American National Standards Institute. The principle standards development body in the USA. ANSI is a nonprofit, non-governmental body supported by over 1,000 trade organizations, professional societies, and companies. It is the USA's member body to ISO.
Adjacent Point Code. Point code of the adjacent ITP signaling point for the linkset. Contrast with Local Point Code.
Application Programming Interface. A set of calling conventions which define how a service is invoked through a software package. The calls, subroutines, interrupts, and returns that comprise a documented interface so that a higher-level program such as an application can make use of the services of another application, operating system, network operating system, driver, or other lower-level software program.
Application Server. Logical entity serving a specific routing key. The application server implements a set of one or more unique application server processes, of which one or more is normally actively processing traffic. An application server is a server computer in a computer network dedicated to running certain software applications. The term also refers to the software installed on such a computer to facilitate the serving (running) of other applications.
Application Server Process. IP-based instance of an application server, such as Call Agents, HLRs, SMSCs, and so on. An application server process can implement more than one application server.
Application Server Process Association. ITP's virtual view of an application server process. The application server process association is defined on, and resides on, the ITP.
GUI-based hypertext client application, such as Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, or Firefox, enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a web page at a website on the World Wide Web (WWW) or a local area network. Text and images on a web page can contain hyperlinks to other web pages at the same or different websites. Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many web pages at many websites by traversing these links.
Base Station Controller. Equipment that manages the radio resources in a GSM network (for example, BTSs).
Base Station Subsystem. A subsystem in a GSM network that refers to the combined functions of the BTS and BSC.
Base Transceiver Station. The equipment in a GSM network that is used to transmit radio frequencies over the air waves.
Capability Point Code
Point code shared by more than one signaling point, each of which is also assigned a "real" point code.
Circuit Identification Code. Information identifying a circuit between a pair of exchanges, for which signaling is being performed.
Cisco Internetwork Operating System software. Cisco system software that provides common functionality, scalability, and security for many Cisco products. The Cisco IOS software allows centralized, integrated, and automated installation and management of internetworks, while ensuring support for a wide variety of protocols, media, services, and platforms.
Command line interface. An interface that allows the user to interact with the Cisco IOS software operating system by entering commands and optional arguments.
Node or software program that requests services from a server. The MWTM 6.0 user interface is an example of a client. See also server.
Common Language Location Identifier Code. Used within the Telecommunications industry to identify a specific physical location and piece of telco switching equipment. This is always an 11 character alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies the geographic location of the node, maintained by Telcordia.
Text string that acts as a password and is used to authenticate messages sent between a management station and an ITP containing an SNMP agent. The community string is sent in every packet between the manager and the agent.
Condition in which a link has too many packets waiting to be sent. This condition could be caused by the failure of an element in the network. Possible levels are None, Low, High, and Very High, which correspond roughly to equivalent ANSI, China standard, ITU, NTT, and TTC congestion levels.
In MWTM 6.0, the type of a discovered device, either a Cisco device or BTS or BSC device.
Object that has been discovered by MWTM 6.0. Also called known. Contrast with unknown.
Process by which MWTM 6.0 discovers in your network.
User-specified name for a node.
Domain Name System. System used on the Internet for translating names of network nodes into addresses.
Initial name of a node, as discovered by MWTM 6.0. See also node name.
The style of identifier—a sequence of case-insensitive ASCII labels separated by dots ("bbn.com.")—defined for subtrees in the internet Domain Name System [R1034] and used in other internet identifiers, such as hostnames, mailbox names, and URLs.
Global System for Mobile Communication. The most widely used digital mobile phone system and the de facto wireless telephone standard in Europe. Originally defined as a pan-European open standard for a digital cellular telephone network to support voice, data, text messaging and cross-border roaming. GSM is now one of the world's main 2G digital wireless standards.
Global Title Translation. A global title is an application address, such as an 800 number, calling card number, or mobile subscriber identification number. Global Title Translation (GTT) is the process by which the SCCP translates a global title into the point code and subsystem number of the destination SSP where the higher-layer protocol processing occurs.
