Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Installation and Operations Guide, Release 3.4
Chapter 9, Ethernet Operations

Table of Contents

Ethernet Operation
9.1 G1000-4 Card
9.2 E-Series Cards
9.3 E-Series Multicard and Single-Card EtherSwitch
9.4 E-Series Circuit Configurations
9.5 G1000-4 Circuit Configurations
9.6 E-Series VLAN Support
9.7 E-Series Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1D)
9.8 G1000-4 Performance and Maintenance Windows
9.9 Remote Monitoring Specification Alarm Thresholds

Ethernet Operation


The Cisco ONS 15454 SDH integrates Ethernet into an SDH time-division multiplexing (TDM) platform. The ONS 15454 SDH supports both E-series Ethernet cards and the G-series Ethernet card. This chapter describes the Ethernet capabilities of the ONS 15454 SDH. Table 9-1 lists Ethernet topics. Table 9-2 lists Ethernet procedures.

Table 9-2   Ethernet Procedures

Ethernet Procedures 

Procedure: Provision G1000-4 Ethernet Ports

Procedure: Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports

Procedure: Provision an E-Series EtherSwitch Circuit (Multicard or Single-Card)

Procedure: Provision an E-Series Shared Packet Ring Circuit

Procedure: Provision an E-Series Hub-and-Spoke Ethernet Circuit

Procedure: Provision an E-Series Single-Card EtherSwitch Manual Cross-Connect

Procedure: Provision an E-Series Multicard EtherSwitch Manual Cross-Connect

Procedure: Provision a G1000-4 EtherSwitch Circuit

Procedure: Provision a G1000-4 Manual Cross-Connect

Procedure: Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership

Procedure: Display Available VLANs

Procedure: Enable E-Series Spanning Tree on Ethernet Ports

Procedure: Retrieve the MAC Table Information

Procedure: Create Ethernet RMON Alarm Thresholds

9.1 G1000-4 Card

The G1000-4 card reliably transports Ethernet and IP data across an SDH backbone. The G1000-4 card maps up to four Gigabit-Ethernet interfaces onto an SDH transport network. A single card provides scalable and provisionable transport bandwidth at the signal levels up to VC4-16C per card. The card provides line rate forwarding for all Ethernet frames (unicast, multicast, and broadcast) and can be configured to support Jumbo frames (defined as a maximum of 10,000 bytes). The G-series card incorporates features optimized for carrier-class applications such as:

  • High availability (including hitless (< 50 ms) performance under software upgrades and all types of SONET/SDH equipment protection switches)
  • Hitless reprovisioning
  • Support of Gigabit Ethernet traffic at full line rate

The G1000-4 card allows an Ethernet private line service to be provisioned and managed very much like a traditional SONET or SDH line. G1000-4 card applications include providing carrier-grade transparent LAN services (TLS), 100-Mbps Ethernet private line services (when combined with an external 100-Mb Ethernet switch with Gigabit uplinks), and high availability transport for applications such as storage over metropolitan-area network (MAN)/WANs.

You can map the four ports on the G1000-4 independently to any combination of VC4, VC4-2c, VC4-3c, VC4-8c, and VC4-16c circuit sizes, provided the sum of the circuit sizes that terminate on a card do not exceed VC4-16c.

To support a Gigabit Ethernet port at full line rate, an STM circuit with a capacity greater or equal to 1 Gbps (bidirectional 2 Gbps) is needed. A VC4-8c is the minimum circuit size that can support a Gigabit Ethernet port at full line rate.The G1000-4 supports a maximum of two ports at full line rate.

Ethernet cards may be placed in any of the 12 multipurpose card slots. In most configurations, at least two of the 12 slots need to be reserved for optical trunk cards, such as the STM-64 card. The reserved slots give the ONS 15454 SDH a practical maximum of ten G1000-4 cards. The G1000-4 card requires the XC10G card to operate. For more information about the G1000-4 card specifications, see the Card Reference chapter in the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.

The G1000-4 transmits and monitors the SDH J1 Path Trace byte in the same manner as ONS 15454 SDH cards. For more information, see the "Creating a Path Trace" section.

9.1.1 G1000-4 Application

Figure 9-1 shows an example of a G1000-4 card application. In this example, data traffic from the Gigabit Ethernet port of a high-end router travels across the ONS 15454 SDH point-to-point circuit to the Gigabit Ethernet port of another high-end router.


Figure 9-1   Data traffic using a G1000-4 point-to-point circuit


The G1000-4 card transports any Layer 3 protocol that can be encapsulated and transported over Gigabit Ethernet, such as IP or IPX, over an SDH network. The data is transmitted on the Gigabit Ethernet fiber into the standard Cisco Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) on a G1000-4 card. The G1000-4 card transparently maps Ethernet frames into the SDH payload by multiplexing the payload onto an SDH STM-N card. When the SDH payload reaches the destination node, the process is reversed and the data is transmitted from the standard Cisco GBIC in the destination G1000-4 card onto the Gigabit Ethernet fiber.

The G1000-4 card discards certain types of erroneous Ethernet frames rather than transport them over SDH. Erroneous Ethernet frames include corrupted frames with CRC errors and under-sized frames that do not conform to the minimum 60-byte-length Ethernet standard. The G1000-4 card forwards valid frames unmodified over the SDH network. Information in the headers is not affected by the encapsulation and transport. For example, packets with formats that include IEEE 802.1Q information will travel through the process unaffected.

9.1.2 802.3x Flow Control and Frame Buffering

The G1000-4 card supports IEEE 802.3x flow control and frame buffering to reduce data traffic congestion. To buffer over-subscription, 512 kb of buffer memory is available for the receive and transmit channels on each port. When the buffer memory on the Ethernet port nears capacity, the ONS 15454 SDH uses IEEE 802.3x flow control to send back a pause frame to the source at the opposite end of the Gigabit Ethernet connection.

The pause frame instructs that source to stop sending packets for a specific period of time. The sending station waits the requested time before sending more data. Figure 9-1 illustrates pause frames being sent from the ONS 15454 SDH to the sources of the data. The G1000-4 card does not respond to pause frames received from client devices.

This flow control mechanism matches the sending and receiving device throughput to that of the bandwidth of the STM circuit. For example, a router may transmit to the Gigabit Ethernet port on the G1000-4 card. This particular data rate may occasionally exceed 622 Mbps, but the ONS 15454 SDH circuit assigned to the G1000-4 card port may be only VC4-4c (622.08 Mbps). In this example, the ONS 15454 SDH sends out a pause frame and requests that the router delay its transmission for a certain period of time. With a flow control capability combined with the substantial per-port buffering capability, a private line service provisioned at less than full line rate capacity (VC4-8c) is nevertheless very efficient because frame loss can be controlled to a large extent.

Some important characteristics of the flow control feature on the G1000-4 include:

  • The G1000-4 card only supports asymmetric flow control. Flow control frames are sent to the external equipment, but no response from the external equipment is necessary or acted upon.
  • Received flow control frames are quietly discarded. They are not forwarded onto the SDH path, and the G1000-4 card does not respond to the flow control frames.
  • On the G1000-4 card, you can only enable flow control on a port when auto-negotiation is enabled on the device attached to that port. For more information, see the "G1000-4 Port Provisioning" section.

Because of these characteristics, the link auto-negotiation and flow control capability on the attached Ethernet device must be correctly provisioned for successful link auto-negotiation and flow control on the G1000-4. If link auto-negotiation fails, the G1000-4 does not use flow control (default).


Caution   Without flow control, traffic loss can occur if the input traffic rate is higher than the bandwidth of the circuit for an extended period of time.

9.1.3 Ethernet Link Integrity Support

The G1000-4 supports end-to-end Ethernet link integrity. This capability is integral to providing an Ethernet private line service and correct operation of Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols on the attached Ethernet devices at each end. End-to-end Ethernet link integrity essentially means that if any part of the end-to-end path fails, the entire path fails. Failure of the entire path is ensured by turning off the transmit lasers at each end of the path. The attached Ethernet devices recognize the disabled transmit laser as a loss of carrier and consequently an inactive link.


Note   Some network devices can be configured to ignore a loss of carrier condition. If such a device attaches to a G1000-4 card at one end, then alternative techniques (such as use of Layer 2 or Layer 3 protocol keep alive messages) are required to route traffic around failures. The response time of such alternate techniques is typically much longer than techniques that use link state as an indication of an error condition.

As shown in Figure 9-2, a failure at any point of the path (A, B, C, D, or E) causes the G1000-4 card at each end to disable its transmit laser at their ends, which causes the devices at both ends to detect link down. If one of the Ethernet ports is administratively disabled or set in loopback mode, the port is considered a "failure" for the purposes of end-to-end link integrity because the end-to-end Ethernet path is unavailable. The port "failure" also causes both ends of the path to be disabled.


Figure 9-2   End-to-end Ethernet link integrity support


9.1.4 Gigabit EtherChannel/IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation

The end-to-end Ethernet link integrity feature of the G1000-4 can be used in combination with Gigabit EtherChannel (GEC) capability on attached devices. The combination provides an Ethernet traffic restoration scheme that has a faster response time than alternate techniques such as spanning-tree rerouting, yet is more bandwidth efficient because spare bandwidth does not need to be reserved. The G1000-4 supports GEC, which is a Cisco proprietary standard similar to the IEEE link aggregation standard (IEEE 802.3ad). Figure 9-3 illustrates G1000-4 GEC support.


Figure 9-3   G1000-4 Gigabit EtherChannel (GEC) support


Although the G1000-4 card does not actively run GEC, it supports the end-to-end GEC functionality of attached Ethernet devices. If two Ethernet devices running GEC connect through G1000-4 cards to an ONS 15454 SDH network, the ONS 15454 SDH side network is transparent to the EtherChannel devices. The EtherChannel devices operate as if they are directly connected to each other. Any combination of G1000-4 parallel circuit sizes can be used to support GEC throughput.

GEC provides line-level active redundancy and protection (1:1) for attached Ethernet equipment. It can also bundle parallel G1000-4 data links together to provide more aggregated bandwidth. STP operates as if the bundled links are one link and permits GEC to utilize these multiple parallel paths. Without GEC, STP only permits a single non-blocked path. GEC can also provide G1000-4 card-level protection or redundancy because it can support a group of ports on different cards (or different nodes) so that if one port or card has a failure, then traffic is rerouted over the other port or card.

