Протокол IP : Сервисы IP-адресации

Общие сведения и устранение неисправностей DHCP на коммутаторе Catalyst или корпоративных сетях

20 мая 2008 - Перевод, выполненный профессиональным переводчиком
Другие версии: PDF-версия:pdf | Машинный перевод (28 июля 2013) | Английский (17 ноября 2008) | Отзыв

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?????????? ???????????????? ?? DHCP
      ?????????????? ???????????? DHCP RFC
      ?????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP
      ?????????????????????????? ????????????
      ?????????? DHCP
      ???????????? ????????????-???????????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????????? DHCP, ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????
      ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP
?????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP/???????????? ???????????????????????? BootP ???? ???????????????????????????? Cisco IOS
      ???????????? ????????????-???????????? DHCP ?? ???????????????? ???????????????? DHCP
???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????? PXE
?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????????
      ?????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????
      ?????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP
???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?? DHCP ?? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? DHCP
      ???????????? ???1: ???????????? DHCP ?? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? DHCP
      ???????????? ???2: ???????????? DHCP ?? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP
???????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP
      ?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?? DHCP
???????????????????? A: ???????????? ???????????????????????? IOS DHCP
Связанные обсуждения сообщества поддержки Cisco
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?? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????? (DHCP), ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????????????????? Cisco Catalyst. ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? Cisco IOS?? DHCP/BootP.

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?????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????.

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???????????? ???????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????.

????????????????, ???????????????????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????????, ???????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????????. ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ???????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????. ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ????????????????????.

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???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ????. ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? Cisco. ???????????????? ??????????????????????.

???????????????? ??????????????

???????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP:

  • ?????????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????????? IP-???????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????? IP-???????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP.

  • ???????????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? (???????? ???????????? 3 (L3)), ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP. ?????? ???????????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP.

  • ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????? Cisco DHCP Relay ?????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????????? ip helper

?????????????? ??????????????????

???????????????? 1: ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? Cisco ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP

100a.gif

?????? ???????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????????????????? Ethernet1 ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? 192.168.2.2 ?????????? ?????????????????? Ethernet1. ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????. ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????.

???????????????? 2: ???????????????????? Cisco Catalyst ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? L3 ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP

100b.jpg

?????? ???????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????????????????? VLAN20 ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? 192.168.2.2 ?????????? ?????????????????? VLAN10. ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????. ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????. ?????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????????, ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????? portfast ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? (STP) ???????????? ???????? ????????????????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????.

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DHCP ???????????????????????? ????????????????, ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????, ???????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????/???????????????? IP (TCP/IP), ?????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ????????. DHCP - ?????? ???????????????? ????????????????, ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????? leavingcisco.com (DHC-WG) ???????????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????????????? leavingcisco.com (IETF).

DHCP ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????-????????????, ?? ?????????????? ???????????? DHCP, ????????????????, ???????????????????? ????, ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP ?????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????. ???????????? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????. ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????, ???????????????? DHCP ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????????????, ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????.

?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????????, ?????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????, ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? (VLAN), ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ????????. ?????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ????????????, ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? DHCP, ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ???? DHCP ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP.

?????????? ???????????????? ?? DHCP

?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP ???????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? RFC 1531 leavingcisco.com, ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? RFC 2131 leavingcisco.com. DHCP ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? (BootP), ???????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? RFC 951 leavingcisco.com.

DHCP ???????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? (????????????) ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????????????????, ?????????????? IP-??????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????????. ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? IP-?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?? IP-????????, DHCP ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ???????? IP-???????????? ??????????????. ?????????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? IP, ???? ???????????? ???????????????????????? IP-??????????, ???????????????? ???? ??????????????????????. DHCP ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ?? ???????????? IP-??????????????.

?????????????? ???????????? DHCP RFC

  • RFC 2131 - DHCP

  • RFC 2132 - ?????????????????? DHCP ?? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? BootP

  • RFC 1534 - ???????????????????????????? ?????????? DHCP ?? BootP

  • RFC 1542 - ?????????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????? BootP

  • RFC 2241 - ?????????????????? DHCP ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????? Novell

  • RFC 2242 - ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????? Netware/IP

DHCP ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????????-????????????, ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? (?????????????? DHCP) ???????????????????????? IP-???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? (????????????) ?????? ?????????????? ????????????????. ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? TCP/IP ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? (DHCPDISCOVER), ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? IP-?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????. ?????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? DHCP ?? ??????????. ?? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????????????????? ??????????:

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?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????????????, ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?? "?????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP" ????????.

?????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP

????????????

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????????????????????

0x01

DHCPDISCOVER

???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP.

0x02

DHCPOFFER

???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????????? ???????????? DHCPDISCOVER.

0x03

DHCPREQUEST

???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ????????????, ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????????????.

0x04

DHCPDECLINE

???????????????????????????? "????????????-????????????", ?????????????????????? ???? ????, ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????????????.

0x05

DHCPACK

???????????????????????????? "????????????-????????????" ?? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????.

0x06

DHCPNAK

???????????????????????????? "????????????-????????????", ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????.

0x07

DHCPRELEASE

???????????????????????????? "????????????-????????????", ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????.

0x08

DHCPINFORM

???????????????????????????? "????????????-????????????", ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ?????? ??????????.

DHCPDISCOVER

???????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????, ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????????????, ?? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???????????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? UDP ???????? 67 (???????????? BootP). ?????????????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????????????????, DHCPDISCOVER ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? (IP-?????????? ????????????????????: 255.255.255.255) ?? ???????????????? IP-?????????????? 0.0.0.0. IP-?????????? ?????????????????? - 0.0.0.0, ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????????? IP-????????????. ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ???????????? DHCP, ???? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? DHCPOFFER. ???????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? DHCP, ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP, ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ?????? ??????????????, ???????????????????? ???????????? DHCP.

???????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????????? ?????????? (????????????????, Microsoft Windows Server), ???????? ?????????????????????????????? (????????????????, ?????????????????????????? Cisco, ?????????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????? IP ???????????? ????????????????????).

DHCPOFFER

???????????? DHCP, ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ???? ???????? UDP 68 (???????????? BootP). ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? "??????????". ?? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????? ??????????????. ????????????????, ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ???????? yiaddr ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? IP-????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????. ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? IP-????????????, ?????????? ????????????????????, ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? NetBIOS (WINS). ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ???? ?????????????????????????????????? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????????????? "chaddr", ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????. ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????????, ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER, ?????? ???????????????????????????????? ??????????, ???? ???????? UDP 67, ??.??. ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP, ?? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER. ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? UDP 68 ?? ?????????????????????? ???? ????????, ?????????????????? ???? ???????????? Bootp ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? "??????????????????????????????????".

