related to acquisitions over the remaining respective vesting periods. The balance for deferred stock-based compensation is reflected as a reduction to additional paid-in capital in the Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity. The following table presents the activity of deferred stock-based compensation (in millions):
In connection with the asset purchase of NetSift, Inc., the Company may be required to pay certain additional amounts of up to $5 million contingent upon achieving certain agreed-upon technology and other milestones. In addition, in connection with the acquisition of Sipura Technology, Inc., the Company may be required to pay an additional amount of $50 million over a four-year period contingent upon continued employment of certain employees with the Company. In each case, any additional amounts paid will be recorded as compensation expense.
The Company’s methodology for allocating the purchase price for purchase acquisitions to in-process research and development (“in-process R&D”) is determined through established valuation techniques in the high-technology communications equipment industry. In-process R&D is expensed upon acquisition because technological feasibility has not been established and no future alternative uses exist. Total in-process R&D expense in fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003 was $26 million, $3 million, and $4 million, respectively.
A summary of the purchase transactions completed in fiscal 2004 and 2003 is as follows (in millions):
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the operating results of each business from the date of acquisition. Pro forma results of operations have not been presented because the effects of these acquisitions, individually or in the aggregate, were not material to the Company’s results.
Purchased Intangible Assets
The following table presents details of the purchased intangible assets acquired during fiscal 2005 and 2004 (in millions, except years):
The following tables present details of the Company’s total purchased intangible assets (in millions):
The following table presents details of the amortization expense of purchased intangible assets as reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations (in millions):
The estimated future amortization expense of purchased intangible assets as of July 30, 2005, is as follows (in millions):
The following tables present the changes in goodwill allocated to the Company’s reportable segments during fiscal 2005 and 2004 (in millions):
In fiscal 2005, the Company purchased a portion of the minority interest of Cisco Systems, K.K. (Japan). As a result, the Company increased its ownership from 97.6% to 99.0% of the voting rights of Cisco Systems, K.K. (Japan) and recorded goodwill of $30 million, which was included in the preceding table.
Acquisition of Variable Interest Entities
In April 2001, the Company entered into a commitment to provide convertible debt funding of approximately $84 million to Andiamo, a privately held storage switch developer. This debt was convertible into approximately 44% of the equity of Andiamo. In connection with this investment, the Company obtained a call option that provided the Company the right to purchase Andiamo. The purchase price under the call option was based on a valuation of Andiamo using a negotiated formula. On August 19, 2002, the Company entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Andiamo, which represented the exercise of its rights under the call option. The Company also entered into a commitment to provide nonconvertible debt funding to Andiamo of approximately $100 million through the close of the acquisition. Substantially all of the convertible debt funding of $84 million and nonconvertible debt funding of $100 million was expensed as R&D costs.
The Company adopted FIN 46(R) effective January 24, 2004. The Company evaluated its debt investment in Andiamo and determined that Andiamo was a variable interest entity under FIN 46(R). The Company concluded that the Company was the primary beneficiary as defined by FIN 46(R) and, therefore, accounted for Andiamo as if the Company had consolidated Andiamo since the Company’s initial investment in April 2001. The consolidation of Andiamo from the date of the Company’s initial investment required accounting for the call option as a repurchase right. Under FASB Interpretation No. 44, "Accounting for Certain Transactions Involving Stock Compensation," and related interpretations, variable accounting was required for substantially all Andiamo employee stock and options because the ending purchase price was primarily derived from a revenue-based formula.
Effective January 24, 2004, the last day of the second quarter of fiscal 2004, the Company recorded a noncash cumulative stock compensation charge of $567 million, net of tax (representing the amount of variable compensation from April 2001 through January 2004). This charge was reported as a separate line item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as a cumulative effect of accounting change, net of tax. The charge was based on the value of the Andiamo employee stock and options and their vesting from the adoption of FIN 46(R) pursuant to the formula-based valuation.
On February 19, 2004, the Company completed the acquisition of Andiamo, exchanging approximately 23 million shares of the Company’s common stock for Andiamo shares not owned by the Company and assuming approximately 6 million stock options, for a total estimated value of $750 million, primarily derived from the revenue-based formula, which after stock price-related adjustments resulted in a total amount recorded of $722 million, as summarized in the table below.