9.1.5 G1000-4 LEDs

G1000-4 series Ethernet card faceplates have two card-level LEDs and a colored LED next to each port (Figure 9-4). The LED states are described in Table 9-3.


Figure 9-4   G1000-4 card faceplate LEDs


Table 9-3   G1000-4 Card-Level LEDs

LED   LED State  Description 

FAIL LED

Red

The card's processor is not ready or a catastrophic software failure occurred on the card. The RED LED is normally illuminated while the card boots up and turns off when the software is deemed operational.

ACT LED

Green

The card is active and the software is operational.

ACT/LINK LED

Off

No link exists to the Ethernet port.

ACT/LINK LED

Solid Amber

A link exists to the Ethernet port, but traffic flow is inhibited. For example, a lack of circuit set-up, an error on the line, or a disabled port may inhibit traffic flow.

ACT/LINK LED

Solid Green

A link exists to the Ethernet port, but no traffic is carried on the port.

ACT/LINK LED

Flashing Green

A link exists to the Ethernet port and traffic is carried on the port. The LED flash rate reflects the traffic rate for the port.

9.1.6 G1000-4 Port Provisioning

This section explains how to provision Ethernet ports on a G1000-4 card. Most provisioning requires filling in two fields: Enabled and Flow Control Negotiation. You can also configure the maximum frame size permitted, either Jumbo or 1548 bytes.

Media Type indicates the type of GBIC installed. For more information on GBICs for the G1000-4 card, see the "G1000-4 Gigabit Interface Converters" section. The Negotiation Status column displays the result of the most recent auto-negotiation. The type of flow control that was negotiated will be displayed.


Note   You can only provision flow control on the G1000-4 by enabling auto-negotiation. If the attached device does not support auto-negotiation or is not correctly configured to support the G1000-4's asymmetric flow control, flow control is ignored.

Procedure: Provision G1000-4 Ethernet Ports


Step 1   From the node view, double-click the G1000-4 card graphic to open the card view.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Port tabs.

Figure 9-5 shows the Provisioning tab with the Port subtab selected.


Figure 9-5   Provisioning G1000-4 Ethernet ports


Step 3   For each G1000-4 port, provision the following parameters:

  • Port Name—If you want to label the port, type the port name.
  • State—Choose IS or OOS-AINS to activate or prepare a port for service. The following port states are available:
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Flow Control Neg—Click this check box to enable flow control negotiation on the port (default). If you do not want to enable flow control, uncheck the box.

Note    To activate flow control, the Ethernet device attached to the G1000-4 card must be set to auto-negotiation. If flow control is enabled but the negotiation status indicates no flow control, check the auto-negotiation settings on the attached Ethernet device.

  • Max Size—To permit the acceptance of jumbo-size Ethernet frames, select Jumbo (default). If you do not want to permit jumbo-size Ethernet frames, select 1548.

Note    The maximum frame size of 1548 bytes, instead of the common maximum frame size of 1518 bytes, enables the port to accept valid Ethernet frames that use new protocols. New protocols, such as MPLS, add bytes and may cause the frame size to exceed the common 1518 byte maximum.

Step 4   Click Apply.

Step 5   Refresh the Ethernet statistics:

a. Click the Performance > Statistics tabs.

b. Click the Refresh button.


Note    Reprovisioning an Ethernet port on the G1000-4 card does not reset the Ethernet statistics for that port. See the "Statistics Window" section for information about clearing the statistics for the G1000-4 port. Reprovisioning an Ethernet port on the E-series Ethernet cards resets the Ethernet statistics for that port.





9.1.7 G1000-4 Gigabit Interface Converters

Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs) are hot-swappable input/output devices that plug into a Gigabit Ethernet card to link the port with the fiber-optic network. Figure 9-6 shows a GBIC. The type of GBIC determines the maximum distance that the Ethernet traffic will travel from the card to the next network device.

The G1000-4 card supports three types of standard Cisco GBICs: SX, LX, and ZX.

1000BASE-SX operates on multi-mode, fiber-optic link spans of up to 550 m in length. 1000BASE-LX operates on single-mode, fiber-optic link spans of up to 10 km in length. 1000BASE-ZX operates on single-mode, fiber-optic link spans of up to 70 km in length. Link spans of up to 100 km are possible using premium single-mode fiber or dispersion-shifted single-mode fiber.


Figure 9-6   Gigabit Interface Converter


Table 9-4 shows the available GBICs for the G1000-4 card.

Table 9-4   G1000-4 Card GBICs

GBIC  Span Length  Product Number 

Short wavelength (1000BASE-SX)

550 m

15454-GBIC-SX

Long wavelength/long haul (1000BASE-LX)

10 km

15454-GBIC-LX

Extended distance (1000BASE-ZX)

70 km

15454-GBIC-ZX


Caution   Use only GBICs certified for use in the ONS 15454 SDH G1000-4 card (Cisco product numbers 15454-GBIC-SX, 15454-GBIC-LX and 15454-GBIC-ZX).

For GBIC installation and cabling instructions, see the "Install Gigabit Interface Converters" procedure.

9.2 E-Series Cards

The E-series cards incorporate Layer 2 switching, while the G-series card is a straight mapper card. E-series cards support VLAN, IEEE 802.1Q, spanning tree, and IEEE 802.1D. An ONS 15454 SDH holds a maximum of ten Ethernet cards. You can insert Ethernet cards in any multipurpose slot. For card specifications, see the Card Reference chapter in the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.

9.2.1 E100T-G Card

E100T-G cards provide twelve switched, IEEE 802.3-compliant, 10/100BaseT Ethernet ports. The ports detect the speed of an attached device by auto-negotiation and automatically connect at the appropriate speed and duplex mode, either half or full duplex, and determine whether to enable or disable flow control.

9.2.2 E1000-2-G Card

E1000-2-G cards provides two switched, IEEE 802.3-compliant, Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) ports that support full duplex operation.

9.2.3 E-Series LEDs

E-series Ethernet card faceplates have three card-level LEDs and a pair of port-level LEDs next to each port. The SF LED is inactive.

Table 9-5   E-Series Card-Level LEDs

LED State  Description 

Red FAIL LED

The red FAIL LED indicates that the card's processor is not ready or a catastrophic software failure occurred on the Ethernet card. As part of the boot sequence, the FAIL LED is turned on until the software deems the card operational.

Green ACT LED

A green ACT LED provides the operational status of the card. When the ACT LED is green, it indicates that the Ethernet card is active and the software is operational.

Table 9-6   E-Series Port-Level LEDs

LED State  Description 

Amber

Transmitting and receiving

Solid Green

Idle and link integrity

Green Light Off

Inactive connection or unidirectional traffic

For detailed specifications of the Ethernet cards, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.

9.2.4 E-Series Port Provisioning

This section explains how to provision Ethernet ports on an E-series Ethernet card. Most provisioning requires filling in two fields: Enabled and Mode. However, you can also map incoming traffic to a low-priority or high-priority queue using the Priority column, and disable spanning tree with the Stp Enabled column. For more information about spanning tree, see the "E-Series Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1D)" section. The Status column displays information about the port's current operating mode, and the Stp State column provides the current spanning-tree status.

Procedure: Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports


Step 1   Display CTC and double-click the card graphic to open the Ethernet card.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether Port tabs (Figure 9-7).


Figure 9-7   Provisioning E-100 series Ethernet ports


Step 3   From the Port window, choose the appropriate mode for each Ethernet port.

The following are valid choices for the E100T-G card:

  • Auto
  • 10 Half
  • 10 Full
  • 100 Half
  • 100 Full

The following are valid choices for the E1000-2-G card:

  • Auto
  • 1000 Full

  • Note   Both 1000 Full and Auto mode set the E1000-2-G port to the 1000-Mbps and full duplex operating mode; however, flow control is disabled when 1000 Full is selected. Choosing Auto mode enables the E1000-2-G card to auto-negotiate flow control. Flow control is a mechanism that prevents network congestion by ensuring that transmitting devices do not overwhelm receiving devices with data. The E1000-2-G port handshakes with the connected network device to determine if that device supports flow control.

Step 4   Click the Enabled check box(es) to activate the corresponding Ethernet port(s).

Step 5   Click Apply.

Your Ethernet ports are now provisioned and ready to be configured for VLAN membership.

Step 6   Repeat this procedure for all other cards that will be in the VLAN.





9.2.5 E-Series Gigabit Interface Converters

Gigabit interface converters (GBICs) are hot-swappable input/output devices that plug into a Gigabit Ethernet card to link the port with the fiber-optic network. The type of GBIC determines the maximum distance that the Ethernet traffic will travel from the card to the next network device.

The E1000-2-G card supports SX and LX GBICs.

1000BASE-SX operates on multi-mode, fiber-optic link spans of up to 550 m in length. 1000BASE-LX operates on single-mode, fiber-optic links of up to 10 km in length.

Table 9-7 shows the available GBICs.

Table 9-7   Available GBICs

GBIC  Span Length  Product Number 

Short wavelength (1000BASE-SX)

550 m

15454-GBIC-SX

Long wavelength/long haul (1000BASE-LX)

10 km

15454-GBIC-LX

For GBIC installation and cabling instructions, see the "Install Gigabit Interface Converters" procedure.


Caution   Use only GBICs certified for use in the ONS 15454 SDH E1000-2-G card (Cisco product numbers 15454-GBIC-SX and 15454-GBIC-LX).


Caution   E1000-2-G cards lose traffic for approximately 30 seconds when an ONS 15454 SDH database is restored. Traffic is lost during the period of spanning-tree reconvergence. The CARLOSS alarm will appear and clear during this period.

9.3 E-Series Multicard and Single-Card EtherSwitch

The ONS 15454 SDH enables multicard and Single-card EtherSwitch modes for E-series cards. At the Ethernet card view in CTC, click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs to reveal the Card Mode option.

9.3.1 E-Series Multicard EtherSwitch

Multicard EtherSwitch provisions two or more Ethernet cards to act as a single Layer 2 switch. It supports one VC4-2c circuit or two VC4 circuits. The bandwidth of the single switch formed by the Ethernet cards matches the bandwidth of the provisioned Ethernet circuit up to VC4-2c worth of bandwidth. Figure 9-8 illustrates a Multicard EtherSwitch configuration.