Hypertext Markup Language. Simple hypertext document formatting language that uses tags to indicate how a given part of a document should be interpreted by a viewing application, such as a web browser.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL. This is a web protocol developed by Netscape and built into its browser that encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the web server. HTTPS is really just the use of Netscape's Secure Socket Layer (SSL) as a sublayer under its regular HTTP application layering. (HTTPS uses port 443 instead of HTTP port 80 in its interactions with the lower layer, TCP/IP.) SSL uses a 40-bit key size for the RC4 stream encryption algorithm, which is considered an adequate degree of encryption for commercial exchange.
Electronically-stored text that allows direct access to other texts by way of encoded links. Hypertext documents can be created using HTML, and often integrate images, sound, and other media that are commonly viewed using a browser.
Internet Protocol. Network layer protocol in the TCP/IP stack offering a connectionless internetwork service. IP provides features for addressing, type-of-service specification, fragmentation and reassembly, and security. Documented in RFC 791.
32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP. An IP address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is written as 4 octets separated by periods (dotted decimal format). Each address consists of a network number, an optional subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together are used for routing, while the host number is used to address an individual host within the network or subnetwork. A subnet mask is used to extract network and subnetwork information from the IP address.
IP Transfer Point. Part of Cisco's hardware and software SS7-over-IP (SS7oIP) solution. ITP provides a reliable, cost-effective medium for migrating Signaling System 7 (SS7), the telecommunications network signaling technology, to the mobile wireless industry IP environment. ITP off-loads SS7 Short Messaging Service (SMS) traffic onto the IP network, replacing the mobile service provider's signaling network with a redundant IP cloud.
International Telecommunication Union. Formerly the CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy), it is an international organization founded in 1865, now part of the United Nations System, that sets communications standards for global telecom networks. The ITU is comprised of more than 185 member countries. The Union began the 21st century streamlined into three sectors: Telecommunication Standardization (ITU-T), Radiocommunication (ITU-R) and Telecommunication Development (ITU-D).
Java Web Services Developer Pack. The Java Web Services Development Pack (JWSDP) is a free software development kit (SDK) for developing Web Services, web applications and Java applications with the newest technologies for Java
Device type for which the MWTM has determined the device type.
In ITP, the connection between nodes.
In ITP, a grouped set of links. In the MWTM, a representation of two linksets associated with two nodes, one for each side of a logical connection.
In the MWTM, the type of a discovered link, either SCTP IP or serial.
local IP address
IP address used by the MWTM client to connect to the MWTM server.
Local Point Code
Point code of the primary signaling point for a linkset.
MTP3 User Adaptation Layer. Generally deployed in an application server, running as an Application Server Process (ASP), M3UA, combined with SS7 SCCP-User Adaptation Layer (SUA), provides access to SS7 through a signaling gateway.
Application server, application server process, application server process association, link, linkset, node, Signaling Gateway Mate Protocol, or signaling point that is being managed by the MWTM.
Bit combination used in the MWTM to indicate the significant bits of the point code.
For ANSI and China standard networks using the default 24-bit point code format, the default mask is 255.255.255.
For ITU networks using the default 14-bit point code format, the default mask is 7.255.7.
For NTT and TTC networks using the default 16-bit point code format, the default mask is 31.15.127.
Management Information Base. A directory listing information that is used and maintained by a network's management protocol, such as SNMP.
Message Transfer Part Level 2. Resides at Layer 2 in the SS7 protocol stack, it is responsible for the reliable transmission of signaling units over an individual Signaling Link. MTP2 reliability is achieved through retransmission techniques.
Message Transfer Part Level 3. It provides message routing between signaling points in the SS7 network. It re-routes traffic away from failed links and signaling points and controls traffic when congestion occurs.
Northbound Application Programming Interface.
Network Element. This is a device that resides inside a managed network. Typically, an NE provides some services to a network operator, such as ATM or Frame Relay virtual circuits, MPLS, and IP. NEs host MIBs and the objects in these MIBs can be used by network management systems.
Network Management System. Network Management System is a term that describes a computer-based software application suite dedicated to the management of networks of NEs. Typically, the NMS provides abstractions (such as signaling links and virtual connections) appropriate to the overall running of a network; that is, it is not exclusively concerned with the details of one NE. Communication between an NMS and NEs is typically executed via an EMS, where the latter might reside on the NE. Above the NMS, the OSS is found.
Endpoint of a network connection or a junction common to two or more lines in a network. Nodes can be processors, controllers, or workstations. Nodes, which vary in routing and other functional capabilities, can be interconnected by links, and serve as control points in the network.
