IPv6 QoS: MQC Packet Marking/Remarking
IPv6 QoS: MQC Packet Marking/Remarking
Last Updated: April 11, 2012
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Information About IPv6 QoS: MQC Packet Marking/Remarking
Implementation Strategy for QoS for IPv6
IPv6 packets are forwarded by paths that are different from those for IPv4. QoS features supported for IPv6 environments include packet classification, queueing, traffic shaping, weighted random early detection (WRED), class-based packet marking, and policing of IPv6 packets. These features are available at both the process switching and Cisco Express Forwarding switching paths of IPv6.
All of the QoS features available for IPv6 environments are managed from the modular QoS command-line interface (MQC). The MQC allows you to define traffic classes, create and configure traffic policies (policy maps), and then attach those traffic policies to interfaces.
To implement QoS in networks running IPv6, follow the same steps that you would follow to implement QoS in networks running only IPv4. At a very high level, the basic steps for implementing QoS are as follows:
Policies and Class-Based Packet Marking in IPv6 Networks
You can create a policy to mark each class of traffic with appropriate priority values, using either DSCP or precedence. Class-based marking allows you to set the IPv6 precedence and DSCP values for traffic management. The traffic is marked as it enters the router on the ingress interface. The markings are used to treat the traffic (forward, queue) as it leaves the router on the egress interface. Always mark and treat the traffic as close as possible to its source.
Traffic Policing in IPv6 Environments
Congestion management for IPv6 is similar to IPv4, and the commands used to configure queueing and traffic shaping features for IPv6 environments are the same commands as those used for IPv4. Traffic shaping allows you to limit the packet dequeue rate by holding additional packets in the queues and forwarding them as specified by parameters configured for traffic shaping features. Traffic shaping uses flow-based queueing by default. CBWFQ can be used to classify and prioritize the packets. Class-based policer and generic traffic shaping (GTS) or Frame Relay traffic shaping (FRTS) can be used for conditioning and policing traffic.
How to Specify IPv6 QoS: MQC Packet Marking/Remarking
Specifying Marking Criteria for IPv6 Packets
Perform this task to establish the match criteria (or mark the packets) to be used to match packets for classifying network traffic.
Configuration Examples for IPv6 QoS: MQC Packet Marking/Remarking
Example: Verifying Packet Marking Criteria
The following example shows how to use the match precedence command to manage IPv6 traffic flows:
Router# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)# class-m c1 Router(config-cmap)# match precedence 5 Router(config-cmap)# end Router# Router(config)# policy p1 Router(config-pmap)# class c1 Router(config-pmap-c)# police 10000 conform set-prec-trans 4
To verify that packet marking is working as expected, use the show policy command. The output of this command shows a difference in the number of total packets versus the number of packets marked.
Router# show policy p1 Policy Map p1 Class c1 police 10000 1500 1500 conform-action set-prec-transmit 4 exceed-action drop Router# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)# interface serial 4/1 Router(config-if)# service out p1 Router(config-if)# end Router# show policy interface s4/1 Serial4/1 Service-policy output: p1 Class-map: c1 (match-all) 0 packets, 0 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: precedence 5 police: 10000 bps, 1500 limit, 1500 extended limit conformed 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: set-prec-transmit 4 exceeded 0 packets, 0 bytes; action: drop conformed 0 bps, exceed 0 bps violate 0 bps Class-map: class-default (match-any) 10 packets, 1486 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any
During periods of transmit congestion at the outgoing interface, packets arrive faster than the interface can send them. It is helpful to know how to interpret the output of the show policy-map interface command, which is useful for monitoring the results of a service policy created with Cisco's MQC.
Congestion typically occurs when a fast ingress interface feeds a relatively slow egress interface. Functionally, congestion is defined as filling the transmit ring on the interface (a ring is a special buffer control structure). Every interface supports a pair of rings: a receive ring for receiving packets and a transmit ring for sending packets. The size of the rings varies with the interface controller and with the bandwidth of the interface or virtual circuit (VC). As in the following example, use the show atm vc vcd command to display the value of the transmit ring on a PA-A3 ATM port adapter.