Figure 9-8   Multicard EtherSwitch configuration


9.3.2 E-Series Single-Card EtherSwitch

Single-card EtherSwitch allows each Ethernet card to remain a single switching entity within the ONS 15454 SDH shelf. This option allows a full VC4-4c worth of bandwidth between two Ethernet circuit points. Figure 9-9 illustrates a Single-card EtherSwitch configuration.


Figure 9-9   Single-card EtherSwitch configuration


Four scenarios exist for provisioning maximum Single-card EtherSwitch bandwidth:

1. VC4-4c

2. VC4-2c + VC4-2c

3. VC4-2c + VC4 + VC4

4. VC4 + VC4 + VC4 + VC4


Note   When configuring scenario 3, the VC4-2c must be provisioned before either of the VC4 circuits.

9.4 E-Series Circuit Configurations

Ethernet circuits can link ONS nodes through point-to-point, shared packet ring, or hub-and-spoke configurations. Two nodes usually connect with a point-to-point configuration. More than two nodes usually connect with a shared packet ring configuration or a hub-and-spoke configuration. This section includes procedures for creating these configurations and also explains how to create Ethernet manual cross-connects. Ethernet manual cross-connects allow you to cross connect individual Ethernet circuits to an STM channel on the ONS 15454 optical interface and also to bridge non-ONS SDH network segments.


Note   When making a VC4-4c Ethernet circuit, Ethernet cards must be configured as Single-card EtherSwitch. Multicard mode does not support VC4-4c Ethernet circuits.

9.4.1 E-Series Ethernet Circuits

The ONS 15454 SDH can set up a point-to-point (straight) Ethernet circuit as Single-card or Multicard. Multicard EtherSwitch (Figure 9-10) limits bandwidth to VC4-2c of bandwidth between two Ethernet circuit points, but allows you to add nodes and cards and make a shared packet ring. Single-card EtherSwitch (Figure 9-11) allows a full VC4-4c of bandwidth between two Ethernet circuit points.


Figure 9-10   Multicard EtherSwitch circuit



Figure 9-11   Single-card EtherSwitch circuit


Procedure: Provision an E-Series EtherSwitch Circuit (Multicard or Single-Card)


Step 1   From the node view, double-click one of the Ethernet cards that will carry the circuit.


Note    Change card settings only if there are no circuits using this card.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs.

Step 3   Under Card Mode, choose one of the following:

  • For Multicard EtherSwitch circuit groups, choose Multicard EtherSwitch Group. Click Apply.
  • For Single-card EtherSwitch circuits, choose Single-card EtherSwitch. Click Apply.

Step 4   For Multicard EtherSwitch circuits only, repeat Steps 1 to 3 for all other Ethernet cards in the ONS 15454 SDH that will carry the circuit.

Step 5   From the View menu, choose Go to Other Node.

Step 6   In the Select Node dialog box, select the other ONS 15454 Ethernet circuit endpoint node and repeat Steps 1 to 5.

Step 7   Click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 8   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the circuit. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the circuit.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the circuit size. The valid circuit sizes for an Ethernet Multicard circuit are VC4 and VC4-2c. The valid circuit sizes for an Ethernet Single-card circuit are VC4, VC4-2c and VC4-4c.
  • Bidirectional—Leave the default unchanged (checked).
  • Number of circuits—Leave the default unchanged (1).
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • State—Choose IS (in service). Ethergroup circuits are stateless, and always in service.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box; states cannot be applied to E-Series Ethernet card ports.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box; it does not apply to Ethernet circuits.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a unified control plane (UCP) channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave the default unchanged (unchecked).

Step 9   If the circuit will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

Step 10   Click Next.

Step 11   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select one of the EtherSwitch circuit endpoint nodes. (Either end node can be the EtherSwitch circuit source.)

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, select one of the following:

  • If you are building a Multicard EtherSwitch circuit, choose Ethergroup.
  • If you are building a Single-card EtherSwitch circuit, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch.

Step 12   Click Next.

Step 13   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the second EtherSwitch circuit endpoint node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, select one of the following:

  • If you are building a Multicard EtherSwitch circuit, choose Ethergroup.
  • If you are building a Single-card EtherSwitch circuit, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch.

Step 14   Click Next.

Step 15   If the desired VLAN already exists, go to Step 18. Under Circuit VLAN Selection, click New VLAN.

Step 16   In the New VLAN dialog box, complete the following:

  • VLAN Name—Assign an easily identifiable name to your VLAN.
  • VLAN ID—Assign a VLAN ID. The VLAN ID should be the next available number between 2 and 4093 that is not already assigned to an existing VLAN. Each ONS 15454 network supports a maximum of 509 user-provisionable VLANs.

Step 17   Click OK.

Step 18   Under Circuit VLAN Selection, highlight the VLAN name and click the Arrow (>>) button to move the available VLAN(s) to the Circuit VLANs column.

Step 19   If you are building a Single-card EtherSwitch circuit and want to disable spanning-tree protection on this circuit, uncheck the Enable Spanning Tree check box and click OK in the Disabling Spanning Tree dialog. The Enable Spanning Tree check box will remain checked or unchecked for the creation of the next Single-card point-to-point Ethernet circuit.


Caution   Disabling spanning-tree protection increases the likelihood of logic loops on an Ethernet network.


Caution   Turning off spanning tree on a circuit-by-circuit basis means that the ONS 15454 SDH is no longer protecting the Ethernet circuit and that the circuit must be protected by another mechanism in the Ethernet network.


Caution   Multiple circuits with spanning-tree protection enabled will incur blocking if the circuits traverse the same E-series Ethernet card and use the same VLAN.


Note    You can disable or enable spanning-tree protection on a circuit-by-circuit basis only for single-card point-to-point Ethernet circuits. Other E-series Ethernet configurations disable or enable spanning tree on a port-by-port basis at the card view of CTC under the Provisioning tab.

Step 20   Click Next.

Step 21   Confirm that the following information about the circuit is correct:

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • ONS 15454 SDH circuit nodes

Step 22   Click Finish.

Step 23   Complete the "Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports" procedure.

Step 24   Complete the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.





9.4.2 E-Series Shared Packet Ring Ethernet Circuits

This section provides steps for creating a shared packet ring (Figure 9-12). Your network architecture may differ from the example.


Figure 9-12   Shared packet ring Ethernet circuit


Procedure: Provision an E-Series Shared Packet Ring Circuit


Step 1   From the node view, double-click one of the Ethernet cards that will carry the circuit.


Note    Change card settings only if there are no circuits using this card.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs.

Step 3   Verify that Multi-card EtherSwitch Group is selected. If Multi-card EtherSwitch Group is not selected, select it and click Apply.

Step 4   Repeat Steps 1 to 3 for all other Ethernet cards in the ONS 15454 SDH that will carry the shared packet ring.

Step 5   Click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 6   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the circuit. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the circuit.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the circuit size. For shared packet ring Ethernet, valid circuit sizes are VC4 or VC4-2c.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked for this circuit (default).
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • Auto-ranged—Unavailable.
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box; states cannot be applied to E-Series Ethernet card ports.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box; it does not apply to Ethernet circuits.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 7   If the circuit will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

Step 8   Click Next.

Step 9   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select one of the shared packet ring circuit endpoint nodes. (Either end node can be the shared packet ring circuit source.)

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose Ethergroup.

Step 10   Click Next.

Step 11   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the second shared packet ring circuit endpoint node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, select Ethergroup.

Step 12   Click Next.

Step 13   Review the VLANs listed under Available VLANs (Figure 9-13). If the VLAN you want to use is displayed, go to Step 15. If you need to create a new VLAN, complete the following steps:

a. Click the New VLAN button.

b. In the New VLAN dialog box, complete the following:

  • VLAN Name—Assign an easily identifiable name to your VLAN.
  • VLAN ID—Assign a VLAN ID. The VLAN ID should be the next available number between 2 and 4093 that is not already assigned to an existing VLAN. Each ONS 15454 SDH network supports a maximum of 509 user-provisionable VLANs.

c. Click OK.


Figure 9-13   Choosing a VLAN name and ID


Step 14   Click the VLAN you want to use in the Available VLANs column, then click the Arrow (>>) button to move the VLAN to the Circuit VLANs column. See Figure 9-14.


Note    Moving the VLAN from Available VLANs to Circuit VLANs forces all the VLAN traffic to use the shared packet ring you are creating.


Figure 9-14   Selecting VLANs


Step 15   Click Next.

Step 16   Under Circuit Routing Preferences, uncheck the Route Automatically check box and click Next.

Step 17   Under Route Review and Edit panel, click the source node, then click either span (green arrow) leading from the source node.

The span turns white.

Step 18   Click Add Span.

The span turns blue. CTC adds the span to the Included Spans list.

Step 19   Click the node at the end of the blue span.

Step 20   Click the green span with the source node from Step 17.

The span turns white.

Step 21   Click Add Span.

The span turns blue.

Step 22   Repeat Steps 18 to 21 for every node in the ring.

Step 23   Verify that the new circuit is correctly configured. If the circuit information is not correct, click the Back button and repeat the procedure with the correct information.


Note    If the circuit is incorrect, you can also click Finish, delete the completed circuit, and begin the procedure again.

Step 24   Click Finish.

Step 25   Complete the "Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports" procedure.

Step 26   Complete the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.





9.4.3 E-Series Hub-and-Spoke Ethernet Circuit Provisioning

This section provides steps for creating a hub-and-spoke Ethernet circuit configuration. The hub-and-spoke configuration connects point-to-point circuits (the spokes) to an aggregation point (the hub). In many cases, the hub links to a high-speed connection and the spokes are Ethernet cards. Figure 9-15 illustrates a sample hub-and-spoke ring. Your network architecture may differ from the example.


Figure 9-15   Hub-and-spoke Ethernet circuit


Procedure: Provision an E-Series Hub-and-Spoke Ethernet Circuit


Step 1   From the node view, double-click the Ethernet card that will carry the circuit.


Note    Change card settings only if there are no circuits using this card.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs.

Step 3   Under Card Mode, choose Single-card EtherSwitch and click Apply.

Step 4   Navigate to the other ONS 15454 SDH endpoint node of the hub-and-spoke circuit and repeat Step 1 to Step 3.

Step 5   Click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 6   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the circuit. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the circuit.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the circuit size.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked for this circuit (default).
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box; states cannot be applied to E-Series Ethernet card ports.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box; it does not apply to Ethernet circuits.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 7   If the circuit will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

Step 8   Click Next.