Subsequent to the adoption of FIN 46(R), changes to the value of Andiamo and the continued vesting of the employee stock and options resulted in an adjustment to the noncash stock compensation charge. The Company recorded a noncash variable stock compensation adjustment of $58 million in the third quarter of fiscal 2004 to the cumulative stock compensation charge recorded in the second quarter of fiscal 2004 to account for the additional vesting of the Andiamo employee stock and options and changes in the formula-based valuation from January 24, 2004 until February 19, 2004. This noncash adjustment was reported as operating expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, as stock-based compensation related to acquisitions and investments in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, and as an increase to additional paid-in capital in the Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity. In addition, upon completion of the acquisition, deferred stock-based compensation of $90 million was recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets to reflect the unvested portion of the formula-based valuation of the Andiamo employee stock and options. The amount of deferred stock-based compensation was fixed at the date of acquisition and is being amortized over the vesting period of Andiamo employee stock and options of approximately two years.
A summary of the accounting of the initial consolidation under FIN 46(R) and the subsequent purchase of Andiamo, after stock price-related adjustments, is as follows (in millions):
In fiscal 2005, the Company completed the acquisitions of the following companies which had been consolidated prior to acquisition because the Company was deemed to be the primary beneficiary under FIN 46(R):
The purchase consideration and any additional amounts to be paid for each of these acquisitions is recorded by the Company as compensation expense related to acquisitions and investments. During fiscal 2005, the Company recorded approximately $34 million of compensation expense relating to these acquisitions.
- Acquisition of BCN Systems, Inc. to contribute to the continued evolution of the Company’s routing platforms and support ongoing efforts to speed the delivery of next-generation data, voice, and video services over a converged network. The acquisition was completed for a purchase price of approximately $45 million to be paid over a five-year period contingent upon continued employment of certain employees with the Company, which may be increased by approximately $122 million depending upon the achievement of certain development and product milestones. The purchase consideration consisted of cash.
- Acquisition of M.I. Secure, Corporation to add to the Company’s network security technology. The acquisition was completed for a purchase price of approximately $1 million, which may be increased by approximately $12 million depending upon the achievement of certain development and product milestones. The purchase consideration consisted of cash.
- Acquisition of Vihana, Inc., a developer of custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips, for a purchase price of approximately $30 million. The purchase consideration consisted of shares of Cisco common stock and stock options assumed. Upon completion of the acquisition, deferred stock-based compensation of $7 million was recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
4. Restructuring Costs and Other Special Charges
On April 16, 2001, the Company announced a restructuring program, which included a worldwide workforce reduction, consolidation of excess facilities, and restructuring of certain business functions. The liability for restructuring costs is recorded in other accrued liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The following table summarizes the activity related to the remaining liability for restructuring costs and other special charges, comprised primarily of operating lease liabilities, as of July 30, 2005 (in millions):
Note 1: Cash payments include payments of approximately $204 million for lease obligations that were terminated.
5. Balance Sheet Details
The following tables provide details of selected balance sheet items (in millions):
5. Balance Sheet Details (Continued)
The following tables provide details of selected balance sheet items (in millions):
6. Lease Receivables, Net
Lease receivables represent sales-type and direct-financing leases resulting from the sale of the Company’s and complementary third-party products and services. These lease arrangements typically have terms from two to three years and are generally collateralized by a security interest in the underlying assets. The current portion of lease receivables, net, is recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets, and the noncurrent portion is recorded in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The net lease receivables are summarized as follows (in millions):
Contractual maturities of the gross lease receivables at July 30, 2005 were $299 million in fiscal 2006, $191 million in fiscal 2007, $122 million in fiscal 2008, $79 million in fiscal 2009, and $40 million in fiscal 2010 and thereafter. Actual cash collections may differ from the contractual maturities due to early customer buyouts, refinancings, or customer defaults.
The following tables summarize the Company’s investments (in millions):
The following table provides gross realized gains and losses related to the Company’s investments (in millions):
The gross realized losses in fiscal 2005 and 2003 included charges of $5 million and $412 million, respectively, related to the impairment of certain publicly traded equity securities. There were no impairment charges related to publicly traded equity securities in fiscal 2004. The impairment charges were due to a decline in the fair value of the investments below their cost basis that were judged to be other-than-temporary. The specific identification method is used to determine the cost basis of fixed income securities disposed of. The weighted-average method is used to determine the cost basis of publicly traded equity securities disposed of.
The following tables provide the breakdown of the investments with unrealized losses at July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004 (in millions):
The gross unrealized losses related to fixed income securities were primarily due to changes in interest rates. The gross unrealized losses related to publicly traded equity securities were due to changes in market prices. The Company’s management has determined that the gross unrealized losses on its investment securities at July 30, 2005 are temporary in nature. The Company reviews its investments to identify and evaluate investments that have indications of possible impairment. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include the length of time and extent to which fair value has been less than the cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and the Company’s intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value. Substantially all of the Company’s fixed income securities are rated investment grade or better.