In RAN-O networks, a node is a Cisco Mobile Wireless Router (MWR 1941-DC-A).
Name of a node. This is either the DNS name of the node, or a user-specified name. See also DNS name.
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation. It is made up of two local carriers and a long-distance provider. The world's #1 telecommunications firm, NTT is a holding company for regional local phone companies NTT East and NTT West, which enjoy de facto monopolies in their markets, and long-distance carrier NTT Communications. NTT also operates a leading ISP and it owns 62% of Japan's dominant cellular carrier, NTT DoCoMo.
Application server, application server process, application server process association, link, linkset, node, Signaling Gateway Mate Protocol, or signaling point that has been discovered by the MWTM.
Operations Support System. Methods and procedures that support the daily operation of a carrier's infrastructure, including order processing, equipment assignment, and so on.
Preventive Cyclic Redundancy. It is the error detection method used when SS7 is transmitted over satellite links. When using PCR, all of the transmitted signaling units are continually retransmitted until they are acknowledged by the distant end. Once acknowledged, the signaling units are dropped from the transmission buffer.
Access method in which a primary network device inquires, in an orderly fashion, whether secondaries have data to transmit. The inquiry occurs in the form of a message to each secondary that gives the secondary the right to transmit.
In IP terminology, an upper-layer process that receives information from lower layers. Ports are numbered, and each numbered port is associated with a specific process. For example, SMTP is associated with port 25. A port number is also called a well-known address.
Permanent Virtual Circuit. Virtual circuit that is permanently established. PVCs save bandwidth associated with circuit establishment and tear down in situations where certain virtual circuits must exist all the time.
Quality of service. Measure of performance for a transmission system that reflects its transmission quality and service availability.
Radio Access Network-Optimization. The Cisco RAN Optimization solution optimizes GSM and UMTS traffic at the cell site and enables end-to-end IP services, reducing OpEx, increasing RAN efficiency, and delivering new revenue-generating services.
Cisco MWR 1900 Series mobile wireless routers compress and optimize GSM and UMTS traffic, reducing leased line costs, and using the recaptured backhaul bandwidth to transport IP data services. The routers support traditional narrowband (T1/E1, microwave) and high-speed (xDSL, WiMax, Metro Ethernet) RAN backhaul networks, for scalability and cost reduction.
The Cisco MWR also provides aggregation and optimization services for backhaul traffic at the core site. It connects multiple cell-site mobile wireless routers to a base station controller/radio network controller (BSC/RNC).
Cisco RAN Service Module. The RAN Service Module supports the Cisco IOS® Software operating system with RAN-specific feature sets to enable optimization of mixed generation cell-site backhaul links. The RAN-SM supports 2G, 2.5G, and 3G voice and data traffic, optimizing the traffic to only transmit essential data and reducing the total traffic load on the backhaul network. The solution is completely RAN-vendor-agnostic, making it compatible even with proprietary Abis interface specifications.
The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) RAN optimization feature optimizes GSM Abis interface traffic between the base transceiver station (BTS) and base station controller (BSC). The feature removes nonessential traffic, such as idle and silence frames, which can result in optimization gains of up to 50 percent, depending on traffic profiles. Optimized traffic frames are converted to IP packets and transmitted to the remote IP peer where any removed frames are reinserted and then forwarded to the base station subsystem (BSS) node.
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) RAN optimization feature optimizes the Iub interface between the Node B and radio network controller (RNC) elements. It supports ATM-based traffic and performs cell optimization and conversion to IP packets. The conversion to IP allows the software to route each permanent virtual circuit (PVC) through a defined IP path, allowing different PVCs to use the most efficient backhaul technologies available at the cell site.
The RAN Service Module is Installed in the Cisco ONS 15454 SONET/SDH Multiservice Provisioning Platform.
Radio Network Controller. It is the element in the UMTS radio network (UTRAN) responsible for control of the Node-Bs in the radio network, that is to say the base stations which are distributed throughout the country. The RNC carries out some of the mobility management functions and is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to and from the mobile. The RNC connects to the Circuit Switched Core Network through Media Gateway (MGW) and to the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) in the Packet Switched Core Network.
Remote Procedure Call. This is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one host to cause code to be executed on another host without the programmer needing to explicitly code for this. When the code in question is written using object-oriented principles, RPC is sometimes referred to as remote invocation or remote method invocation.