Step 9   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select one of the hub-and-spoke circuit endpoint nodes. (Either end node can be the circuit source.)

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch in Step 3.

Step 10   Click Next.

Step 11   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the second EtherSwitch circuit endpoint node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch in Step 3.

Step 12   Click Next.

Step 13   Review the VLANs listed under Available VLANs (Figure 9-16). If the VLAN you want to use is displayed, go to Step 15. If you need to create a new VLAN, complete the following steps:

a. Click the New VLAN button.

b. In the New VLAN dialog box, complete the following:

  • VLAN Name—Assign an easily identifiable name to your VLAN.
  • VLAN ID—Assign a VLAN ID. The VLAN ID should be the next available number between 2 and 4093 that is not already assigned to an existing VLAN. Each ONS 15454 SDH network supports a maximum of 509 user-provisionable VLANs.

c. Click OK.


Figure 9-16   Choosing a VLAN name and ID


Step 14   Click the VLAN you want to use in the Available VLANs column, then click the Arrow (>>) button to move the VLAN to the Circuit VLANs column.


Note    Moving the VLAN from Available VLANs to Circuit VLANs forces all the VLAN traffic to use the shared packet ring you are creating.

Step 15   Click Next.

Step 16   Confirm that the following information about the hub-and-spoke circuit is correct:

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • VLAN names
  • ONS 15454 SDH circuit nodes

If the circuit information is not correct, click the Back button and repeat the procedure with the correct information.


Note    You can also click Finish, delete the completed circuit, and start the procedure from the beginning.

Step 17   Click Finish.

Step 18   Navigate to an ONS 15454 SDH that will be an endpoint for the second Ethernet circuit.

Step 19   Double-click the Ethernet card that will carry the circuit.

Step 20   Click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs.

Step 21   Under Card Mode, choose Single-card EtherSwitch and click Apply.

Step 22   From the View menu, choose Go to Other Node.

Step 23   In the Select Node dialog box, choose the other endpoint node for the second circuit and repeat Steps 19 to 21 at that node.

Step 24   Click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 25   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the circuit. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the circuit.
  • Type—Select STS.
  • Size—Select the circuit size.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked for this circuit.
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box; states cannot be applied to E-Series Ethernet card ports.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box; it does not apply to Ethernet circuits.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 26   If the circuit will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

Step 27   Click Next.

Step 28   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select one of the hub-and-spoke circuit endpoint nodes. (Either end node can be the circuit source.)

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch in Step 21.

Step 29   Click Next.

Step 30   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the second EtherSwitch circuit endpoint node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch.

Step 31   Click Next.

Step 32   Highlight the VLAN that you created for the first circuit and click the Arrow (>>) button to move the VLAN(s) from the Available VLANs column to the Selected VLANs column.

Step 33   Click Next.

Step 34   Confirm that the following information about the second hub-and-spoke circuit is correct:

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • VLAN names
  • ONS 15454 SDH circuit nodes

If the circuit information is not correct, click the Back button and repeat the procedure with the correct information. You can also click Finish, delete the completed circuit, and start the procedure from the beginning.

Step 35   Click Finish.

Step 36   Complete the "Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports" procedure.

Step 37   Complete the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.





9.4.4 E-Series Ethernet Manual Cross-Connects

ONS 15454 SDH nodes require end-to-end CTC visibility between nodes for normal provisioning of Ethernet circuits. When other vendors' equipment sits between ONS 15454 SDH nodes, OSI/TARP-based equipment does not allow tunneling of the ONS 15454 SDH TCP/IP-based DCC. To circumvent this lack of continuous DCC, the Ethernet circuit must be manually cross connected (Figure 9-17) to an VC4 channel riding through the non-ONS network. This allows an Ethernet circuit to run from ONS node to ONS node utilizing the non-ONS network.


Note   Provisioning manual cross-connects for Multicard EtherSwitch circuits is a separate procedure from provisioning manual cross-connects for Single-card EtherSwitch circuits. Both procedures follow.


Figure 9-17   Ethernet manual cross-connects


Procedure: Provision an E-Series Single-Card EtherSwitch Manual Cross-Connect


Step 1   From the node view, double-click the Ethernet card that will carry the cross-connect.


Note    In this procedure, cross-connect refers to a circuit connection created within the same node between the Ethernet card and an STM-N card connected to third-party equipment. You create cross-connects at the source and destination nodes so an Ethernet circuit can be routed from source to destination across third-party equipment.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs.


Note    Change card settings only if there are no circuits using this card.

Step 3   Under Card Mode, choose Single-card EtherSwitch and click Apply.

Step 4   Click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 5   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the cross-connect. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the cross-connect.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the cross-connect size. For Single-card EtherSwitch, the available sizes are VC4, VC4-2c and VC4-4c.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked for this cross-connect (default).
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 6   If the circuit carried by the cross-connect will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

  • Revertive—Check this box if you want traffic to revert to the working path when the conditions that diverted it to the protect path are repaired. If you do not choose Revertive, traffic remains on the protect path after the switch.
  • Reversion time—If Revertive is checked, choose the reversion time. Click the Reversion time field and select a reversion time from the pull-down menu. The range is 0.5 to 12.0 minutes. The default is 5.0 minutes. This is the amount of time that will elapse before the traffic reverts to the working path. Traffic can revert when conditions causing the switch are cleared.
  • SF threshold—Choose from one E-3, one E-4, or one E-5.
  • SD threshold—Choose from one E-5, one E-6, one E-7, one E-8, or one E-9.
  • Switch on PDI-P—Check this box if you want traffic to switch when a VC4 payload defect indicator is received (VC4 circuits only).

Step 7   Click Next.

Step 8   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, choose the cross-connect source node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the Ethernet card where you enabled the Single-card EtherSwitch in Step 3.

Step 9   Click Next.

Step 10   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, choose the cross-connect circuit source node selected in Step 8. (For Ethernet cross-connects, the source and destination nodes are the same.)

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the STM-N card that is connected to the non-ONS equipment.

c. Depending on the STM-N card, choose the port and/or VC4 from the Port and VC4 pull-down menus.

Step 11   Click Next.

Step 12   Review the VLANs listed under Available VLANs. If the VLAN you want to use is displayed, go to Step 14. If you need to create a new VLAN, complete the following steps:

a. Click the New VLAN button.

b. In the New VLAN dialog box, complete the following:

  • VLAN Name—Assign an easily identifiable name to your VLAN.
  • VLAN ID—Assign a VLAN ID. The VLAN ID should be the next available number between 2 and 4093 that is not already assigned to an existing VLAN. Each ONS 15454 SDH network supports a maximum of 509 user-provisionable VLANs.

c. Click OK.

Step 13   Click the VLAN you want to use in the Available VLANs column, then click the Arrow (>>) button to move the VLAN to the Circuit VLANs column.

Step 14   Click Next. The Circuit Creation (Circuit Routing Preferences) dialog box opens.

Step 15   Confirm that the following information about the Single-card EtherSwitch manual cross-connect is correct.


Note    In this task, "circuit" refers to the Ethernet cross-connect.

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • VLAN names
  • ONS 15454 SDH nodes

If the information is not correct, click the Back button and repeat the procedure with the correct information.

Step 16   Click Finish.

Step 17   Complete the "Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports" procedure.

Step 18   Complete the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.


Note   The appropriate VC4 circuit must exist in the non-ONS equipment to connect the two VC4 circuits from the ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet manual cross-connect endpoints.


Caution   If a CARLOSS alarm repeatedly appears and clears on an Ethernet manual cross-connect, the two Ethernet circuits may have a circuit-size mismatch. For example, a circuit size of VC4-2c might have been configured on the first ONS 15454 SDH while a circuit size of VC4 was configured on the second ONS 15454 SDH. To troubleshoot this occurrence of the CARLOSS alarm, refer to the CARLOSS alarm troubleshooting procedure in the Alarm Troubleshooting chapter of the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.





Procedure: Provision an E-Series Multicard EtherSwitch Manual Cross-Connect


Step 1   From the node view, double-click the Ethernet card where you want to create the cross-connect.


Note    In this procedure, cross-connect refers to a circuit connection created within the same node between the Ethernet card and an STM-N card connected to third-party equipment. You create cross-connects at the source and destination nodes so an Ethernet circuit can be routed from source to destination across third-party equipment.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether Card tabs.

Step 3   Under Card Mode, choose Multi-card EtherSwitch Group and click Apply.

Step 4   From the View menu, choose Go to Parent View.

Step 5   Repeat Steps 1 to 4 for any other Ethernet cards in the ONS 15454 SDH that will carry the circuit.

Step 6   Click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 7   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the source cross connect. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the source cross connect.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the size of the circuit that will be carried by the cross-connect. For Multicard EtherSwitch circuits, the available sizes are VC4 and VC4-2c.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked (default).
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 8   If the circuit carried by the cross-connect will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

  • Revertive—Check this box if you want traffic to revert to the working path when the conditions that diverted it to the protect path are repaired. If you do not choose Revertive, traffic remains on the protect path after the switch.
  • Reversion time—If Revertive is checked, choose the reversion time. Click the Reversion time field and select a reversion time from the pull-down menu. The range is 0.5 to 12.0 minutes. The default is 5.0 minutes. This is the amount of time that will elapse before the traffic reverts to the working path. Traffic can revert when conditions causing the switch are cleared.
  • SF threshold—Choose from one E-3, one E-4, or one E-5.
  • SD threshold—Choose from one E-5, one E-6, one E-7, one E-8, or one E-9.
  • Switch on PDI-P—Check this box if you want traffic to switch when a VC4 payload defect indicator is received (VC4 circuits only).

Step 9   Click Next.

Step 10   Provision the cross-connect source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the cross-connect source node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose Ethergroup.

Step 11   Click Next.

Step 12   From the Node pull-down menu under Destination, choose the circuit source node selected in Step 10. (For Ethernet cross-connects, the source and destination nodes are the same.)

The Slot field automatically is provisioned for Ethergroup.

Step 13   Click Next.

Step 14   Review the VLANs listed under Available VLANs. If the VLAN you want to use is displayed, go to Step 16. If you need to create a new VLAN, complete the following steps:

a. Click the New VLAN button.

b. In the New VLAN dialog box, complete the following:

  • VLAN Name—Assign an easily identifiable name to your VLAN.
  • VLAN ID—Assign a VLAN ID. The VLAN ID should be the next available number between 2 and 4093 that is not already assigned to an existing VLAN. Each ONS 15454 SDH network supports a maximum of 509 user-provisionable VLANs.

c. Click OK.