The following table summarizes the maturities of the Company’s fixed income securities at July 30, 2005 (in millions):
Actual maturities may differ from the contractual maturities because borrowers have the right to call or prepay certain obligations.
8. Commitments and Contingencies
The Company leases office space in several U.S. locations, as well as locations elsewhere in the Americas; Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA); Asia Pacific; and Japan. Rent expense totaled $179 million, $191 million, and $196 million in fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. Future annual minimum lease payments under all noncancelable operating leases with an initial term in excess of one year as of July 30, 2005 were as follows (in millions):
Purchase Commitments with Contract Manufacturers and Suppliers
The Company purchases components from a variety of suppliers and uses several contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for its products. During the normal course of business, in order to manage manufacturing lead times and help assure adequate component supply, the Company enters into agreements with contract manufacturers and suppliers that either allow them to procure inventory based upon criteria as defined by the Company or that establish the parameters defining the Company’s requirements. In certain instances, these agreements allow the Company the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust the Company’s requirements based on its business needs prior to firm orders being placed. Consequently, only a portion of the Company’s reported purchase commitments arising from these agreements are firm, noncancelable, and unconditional commitments. As of July 30, 2005, the Company had total purchase commitments for inventory of approximately $954 million, compared with $951 million as of July 31, 2004.
In addition to the above, the Company records a liability for firm, noncancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments for quantities in excess of its future demand forecasts consistent with the Company’s allowance for inventory. As of July 30, 2005, the liability for these firm, noncancelable, and unconditional purchase commitments was $107 million, compared with $141 million as of July 31, 2004 and was included in other accrued liabilities.
The Company has entered into an agreement to invest approximately $800 million in venture funds managed by SOFTBANK that are required to be funded on demand. The total commitment is to be invested in venture funds and as senior debt with entities as directed by SOFTBANK. The Company’s commitment to fund the senior debt is contingent upon the achievement of certain agreed-upon milestones. As of July 30, 2005, the Company had invested $414 million in the venture funds pursuant to the commitment, compared with $290 million as of July 31, 2004. In addition, as of July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004, the Company had invested $49 million in senior debt pursuant to the commitment, of which $47 million and $19 million has been repaid as of July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004, respectively.
The Company provides structured financing to certain qualified customers for the purchase of equipment and other needs through its wholly owned subsidiaries. These loan commitments may be funded over a two- to three-year period, provided that these customers achieve specific business milestones and satisfy certain financial covenants. As of July 30, 2005, the outstanding loan commitments were $17 million and all were eligible for draw-down. As of July 31, 2004, the outstanding loan commitments were $61 million, of which $22 million was eligible for draw-down.
As of July 30, 2005, the Company had a commitment of approximately $25 million to purchase the remaining minority interest of Cisco Systems, K.K. (Japan), compared with approximately $59 million as of July 31, 2004.
The Company also has certain other funding commitments related to its privately held investments that are based on the achievement of certain agreed-upon milestones. The funding commitments were approximately $56 million as of July 30, 2005, compared with approximately $67 million as of July 31, 2004.
Variable Interest Entities
In the ordinary course of business, the Company has investments in privately held companies and provides structured financing to certain customers through its wholly owned subsidiaries, which may be considered to be variable interest entities. The Company has evaluated its investments in privately held companies and structured financings and determined that there were no significant unconsolidated variable interest entities as of July 30, 2005.
Guarantees and Product Warranties
FASB Interpretation No. 45, "Guarantor’s Accounting and Disclosure Requirements for Guarantees, Including Indirect Guarantees of Indebtedness of Others" ("FIN 45"), requires that upon issuance of a guarantee, the guarantor must disclose and recognize a liability for the fair value of the obligation it assumes under that guarantee.
The requirements of FIN 45 are applicable to the Company’s product warranty liability and certain guarantees. The Company’s guarantees issued subject to the recognition and disclosure requirements of FIN 45 as of July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004 were not material. As of July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004, the Company’s product warranty liability recorded in other accrued liabilities was $259 million and $239 million, respectively. The following table summarizes the activity related to the product warranty liability during fiscal 2005 and 2004 (in millions):
The Company accrues for warranty costs as part of its cost of sales based on associated material product costs, technical support labor costs, and associated overhead. The products sold are generally covered by a warranty for periods ranging from 90 days to five years, and for some products the Company provides a limited lifetime warranty.