DHCPREQUEST

?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? DHCPREQUEST, ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?? DHCPOFFER, ?? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? "????????????". ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER: ???? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ???? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER. ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER. ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP. DHCPREQUEST ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????????, ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????? DHCPOFFER, ???????????? DHCPREQUEST ?? ????????????, ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? DHCPOFFER. ?????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST. ???????????????? ???? ????, ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? IP-??????????, ???? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST ?? IP-?????????????? ?????????????????? 0.0.0.0. ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????, ?????? IP-?????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????.

DHCPACK

?????????? ????????, ?????? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST, ???? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? DHCPACK, ?????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????. ?????????????????? DHCPACK ???????????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????, ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST. ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPACK, ???? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? "????????????????", ?? ?????????? ???????????????????????? IP-?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????. ?????????? ??????, ???????????? DHCP ???????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????? (?????? chaddr) ?? ???????????????????????? IP-????????????. ?? ????????????, ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ????????????.

???????????? ?????? ???????????? DHCP ???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? DHCP ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? (Lease Time, LT), ?????????? ???????????????????? (Renewal Time, T1) ?? ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? (Rebind Time, T2). ???????????????? ???????????????? LT ???? ?????????????????? ?????????? 72 ??????????. ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????.

DHCPNAK

???????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? DHCPREQUEST, ???? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? ???????????????????? DHCPNAK. ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPNAK ?????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST, ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????, ???????????????? ?? ?????????????????? "????????????". ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? DHCPREQUEST ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???? 60 ????????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????.

DHCPDECLINE

???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPACK ?? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????. ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ARP ???? IP-??????????, ???????????????? ?? DHCPACK. ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ARP, ?????? ????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????????????, ???? ???????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDECLINE ?? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????, ???????????????? ?? ?????????????????? "????????????".

DHCPINFORM

???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? IP-?????????? ???????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPINFORM ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????, ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? DNS. ?????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPINFORM, ?????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPACK ?? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????, ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????? IP-????????????. ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPACK.

DHCPRELEASE

???????????? DHCP ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPRELEASE ???? ???????????? DHCP. ???????????? ???????????????????? ????????????, ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????, ?????????????????? ???????? client identifier ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????? DHCPRELEASE.

?????????????????????????? ????????????

?????????????????? IP-?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? (T1=0,5 x LT) ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????. ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????????? "??????????????????????????" ?? ???????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST, ???????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????, ???? ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPACK. ?????????????????? DHCPACK ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????????????, ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????. ???????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????-???????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????, ???? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?????????? ????????, ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? DHCP ???? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? T2. ???????????????? ???? ?????????????????? T2 ?????????? ( 7/8 x LT). ?????? ????????????????, ?????? T1 < T2< LT.

???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? IP-??????????, ?????????????????????? DHCP, ?? ???? ?????? ??????????????????????, ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ?? ???????????? DHCPREQUEST. ???????? DHCPREQUEST ?????? ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? 0.0.0.0, ?? ?????????? ???????????????????? - ?????????????????????????????????? IP-?????????? 255.255.255.255.

????????????, ???????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPREQUEST ???? ?????????? ????????????????????????, ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????? ??????????????. ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????????? IP-????????????. ??????????????, ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?? RFC, ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ciaddr ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????????? DHCP. ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????. ?????????????????? DHCP-?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????????, ????????????????, ?? ???????????? ?? DHCP-?????????????????? Windows NT, ???? ???????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????, ?? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????????, ????????????????, ???? ?????????????? superscoping. ???????? ???????????? DHCP ??????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? IP-??????????, ???? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????????? DHCPACK ?????? DHCPREQUEST. ???????? ???????????? ????????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? IP-??????????, ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPNACK. ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? "??????????????????????????" ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER.

DHCP Packet

?????????????????? DHCP ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ??????????, ?????????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ???????? ??????????????.

????????????????????: ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? BootP.

????????

????????

??????

????????????????

op

1

OpCode

???????????????????????????? ??????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????: 1=BOOTREQUEST, 2=BOOTREPLY

htype

1

?????? ????????????????????????

???????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????????????????.

hlen

1

?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????

???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????.

hops

1

??????????????????

???????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????, ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????, ???? ???????????????? ??????????????????????????.

xid

4

?????????????????????????? ????????????????????

???????????????????????? ??????????, ???????????????????? ????????????????. ?????? ?????????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? (xid).

??????

2

????????????

???????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? DHCP.

??????????

2

??????????

????????????????????, ?????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????? ????????????????????????.

ciaddr

4

IP-?????????? ??????????????

???????????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? IP-??????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????? "????????????????", "??????????????????????????" ?????? "????????????????????"

yiaddr

4

?????? IP-??????????

???????? IP-?????????? ?????????????? - 0.0.0.0, ???? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? ???????????????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????.

siaddr

4

IP-?????????? ??????????????

???????? ???????????? ?????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? DHCP. ?? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? DHCPACK ?????????????? DHCP.

giaddr

4

IP-?????????? ???????????????????????????? (GI ADDR)

IP-?????????? ??????????, ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

chaddr

16

MAC-?????????? ??????????????

MAC-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP.

sname

64

?????? ??????????????

???????????????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????.

????????

128

?????? ???????????????????????? ??????????

?????? ???????????????????????? ??????????.

??????????????????

??????????????????

???????????????????????????? ??????????????????

???????????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP. RFC 2132 ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????.

???????????? ????????????-???????????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????????? DHCP, ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????

???????????????? ????????????

MAC-?????????? ??????????????????

MAC-?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????

IP-?????????? ??????????????????

IP-?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????

DHCPDISCOVER

????????????

?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????

0.0.0.0

255.255.255.255

DHCPOFFER

DHCPServer

?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????

DHCPServer

255.255.255.255

DHCPREQUEST

????????????

?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????

0.0.0.0

255.255.255.255

DHCPACK

DHCPServer

?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????

DHCPServer

255.255.255.255

P?????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP

???????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????????????. ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP ???????????????????? IP-?????????? ???????????????????? 255.255.255.255 (?????? Nets Broadcast), ?????????????? DHCP ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP ???? ???????????? ??????????????, ???????? ???????????? ???? ???????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????? DHCP/?????????? ???????????????????????? BootP. ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?????????????? DHCP ???? ???????? ?????????????? DHCP. ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ?????????????? ?????????????????????? IP-?????????? ?? ?????????????????? IP-???????????? ???????????? DHCP, ???????????????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP. ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP. ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ???????? IP-???????????? ?????????? IP-?????????? ????????????????????, ???? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP ???? ??????????????. ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ???????? IP-???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPREQUEST ?????? DHCPINFORM.