Step 15   Click the VLAN you want to use in the Available VLANs column, then click the Arrow (>>) button to move the VLAN to the Circuit VLANs column.

Step 16   Click Next.

The Circuit Creation (Circuit Routing Preferences) dialog box opens.

Step 17   In the left pane, verify the cross-connect information.


Note    In this task, "circuit" refers to the Ethernet cross-connect.

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • VLANs
  • ONS 15454 SDH nodes

If the information is not correct, click the Back button and repeat the procedure with the correct information.

Step 18   Click Finish.

Step 19   Complete the "Provision E-Series Ethernet Ports" procedure.

Step 20   Complete the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.

Step 21   From the View menu, choose Go to Home View.

Step 22   Click the Circuits tab.

Step 23   Highlight the circuit and click Edit.

The Edit Circuit dialog box opens.

Step 24   Click Drops and click Create.

The Define New Drop dialog box opens.

Step 25   From the Slot menu, choose the STM-N card that links the ONS 15454 SDH to the non-ONS 15454 SDH equipment.

Step 26   From the Port menu, choose the appropriate port.

Step 27   From the VC4 menu, choose the VC4 that matches the VC4 of the connecting non-ONS 15454 SDH equipment.

Step 28   Click OK.

Step 29   Confirm the circuit information that displays in the Edit Circuit dialog box and click Close.

Step 30   Repeat Steps 2 to 29 at the second ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet manual cross-connect endpoint.


Note    The appropriate VC4 circuit must exist in the non-ONS 15454 SDH equipment to connect the two ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet manual cross-connect endpoints.


Caution   If a CARLOSS alarm repeatedly appears and clears on an Ethernet manual cross-connect, the two Ethernet circuits may have a circuit-size mismatch. For example, a circuit size of VC4-2c might have been configured on the first ONS 15454 SDH while a circuit size of VC4 was configured on the second ONS 15454 SDH. To troubleshoot this occurrence of the CARLOSS alarm, refer to the CARLOSS alarm troubleshooting procedure in the Alarm Troubleshooting chapter of the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.

Step 31   Complete the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.





9.5 G1000-4 Circuit Configurations

This section explains how to provision G1000-4 point-to-point circuits and Ethernet manual cross-connects. Ethernet manual cross-connects allow you to cross connect individual Ethernet circuits to an VC4 channel on the ONS 15454 SDH optical interface and also to bridge non-ONS SDH network segments.

9.5.1 G1000-4 EtherSwitch Circuits

G1000-4 cards support point-to-point circuit configuration (Figure 9-18). Provisionable circuit sizes are VC4, VC4-2c, VC4-3c, VC4-4c, VC4-8c and VC4-16c. Each Ethernet port maps to a unique VC4 circuit on the SDH side of the G1000-4.


Figure 9-18   G1000-4 point-to-point circuit


The G1000-4 supports any combination of up to four circuits from the list of valid circuit sizes, however the circuit sizes can add up to no more than VC4-16c. Due to hardware constraints, this card imposes additional restrictions on the combinations of circuits that can be dropped onto a G1000-4 card. These restrictions are transparently enforced by the ONS 15454 SDH, and you do not need to keep track of restricted circuit combinations.

The restriction occurs when a single VC4-8c is dropped on a card. In this instance, the remaining circuits on that card can be another single VC4-8c or any combination of circuits of VC4-4c size or less that add up to no more than VC4-4c (i.e., a total of VC4-16c on the card).

No circuit restrictions are present if VC4-8c circuits are not being dropped on the card. The full VC4-16c bandwidth can be used (for example, using either a single VC4-16c or four VC4-4c circuits).


Note   Since the restrictions only apply when VC4-8c circuits are involved but do not apply to two VC4-8c circuits on a card, you can easily minimize the impact of these restrictions. Group the VC4-8c circuits together on a card separate from circuits of other sizes. The grouped circuits can be dropped on other G1000-4 cards on the ONS 15454 SDH.


Note   All SDH-side VC4 circuits must be contiguous.


Caution   G1000-4 circuits connect with STM-N cards or other G1000-4 cards. G1000-4 cards do not connect with E-series Ethernet cards.

Procedure: Provision a G1000-4 EtherSwitch Circuit


Step 1   From the node view, click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 2   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the circuit. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the circuit.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the circuit size. Valid circuit sizes for a G1000-4 circuit are VC4, VC4-2c, VC4-3c, VC4-4c, VC4-8c, and VC4-16c.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked for this circuit (default).
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Check this box to apply the state chosen in the State field (IS or OOS-MT only) to the Ethernet circuit source and destination ports. You cannot apply OOS-AINS to G1000-4 Ethernet card ports. CTC will apply the circuit state to the ports if the circuit is in full control of the port. If not, a Warning dialog box displays the ports where the circuit state could not be applied. If not checked, CTC will not change the state of the source and destination ports.

Note    LOS alarms display if in service (IS) ports are not receiving signals.

  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 3   If the circuit will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.


Caution   If you are provisioning a G1000-4 circuit on an SNCP, do not check the Switch on PDI-P check box. Checking the Switch on PDI-P check box may cause unnecessary SNCP protection switches.

Step 4   Click Next.

Step 5   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, choose the circuit source node. Either end node can be the point-to-point circuit source.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the slot containing the G1000-4 card that you will use for one end of the point-to-point circuit.

c. From the Port pull-down menu, choose a port.

Step 6   Click Next.

Step 7   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, choose the circuit destination node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the slot containing the G1000-4 card that you will use for other end of the point-to-point circuit.

c. From the Port pull-down menu, choose a port.

Step 8   Click Next. The Circuits window appears.

Step 9   Confirm that the following information about the point-to-point circuit is correct:

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • ONS 15454 SDH circuit nodes

Step 10   Click Finish.

Step 11   If you have not already provisioned the Ethernet card, follow the "Provision G1000-4 Ethernet Ports" procedure.


Note   To change the capacity of a G1000-4 point-to-point circuit, you must delete the original circuit and reprovision a new larger circuit.





9.5.2 G1000-4 Manual Cross-Connects

ONS 15454 SDH nodes require end-to-end CTC visibility between nodes for normal provisioning of Ethernet circuits. When other vendors' equipment sits between ONS 15454 SDH nodes, OSI/TARP-based equipment does not allow tunneling of the ONS 15454 SDH TCP/IP-based DCC. To circumvent a lack of continuous DCC, the Ethernet circuit must be manually cross connected (Figure 9-19) to a VC4 channel riding through the non-ONS network. This allows an Ethernet circuit to run from ONS node to ONS node while utilizing the non-ONS network.


Note   In this chapter, "cross-connect" and "circuit" have the following meanings: Cross-connect refers to the connections that occur within a single ONS 15454 SDH to allow a circuit to enter and exit an ONS 15454 SDH. Circuit refers to the series of connections from a traffic source (where traffic enters the ONS 15454 SDH network) to the drop or destination (where traffic exits an ONS 15454 SDH network).


Figure 9-19   G1000-4 manual cross-connects


Procedure: Provision a G1000-4 Manual Cross-Connect


Note   In this procedure, cross-connect refers to a circuit connection created within the same node between the Ethernet card and an STM-N card connected to third-party equipment. You create cross-connects at the source and destination nodes so an Ethernet circuit can be routed from source to destination across third-party equipment.


Step 1   From the node view, click the Circuits tab and click Create.

Step 2   In the Create Circuits dialog box, complete the following fields:

  • Name—Assign a name to the source cross-connect. The name can be alphanumeric and up to 48 characters (including spaces). If you leave the field blank, CTC assigns a default name to the source cross-connect.
  • Type—Select VC_HO_PATH_CIRCUIT.
  • Size—Select the size of the circuit that will be carried by the cross-connect. The valid circuit sizes for a G1000-4 circuit are VC4, VC4-2c, VC4-3c, VC4-4c, VC4-8c, and VC4-16c.
  • Bidirectional—Leave checked for this cross-connect (default).
  • Number of circuits—Leave set to 1 (default).
  • Auto-ranged—Not available.
  • State—Choose a service state to apply to the circuit after it is created.
    • IS—The circuit is in service.
    • OOS—The circuit is out of service. Traffic is not passed on the circuit until it is in service.
    • OOS-AINS—(default) The circuit is in service when it receives a valid signal; until then, the circuit is out of service.
    • OOS-MT—The circuit is in a maintenance state. The maintenance state does not interrupt traffic flow; it suppresses alarms and conditions and allows loopbacks to be performed on the circuit. Use OOS-MT for circuit testing or to suppress circuit alarms temporarily. Change the state to IS, OOS, or OOS-AINS when testing is complete.
  • Apply to drop ports—Uncheck this box.
  • Create cross connects only (TL1-like)—Uncheck this box.
  • Inter-domain (UCP) SLA—If the circuit will travel on a UCP channel, enter the service level agreement number. Otherwise, leave the field set to zero.
  • Protected Drops—Leave unchecked.

Step 3   If the circuit carried by the cross-connect will be routed on an SNCP, set the SNCP path selectors.

  • Revertive—Check this box if you want traffic to revert to the working path when the conditions that diverted it to the protect path are repaired. If you do not choose Revertive, traffic remains on the protect path after the switch.
  • Reversion time—If Revertive is checked, choose the reversion time. Click the Reversion time field and select a reversion time from the pull-down menu. The range is 0.5 to 12.0 minutes. The default is 5.0 minutes. This is the amount of time that will elapse before the traffic reverts to the working path. Traffic can revert when conditions causing the switch are cleared.
  • SF threshold—Choose from one E-3, one E-4, or one E-5.
  • SD threshold—Choose from one E-5, one E-6, one E-7, one E-8, or one E-9.
  • Switch on PDI-P—Check this box if you want traffic to switch when a VC4 payload defect indicator is received (VC4 circuits only).

Step 4   Click Next.

Step 5   Provision the circuit source.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the circuit source node.

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the G1000-4 that will be the cross-connect source.

c. From the Port pull-down menu, select the cross-connect source port.

Step 6   Click Next.