In the normal course of business to facilitate sales of its products, the Company indemnifies other parties, including customers, lessors, and parties to other transactions with the Company, with respect to certain matters. The Company has agreed to hold the other parties harmless against losses arising from a breach of representations or covenants, or out of intellectual property infringement or other claims made against certain parties. These agreements may limit the time within which an indemnification claim can be made and the amount of the claim. In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with its officers and directors, and the Company’s bylaws contain similar indemnification obligations to the Company’s agents.
It is not possible to determine the maximum potential amount under these indemnification agreements due to the limited history of prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. Historically, payments made by the Company under these agreements have not had a material impact on the Company’s operating results, financial position, or cash flows.
The Company uses derivative instruments to manage exposures to foreign currency, interest rate, and equity security price risks. The Company’s objective in holding derivatives is to reduce the volatility of earnings and cash flows associated with changes in foreign currency, interest rates, and equity security prices. The Company’s derivatives expose it to credit risk to the extent that the counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreement. The Company seeks to reduce such risks by limiting its counterparties to major financial institutions. In addition, the potential risk of loss with any one counterparty resulting from this type of credit risk is monitored. Management does not expect material losses as a result of defaults by counterparties.
Foreign Currency Derivatives The Company conducts business globally in several currencies. As such, it is exposed to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. The Company enters into foreign exchange forward contracts to reduce the short-term effects of foreign currency fluctuations on certain foreign currency receivables, investments, and payables. The gains and losses on the foreign exchange forward contracts offset the transaction gains and losses on certain foreign currency receivables, investments, and payables recognized in earnings.
The Company does not enter into foreign exchange forward contracts for trading purposes. Gains and losses on the contracts are included in other income (loss), net, in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and offset foreign exchange gains and losses from the revaluation of intercompany balances or other current assets, investments, and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the reporting entity. The Company’s foreign exchange forward contracts related to current assets and liabilities generally range from one to three months in original maturity. Additionally, the Company has entered into foreign exchange forward contracts with maturities of up to two years related to long-term customer financings. The foreign exchange contracts related to investments generally have maturities of less than one year.
The Company periodically hedges certain foreign currency forecasted transactions related to certain operating expenses with currency options. These transactions are designated as cash flow hedges. The effective portion of the derivative’s gain or loss is initially reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income and subsequently reclassified into earnings when the hedged exposure affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss is reported in earnings immediately. These currency option contracts generally have maturities of less than 18 months. The Company does not purchase currency options for trading purposes. Foreign exchange forward and option contracts as of July 30, 2005 are summarized as follows (in millions):
Interest Rate Derivatives The Company’s primary objective for holding fixed income and debt securities is to improve its investment return while preserving principal and managing risk. To realize these objectives, the Company may utilize interest rate swaps or other derivatives designated as fair value or cash flow hedges. As of July 30, 2005, the Company had entered into $1 billion of interest rate swaps designated as fair value hedges. Under the interest rate swap contracts, the Company makes fixed-rate interest payments and receives interest payments based on the London InterBank Offered Rate (LIBOR). The effect of these swaps is to convert fixed-rate returns to LIBOR-based returns on a portion of the Company’s fixed income portfolio. The gains and losses related to changes in the value of the interest rate swaps are included in other income (loss), net, in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and offset the changes in fair value of the underlying hedged investment. As of July 30, 2005, the fair value of the interest rate swaps was $15 million. There were no interest rate derivatives as of July 31, 2004.
Equity Derivatives The Company maintains a portfolio of publicly traded equity securities which are subject to price risk. The Company may hold equity securities for strategic purposes or to provide diversification for the Company’s overall investment portfolio. In order to manage its exposure to changes in the value of certain equity securities, the Company may, from time to time, enter into equity derivative contracts. As of July 30, 2005, the Company had entered into forward sale and option agreements on certain publicly traded equity securities designated as fair value hedges. The gains and losses due to changes in the value of the hedging instruments are included in other income (loss), net, in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and offset the change in the fair value of the underlying hedged investment. As of July 30, 2005 the notional and fair value amounts of the derivatives were $198 million and $19 million, respectively. There were no equity derivatives as of July 31, 2004.
Beginning on April 20, 2001, a number of purported shareholder class action lawsuits were filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California against the Company and certain of its officers and directors. The lawsuits have been consolidated, and the consolidated action is purportedly brought on behalf of those who purchased the Company’s publicly traded securities between August 10, 1999 and February 6, 2001. Plaintiffs allege that defendants have made false and misleading statements, purport to assert claims for violations of the federal securities laws, and seek unspecified compensatory damages and other relief. The Company believes the claims are without merit and intends to defend the actions vigorously. While the Company believes there is no legal basis for liability, due to the uncertainty surrounding the litigation process, the Company is unable to reasonably estimate a range of loss, if any, at this time.