?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ???? ???????????????????????????? Cisco IOS

?????????????????? ???????????????????????????? Cisco ?????? ???????????????? ???????????????? BootP ?????? DHCP ???????????????????? ???????????? - ???????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????? IP-???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? DHCP/BootP ?????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????. ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????:

100a.gif

?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? BootP/DHCP ???? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ip helper-address interface. ?????????????????????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? UDP ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? UDP. ?????????????????????????????? IP-?????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? UDP:

  • ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? (TFTP) (???????? 69)

  • DNS (???????? 53), ???????????? ?????????????? (???????? 37)

  • ???????????? ???????? NetBIOS (???????? 137)

  • ???????????? ?????????????????? NetBIOS (???????? 138)

  • ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? (DHCP/BootP) (?????????? 67 ?? 68)

  • ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? (TACACS) (???????? 49)

  • ???????????? ???????? IEN-116 (???????? 42)

?? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????? IP-?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? UDP-????????????, ?????? ????????????????????????. ???????????? ???? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? IP-?????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? UDP ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????-???? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????. ?????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????? IP-?????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????????????, ?????? ???????????????? ????????:

!
version 12,0
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
!
hostname router
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
no ip directed-broadcast
! 
interface Ethernet1
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 192.168.2.2 
ip helper-address 192.168.2.3 

!--- ?????????????????????????????? IP-??????????, ?????????????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP

no ip directed-broadcast
!
!
!
line con 0
exec-timeout 0 0
transport input none
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end 

???????????????????????????? Cisco ???? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP. ???????????????????????????? Cisco ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ?????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????, ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????????????. ???????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? DHCP, ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????-???????????? DHCP ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPOFFER ?? DHCPREQUEST / DHCPDECLINE.

???????????? ????????????-???????????? DHCP ?? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP

?? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP IP-???????????? ???? ?????????????? DHCP. ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????, ???????????????????????????? ????????. ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????, ?????????????????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????-???????????? DHCP. ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? DHCP.

??????????

IP-?????????? ??????????????

IP-?????????? ??????????????

?????????? GI

MAC-?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????

IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? ????????????

IP-?????????? ???????????????????? ????????????

1. DHCPDISCOVER ???????????????????? ???? ??????????????

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0005.DCC9.C640

0.0.0.0

ffff.ffff.fffff (??????????????????????????????????)

255.255.255.255

2. ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ???????????????????? E1. ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP UDP. ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP, ?????????????????? ?? ???????? IP-???????????? ?????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????, ???????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ???? IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP.

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? E2

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP

192.168.2.2

3. ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ?? ???????????????????? DHCPOFFER ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP.

192.168.1.2

192.168.2.2

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP

192.168.2.2

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? E2

192.168.1.1

4. ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPOFFER ???? ?????????????????? ????????.

192.168.1.2

192.168.2.2

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? E1

192.168.1.1

ffff.ffff.ffff (??????????????????????????????????)

255.255.255.255

5. DHCPREQUEST ???????????????????? ???? ??????????????.

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

0005.DCC9.C640

0.0.0.0

ffff.ffff.fffff (??????????????????????????????????)

255.255.255.255

6. ???????????????????????? ???????????????? DHCPREQUEST ???? ???????????????????? E1. ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? DHCP UDP. ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP, ?????????????????? ?? ???????? IP-???????????? ?????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????, ???????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ???? IP-?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP.

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? E2

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP

192.168.2.2

7. ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ?? ???????????????????? DHCPACK ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

192.168.1.2

192.168.2.2

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP

192.168.2.2

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? E2

192.168.1.1

8. ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ???????????????? ?????????????????? DHCPACK ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPACK ???? ?????????????????? ????????. ???????????? ?????????????????? ACK ?? ???????????????????? IP-?????????? ??????????????.

192.168.1.2

192.168.2.2

192.168.1.1

MAC-?????????? ???????????????????? E1

192.168.1.1

ffff.ffff.ffff (??????????????????????????????????)

255.255.255.255

???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????? PXE

?????????? PXE (Pre-Execution Environment) ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???????????????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????????. ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ????, ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? PXE ???????????????????? DHCP ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????? IP-????????????.

???????? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ???? ????????????????????????????. ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ip helper address ???? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????. ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ???? ???????????????????????????? Cisco IOS.

?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????

?????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????

100d.jpg

???????????????????? ??????????????, ???????????????????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????. ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? DHCP, ?????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ????????????????. ?????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?? DHCP ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ????????. ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????????????????, ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????. ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? DHCP.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 1 - DHCPDISCOVER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
1[0.0.0.0] [255.255.255.255] 618 0:01:26.810 0.575.244 05/07/2001 11:52:03 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Discover
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 1arrived at 11:52:03.8106; frame size is 618 (026A hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCC9C640
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 604 bytes
IP: Identification = 9
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = B988 (correct)
IP: Source address = [0.0.0.0]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 584
UDP: No checksum
UDP: [576 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 1 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00000882
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCC9C640
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 1 (DHCP Discover)
DHCP: Maximum message size = 1152
DHCP: Client identifier = 00636973636F2D303030352E646363392E633634302D564C31
DHCP: Parameter Request List: 7 entries
DHCP: 1 = Client's subnet mask
DHCP: 66 = TFTP Option
DHCP: 6 = Domain name server
DHCP: 3 = Routers on the client's subnet
DHCP: 67 = Boot File Option
DHCP: 12 = Host name server
DHCP: 150 = Unknown Option
DHCP: Class identifier = 646F63736973312E30
DHCP: Option overload =3 (File and Sname fields hold options)
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 2 - DHCPOFFER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
2[192.168.1.1] [255.255.255.255] 331 0:01:26.825 0.015.172 05/07/2001 11:52:03 AM DHCP: Reply, 
	Message type: DHCP Offer
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 2 arrived at 11:52:03.8258; frame size is 331 (014B hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCC42484
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 317 bytes
IP: Identification = 5
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = F901 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 297
UDP: No checksum
UDP: [289 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 2 (Reply)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00000882
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCC9C640
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 2 (DHCP Offer)
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 85535 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Renewel interval = 42767 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Rebinding interval = 74843 (seconds)
DHCP: Subnet mask = [255.255.255.0]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.1.3]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.1.4]
DHCP: Gateway address = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 3 - DHCPREQUEST - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
3[0.0.0.0] [255.255.255.255] 618 0:01:26.829 0.003.586 05/07/2001 11:52:03 AM DHCP: Request, 
	Message type: DHCP Request
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 56 arrived at 11:52:03.8294; frame size is 618 (026A hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCC9C640
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 604 bytes
IP: Identification = 10
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = B987 (correct)
IP: Source address = [0.0.0.0]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 584
UDP: No checksum
UDP: [576 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 1 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00000882
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCC9C640
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 3 (DHCP Request)
DHCP: Maximum message size = 1152
DHCP: Client identifier = 00636973636F2D303030352E646363392E633634302D564C31
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Request specific IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 85535 (seconds)
DHCP: Parameter Request List: 7 entries
DHCP: 1 = Client's subnet mask
DHCP: 66 = TFTP Option
DHCP: 6 = Domain name server
DHCP: 3 = Routers on the client's subnet
DHCP: 67 = Boot File Option
DHCP: 12 = Host name server
DHCP: 150 = Unknown Option
DHCP: Class identifier = 646F63736973312E30
DHCP: Option overload =3 (File and Sname fields hold options)
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 4 - DHCPACK - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
4[192.168.1.1] [255.255.255.255] 331 0:01:26.844 0.014.658 05/07/2001 11:52:03 AM DHCP: Reply, 
 Message type: DHCP Ack
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 57 arrived at 11:52:03.8440; frame size is 331 (014B hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCC42484
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 317 bytes
IP: Identification = 6
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = F900 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 297
UDP: No checksum
UDP: [289 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 2 (Reply)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00000882
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCC9C640
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 5 (DHCP Ack)
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 86400 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Renewel interval = 43200 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Rebinding interval = 75600 (seconds)
DHCP: Subnet mask = [255.255.255.0]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.1.3]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.1.4]
DHCP: Gateway address = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 5 - ARP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
5 0005DCC9C640 Broadcast 60 0:01:26.846 0.002.954 05/07/2001 11:52:03 AM ARP: R PA=[192.168.1.2] 
 HA=0005DCC9C640 PRO=IP
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 58 arrived at 11:52:03.8470; frame size is 60 (003C hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCC9C640
DLC: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP)
DLC: 
ARP: ----- ARP/RARP frame -----
ARP: 
ARP: Hardware type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP)
ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes
ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes
ARP: Opcode 2 (ARP reply)
ARP: Sender's hardware address = 0005DCC9C640
ARP: Sender's protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: Target hardware address = FFFFFFFFFFFF
ARP: Target protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: 
ARP: 18 bytes frame padding
ARP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 6 - ARP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
6 0005DCC9C640 Broadcast 60 0:01:27.355 0.508.778 05/07/2001 11:52:04 AM ARP: R PA=[192.168.1.2]  
 HA=0005DCC9C640 PRO=IP
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 59 arrived at 11:52:04.3557; frame size is 60 (003C hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCC9C640
DLC: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP)
DLC: 
ARP: ----- ARP/RARP frame -----
ARP: 
ARP: Hardware type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP)
ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes
ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes
ARP: Opcode 2 (ARP reply)
ARP: Sender's hardware address = 0005DCC9C640
ARP: Sender's protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: Target hardware address = FFFFFFFFFFFF
ARP: Target protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: 
ARP: 18 bytes frame padding
ARP: 