Step 7   Provision the circuit destination.

a. From the Node pull-down menu, select the cross-connect source node selected in Step 5. (For Ethernet cross connects, the source and destination nodes are the same.)

b. From the Slot pull-down menu, choose the STM-N card that is connected to the non-ONS equipment.

c. Depending on the STM-N card, choose the port and/or VC4 from the Port and VC4 pull-down menus.

Step 8   Click Next.

Step 9   Verify the cross-connection information.


Note    In this task, "circuit" refers to the Ethernet cross-connect.

  • Circuit name
  • Circuit type
  • Circuit size
  • ONS 15454 SDH circuit nodes

If the information is not correct, click the Back button and repeat the procedure with the correct information.

Step 10   Click Finish.

Step 11   You now need to provision the Ethernet ports. For port provisioning instructions, see the "Provision G1000-4 Ethernet Ports" procedure.

Step 12   To complete the procedure, repeat Steps 1 to 10 at the second ONS 15454 SDH.


Note   The appropriate STM circuit must exist in the non-ONS equipment to connect the two STMs from the ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet manual cross-connect endpoints.


Caution   If a CARLOSS alarm repeatedly appears and clears on an Ethernet manual cross-connect, the two Ethernet circuits may have a circuit-size mismatch. For example, a circuit size of VC4-2c might have been configured on the first ONS 15454 SDH while a circuit size of VC4 was configured on the second ONS 15454 SDH. To troubleshoot this occurrence of the CARLOSS alarm, refer to the CARLOSS alarm troubleshooting procedure in the Alarm Troubleshooting chapter of the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.





9.6 E-Series VLAN Support

Users can provision up to 509 VLANs with the CTC software. Specific sets of ports define the broadcast domain for the ONS 15454 SDH. The definition of VLAN ports includes all Ethernet and packet-switched SDH port types. All VLAN IP address discovery, flooding, and forwarding is limited to these ports.

The ONS 15454 SDH IEEE 802.1Q-based VLAN mechanism provides logical isolation of subscriber LAN traffic over a common SDH transport infrastructure. Each subscriber has an Ethernet port at each site, and each subscriber is assigned to a VLAN. Although the subscriber's VLAN data flows over shared circuits, the service appears to the subscriber as a private data transport.

9.6.1 E-Series Q-Tagging (IEEE 802.1Q)

IEEE 802.1Q allows the same physical port to host multiple 802.1Q VLANs. Each 802.1Q VLAN represents a different logical network.

The ONS 15454 SDH works with Ethernet devices that support IEEE 802.1Q and those that do not support IEEE 802.1Q. If a device attached to an ONS 15454 SDH Ethernet port does not support IEEE 802.1Q, the ONS 15454 SDH only uses Q-tags internally. The ONS 15454 SDH associates these Q-tags with specific ports.

With Ethernet devices that do not support IEEE 802.1Q, the ONS 15454 SDH takes non-tagged Ethernet frames that enter the ONS network and uses a Q-tag to assign the packet to the VLAN associated with the ONS network's ingress port. The receiving ONS node removes the Q-tag when the frame leaves the ONS network (to prevent older Ethernet equipment from incorrectly identifying the 8021.Q packet as an illegal frame). The ingress and egress ports on the ONS network must be set to Untag for the process to occur. Untag is the default setting for ONS ports. Example #1 in Figure 9-20 illustrates Q-tag use only within an ONS network.

With Ethernet devices that support IEEE 802.1Q, the ONS 15454 SDH uses the Q-tag attached by the external Ethernet devices. Packets enter the ONS network with an existing Q-tag; the ONS 15454 SDH uses this same Q-tag to forward the packet within the ONS network and leaves the Q-tag attached when the packet leaves the ONS network. Set both entry and egress ports on the ONS network to Tagged for this process to occur. Example 2 in Figure 9-20 illustrates the handling of packets that both enter and exit the ONS network with a Q-tag.

To set ports to Tagged and Untag, see the "Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership" procedure.


Figure 9-20   Q-tag moving through a VLAN


9.6.2 E-Series Priority Queuing (IEEE 802.1Q)


Note    IEEE 802.1Q was formerly titled IEEE 802.1P.

Networks without priority queuing handle all packets on a first-in, first-out basis. Priority queuing reduces the impact of network congestion by mapping Ethernet traffic to different priority levels. The ONS 15454 SDH supports priority queuing. The ONS 15454 SDH takes the eight priorities specified in IEEE 802.1Q and maps them to two queues (Table 9-8). Q-tags carry priority queuing information through the network.

The ONS 15454 SDH uses a "leaky bucket" algorithm to establish a weighted priority (not a strict priority). A weighted priority gives high-priority packets greater access to bandwidth, but does not totally preempt low-priority packets. During periods of network congestion, roughly 70% of bandwidth goes to the high-priority queue and the remaining 30% goes to the low-priority queue. A network that is too congested will drop packets.

Table 9-8   Priority Queuing

User Priority  Queue  Allocated Bandwidth 

0,1,2,3

Low

30%

4,5,6,7

High

70%

The priority queueing process is illustrated in Figure 9-21.


Figure 9-21   Priority queuing process


9.6.3 E-Series VLAN Membership

This section explains how to provision Ethernet ports for VLAN membership. For initial port provisioning (prior to provisioning VLAN membership) see the "E-Series Port Provisioning" section.


Caution   ONS 15454 SDH nodes propagate VLANs whenever a node appears on the same network view of another node regardless of whether the nodes connect through DCC. For example, if two ONS 15454 SDH nodes without DCC connectivity belong to the same Login Node Group, then whenever CTC gets launched from within this login node group, VLANs propagate from one to another. This happens even though the ONS 15454 SDH nodes do not belong to the same SDH ring.

Procedure: Provision Ethernet Ports for VLAN Membership

The ONS 15454 SDH allows you to configure the VLAN membership and Q-tag handling of individual Ethernet ports on the E-series Ethernet cards.


Step 1   Display the CTC card view for the Ethernet card.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Ether VLAN tabs (Figure 9-22).

Step 3   To put a port in a VLAN, click the port and choose either Tagged or Untag. Figure 9-22 shows Port 1 in the red VLAN and Port 2 through Port 12 in the default VLAN. Table 9-9 shows valid port settings.


Figure 9-22   Configuring VLAN membership for individual Ethernet ports



Note   If Tagged is chosen, the attached external devices must recognize IEEE 802.1Q VLANs.


Note   Both ports on individual E1000-2-G cards cannot be members of the same VLAN.

If a port is a member of only one VLAN, go to that VLAN's row and choose Untag from the Port column. Choose -- for all the other VLAN rows in that Port column. The VLAN with Untag selected can connect to the port, but other VLANs cannot access that port.

If a port is a trunk port, it connects multiple VLANs to an external device, such as a switch, that also supports trunking. A trunk port must have tagging (IEEE 802.1Q) enabled for all the VLANs that connect to that external device. Choose Tagged at all VLAN rows that need to be trunked. Choose Untag at one or more VLAN rows in the trunk port's column that do not need to be trunked, for example, the default VLAN. Each Ethernet port must attached to at least one untagged VLAN.

Step 4   After each port is in the appropriate VLAN, click Apply.

Table 9-9   Port Settings

Setting  Description 

--

A port marked with this symbol does not belong to the VLAN.

Untag

The ONS 15454 SDH will tag ingress frames and strip tags from egress frames.

Tagged

The ONS 15454 SDH will handle ingress frames according to VLAN ID; egress frames will not have their tags removed.





9.6.4 VLAN Counter

The ONS 15454 SDH displays the number of VLANs used by circuits and the total number of VLANs available for use.

Procedure: Display Available VLANs

Use the following procedure to display the number of available VLANs and the number of VLANs used by circuits.


Step 1   Click the Circuits tab and click an existing Ethernet circuit to highlight it.

Step 2   Click Edit.

Step 3   Click the VLANs tab.





9.7 E-Series Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1D)

The Cisco ONS 15454 SDH operates Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) according to IEEE 802.1D when an Ethernet card is installed. STP operates over all packet-switched ports including Ethernet and SDH ports. On Ethernet ports, STP is enabled by default, but may be disabled with a check box under the Provisioning > Port tabs at the card-level view. A user can also disable or enable STP on a circuit-by-circuit basis on unstitched Ethernet cards in a point-to-point configuration. However, turning off spanning-tree protection on a circuit-by-circuit basis means that the ONS 15454 SDH system is not protecting the Ethernet traffic on this circuit, and the Ethernet traffic must be protected by another mechanism in the Ethernet network. On SDH interface ports, STP activates by default and cannot be disabled.

The Ethernet card can enable STP on the Ethernet ports to allow redundant paths to the attached Ethernet equipment. STP spans cards so that both equipment and facilities are protected against failure.

STP detects and eliminates network loops. When STP detects multiple paths between any two network hosts, STP blocks ports until only one path exists between any two network hosts (Figure 9-23). The single path eliminates possible bridge loops. This is crucial for shared packet rings, which naturally include a loop.


Figure 9-23   STP blocked path


To remove loops, STP defines a tree that spans all the switches in an extended network. STP forces certain redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. If one network segment in the STP becomes unreachable, the spanning-tree algorithm reconfigures the spanning-tree topology and reactivates the blocked path to reestablish the link. STP operation is transparent to end stations, which do not discriminate between connections to a single LAN segment or to a switched LAN with multiple segments. The ONS 15454 SDH supports one STP instance per circuit and a maximum of eight STP instances per ONS 15454 SDH.


Caution   Multiple circuits with spanning-tree protection enabled will incur blocking, if the circuits traverse a common card and use the same VLAN.

9.7.1 E-Series Multi-Instance Spanning Tree and VLANs

The ONS 15454 SDH can operate multiple instances of STP to support VLANs in a looped topology. You can dedicate separate circuits across the SDH ring for different VLAN groups (i.e., one for private TLS service and one for Internet access). Each circuit runs its own STP to maintain VLAN connectivity in a multi-ring environment.

Procedure: Enable E-Series Spanning Tree on Ethernet Ports


Step 1   Display the CTC card view.

Step 2   Click the Provisioning > Port tabs.

Step 3   In the left column, find the applicable port number and check the Stp Enabled check box to enable STP for that port.

Step 4   Click Apply.





9.7.2 E-Series Spanning-Tree Parameters

Default spanning-tree parameters are appropriate for most situations. Contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) before you change the default STP parameters. To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, refer to the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Product Overview preference section.