Signaling Connection Control Part. A component of the SS7 protocol suite that provides additional functions to those of the message transfer part (MTP). SCCP provides both connectionless and connection-oriented network services to transfer signaling information across telecommunication networks, such as GSM.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The de facto standard for e-mail transmissions across the Internet.
Simple Network Management Protocol. The network management protocol used almost exclusively in TCP/IP networks. SNMP provides a means to monitor and control network devices, and to manage configurations, statistics collection, performance, and security.
Signaling point. An SCP, SSP, or STP, or an ITP instance.
Service Switching Point. An SS7 signaling node which interacts with the service control point (SCP) to implement special service code features.
Structured Query Language. A standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. Although SQL is both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with proprietary extensions to the standard language. Queries take the form of a command language that lets you select, insert, update, find out the location of data, and so forth.
Regularly scheduled polling of nodes performed by the MWTM.
Signaling Transfer Point. A node in an SS7 network that routes messages between nodes. STPs transfer messages between incoming and outgoing signaling links, but with the exception of network management information, do not originate or terminate messages. STPs are deployed in pairs. If one STP fails, the mates takes over, ensuring that service continues without interruption.
SCCP User Adaptation. SUA describes a transport mechanism for delivering SS7 SCCP-User Part messages as well as certain SCCP network management events over SCTP transport to IP-based application processors or databases. The SUA SG terminates the SS7 MTP2, MTP3, and SCCP protocol layers and delivers TCAP, RANAP and/or any other SCCP-User protocol messages. The Application Server Process (ASP) is the IP-based instance of an application process or database (e.g. HLRs, SMSCs, etc.)
Transmission Control Protocol. Connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission. TCP is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack.
Event that occurs when one network device expects to hear from another network device within a specified period of time, but does not. The resulting timeout usually results in a retransmission of information or the dissolving of the session between the two devices.
Unsolicited message sent by an SNMP agent to an NMS, console, or terminal to indicate the occurrence of a significant event, such as a specifically defined condition or a threshold that has been reached.
Forwarding MWTM events to other hosts, in the form of SNMP traps. This enables the MWTM to integrate with high-level event- and alarm-monitoring systems, such as the Cisco Info Center (CIC) and Micromuse's Netcool suite of products. These systems can provide a single high-level view of all alarm monitoring in your network, making it easier to detect and resolve problems.
Telecommunication Technology Committee. The Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) was established as a private standardization organization in October 1985.
The purpose of this committee is to contribute to standardization in the field of telecommunications by establishing protocols and standards for telecommunications networks and terminal equipment as well as to disseminate those standards.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service. It is a third-generation (3G) broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps). UMTS offers a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users, no matter where they reside in the world. UMTS is based on the GSM communication standard. It is also endorsed by major standards bodies and manufacturers as the planned standard for mobile users around the world.
Device type for which the MWTM is unable to determine the device type. If a node, the node failed to respond to an SNMP request. If a linkset or link, either the associated node failed to respond to an SNMP request, or the MWTM found that the linkset or link no longer exists. Contrast with discovered.
Amount of an object's send or receive capacity that is being used, expressed as a percentage or in Erlangs.
World Wide Web Consortium. The World Wide Web Consortium develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the web to its full potential. W3C is a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding (seehttp://www.w3.org/).
XML Schema Definition. A recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), specifies how to formally describe the elements in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document. This description can be used to verify that each item of content in a document adheres to the description of the element in which the content is to be placed.
In general, a schema is an abstract representation of an object's characteristics and relationship to other objects. An XML schema represents the interrelationship between the attributes and elements of an XML object (for example, a document or a portion of a document). To create a schema for a document, you analyze its structure, defining each structural element as you encounter it. For example, within a schema for a document describing a website, you would define a website element, a web page element, and other elements that describe possible content divisions within any page on that site. Just as in XML and HTML, elements are defined within a set of tags.
XSD has several advantages over earlier XML schema languages, such as document type definition (DTD) or Simple Object XML (SOX). For example, it's more direct: XSD, in contrast to the earlier languages, is written in XML, which means that it doesn't require intermediary processing by a parser. Other benefits include self-documentation, automatic schema creation, and the ability to be queried through XML Transformations (XSLT).