?????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP

100e.jpg

???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? B

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 1 - DHCPDISCOVER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
1 [0.0.0.0] [255.255.255.255] 618 0:02:05.759 0.025.369 05/31/2001 06:53:04 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Discover
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 124 arrived at 06:53:04.2043; frame size is 618 (026A hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 0005DCF2C441
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 604 bytes
IP: Identification = 183
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = B8DA (correct)
IP: Source address = [0.0.0.0]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 584
UDP: No checksum
UDP: [576 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 1 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00001425
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 1 (DHCP Discover)
DHCP: Maximum message size = 1152
DHCP: Client identifier = 00636973636F2D303065302E316566322E633434312D4574302F30
DHCP: Parameter Request List: 7 entries
DHCP: 1 = Client's subnet mask
DHCP: 6 = Domain name server
DHCP: 15 = Domain name
DHCP: 44 = NetBIOS over TCP/IP name server
DHCP: 3 = Routers on the client's subnet
DHCP: 33 = Static route
DHCP: 150 = Unknown Option
DHCP: Class identifier = 646F63736973312E30
DHCP: Option overload =3 (File and Sname fields hold options)
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 2 - DHCPOFFER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summaryr
125 [192.168.1.1] [255.255.255.255] 347 0:02:05.772 0.012.764 05/31/2001 06:53:04 AM DHCP: Reply, 
 Message type: DHCP Offer
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 125 arrived at 06:53:04.2171; frame size is 347 (015B hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 003094248F71
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 333 bytes
IP: Identification = 45
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = F8C9 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 313
UDP: Checksum = 8517 (correct)
UDP: [305 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 2 (Reply)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00001425
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 2 (DHCP Offer)
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.2.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 99471 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Renewel interval = 49735 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Rebinding interval = 87037 (seconds)
DHCP: Subnet mask = [255.255.255.0]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.2]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.3]
DHCP: Domain name = "cisco.com"
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 3 - DHCPREQUEST - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
3 [0.0.0.0] [255.255.255.255] 618 0:02:05.774 0.002.185 05/31/2001 06:53:04 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Request
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 126 arrived at 06:53:04.2193; frame size is 618 (026A hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station Cisc14F2C441
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 604 bytes
IP: Identification = 184
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = B8D9 (correct)
IP: Source address = [0.0.0.0]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 584
UDP: No checksum
UDP: [576 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 1 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00001425
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 3 (DHCP Request)
DHCP: Maximum message size = 1152
DHCP: Client identifier = 00636973636F2D303065302E316566322E633434312D4574302F30
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.2.2]
DHCP: Request specific IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 99471 (seconds)
DHCP: Parameter Request List: 7 entries
DHCP: 1 = Client's subnet mask
DHCP: 6 = Domain name server
DHCP: 15 = Domain name
DHCP: 44 = NetBIOS over TCP/IP name server
DHCP: 3 = Routers on the client's subnet
DHCP: 33 = Static route
DHCP: 150 = Unknown Option
DHCP: Class identifier = 646F63736973312E30
DHCP: Option overload =3 (File and Sname fields hold options)
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 4 - DHCPACK - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
4 [192.168.1.1] [255.255.255.255] 347 0:02:05.787 0.012.875 05/31/2001 06:53:04 AM DHCP: Reply, 
 Message type: DHCP Ack
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 127 arrived at 06:53:04.2321; frame size is 347 (015B hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station 003094248F71
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 333 bytes
IP: Identification = 47
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = F8C7 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: Destination address = [255.255.255.255]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 68 (BootPc/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 313
UDP: Checksum = 326F (correct)
UDP: [305 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 2 (Reply)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 00001425
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 5 (DHCP Ack)
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.2.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 172800 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Renewel interval = 86400 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Rebinding interval = 151200 (seconds)
DHCP: Subnet mask = [255.255.255.0]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.2]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.3]
DHCP: Domain name = "cisco.com"
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 5 - ARP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
5 Cisc14F2C441 Broadcast 60 0:02:05.798 0.011.763 05/31/2001 06:53:04 AM ARP: R PA=[192.168.1.2] 
 HA=Cisc14F2C441 PRO=IP
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 128 arrived at 06:53:04.2439; frame size is 60 (003C hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station Cisc14F2C441
DLC: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP)
DLC: 
ARP: ----- ARP/RARP frame -----
ARP: 
ARP: Hardware type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP)
ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes
ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes
ARP: Opcode 2 (ARP reply)
ARP: Sender's hardware address = 00E01EF2C441
ARP: Sender's protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: Target hardware address = FFFFFFFFFFFF
ARP: Target protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: 
ARP: 18 bytes frame padding
ARP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 6 - ARP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
5 Cisc14F2C441 Broadcast 60 0:02:05.798 0.011.763 05/31/2001 06:53:04 AM ARP: R PA=[192.168.1.2] 
 HA=Cisc14F2C441 PRO=IP
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 128 arrived at 06:53:04.2439; frame size is 60 (003C hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast
DLC: Source = Station Cisc14F2C441
DLC: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP)
DLC: 
ARP: ----- ARP/RARP frame -----
ARP: 
ARP: Hardware type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP)
ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes
ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes
ARP: Opcode 2 (ARP reply)
ARP: Sender's hardware address = 00E01EF2C441
ARP: Sender's protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: Target hardware address = FFFFFFFFFFFF
ARP: Target protocol address = [192.168.1.2]
ARP: 
ARP: 18 bytes frame padding
ARP: 

???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ??