Router# show atm vc 3 ATM5/0.2: VCD: 3, VPI: 2, VCI: 2 VBR-NRT, PeakRate: 30000, Average Rate: 20000, Burst Cells: 94 AAL5-LLC/SNAP, etype:0x0, Flags: 0x20, VCmode: 0x0 OAM frequency: 0 second(s) PA TxRingLimit: 10 InARP frequency: 15 minutes(s) Transmit priority 2 InPkts: 0, OutPkts: 0, InBytes: 0, OutBytes: 0 InPRoc: 0, OutPRoc: 0 InFast: 0, OutFast: 0, InAS: 0, OutAS: 0 InPktDrops: 0, OutPktDrops: 0 CrcErrors: 0, SarTimeOuts: 0, OverSizedSDUs: 0 OAM cells received: 0 OAM cells sent: 0 Status: UP
Cisco software (also referred to as the Layer 3 processor) and the interface driver use the transmit ring when moving packets to the physical media. The two processors collaborate in the following way:
The most important aspect of this communication system is that the interface recognizes that its transmit ring is full and throttles the receipt of new packets from the Layer 3 processor system. Thus, when the interface is congested, the drop decision is moved from a random, last-in, first-dropped decision in the first in, first out (FIFO) queue of the transmit ring to a differentiated decision based on IP-level service policies implemented by the Layer 3 processor.
Service policies apply only to packets stored in the Layer 3 queues. The table below illustrates which packets sit in the Layer 3 queue. Locally generated packets are always process switched and are delivered first to the Layer 3 queue before being passed on to the interface driver. Fast-switched and Cisco Express Forwarding-switched packets are delivered directly to the transmit ring and sit in the L3 queue only when the transmit ring is full.
The following example shows these guidelines applied to the show policy-map interface command output.
Router# show policy-map interface atm 1/0.1 ATM1/0.1: VC 0/100 - Service-policy output: cbwfq (1283) Class-map: A (match-all) (1285/2) 28621 packets, 7098008 bytes 5 minute offered rate 10000 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: access-group 101 (1289) Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 73 Bandwidth 500 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 28621/7098008 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 Class-map: B (match-all) (1301/4) 2058 packets, 148176 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: access-group 103 (1305) Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 75 Bandwidth 50 (kbps) Max Threshold 64 (packets) (pkts matched/bytes matched) 0/0 (depth/total drops/no-buffer drops) 0/0/0 Class-map: class-default (match-any) (1309/0) 19 packets, 968 bytes 5 minute offered rate 0 bps, drop rate 0 bps Match: any (1313)
The table below defines counters that appear in the example.
Without congestion, there is no need to queue any excess packets. When congestion occurs, packets, including Cisco Express Forwarding- and fast-switched packets, might go into the Layer 3 queue. If you use congestion management features, packets accumulating at an interface are queued until the interface is free to send them; they are then scheduled according to their assigned priority and the queueing mechanism configured for the interface.
Normally, the packets counter is much larger than the packets matched counter. If the values of the two counters are nearly equal, then the interface is receiving a large number of process-switched packets or is heavily congested. Both of these conditions should be investigated to ensure optimal packet forwarding.
Routers allocate conversation numbers for the queues that are created when the service policy is applied. The following example shows the queues and related information.
Router# show policy-map interface s1/0.1 dlci 100 Serial1/0.1: DLCI 100 - output : mypolicy Class voice Weighted Fair Queueing Strict Priority Output Queue: Conversation 72 Bandwidth 16 (kbps) Packets Matched 0 (pkts discards/bytes discards) 0/0 Class immediate-data Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 73 Bandwidth 60 (%) Packets Matched 0 (pkts discards/bytes discards/tail drops) 0/0/0 mean queue depth: 0 drops: class random tail min-th max-th mark-prob 0 0 0 64 128 1/10 1 0 0 71 128 1/10 2 0 0 78 128 1/10 3 0 0 85 128 1/10 4 0 0 92 128 1/10 5 0 0 99 128 1/10 6 0 0 106 128 1/10 7 0 0 113 128 1/10 rsvp 0 0 120 128 1/10 Class priority-data Weighted Fair Queueing Output Queue: Conversation 74 Bandwidth 40 (%) Packets Matched 0 Max Threshold 64 (packets) (pkts discards/bytes discards/tail drops) 0/0/0 Class class-default Weighted Fair Queueing Flow Based Fair Queueing Maximum Number of Hashed Queues 64 Max Threshold 20 (packets)
Information reported for each class includes the following:
The class-defaultclass is the default class to which traffic is directed, if that traffic does not satisfy the match criteria of other classes whose policy is defined in the policy map. The fair-queue command allows you to specify the number of dynamic queues into which IP flows are sorted and classified. Alternately, routers allocate a default number of queues derived from the bandwidth on the interface or VC. Supported values in either case are a power of two, in a range from 16 to 4096.
The table below lists the default values for interfaces and for ATM permanent virtual circuits (PVCs).
The table below lists the default number of dynamic queues in relation to ATM PVC bandwidth.
Based on the number of reserved queues for WFQ, Cisco software assigns a conversation or queue number as shown in the table below.
Standards and RFCs
Feature Information for IPv6 QoS: MQC Packet Marking/Remarking
The following table provides release information about the feature or features described in this module. This table lists only the software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that software release train also support that feature.
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