Beginning on April 23, 2001, a number of purported shareholder derivative lawsuits were filed in the Superior Court of California, County of Santa Clara, in the Superior Court of California, County of San Mateo and in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. These actions were later consolidated. The complaints included claims for breach of fiduciary duty, waste of corporate assets, mismanagement, unjust enrichment, and violations of the California Corporations Code; sought compensatory damages, disgorgement, and other relief; and were based on essentially the same allegations as the class actions. On March 22, 2005, the Superior Court approved a comprehensive settlement of all of these derivative claims, which provided for dismissal with prejudice of all of plaintiffs’ claims, reimbursement of a portion of plaintiffs’ attorneys’ fees and agreement to maintain certain Company policies and consider others.
On February 16, 2005, a purported shareholder derivative lawsuit was filed in the Superior Court of California, County of Santa Clara, against various officers and directors of the Company and naming the Company as a nominal defendant. The lawsuit includes claims for breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment, constructive trust and violations of the California Corporations Code, is based upon allegations of wrongdoing in connection with option grants and compensation to officers and directors, the timing of option grants, and the Company’s share repurchase plan, and seeks unspecified compensation and other damages, rescission of options and other relief.
In addition, the Company was subject to patent claims asserted by Storage Technology Corporation against the Company on December 10, 1999. Claims related to one patent were dismissed, and a trial relating to claims related to a second patent commenced May 19, 2005 in the Federal District Court for the Northern District of California. The claims which were the subject of the trial included an assertion that NetFlow Feature Acceleration infringed United States Patent No. 5,842,040, and included demands for damages and injunctive relief. On June 7, 2005, the court entered judgment in the Company’s favor when the jury returned a verdict finding no infringement by the Company and that the patent claims at issue in the case were invalid.
In addition, the Company is subject to legal proceedings, claims, and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business, including intellectual property litigation. While the outcome of these matters is currently not determinable, the Company does not expect that the ultimate costs to resolve these matters will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
9. Shareholders’ Equity
Stock Repurchase Program
In September 2001, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program. As of July 30, 2005, the Company’s Board of Directors had authorized the repurchase of up to $35 billion of common stock under this program. During fiscal 2005, the Company repurchased and retired 540 million shares of Cisco common stock at an average price of $18.95 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $10.2 billion. As of July 30, 2005, the Company had repurchased and retired 1.5 billion shares of Cisco common stock for an average price of $18.15 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $27.2 billion since inception of the stock repurchase program, and the remaining authorized amount for stock repurchases under this program was $7.8 billion with no termination date.
The purchase price for the shares of the Company’s common stock repurchased was reflected as a reduction to shareholders’ equity. In accordance with Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 6, "Status of Accounting Research Bulletins," the Company is required to allocate the purchase price of the repurchased shares as a reduction to retained earnings and common stock and additional paid-in capital.
Shareholders’ Rights Plan
In June 1998, the Board of Directors approved a Shareholders’ Rights Plan (“Rights Plan”) which was intended to protect shareholders’ rights in the event of an unsolicited takeover attempt. On March 24, 2005, the Board of Directors approved an amendment to the Company’s Rights Agreement to advance the Final Expiration Date of the Rights under the Rights Plan pursuant to the Rights Agreement from the close of business on June 19, 2008 to March 28, 2005, effectively terminating the Rights Plan as of the close of business on March 28, 2005.
Under the terms of the Company’s Articles of Incorporation, the Board of Directors may determine the rights, preferences, and terms of the Company’s authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock.
The components of comprehensive income are as follows (in millions):
The Company consolidates its investment in a venture fund managed by SOFTBANK as it is the primary beneficiary as defined under FIN 46(R). During fiscal 2005, SOFTBANK’s aggregate minority share of the venture fund decreased by $77 million, from $84 million as of July 31, 2004 to $7 million as of July 30, 2005, as a result of a noncash distribution of the venture fund assets to its partners.
10. Employee Benefit Plans
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The Company has an Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which includes its subplan, the International Employee Stock Purchase Plan (together, the "Purchase Plan"), under which 321.4 million shares of the Company’s common stock have been reserved for issuance. Eligible employees may purchase a limited number of shares of the Company’s common stock at a discount of up to 15% of the market value at certain plan-defined dates. The Purchase Plan terminates on January 3, 2010. In fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, the shares issued under the Purchase Plan were 19 million, 26 million, and 23 million shares, respectively. At July 30, 2005, 120 million shares were available for issuance under the Purchase Plan.