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 1 - DHCPDISCOVER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
118 [192.168.1.1] [192.168.2.2] 618 0:00:51.212 0.489.912 05/31/2001 07:02:54 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Discover
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 118 arrived at 07:02:54.7463; frame size is 618 (026A hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = Station 0005DC0BF2F4
DLC: Source = Station 003094248F72
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 604 bytes
IP: Identification = 52
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = 3509 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: Destination address = [192.168.2.2]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 584
UDP: Checksum = 0A19 (correct)
UDP: [576 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 1 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 1
DHCP: Transaction id = 000005F4
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 1 (DHCP Discover)
DHCP: Maximum message size = 1152
DHCP: Client identifier = 00636973636F2D303065302E316566322E633434312D4574302F30
DHCP: Parameter Request List: 7 entries
DHCP: 1 = Client's subnet mask
DHCP: 6 = Domain name server
DHCP: 15 = Domain name
DHCP: 44 = NetBIOS over TCP/IP name server
DHCP: 3 = Routers on the client's subnet
DHCP: 33 = Static route
DHCP: 150 = Unknown Option
DHCP: Class identifier = 646F63736973312E30
DHCP: Option overload =3 (File and Sname fields hold options)
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 2 - DHCPOFFER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
2 [192.168.2.2] [192.168.1.1] 347 0:00:51.214 0.002.133 05/31/2001 07:02:54 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Offer
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 119 arrived at 07:02:54.7485; frame size is 347 (015B hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = Station 003094248F72
DLC: Source = Station 0005DC0BF2F4
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 333 bytes
IP: Identification = 41
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = 3623 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.2.2]
IP: Destination address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 313
UDP: Checksum = A1F8 (correct)
UDP: [305 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 2 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 000005F4
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 2 (DHCP Offer)
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.2.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 172571 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Renewel interval = 86285 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Rebinding interval = 150999 (seconds)
DHCP: Subnet mask = [255.255.255.0]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.2]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.3]
DHCP: Domain name = "cisco.com"
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 3 - DHCPREQUEST - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
3 [192.168.1.1] [192.168.2.2] 618 0:00:51.240 0.025.974 05/31/2001 07:02:54 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Request
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 120 arrived at 07:02:54.7745; frame size is 618 (026A hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = Station 0005DC0BF2F4
DLC: Source = Station 003094248F72
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 604 bytes
IP: Identification = 54
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = 3507 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: Destination address = [192.168.2.2]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 584
UDP: Checksum = 4699 (correct)
UDP: [576 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 1 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 1
DHCP: Transaction id = 000005F4
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 3 (DHCP Request)
DHCP: Maximum message size = 1152
DHCP: Client identifier = 00636973636F2D303065302E316566322E633434312D4574302F30
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.2.2]
DHCP: Request specific IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 172571 (seconds)
DHCP: Parameter Request List: 7 entries
DHCP: 1 = Client's subnet mask
DHCP: 6 = Domain name server
DHCP: 15 = Domain name
DHCP: 44 = NetBIOS over TCP/IP name server
DHCP: 3 = Routers on the client's subnet
DHCP: 33 = Static route
DHCP: 150 = Unknown Option
DHCP: Class identifier = 646F63736973312E30
DHCP: Option overload =3 (File and Sname fields hold options)
DHCP: 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ???????? 4 - DHCPACK - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Frame Status Source Address Dest. Address Size Rel. Time Delta Time Abs. Time Summary
4 [192.168.2.2] [192.168.1.1] 347 0:00:51.240 0.000.153 05/31/2001 07:02:54 AM DHCP: Request, 
 Message type: DHCP Ack
DLC: ----- DLC Header -----
DLC: 
DLC: Frame 121 arrived at 07:02:54.7746; frame size is 347 (015B hex) bytes.
DLC: Destination = Station 003094248F72
DLC: Source = Station 0005DC0BF2F4
DLC: Ethertype = 0800 (IP)
DLC: 
IP: ----- IP Header -----
IP: 
IP: Version = 4, header length = 20 bytes
IP: Type of service = 00
IP: 000. .... = routine
IP: ...0 .... = normal delay
IP: .... 0... = normal throughput
IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability
IP: .... ..0. = ECT bit - transport protocol will ignore the CE bit
IP: .... ...0 = CE bit - no congestion
IP: Total length = 333 bytes
IP: Identification = 42
IP: Flags = 0X
IP: .0.. .... = may fragment
IP: ..0. .... = last fragment
IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes
IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops
IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP)
IP: Header checksum = 3622 (correct)
IP: Source address = [192.168.2.2]
IP: Destination address = [192.168.1.1]
IP: No options
IP: 
UDP: ----- UDP Header -----
UDP: 
UDP: Source port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Destination port = 67 (BootPs/DHCP)
UDP: Length = 313
UDP: Checksum = 7DF6 (correct)
UDP: [305 byte(s) of data]
UDP: 
DHCP: ----- DHCP Header -----
DHCP: 
DHCP: Boot record type = 2 (Request)
DHCP: Hardware address type = 1 (10Mb Ethernet)
DHCP: Hardware address length = 6 bytes
DHCP: 
DHCP: Hops = 0
DHCP: Transaction id = 000005F4
DHCP: Elapsed boot time = 0 seconds
DHCP: Flags = 8000
DHCP: 1... .... .... .... = Broadcast IP datagrams
DHCP: Client self-assigned IP address = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Client IP address = [192.168.1.2]
DHCP: Next Server to use in bootstrap = [0.0.0.0]
DHCP: Relay Agent = [192.168.1.1]
DHCP: Client hardware address = 0005DCF2C441
DHCP: 
DHCP: Host name = ""
DHCP: Boot file name = ""
DHCP: 
DHCP: Vendor Information tag = 63825363 
DHCP: Message Type = 5 (DHCP Ack)
DHCP: Server IP address = [192.168.2.2]
DHCP: Request IP address lease time = 172800 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Renewel interval = 86400 (seconds)
DHCP: Address Rebinding interval = 151200 (seconds)
DHCP: Subnet mask = [255.255.255.0]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: Domain Name Server address = [192.168.10.2]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.1]
DHCP: NetBIOS Server address = [192.168.10.3]
DHCP: Domain name = "cisco.com"
DHCP: 

???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?? DHCP ?? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? DHCP

???????????? ???1: ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? DHCP

?????????? ???????????? DHCP ?? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP, ????????????????????????, ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? DHCP. ?????? ????????????????, ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ??????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ???????????? DHCP ?? ?????????????? DHCP. ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????????? DHCP. ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????.

