ICANN Recovers Large Block of Internet Address Space
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has found a little breathing room in the IPv4 address space with its recovery of a block of 16 million IPv4 addresses.
The IP addresses recovered were once used to connect older protocol packet-data networks with the fledgling Internet. The block of addresses, technically referred to as 220.127.116.11/8, is also known as "Net-14."
"Net-14 was the easiest network to reclaim, the so-called low hanging fruit," said Barbara Roseman, General Manager with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which is operated by ICANN. "None of the other legacy assignments in the IPv4 space are likely to be completely reclaimed as they are all in active use."
A small percentage of the addresses in Net-14 had been assigned, most more than 15 years ago. The assignments were so old that finding people who knew about them was a lengthy process. Nearly 50 organizations worked cooperatively with ICANN staff throughout 2007 to confirm that the 984 registrations were no longer in use. IANA undertook the reclamation effort to ensure that the greatest number of IPv4 addresses can be made available to Internet users as the overall free pool of IPv4 addresses is depleted. IANA allocates IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). The five RIRs allocate addresses to network operators in their local regions. IANA allocated more than one /8 (16m IPv4 addresses) per month in 2007 and the rate of allocation is not expected to slow in 2008. The reclamation of Net-14 means there are now 43 unallocated /8s left.
"The recovery of these addresses offers some breathing room as the four billion addresses in IPv4 space are depleted, but it is only a temporary solution," added Roseman. "The real and lasting solution is the technical move to IPv6—the protocol that will make 340 trillion trillion trillion unique IP addresses available."
IPv6 Address Added for Root Servers in the Root Zone
ICANN recently took another step along the path of deployment for the next-generation IPv6 Internet addressing system. IPv6 addresses were added for six of the world's 13 root server networks (A, F, H, J, K, M) to the appropriate files and databases. This move allows for the possibility of fuller IPv6 usage of the Domain Name System (DNS). Prior to today, those using IPv6 had needed to retain the older IPv4 addressing system in order to be able to use domain names.
"The ISP community welcomes this development as part of the continuing evolution of the public Internet," said Tony Holmes, chair of ICANN's Internet Service and Connectivity Provider Constituency. "IPv6 will be an essential part our future and support in the root servers is essential to the growth, stability, and reliability of the public Internet."
Name server software relies on the root servers as a key part in translating domains like icann.org into the routing identifiers used by computers to connect to one another. In 2007 the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee concluded that ICANN should move forward with the enhancement of the DNS root service by adding IPv6 addresses for the root servers. "The addition of IPv6 addresses for the root servers enhances the end-to-end connectivity for IPv6 networks, and furthers the growth of the global interoperable Internet," added David Conrad, ICANN's Vice President of Research and IANA Strategy. "This is a major step forward for IPv6-only connectivity and the global migration to IPv6."
As you may be aware from recent news reports, traffic to the youtube.com Website was "hijacked" on a global scale on Sunday February 24, 2008. The incident was a result of the unauthorized announcement of the prefix 18.104.22.168/24 and caused the popular video sharing Website to become unreachable from most, if not all, of the Internet. The RIPE NCC conducted an analysis into how this incident was seen and tracked by the RIPE NCC's Routing Information Service (RIS) and has published a case study at: http://www.ripe.net/news/study-youtube-hijacking.html
The RIPE NCC RIS is a service that collects Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing information from roughly 600 peers at 16 Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) across the world. Data is stored in near real-time and can be instantly queried by anyone to provide multiple views of routing activity for any point in time. The RIS forms part of the RIPE NCC's suite of Information Services, which together provide a deeper insight into the workings of the Internet. The RIPE NCC is a neutral and impartial organization, and commercial interests therefore do not influence the data collected. The RIPE NCC Information Services suite also includes the Test Traffic Measurement (TTM) service, the DNS Monitoring (DNSMON) service and Hostcount. All of these services are available to anyone, and most of them are offered free of charge.
IETF Examines Future of the Internet by Going IPv6 Native
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) put a spotlight on the next generation of Internet addressing when it switched off attendees' access to IPv4 during its March 2008 meeting. For an hour, Internet engineers at the meeting could only access the Internet using an IPv6 network.