Employee Stock Option Plans
Stock Option Program Description The Company has two plans under which it grants options: the 1996 Stock Incentive Plan (the "1996 Plan") and the 1997 Supplemental Stock Incentive Plan (the "Supplemental Plan").
Stock option grants are designed to reward employees for their long-term contributions to the Company and provide incentives for them to remain with the Company. The number and frequency of stock option grants are based on competitive practices, operating results of the Company, and government regulations.
The maximum number of shares issuable over the term of the 1996 Plan is limited to 2.5 billion shares. Options granted under the 1996 Plan have an exercise price equal to the fair market value of the underlying stock on the grant date and expire no later than nine years from the grant date. The options will generally become exercisable for 20% or 25% of the option shares one year from the date of grant and then ratably over the following 48 or 36 months, respectively. Certain other grants have utilized a 60-month ratable vesting schedule. In addition, the Board of Directors, or other committee administering the plan, has the discretion to use a different vesting schedule and has done so from time to time. Since the inception of the 1996 Plan, the Company has granted options to virtually all employees, and the majority has been granted to employees below the vice president level.
In 1997, the Company adopted the Supplemental Plan, under which options can be granted or shares can be directly issued to eligible employees. Officers and members of the Company’s Board of Directors are not eligible to participate in the Supplemental Plan. Nine million shares have been reserved for issuance under the Supplemental Plan, of which 3 million options were granted. All option grants have an exercise price equal to the fair market value of the underlying stock on the grant date. No shares were issued in fiscal 2005 under the Supplemental Plan, and the Company will no longer be issuing shares under the Supplemental Plan.
Distribution and Dilutive Effect of Options The following table illustrates the grant dilution and exercise dilution (in millions, except percentages):
Note 1: The percentage for grant dilution is computed based on net options granted as a percentage of shares of common stock outstanding.
Note 2: The percentage for exercise dilution is computed based on options exercised as a percentage of shares of common stock outstanding.
Basic and diluted shares outstanding for the year ended July 30, 2005 were 6.5 billion shares and 6.6 billion shares, respectively. Diluted shares outstanding include the dilutive impact of in-the-money options, which is calculated based on the average share price for each fiscal period using the treasury stock method. Under the treasury stock method, the tax-effected proceeds that would be hypothetically received from the exercise of all in-the-money options are assumed to be used to repurchase shares. In fiscal 2005, the dilutive impact of in-the-money employee stock options was approximately 125 million shares or 1.9% of the basic shares outstanding based on Cisco’s average share price of $18.80.
The following table summarizes the options granted to the Named Executive Officers during the periods indicated. The Named Executive Officers represent the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and the four other most highly paid executive officers whose salary and bonus for the years ended July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004 were in excess of $100,000.
General Option Information A summary of option activity follows (in millions, except per-share amounts). The Company has, in connection with the acquisitions of various companies, assumed the stock option plans of the acquired companies or issued replacement options.
The following table summarizes significant ranges of outstanding and exercisable options as of July 30, 2005 (in millions, except years and per-share amounts):
The aggregate intrinsic value in the preceding table represents the total pretax intrinsic value based on Cisco’s closing stock price of $19.15 as of July 29, 2005, which would have been received by the option holders had all option holders exercised their options as of that date. The total number of in-the-money options exercisable as of July 30, 2005 was 392 million. As of July 31, 2004, 436 million outstanding options were exercisable, and the weighted-average exercise price was $25.34. As of July 26, 2003, 748 million outstanding options were exercisable, and the weighted-average exercise price was $26.12.
The following table presents the option exercises for the year ended July 30, 2005, and option values as of that date for the Named Executive Officers (in millions):
Pro Forma Information Pro forma information regarding option grants made to the Company’s employees and directors and common stock relating to the Employee Stock Purchase Plan is based on specified valuation techniques that produce estimated compensation charges. The following table reflects the pro forma information (in millions, except per-share amounts):
The pro forma net income for fiscal 2005 includes the effects of new U.S. tax regulations effective in fiscal 2005 that require intercompany reimbursement of certain stock-based compensation expenses.