???????????? ???2: ???????????? DHCP ?? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP

?????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ??????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ?? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? DHCPREQUEST ???? ???????????? DHCP, ??????????????????????. ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP, ?? ?????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ??????????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????.

???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP

?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?? DHCP

???????????????? DHCP ?????????? ???????????????????? ???? ???????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????. ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? DHCP ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????????? ????????????????, ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? (NIC) ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP, ???????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????????????????. ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????, ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????? ??????????????????.

?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? DHCP:

  • ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? Catalyst ???? ??????????????????

  • ???????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP

  • ???????????????? ?????????????????????????? NIC ?????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????????? DHCP

  • ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????????????????

  • ???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?????? ????

  • ???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????? Cisco Catalyst ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????????????? IOS DHCP/BootP

?????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????.

??. ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????

?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????.

?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP. ?????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????? Catalyst ??????????????????, ?????? ?? ????????????, ?? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ??????????????????.

?????? ???????????????????????? Catalyst CatOS ?????????? 2948G, 4000, 5000 ?? 6000 ?????????????????????? ?????????????? show port <mod#>/<port_range>, ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????. ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? "??????????????????", ???? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP. ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????:

Switch (enable) show port 5/1
Port Name Status Vlan Duplex Speed Type
----- ------------------ ---------- ---------- ------ ----- ------------
5/1 connected 1 a-full a-100 10/100BaseTX 

?????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? IOS, ????????????????, Catalyst 2900XL/3500XL/2950/3550, ???????????????? ?????????????? show interface <interface>. ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? "<??????????????????> ??????????????", "???????????????? ?????????? ??????????????", ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP. ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????:

Switch#show interface fastEthernet 0/1
FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0030.94dc.acc1 (bia 0030.94dc.acc1) 

???????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? Catalyst ?? ???????????????? DHCP ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????, ???????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? Cisco Catalyst, ?????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????????? ???????? NIC. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????, ???????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????.

B. ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? IP-???????????? ???? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????

?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????.

?????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????????, ???????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? IP-??????????. ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? IP-????????????, ???? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????? DHCP. ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????????.

C. ??????????????????, ???? ?????????????? ???? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????

?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????.

???????? ???????????? DHCP ???? ?????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ???? ?????????????? DHCP ?????? ??????????????, ?????????????????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ???? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ??????????????. ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????, ?????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ???? ?????????????? DHCP ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ????????????, ?????????????????????????? ??????????.

Microsoft Windows 95/98/ME: ?????????????? ???????????? Start (????????) ?? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? WINIPCFG.exe. ?????????????? ???????????? Release All (?????????????????????? ??????), ?? ?????????? ???????????? Renew All (???????????????? ??????). ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? IP-???????????

100f.jpg

Microsoft Windows NT/2000: ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????, ???????????? cmd ?? ???????? Start/Run. ?????????????????? ?????????????? ipconfig/renew ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ????????. ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? IP-???????????

100g.jpg

???????? ???????????? DHCP ?????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? IP-???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????, ????, ???????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP. ???????? ???????????? DHCP ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? Cisco Catalyst, ????????????????, ???????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????????????, ???????????????????????????? ?????????????? STP portfast ??/?????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????. ???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? NIC ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????. ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????? D ?? E, ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP - ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????? NIC.

D. ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? (?????????????? STP Portfast ?? ????????????)

???????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? Catalyst 2900/4000/5000/6000, ??????????????????, ???????????????? ???? ?????????????? STP portfast, ?? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????????????????????/?????????????????? ??????????????. ?? ???????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????? STP portfast ????????????????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????/???????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????????? ?????????? (???????? ????????????????). ?????? ???????????????????????? 2900XL/3500XL/2950/3550 STP portfast - ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????????????????. ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????? Catalyst.

???????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????????? DHCP ?? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????? Catalyst ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????????????????:

?????????????????????????? ?????????????? Portfast ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????

?????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?? ??????????????????, ?????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????.

E. ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? NIC ?????? ???????????????????????? Catalyst

???????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? Catalyst ????????????????????, ???????????????? DHCP ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????????????? Catalyst ?????? ?????????? NIC ?????????????? DHCP. ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????????????? Catalyst ?????? ?????????? NIC, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ???????? ????????????????.

???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? Cisco Catalyst, ?????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????? NIC

???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?? NIC, ?????????????? ??????????????????????????, ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????, ???????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????.

F. ?????? ????????????????????, ???????????????? ???? ?????????????? DHCP IP-?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? DHCP

???????????????????? ????????????????????, ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????????????????? DHCP, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? DHCP. ???????? DHCP ?? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? VLAN ???????????????? ??????????????????, ?????? ???????????? DHCP, ????????????????, ???????????????? DHCP ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP. ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????????????? DHCP ???? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? VLAN ?? ???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????? DHCP.

G. ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? DHCP/BootP

?????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????????????????:

  1. ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP ?????? ???????????????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ip helper-address ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????????. ?????????????? ip helper-address ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ???????????? DHCP.

  2. ??????????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? no service dhcp ??????????????????????. ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ???????????????????????? ???? ????????????????????????????. ???????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? service dhcp ???? ???????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????????????. ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????????????.

    ????????????????????: ?? ??????????????????????????????, ???????????????????????? ???? ???????????? Cisco IOS ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ip bootp server ???????????????????????? ?????????????? service dhcp. ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????? ip bootp server, ???????? ?????????????? ip helper-address ?????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP UDP ?? ?????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP ???? ???????? ?????????????? DHCP.

  3. ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ip helper-address ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? UDP ???? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????????????????, ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? no ip directed-broadcast ???? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????-???????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? UDP. ?????????????? no ip directed-broadcast ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????????. ?? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? 12.0 ?? ????????.

  4. ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????. ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????? DHCP ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? DHCP UDP ???? IP-?????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?????? ???????????????? ??????????:

    !
    version 12,0
    service timestamps debug uptime
    service timestamps log uptime
    no service password-encryption
    
    no service dhcp !- (2) 
    
    !--- ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ???????????????????????? ???? ????????????????????????????.
    
    !
    hostname router
    !
    !
    !
    interface Ethernet0
    ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
    no ip directed-broadcast !- (3) 
    
    !--- ?????? ???????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? 
    ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????????.
    