From the node view, click the Maintenance > Etherbridge > Spanning Trees tabs to view spanning-tree parameters. Table 9-10 describes spanning-tree parameters.

Table 9-10   Spanning-Tree Parameters

Parameter Description

BridgeID

ONS 15454 SDH unique identifier that transmits the configuration bridge protocol data unit (BPDU); the bridge ID is a combination of the bridge priority and the ONS 15454 SDH MAC address.

TopoAge

Amount of time in seconds since the last topology change.

TopoChanges

Number of times the spanning-tree topology has been changed since the node booted up.

DesignatedRoot

Identifies the spanning tree's designated root for a particular spanning-tree instance.

RootCost

Identifies the total path cost to the designated root.

RootPort

Port used to reach the root.

MaxAge

Maximum time that received-protocol information is retained before it is discarded.

HelloTime

Time interval, in seconds, between the transmission of configuration BPDUs by a bridge that is the spanning-tree root or is attempting to become the spanning-tree root.

HoldTime

Minimum time period, in seconds, that elapses during the transmission of configuration information on a given port.

ForwardDelay

Time spent by a port in the listening state and the learning state.

9.7.3 E-Series Spanning-Tree Configuration

To view the spanning-tree configuration, from the node view click the Provisioning > Etherbridge tabs.Table 9-11 describes spanning-tree configurations.

Table 9-11   Spanning-Tree Configuration

Column Default Value Value Range

Priority

32768

0-65535

Bridge Max Age

20 seconds

6-40 seconds

Bridge Hello Time

2 seconds

1-10 seconds

Bridge Forward Delay

15 seconds

4-30 seconds

9.7.4 E-Series Spanning-Tree Map

The Circuit window shows forwarding spans and blocked spans on the spanning-tree map. To view the E-Series Spanning-Tree Map, on the circuit window (Figure 9-24), double-click an Ethernet circuit.


Figure 9-24   Spanning-tree map on the circuit window



Note   Green represents forwarding spans and purple represents blocked (protect) spans. If you have a packet ring configuration, at least one span should be purple.

9.8 G1000-4 Performance and Maintenance Windows

CTC provides Ethernet performance information, including line-level parameters, the amount of port bandwidth used, and historical Ethernet statistics. CTC also includes spanning-tree information, MAC address information, and the amount of circuit bandwidth used. To view spanning-tree information, see the "E-Series Spanning-Tree Parameters" section.

9.8.1 G1000-4 Ethernet Performance Window

CTC provides Ethernet performance information that includes line-level parameters, the amount of port bandwidth used, and historical Ethernet statistics.

9.8.1.1 Statistics Window

The Ethernet statistics window lists Ethernet parameters at the line level. Display the CTC card view for the Ethernet card and click the Performance > Statistics tabs to display the window. Figure 9-25 shows the G1000-4 Statistics window. Table 9-12 describes the buttons and drop-down menu in the window. Table 9-13 lists the Ethernet performance monitoring (PM) parameters along with definition of each PM.


Figure 9-25   G1000-4 Statistics window


Table 9-12   G1000-4 Statistics Values

Item Description

Baseline

Clicking Baseline temporarily resets the software counters (in that particular CTC client only) to zero without effecting the actual statistics on the card. From that point on, only the change (delta) in counters is displayed by this CTC. These new baselined counters display only as long as the user displays the Performance pane. If the user navigates to another pane and comes back to the Performance pane, the actual statistics retained by the card display.

Refresh

Manually refreshes the statistics.

Auto-Refresh

Sets a time interval for the automatic refresh of statistics.

Clear

 

Resets the actual counters on the card to zero; this change is recognized by all management clients.


Note   The CTC automatically refreshes the counter values one time directly after a Baseline operation. If traffic is flowing during a baseline operation, some traffic counts might immediately be observed instead of zero counts.


Note   The Clear button does not cause the G1000-4 card to reset. Provisioning, enabling, or disabling a G1000-4 port does not reset the statistics.


Note   You can apply both the Baseline and the Clear functions to a single port or all ports on the card. To apply Baseline or Clear to a single port, click the port column to highlight the port and click the Baseline or Clear button.

Table 9-13   Ethernet Parameters

Parameter  Meaning 

Link Status

Indicates whether the Ethernet link is receiving a valid Ethernet signal (carrier) from the attached Ethernet device; up means present, and down means not present.

Rx Packets

Number of packets received since the last counter reset.

Rx Bytes

Number of bytes received since the last counter reset.

Tx Packets

Number of packets transmitted since the last counter reset.

Tx Bytes

Number of bytes transmitted since the last counter reset.

Rx Total Errors

Total number of receive errors.

Rx FCS

Number of packets with a frame check sequence (FCS) error. FCS errors indicate frame corruption during transmission.

Rx Alignment

Number of packets with alignment errors; alignment errors are received incomplete frames.

Rx Runts

The total number of frames received that are less than 64 bytes in length and have a CRC error.

Rx Jabbers (G-series only)

The total number of frames received that are greater than 1548 bytes in length and have a CRC error.

Rx Giants

Number of packets received that are greater than 1548 bytes in length.

Rx Pause Frames (G-series only)

Number of received Ethernet IEEE 802.3x pause frames.

Tx Pause Frames (G-series only)

Number of transmitted IEEE 802.3x pause frames.

Rx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion (G-series only)

Number of received packets dropped due to overflow in G1000-4 frame buffer.

Tx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion (G-series only)

Number of transmit queue drops due to drops in the G1000-4 frame buffer.

HDLC errors (G-series only)

HDLC errors received from SONET/SDH (see note).


Note   The HDLC errors counter should not be used to count the number of frames dropped due to HDLC errors because each frame can get fragmented into several smaller frames during HDLC error conditions and spurious HDLC frames can also generate. If these counters are incrementing at a time when there should be no SDH path problems, it may indicate a problem with the quality of the SDH path. For example, an SDH protection switch causes a set of HLDC errors to generate. The actual values of these counters are less relevant than the fact they are changing.

9.8.1.2 Utilization Window

The Utilization subtab shows the percentage of current and past line bandwidth used by the Ethernet ports. Use this procedure to display values shown on the utilization tab.


Step 1   Display the CTC card view and click the Performance > Utilization tabs to display the window.

Step 2   From the Interval menu, choose a time segment interval. Valid intervals are 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 1 day.

Step 3   Click Refresh to update the data.





9.8.1.3 G-Series Utilization Formula

Line utilization is calculated with the following formula:

((inOctets + outOctets) + (inPkts + outPkts) * 20)) * 8 / 100% interval * maxBaseRate * 2

The interval is defined in seconds. The maxBaseRate is defined by raw bits/second in one direction for the Ethernet port (i.e., 1 Gbps). The maxBaseRate is multiplied by 2 in the denominator to determine the raw bit rate in both directions. The maxBaseRates for STM circuits are provided in Table 9-14.

Table 9-14   maxBaseRates for STM circuits

Circuit Type maxBaseRate

VC4

155000000

VC4-2c

311000000

VC4-4c

622000000


Note   Line utilization numbers express the average of ingress and egress traffic as a percentage of capacity.

9.8.1.4 History Window

Use the Ethernet History tab to list past Ethernet statistics.


Step 1   Display the CTC card view and click the Performance > History tab to view the window.

Step 2   Choose the appropriate port from the Line menu and the appropriate interval from the Interval menu.

Step 3   Click Refresh to update the data.





9.8.2 G1000-4 Ethernet Maintenance Window

When a G1000-4 card is installed in the ONS 15454 SDH, the Maintenance tab under the CTC card view reveals a Maintenance window with two subtabs: Loopback and Bandwidth. The Loopback window allows you to put an individual G1000-4 port into a Terminal (inward) loopback. The Bandwidth window displays the amount of current STM bandwidth the card is using. Figure 9-26 shows the Maintenance tab. Table 9-15 describes the columns and buttons in the Maintenance tab.


Figure 9-26   G1000-4 Maintenance tab, including Loopback and Bandwidth tabs


Table 9-15   G1000-4 Maintenance Window Values

Item Description

Loopback

Displays the Loopback status of the G1000-4 port.

#

Specifies the port number on the G1000-4 card.

Loopback Type

Allows you to configure a port for a Terminal (Inward) loopback or clear the current loopback (none).

Apply

Enables the Loopback configuration on the port.

Bandwidth

Displays the amount of STM bandwidth provisioned for the G1000-4 card.


Caution   Use Loopback only for the initial test and turn-up of the card and SDH network tests. Do not put the card in Loopback when the G1000-4 ports are in service and attached to a data network. Loopbacks can corrupt the forwarding tables used in data networking.


Note   For more information about using loopbacks with the ONS 15454 SDH, refer to the "Network Tests" section of the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.

9.8.3 E-Series Ethernet Performance Window

CTC provides Ethernet performance information that includes line-level parameters, the amount of port bandwidth used, and historical Ethernet statistics.

9.8.3.1 Statistics Window

The Ethernet statistics window lists Ethernet parameters at the line level. Table 9-16 defines the parameters. Display the CTC card view for the Ethernet card and click the Performance > Statistics tabs to display the window.

The Baseline button resets the statistics values on the Statistics window to zero. The Refresh button manually refreshes statistics. Auto-Refresh sets a time interval for automatic refresh of statistics to occur.

The G1000-4 Statistics window also has a Clear button. The Clear button sets the values on the card to zero. Using the Clear button will not cause the G1000-4 to reset.

Table 9-16   Ethernet Parameters

Parameter  Meaning 

Link Status

Indicates whether or not link integrity is present; up means present, and down means not present.

Rx Packets

Number of packets received since the last counter reset.

Rx Bytes

Number of bytes received since the last counter reset.

Tx Packets

Number of packets transmitted since the last counter reset.

Tx Bytes

Number of bytes transmitted since the last counter reset.

Rx Total Errors

Total number of receive errors.

Rx FCS

Number of packets with a FCS error. FCS errors indicate frame corruption during transmission.

Rx Alignment

Number of packets with alignment errors; alignment errors are received incomplete frames.

Rx Runts

Number of packets received that are less than 64 bytes in length.

Rx Giants

Number of packets received that are greater than 1518 bytes in length for untagged interfaces and 1522 bytes for tagged interfaces.

Tx Collisions (E-series only)

Number of transmit packets that are collisions; the port and the attached device transmitting at the same time causes collisions.