The value of each option grant is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
The Black-Scholes option pricing model was developed for use in estimating the value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable. In addition, option pricing models require the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility and expected life. The Company is responsible for determining the assumptions for the expected volatility and expected life of its stock options used in estimating the fair value of those options. The Company uses third-party analysis to assist in developing the expected volatility and expected life of its stock options. The expected life and expected volatility of the stock options is based upon historical and other economic data trended into the future. The Company uses an option pricing model to indirectly estimate the expected life of the stock options. Because the Company’s employee stock options have characteristics significantly different from those of traded options, and because changes in the subjective input assumptions can materially affect the estimated value, in management’s opinion, the existing valuation models do not provide a reliable measure of the fair value of the Company’s employee stock options. Under the Black-Scholes option pricing model, the weighted-average estimated values of employee stock options granted during fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003 were $6.19, $8.77, and $5.67, respectively.
Employee 401(k) Plans
The Company sponsors the Cisco Systems, Inc. 401(k) Plan (the "Plan") to provide retirement benefits for its employees. As allowed under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code, the Plan provides tax-deferred salary contributions for eligible employees. The Company also has other 401(k) plans that it sponsors. These plans arose from acquisitions of other companies and are not material to the Company on either an individual or aggregate basis.
Employees can contribute from 1% to 25% of their annual compensation to the Plan. Employee contributions are limited to a maximum annual amount as set periodically by the Internal Revenue Code. Through December 31, 2002, the Company matched employee contributions dollar for dollar up to a maximum of $1,500 per person per year. Effective January 1, 2003, the Company began matching employee contributions up to 50% of the first 6% of eligible earnings that are contributed by employees. Therefore, the maximum matching contribution that the Company may allocate to each participant’s account will not exceed $6,300 for the 2005 calendar year due to the $210,000 annual limit on eligible earnings imposed by the Internal Revenue Code. All matching contributions vest immediately. The Company’s matching contributions to the Plan totaled $84 million, $81 million, and $40 million in fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively.
Effective January 1, 2004, employees who meet the age requirements and reach the Plan contribution limits can make a catch-up contribution not to exceed the lesser of 50% of their eligible compensation or the limit set forth in the Internal Revenue Code. The catch-up contributions are not eligible for matching contributions.
In addition, the Plan provides for discretionary profit-sharing contributions as determined by the Board of Directors. Such contributions to the Plan are allocated among eligible participants in the proportion of their salaries to the total salaries of all participants. There were no discretionary profit-sharing contributions made in fiscal 2005, 2004, or 2003.
11. Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes consisted of the following (in millions):
The Company paid income taxes of $1.266 billion, $644 million, and $1.424 billion in fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. Income before provision for income taxes consisted of the following (in millions):
The items accounting for the difference between income taxes computed at the federal statutory rate and the provision for income taxes consisted of the following:
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2005, the Internal Revenue Service completed its examination of the Company’s federal income tax returns for the fiscal years ended July 25, 1998 through July 28, 2001. Based on the results of the examination, the Company has decreased previously recorded tax reserves by approximately $110 million and decreased income tax expense by a corresponding amount. This decrease to the provision for income taxes was offset by increases to the provision for income taxes of $57 million related to a fourth quarter fiscal 2005 intercompany restructuring of certain of the Company’s foreign operations and $70 million related to the effects of new U.S. tax regulations effective in fiscal 2005 that require intercompany reimbursement of certain stock-based compensation expenses. These amounts are included in foreign income at other than U.S. rates in the table above.
U.S. income taxes and foreign withholding taxes were not provided for on a cumulative total of $6.8 billion of undistributed earnings for certain foreign subsidiaries. The Company intends to reinvest these earnings indefinitely in its foreign subsidiaries. If these earnings were distributed to the United States in the form of dividends or otherwise, or if the shares of the relevant foreign subsidiaries were sold or otherwise transferred, the Company would be subject to additional U.S. income taxes (subject to an adjustment for foreign tax credits) and foreign withholding taxes. Determination of the amount of unrecognized deferred income tax liability related to these earnings is not practicable.
The following table presents the breakdown between current and noncurrent net deferred tax assets (in millions):
The noncurrent portion of the deferred tax assets is included in other assets.
The components of the deferred tax assets (liabilities) are as follows (in millions):
Reclassifications have been made to the fiscal 2004 balances for certain components of deferred tax assets and liabilities in order to conform to the current year’s presentation. In fiscal 2005, $450 million was reclassified from deferred tax liability to income taxes payable, representing taxes on foreign subsidiary earnings.
The valuation allowance increased from $0 at July 31, 2004 to $85 million at July 30, 2005. Of the $85 million valuation allowance, $53 million is attributable to acquired deferred tax assets of acquisitions for which any subsequent reduction of this valuation allowance would be applied first to reduce goodwill and then noncurrent intangible assets of the acquired entity.