    ! 
    interface Ethernet1 !- (1) 
    
    !--- ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?????????????????????????? ???? ???????? ????????????????????.
    
    ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
    ip helper-address 192.168.2.255 !- (4) 
    
    !--- ?????????????????????????????? IP-??????????, ?????????????????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? DHCP.
    
    no ip directed-broadcast 
    !
    !
    !
    line con 0
    exec-timeout 0 0
    transport input none
    line aux 0
    line vty 0 4
    login
    !
    end
    

H. ?????????????? DHCP ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????

?????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP ??????????????????????????????

?????? ??????????????????????????????, ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP, ?????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????? ???? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? DHCP ???? ??????????????. ???????? ?????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???? ??????????????, ?? ???????????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????.

?? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????:

access-list 100 permit ip host 0.0.0.0 host 255.255.255.255

?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????:

debug ip packet detail 100

Sample output:

Router#debug ip packet detail 100
IP packet debugging is on (detailed) for access list 100
Router#
00:16:46: IP: s=0.0.0.0 (Ethernet4/0), d=255.255.255.255, len 604, rcvd 2
00:16:46: UDP src=68, dst=67
00:16:46: IP: s=0.0.0.0 (Ethernet4/0), d=255.255.255.255, len 604, rcvd 2
00:16:46: UDP src=68, dst=67

???? ?????????????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????, ?????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ???? ??????????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ????????????, ?? ???? ?????? ??????????. ??????????????????????????, ???????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????. ?????? ???? ??????????, ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? IP- ?? UPD-??????????????, ???????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???? DHCP.

?????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP ??????????????????????????????

?????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP. ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ??????????????????, ???????????????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP ?????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP.

?? ???????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??????????????:

access-list 100 permit ip host 0.0.0.0 host 255.255.255.255

access-list 100 permit udp host <dhcp_relay_agent> host <dhcp_server> eq 67

access-list 100 permit udp host <dhcp_server> host <dhcp_relay_agent> eq 67

?? ??????????????:

access-list 100 permit ip host 0.0.0.0 host 255.255.255.0

access-list 100 permit udp host 192.168.1.1 host 192.168.2.2 eq 67

access-list 100 permit udp host 192.168.1.1 host 192.168.2.2 eq 68

access-list 100 permit udp host 192.168.2.2 host 192.168.1.1 eq 67

access-list 100 permit udp host 192.168.2.2 host 192.168.1.1 eq 68

?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????:

Router#
00:23:44: IP: s=0.0.0.0 (Ethernet4/0), d=255.255.255.255, len 604, rcvd 2
00:23:44: UDP src=68, dst=67 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ?????????????? DHCP.

00:23:44: IP: s=192.168.1.1 (local), d=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet4/1), len 604, sendg
00:23:44: UDP src=67, dst=67 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:23:44 IP: s=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet1), d=192.168.1.1, len 328, rcvd 4
00:23:44 UDP src=67, dst=67 

!--- ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:23:44: IP: s=0.0.0.0 (Ethernet4/0), d=255.255.255.255, len 604, rcvd 2
00:23:44: UDP src=68, dst=67 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? DHCPREQUEST ???? ?????????????? DHCP.
 
00:23:44: IP: s=192.168.1.1 (local), d=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet4/1), len 604, sendg
00:23:44: UDP src=67, dst=67 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.
 
00:23:44 IP: s=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet1), d=192.168.1.1, len 328, rcvd 4
00:23:44 UDP src=67, dst=67 

!--- ???????????? DHCP ???????????????? DHCPACK ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

?????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????, ?????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ???? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ???? ???????????? DHCP. ?????????? ???????????? DHCP ???????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP. ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ????????????, ?? ???? ?????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? DHCPNAK. ?????? ???? ??????????, ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? IP- ?? UPD-??????????????, ???????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???? DHCP. ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP.

?????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? debug ip udp ?????????????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????????????????? DHCP-????????????.

?????????????? debug ip udp ?????????? ????????????????????????????, ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? DHCP ?????????? ??????????????????????????. ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????????????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? UDP ?????????? ???????????????????????? ?? ??????????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ?? ????????????????????????.

warning ????????????????????????????: ?????????????? debug ip udp ???????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ????????????????????.

?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????:

debug ip udp

Sample output:

Router#debug ip udp
UDP packet debugging is on
Router#

00:18:48: UDP: rcvd src=0.0.0.0(68), dst=255.255.255.255(67), length=584 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ?????????????? DHCP.

00:18:48: UDP: sent src=192.168.1.1(67), dst=192.168.2.2(67), length=604 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ???????????? DHCP, 
?????????????????? ???????????????? IP-?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:18:48: UDP: rcvd src=192.168.2.2(67), dst=192.168.1.1(67), length=313 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? DHCPOFFER ???? ?????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????????? ???? 
IP-?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:18:48: UDP: sent src=0.0.0.0(67), dst=255.255.255.255(68), length=333 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? DHCPOFFER ?? ?????????????? DHCP ???? ???????????? DHCP, 
?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:18:48: UDP: rcvd src=0.0.0.0(68), dst=255.255.255.255(67), length=584 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? DHCPREQUEST ???? ?????????????? DHCP.

00:18:48: UDP: sent src=192.168.1.1(67), dst=192.168.2.2(67), length=604 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????? DHCPDISCOVER ???? ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????? ???????????????? 
IP-?????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:18:48: UDP: rcvd src=192.168.2.2(67), dst=192.168.1.1(67), length=313 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? DHCPACK (?????? DHCPNAK) ???? DHCP, ???????????????????????? ???? IP-?????????? 
???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:18:48: UDP: sent src=0.0.0.0(67), dst=255.255.255.255(68), length=333 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? DHCPACK (?????? DHCPNAK) ???? ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????? 
???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

00:18:48: UDP: rcvd src=192.168.1.2(520), dst=255.255.255.255(520), length=32 

!--- ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????? IP-??????????, ???? ???????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ARP ???? ?????????????????????? IP-??????????.

00:18:50: UDP: rcvd src=192.168.1.2(520), dst=255.255.255.255(520), length=32 

!--- ???????????? DHCP, ?????????????????????? IP-??????????, ???? ???????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ARP ???? ?????????????????????? IP-??????????.

??????????????????, ???????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? debug ip dhcp server packet

???????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? IOS 12.0.x.T ?????? 12.1, ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? IOS DHCP, ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? debug ip dhcp server packet. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? IOS DHCP, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP. ?????? ?? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????, ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????????, ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP.

?? ???????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????:

debug ip dhcp server packet

Router#debug ip dhcp server packet
00:20:54: DHCPD: setting giaddr to 192.168.1.1. 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? DHCPDISCOVER/REQUEST/INRORM ?? ???????????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????? 192.168.1.1 ?????? ??????????????????.