During this event, IETF participants were encouraged to explore the Internet as it appears today in the IPv6 environment. The purpose of this exploration was to determine the next steps necessary toward deployment of IPv6 as the next generation of Internet addressing. The IETF undertook this activity at a time when IPv6-implementation is becoming a matter of global importance for the Internet. The event provided all IETF meeting attendees a first-hand opportunity to work with the Internet over an exclusive IPv6 network. "We get a lot of reports from members of our community who use IPv6, but this was an opportunity for everyone to observe and discuss the technical issues as a group," said Russ Housley, Chair of the IETF. "This first-hand data helps to inform our engineering decisions."
Some members of the Internet technical community assert that the ongoing deployment of IPv6 has been held back by a lack of IPv6-accessible Websites, creating the classic first-step dilemma for network operators. "It has been incredible to observe as members of the community organized themselves and updated their home networks to be ready for this event," said Leslie Daigle, Chief Internet Technology Officer at the Internet Society. "As we continue to solve the engineering and implementation obstacles to IPv6 deployment, creative engineers around the world will develop new uses for the Internet, through IPv6, in ways we can't yet imagine."
The IETF has provided dual stack IPv4/IPv6 network connectivity at its meetings for years, which has been useful for its regular IPv6-using attendees. The difference during this meeting was that a strictly IPv6 network was made available as well, and all attendees were encouraged to explore and experiment with the Internet as seen from IPv6. This focus was heightened when IPv4 access was deliberately shut off for an hour, leaving only IPv6 for connectivity. Following this—and other similar experiments—the engineering community expects to have a better understanding of the next steps necessary in the development of protocols and standards to support the continued deployment of IPv6 in support of the global Internet. The Comcast Corporation provided the facilities to conduct the live test of IPv6 and was the host sponsor of IETF-71 in Philadelphia.
The North American Network Operators' Group (NANOG) and the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) have been unique and successful cooperative fora for Internet builders in North America and other parts of the world. Senior practitioners from around the world contribute their time to NANOG and ARIN as presenters, teachers and trainers, to produce consistent non-commercial conferences of high-quality.
Since 2007, the generosity of an anonymous donor and the administration of the Internet Society, have allowed NANOG and ARIN to provide financial support to a person from a developing country to participate in the October joint NANOG/ARIN meeting through the Postel Network Operator's Scholarship.
The Scholarship Committee cordially invites suitable applicants to apply for fellowship funding to participate in the October 2008 joint NANOG/ARIN meeting. The Scholarship targets personnel from developing countries who are actively involved in Internet development, in any of the following roles: Engineers (Network Builders), Operational and Infrastructure Support Personnel, and Educators, Teachers, and Trainers.
Successful applicants will be provided with transportation to and from the meetings and a reasonable allowance for food and accommodation. In addition all fees for participation in the conferences, tutorials, and social events will be waived. Applicants from any part of the world will be considered. The deadline for application is
June 1, 2008, and the awardee will be informed by July 1, 2008.
This publication is distributed on an "as-is" basis, without warranty of any kind either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement. This publication could contain technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Later issues may modify or update information provided in this issue. Neither the publisher nor any contributor shall have any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused directly or indirectly by the information contained herein.
The Internet Protocol Journal
Ole J. Jacobsen, Editor and Publisher
Editorial Advisory Board
Dr. Vint Cerf, VP and Chief Internet Evangelist
Google Inc, USA
Dr. Jon Crowcroft, Marconi Professor of Communications Systems
University of Cambridge, England
Distinguished Career Professor of Computer Science and Public Policy
Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Peter Löthberg, Network Architect
Stupi AB, Sweden
Dr. Jun Murai, General Chair Person, WIDE Project Vice-President,
Keio University Professor, Faculty of Environmental Information
Keio University, Japan
Dr. Deepinder Sidhu, Professor, Computer Science & Electrical Engineering
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Director, Maryland Center for Telecommunications Research, USA
Pindar Wong, Chairman and President
Verifi Limited, Hong Kong
The Internet Protocol Journal is published quarterly by the Chief Technology Office, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com
Tel: +1 408 526-4000
Cisco, Cisco Systems, and the Cisco Systems logo are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. in the USA and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of their respective owners.