Tx Excessive (E-series only)

Number of consecutive collisions.

Tx Deferred (E-series only)

Number of packets deferred.

Rx Pause Frames (G-series only)

Number of received Ethernet IEEE 802.3x pause frames.

Tx Pause Frames (G-series only)

Number of transmitted IEEE 802.3x pause frames.

Rx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion (G-series only)

Number of received packets dropped due to overflow in G1000-4 frame buffer.

Tx Pkts Dropped Internal Congestion (G-series only)

Number of transmit que drops due to drops in G1000-4 frame buffer.

9.8.3.2 Line Utilization Window

The Line Utilization window shows the percentage of line, or port, bandwidth used and the percentage used in the past.


Step 1   Display the CTC card view and click the Performance > Utilization tabs to display the window.

Step 2   From the Interval menu, choose a time segment interval. Valid intervals are 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 1 day.

Step 3   Click Refresh to update the data.





9.8.3.3 E-Series Utilization Formula

Line utilization is calculated with the following formula, see Table 9-17 for circuit types and the maxBaseRate:

((inOctets + outOctets) + (inPkts + outPkts) * 20)) * 8/100%interval * maxBaseRate * 2

The interval is defined in seconds. The maxBaseRate is defined by raw bits/second in one direction for the Ethernet port (i.e., 1 Gbps). The maxBaseRate is multiplied by 2 in the denominator to determine the raw bit rate in both directions.

Table 9-17   maxBaseRate for STM circuits

Circuit Type maxBaseRate

VC4

155000000

VC4-2c

311000000

VC4-4c

622000000


Note   Line utilization numbers express the average of ingress and egress traffic as a percentage of capacity.

9.8.3.4 History Window

The Ethernet History window lists past Ethernet statistics.


Step 1   Display the CTC card view and click the Performance tab and History subtab to view the window.

Step 2   Choose the appropriate port from the Line menu and the appropriate interval from the Interval menu.

Step 3   Click Refresh to update the data. Table 9-16 defines the listed parameters.





9.8.4 E-Series Ethernet Maintenance Window

Display an E-series Ethernet card in CTC card view and choose the Maintenance tab to display MAC address and bandwidth information.

9.8.4.1 MAC Table Window

A MAC address is a hardware address that physically identifies a network device. The ONS 15454 SDH MAC table, also known as the MAC forwarding table, allows you to see all the MAC addresses attached to the enabled ports of an E-series Ethernet card or an E-series Ethernet group. This includes the MAC address of the network device attached directly to the port and any MAC addresses on the network linked to the port. The MAC addresses table lists the MAC addresses stored by the ONS 15454 SDH and the VLAN, Slot/Port/STM, and circuit that links the ONS 15454 SDH to each MAC address (Figure 9-27).


Figure 9-27   MAC addresses recorded in the MAC table


Procedure: Retrieve the MAC Table Information


Step 1   Click the Maintenance > EtherBridge > MAC Table tabs.

Step 2   Select the appropriate Ethernet card or Ethergroup from the Layer 2 Domain pull-down menu.

Step 3   Click Retrieve for the ONS 15454 SDH to retrieve and display the current MAC IDs.


Note    Click Clear to clear the highlighted rows and click Clear All to clear all displayed rows.





9.8.4.2 Trunk Utilization Window

The Trunk Utilization window is similar to the Line Utilization window, but Trunk Utilization shows the percentage of circuit bandwidth used rather than the percentage of line bandwidth used.


Step 1   Click the Maintenance > Ether Bridge > Trunk Utilization tabs to view the window.

Step 2   Choose a time segment interval from the Interval menu.


Note   The percentage shown is the average of ingress and egress traffic.





9.9 Remote Monitoring Specification Alarm Thresholds

The ONS 15454 SDH features Remote Monitoring (RMON) that allows network operators to monitor the health of the network with a network management system (NMS). For a detailed description of the ONS SNMP implementation, see "SNMP."

One of the ONS 15454 SDH's RMON MIBs is the Alarm group. The alarm group consists of the alarmTable. An NMS uses the alarmTable to find the alarm-causing thresholds for network performance. The thresholds apply to the current 15-minute interval and the current 24-hour interval. RMON monitors several variables, such as Ethernet collisions, and triggers an event when the variable crosses a threshold during that time interval. For example, if a threshold is set at 1000 collisions and 1001 collisions occur during the 15-minute interval, an event triggers. CTC allows you to provision these thresholds for Ethernet statistics.


Note   You can find performance monitoring specifications for all other cards in the Cisco ONS 15454 SDH Troubleshooting and Maintenance Guide.

Table 9-18 defines the variables you can provision in CTC. For example, to set the collision threshold, choose etherStatsCollisions from the Variable menu.

Table 9-18   Ethernet Threshold Variables (MIBs)

Variable  Definition 

iflnOctets

Total number of octets received on the interface, including framing octets

iflnUcastPkts

Total number of unicast packets delivered to an appropriate protocol

ifInMulticastPkts

Number of multicast frames received error free

ifInBroadcastPkts

The number of packets, delivered by this sublayer to a higher (sub)layer, that were addressed to a broadcast address at this sublayer

ifInDiscards

The number of inbound packets that were chosen to be discarded, even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol

iflnErrors

Number of inbound packets discarded because they contain errors

ifOutOctets

Total number of transmitted octets, including framing packets

ifOutUcastPkts

Total number of unicast packets requested to transmit to a single address

ifOutMulticastPkts

Number of multicast frames transmitted error free

ifOutBroadcastPkts

The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be transmitted and which packets were addressed to a broadcast address at this sublayer, including those that were discarded or not sent

ifOutDiscards

The number of outbound packets that were chosen to be discarded even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted

dot3statsAlignmentErrors

Number of frames with an alignment error, i.e., the length is not an integral number of octets and the frame cannot pass the FCS test

dot3StatsFCSErrors

Number of frames with framecheck errors, i.e., there is an integral number of octets, but an incorrect FCS

dot3StatsSingleCollisionFrames

Number of successfully transmitted frames that had exactly one collision

dot3StatsMutlipleCollisionFrame

Number of successfully transmitted frames that had multiple collisions

dot3StatsDeferredTransmissions

Number of times the first transmission was delayed because the medium was busy

dot3StatsLateCollision

Number of times that a collision was detected later than 64 octets into the transmission (also added into collision count)

dot3StatsExcessiveCollision

Number of frames where transmissions failed because of excessive collisions

dot3StatsCarrierSenseErrors

The number of transmission errors on a particular interface that are not otherwise counted

dot3StatsSQETestErrors

A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the PLS sublayer for a particular interface

etherStatsJabbers

Total number of octets of data (including bad packets) received on the network

etherStatsUndersizePkts

Number of packets received with a length less than 64 octets

etherStatsFragments

Total number of packets that are not an integral number of octets or have a bad FCS, and that are less than 64 octets long

etherStatsPkts64Octets

Total number of packets received (including error packets) that were 64 octets in length

etherStatsPkts65to127Octets

Total number of packets received (including error packets) that were 65 to 172 octets in length

etherStatsPkts128to255Octets

Total number of packets received (including error packets) that were 128 to 255 octets in length

etherStatsPkts256to511Octets

Total number of packets received (including error packets) that were 256 to 511 octets in length

etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets

Total number of packets received (including error packets) that were 512 to 1023 octets in length

etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets

Total number of packets received (including error packets) that were 1024 to 1518 octets in length

etherStatsJabbers

Total number of packets longer than 1518 octets that were not an integral number of octets or had a bad FCS

etherStatsCollisions

Best estimate of the total number of collisions on this segment

etherStatsCollisionFrames

Best estimate of the total number of frame collisions on this segment

etherStatsCRCAlignErrors

Total number of packets with a length between 64 and 1518 octets, inclusive, that had a bad FCS or were not an integral number of octets in length

receivePauseFrames (G-series only)

The number of received IEEE 802.x pause frames

transmitPauseFrames (G-series only)

The number of transmitted IEEE 802.x pause frames

receivePktsDroppedInternalCongestion (G-series only)

The number of received frames dropped due to frame buffer overflow or other reasons

transmitPktsDroppedInternalCongestion (G-series only)

The number of frames dropped in the transmit direction due to frame buffer overflow or other reasons

txTotalPkts

Total number of transmit packets

rxTotalPkts

Total number of receive packets

Procedure: Create Ethernet RMON Alarm Thresholds


Step 1   From the node view, click the Provisioning > Etherbridge > Thresholds tabs.

Step 2   Click Create.

The Create Ether Threshold dialog box opens (Figure 9-28).


Figure 9-28   Creating Ethernet RMON thresholds


Step 3   In the Slot field, choose the appropriate Ethernet card.

Step 4   In the Port field, choose the appropriate port on the Ethernet card.

Step 5   In the Variable field, choose the variable. Table 9-18 lists and defines the Ethernet threshold variables available in this field.

Step 6   In the Alarm Type field, indicate whether the event will be triggered by the rising threshold, falling threshold, or both the rising and falling thresholds.

Step 7   In the Sample Type field, choose either Relative or Absolute. Relative restricts the threshold to use the number of occurrences in the user-set sample period. Absolute sets the threshold to use the total number of occurrences, regardless of any time period.

Step 8   Type in an appropriate number of seconds in the Sample Period field.

Step 9   Type in the appropriate number of occurrences in the Rising Threshold field.


Note    For a rising type of alarm to be raised, the measured value must move from below the falling threshold to above the rising threshold. For example, if a network is running below a falling threshold of 400 collisions every 15 seconds and a problem causes 1001 collisions in 15 seconds, these occurrences raise an alarm.

Step 10   Type in the appropriate number of occurrences in the Falling Threshold field. In most cases a falling threshold is set lower than the rising threshold.

A falling threshold is the counterpart to a rising threshold. When the number of occurrences is above the rising threshold and then drops below a falling threshold, it resets the rising threshold. For example, when the network problem that caused 1001 collisions in 15 minutes subsides and creates only 799 collisions in 15 minutes, occurrences fall below a falling threshold of 800 collisions. This resets the rising threshold so that if network collisions again spike over a 1000 per 15 minute period, an event again triggers when the rising threshold is crossed. An event is triggered only the first time a rising threshold is exceeded. Otherwise, a single network problem might cause a rising threshold to be exceeded multiple times and cause a large number of events.

Step 11   Click OK to complete the procedure.