00:20:54: DHCPD: BOOTREQUEST from 0063.6973.636f.2d30.3065.302e.3165.6632.2e63..

!--- BOOTREQUEST ???????????????? ?? ???????? DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPREQUEST ?? DHCPINFORM.
 

!--- 0063.6973.636f.2d30.3065.302e.3165.6632.2e63  ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????.
 
00:20:54: DHCPD: forwarding BOOTREPLY to client 00e0.1ef2.c441. 

!--- BOOTREPLY ???????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? DHCPNAK.
 

!--- MAC-?????????? ?????????????? - 00e0.1ef2.c441. 

00:20:54: DHCPD: broadcasting BOOTREPLY to client 00e0.1ef2.c441. 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? DHCPOFFER ?????? DHCPNAK ???? ?????????????????? ??????.

00:20:54: DHCPD: setting giaddr to 192.168.1.1. 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? DHCPDISCOVER/REQUEST/INFORM  ?? ???????????????????? IP-?????????? ?????????? 192.168.1.1 ?????? ??????????????????.

00:20:54: DHCPD: BOOTREQUEST from 0063.6973.636f.2d30.3065.302e.3165.6632.2e63.. 

!--- BOOTREQUEST ???????????????? ?? ???????? DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPREQUEST ?? DHCPINFORM.


!--- 0063.6973.636f.2d30.3065.302e.3165.6632.2e63  ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????.

00:20:54: DHCPD: forwarding BOOTREPLY to client 00e0.1ef2.c441. 

!--- BOOTREPLY ???????????????? DHCPOFFER ?? DHCPNAK.


!--- MAC-?????????? ?????????????? - 00e0.1ef2.c441.

00:20:54: DHCPD: broadcasting BOOTREPLY to client 00e0.1ef2.c441. 

!--- ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????? DHCPOFFER ?????? DHCPNAK ???? ?????????????????? ??????.

?????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????

???????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP ?? ??????????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP/BootP.

IP: s=0.0.0.0 (Ethernet0), d=255.255.255.255, len 604, rcvd 2
UDP src=68, dst=67
UDP: rcvd src=0.0.0.0(68), dst=255.255.255.255(67), length=584
DHCPD: setting giaddr to 192.168.1.1.
UDP: sent src=192.168.1.1(67), dst=192.168.2.2(67), length=604
IP: s=192.168.1.1 (local), d=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet1), len 604, sending
UDP src=67, dst=67
DHCPD: BOOTREQUEST from 0063.6973.636f.2d30.3030.302e.3030.3030.2e30.3030.312d.4574.30 forwarded to 192.168.2.2.
IP: s=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet1), d=192.168.1.1, len 328, rcvd 4
UDP src=67, dst=67
UDP: rcvd src=192.168.2.2(67), dst=192.168.1.1(67), length=308
DHCPD: forwarding BOOTREPLY to client 0000.0000.0001.
DHCPD: broadcasting BOOTREPLY to client 0000.0000.0001.
UDP: sent src=0.0.0.0(67), dst=255.255.255.255(68), length=328
IP: s=0.0.0.0 (Ethernet0), d=255.255.255.255, len 604, rcvd 2
UDP src=68, dst=67
UDP: rcvd src=0.0.0.0(68), dst=255.255.255.255(67), length=584
DHCPD: setting giaddr to 192.168.1.1.
UDP: sent src=192.168.1.1(67), dst=192.168.2.2(67), length=604
IP: s=192.168.1.1 (local), d=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet1), len 604, sending
UDP src=67, dst=67
DHCPD: BOOTREQUEST from 0063.6973.636f.2d30.3030.302e.3030.3030.2e30.3030.312d.4574.30 forwarded to 192.168.2.2.
IP: s=192.168.2.2 (Ethernet1), d=192.168.1.1, len 328, rcvd 4
UDP src=67, dst=67
UDP: rcvd src=192.168.2.2(67), dst=192.168.1.1(67), length=308
DHCPD: forwarding BOOTREPLY to client 0000.0000.0001.
DHCPD: broadcasting BOOTREPLY to client 0000.0000.0001.
UDP: sent src=0.0.0.0(67), dst=255.255.255.255(68), length=328. 

?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? DHCP

???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? DHCP. ?????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? DHCP ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????, ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????????. ???????????? ?????????????? DHCP ?????????? ????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????? DHCP, ???????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????? DHCP.

???????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? SPAN ???????????????????????? Catalyst ???????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????????????????:

???????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????

?? ?????????????? ?????????????? debug ip packet detail dump <acl> ???????????????????????????? Cisco ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????, ???????????????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? (CLI). ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP ?????????????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????? DHCP ???????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????????? "dump", ?????????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????, ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???? ??????????????, ???? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????????????????????????? ??????????????. ?????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????, ?????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????????????. ???????????? ???????????????? ?? ???????????????????? ??.

???????????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????????????? IOS DHCP

???????? ???????????? ?????????????? DHCP ???????????????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????. ???????????? ???????????? - ?????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? - ???????? ?????????????? ????????????????, ?? ???????????? - ???????????? ???????????????????? ?? ??????????????????. ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????. ??????????????????????????, ?????????? ??????????????????, ??????, ????????????????, ?????? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????????????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? (???????? ?????? ??????????????).

???????????????????????????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? DHCP ?? ?????????????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ????. ???? ?????????????????? ????????????:

???????????? 12.1
! 
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
!
hostname Router
!
enable password cisco 
ip subnet-zero 
no ip domain-lookup 
ip dhcp excluded-address 10.10.1.1 10.10.1.199 

!--- ???????????????? ??????????????, ?????????????????????? ???? ?????????? DHCP. 

! 
ip dhcp pool test_dhcp 

!--- ?????? ???????? DHCP (????????????????) - test_dhcp.
 
network 10.10.1.0 255.255.255.0 

!--- ?????? DHCP (?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????????) ?????? ???????????????????? IP-???????????? ??????????.
 
default-router 10.10.1.1 

!--- ???????????????? DHCP ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????????.
 
dns-server 10.30.1.1 

!--- ???????????????? DHCP ?????? ???????????????? DNS.
 
netbios-name-server 10.40.1.1 

!--- ???????????????? DHCP ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? NetBIOS (WINS).
  
lease 0 0 1 

!--- ???????? ????????????. 
 
! 
interface Ethernet0 
description DHCP Client Network 
ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.0 
no ip directed-broadcast 
! 
interface Ethernet1 
description Server Network 
ip address 10.10.2.1 255.255.255.0 
no ip directed-broadcast 
!   
line con 0 
transport input none 
line aux 0 
transport input all 
line vty 0 4 
login 
! 
end 


Связанные обсуждения сообщества поддержки Cisco

В рамках сообщества поддержки Cisco можно задавать и отвечать на вопросы, обмениваться рекомендациями и совместно работать со своими коллегами.


???????????????????????????? ????????????????


Document ID: 27470