As of July 30, 2005, the Company’s federal and state net operating loss carryforwards for income tax purposes were $271 million and $2.2 billion, respectively. If not utilized, the federal net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in fiscal 2019, and the state net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in fiscal 2006. As of July 30, 2005, the Company’s federal and state tax credit carryforwards for income tax purposes were approximately $11 million and $548 million, respectively. If not utilized, the federal and state tax credit carryforwards will begin to expire in fiscal 2009.
The Company’s income taxes payable for federal, state, and foreign purposes have been reduced by the tax benefits from employee stock options. The Company receives an income tax benefit calculated as the difference between the fair market value of the stock issued at the time of exercise and the option price, tax effected. The net tax benefits from employee stock options were $35 million, $537 million, and $132 million for fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively, and were reflected as an increase to additional paid-in capital in the Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity.
The Company’s federal income tax returns for fiscal years ended July 27, 2002 through July 31, 2004 are under examination by the Internal Revenue Service. The Company believes that adequate amounts have been reserved for any adjustments which may ultimately result from these examinations.
On October 22, 2004, the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (the "Jobs Creation Act") was signed into law. The Jobs Creation Act creates a temporary incentive for U.S. corporations to repatriate accumulated income earned abroad by providing an 85 percent dividends received deduction for certain dividends from controlled foreign corporations. In the first quarter of fiscal 2006, the Company distributed cash from its foreign subsidiaries and will report an extraordinary dividend (as defined in the Jobs Creation Act) of $1.2 billion and a related tax liability of approximately $63 million in its fiscal 2006 federal income tax return. This amount was previously provided for in the provision for income taxes and is included in income taxes payable. This distribution does not change the Company’s intention to indefinitely reinvest undistributed earnings of certain of its foreign subsidiaries in operations outside the United States.
12. Segment Information and Major Customers
The Company’s operations involve the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and technical support of networking and communications products and services. Cisco products include routers, switches, advanced technologies, and other networking equipment. These products, primarily integrated by Cisco IOS Software, link geographically dispersed LANs and WANs.
The Company conducts business globally and is managed geographically. The Company’s management makes financial decisions and allocates resources based on the information it receives from its internal management system. Sales are attributed to a geographic theater based on the ordering location of the customer. The Company does not allocate research and development, sales and marketing, or general and administrative expenses to its geographic theaters in this internal management system because management does not currently use the information to measure the performance of the operating segments. Based on established criteria, as of July 30, 2005, the Company has four reportable segments: the Americas; EMEA; Asia Pacific; and Japan. As a result of organizational changes, beginning in fiscal 2006, the Company’s reportable segments will be changed to the following theaters: United States and Canada; European Markets; Emerging Markets; Asia Pacific; and Japan.
Summarized financial information by theater for fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, as taken from the internal management system, is as follows (in millions):
The Americas theater included non-U.S. net sales of $1.2 billion, $1.1 billion, and $888 million for fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. The following table presents net sales for groups of similar products and services (in millions):
The Company refers to some of its products and technologies as advanced technologies. The Company has currently identified six advanced technologies for particular focus: enterprise IP communications, home networking, optical networking, security, storage area networking, and wireless technology. The Company is in the process of identifying additional advanced technologies for focus and investment in the future, and the Company’s investments in some previously identified advanced technologies may be curtailed or eliminated depending on market developments. The Company reclassified net sales for switches and advanced technology products in fiscal 2004 and 2003 to conform to the current year’s presentation related to a refinement in the reporting of certain rebate programs for these products.
The majority of the Company’s assets as of July 30, 2005 and July 31, 2004 were attributable to its U.S. operations. In fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s net sales.
Property and equipment information is based on the physical location of the assets. The following table presents property and equipment information for geographic areas (in millions):
13. Net Income Per Share
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share (in millions, except per-share amounts):
Dilutive potential common shares consist primarily of employee stock options and restricted common stock. Employee stock options to purchase approximately 847 million, 469 million, and 838 million shares in fiscal 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively, were outstanding, but were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because the exercise price of the stock options was greater than the average share price of the common shares, and, therefore, the effect would have been antidilutive.
14. Pending Business Combinations
As of July 30, 2005, the Company announced definitive agreements to acquire privately held Sheer Networks, Inc. and KiSS Technology A/S. The aggregate announced purchase price for these acquisitions was approximately $158 million in cash and stock and an additional $25 million in cash upon the achievement of certain agreed-upon milestones. These acquisitions closed in the first quarter of fiscal 2006.
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