IP : IP 组播

任播RP使用PIM (连结)

2016 年 10 月 24 日 - 机器翻译
其他版本: PDFpdf | 英语 (2015 年 8 月 22 日) | 反馈


目录


简介

您能通过用协议有聚合点(RP)的冗余例如自动RP和启动。然而,在失败的情况下他们的收敛不是快速的那。有的任播RP的概念同样IP地址(RP寻址)在两个或多个路由器配置您希望担当RP。然后,请通告在IGP的此IP。其他路由器将选择根据最佳路径的这些路由器中的任一对RP寻址。在故障的情况下失败收敛是相同的象内部网关路由协议(IGP)。

使用此概念问题出现。信息需求同步区别RP之间,因为少量发送方和接收方也许加入路由器1服务作为RP和少量也许加入担当RP的路由器2。这些路由器不会有所有来源完整信息,并且将中断组播。对此问题的解决方案有一机制同步信息关于在作为RP的所有路由器之间的来源。有能为此目的服务的两份协议:

  • 多播源发现协议(MSDP)

  • PIM

MSDP为一会儿。来源有源消息传送到其他路由器,每当来源注册对RP。有增强对在本文被选派的PIM。目前,此增强为连结只是可用的。

注意: 贡献用耆那教的Ruchir, Cisco TAC工程师。

先决条件

要求

Cisco 建议您了解以下主题:

  • 任播RP

  • PIM (连结)

使用的组件

本文档不限于特定的软件和硬件版本。

规则

有关文档规则的详细信息,请参阅 Cisco 技术提示规则

注册过程

这是拓扑示例:

Sender(172.16.1.1)-----------(9/3)Nexus-1(9/2)---------------(9/2)Nexus-2

相关运行配置

连结1个相关配置:

ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 group-list 224.0.0.0/4
ip pim anycast-rp 10.1.1.1 192.168.1.1
ip pim anycast-rp 10.1.1.1 192.168.2.2

interface loopback1
  ip address 192.168.1.1/32
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode
  
interface loopback7
  ip address 10.1.1.1/32
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode

interface Ethernet9/2
  ip address 10.7.7.1/24
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode

interface Ethernet9/3
  ip address 172.16.1.2/24
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode

连结2相关配置:

ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 group-list 224.0.0.0/4
ip pim ssm range 232.0.0.0/8
ip pim anycast-rp 10.1.1.1 192.168.1.1
ip pim anycast-rp 10.1.1.1 192.168.2.2

interface loopback1
  ip address 192.168.2.2/32
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode
  
interface loopback7
  ip address 10.1.1.1/32
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode
  
interface Ethernet9/2
  ip address 10.7.7.2/24
  ip router ospf 1 area 0.0.0.0
  ip pim sparse-mode

有两个连结方框:Nexus-1和Nexus-2。两个将使用作为RP。RP地址应该是10.1.1.1。环回7在有配置的此IP的两个连结方框。此环回在开放最短路径优先(OSPF)然后通告,因此网络的另外路由器将到达Nexus-1或Nexus-2 RP的。这依靠最佳路径量度。

使用此命令,在两个连结, 10.1.1.1定义是RP :

ip pim rp-address 10.1.1.1 Group-list 224.0.0.0/4

现在您需要定义某事呼叫RP设置。这是作为RP的套所有路由器。您需要有在每个预期RP路由器的一环回,跟环回不同使用作为RP地址。在本例中, loopback1分别为在有IP地址192.168.1.1/32和192.168.2.2/32的两个连结。此loopback1用于定义设置的RP。命令执行同样是:

ip pim任播RP <rp-address> <ip-address-of-prospective-RP>

两个连结的命令设置的是:

  • ip pim任播RP 10.1.1.1 192.168.1.1

  • ip pim任播RP 10.1.1.1 192.168.2.2

注释的一件事此处是您需要定义您自己的IP,以及在设置的RP。所以,这两命令在两个连结方框需要放置。

一旦设置的RP定义,这是您为RP映射看到的输出:

Nexus-1# show ip pim rp 
PIM RP Status Information for VRF "default"
BSR disabled
Auto-RP disabled
BSR RP Candidate policy: None
BSR RP policy: None
Auto-RP Announce policy: None
Auto-RP Discovery policy: None

Anycast-RP 10.1.1.1 members:
  192.168.1.1*  192.168.2.2                          

RP: 10.1.1.1*, (0), uptime: 00:00:58, expires: never,
  priority: 0, RP-source: (local), group ranges:
      224.0.0.0/4   
      
      
Nexus-2# show ip pim rp 
PIM RP Status Information for VRF "default"
BSR disabled
Auto-RP disabled
BSR RP Candidate policy: None
BSR RP policy: None
Auto-RP Announce policy: None
Auto-RP Discovery policy: None

Anycast-RP 10.1.1.1 members:
  192.168.1.1  192.168.2.2*  

RP: 10.1.1.1*, (0), uptime: 02:46:54, expires: never,
  priority: 0, RP-source: (local), group ranges:
      224.0.0.0/4 

例如,您收到在是设置的RP的一部分的其中一的一个寄存器消息路由器。此路由器将添加S,此来源的G在其表里。并且,路由器将传送PIM寄存器信息到RP集的所有其他成员。此寄存器消息来源IP是在设置的RP此路由器的地址,并且目的地是每个路由器地址在设置的RP的。

在本例中,当来源172.16.1.1发送组播信息包被注定对239.1.1.1对Nexus-1时, Nexus-1首先注册此来源作为RP并且传送寄存器信息对来源172.16.1.1和组的239.1.1.1 Nexus-2。当添加S的Nexus-2接收此寄存器, 172.16.1.1的G条目, 239.1.1.1在mroute表里。现在RP Nexus-1和Nexus-2知道关于此来源。从Nexus-1传送到Nexus-2的寄存器信息有来源IP 192.168.1.1和被注定的IP 192.168.2.2如对RP定义设置。

在两个连结方框的Mroute条目在注册过程以后:

Nexus-1# sh ip mroute 239.1.1.1
IP Multicast Routing Table for VRF "default"

(172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32), uptime: 00:00:22, ip pim 
  Incoming interface: Ethernet9/3, RPF nbr: 172.16.1.1, internal
  Outgoing interface list: (count: 0)


Nexus-2# sh ip mroute 239.1.1.1
IP Multicast Routing Table for VRF "default"

(172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32), uptime: 00:00:17, pim ip 
  Incoming interface: Ethernet9/2, RPF nbr: 10.7.7.1, internal
  Outgoing interface list: (count: 0)

在Nexus-2采取的这样寄存器消息数据包转储:

Ethernet II, Src: d8:67:d9:04:5f:41 (d8:67:d9:04:5f:41), Dst: d8:67:d9:02:3b:41 
(d8:67:d9:02:3b:41)
    Destination: d8:67:d9:02:3b:41 (d8:67:d9:02:3b:41)
        Address: d8:67:d9:02:3b:41 (d8:67:d9:02:3b:41)
        .... ...0 .... .... .... .... = IG bit: Individual address (unicast)
        .... ..0. .... .... .... .... = LG bit: Globally unique address (factory
 default)
    Source: d8:67:d9:04:5f:41 (d8:67:d9:04:5f:41)
        Address: d8:67:d9:04:5f:41 (d8:67:d9:04:5f:41)
        .... ...0 .... .... .... .... = IG bit: Individual address (unicast)
        .... ..0. .... .... .... .... = LG bit: Globally unique address (factory
 default)
    Type: IP (0x0800)
Internet Protocol, Src: 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1), Dst: 192.168.2.2 (192.168.2.2)
    Version: 4
    Header length: 20 bytes
    Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP 0x00: Default; ECN: 0x00)
        0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0x00)
        .... ..0. = ECN-Capable Transport (ECT): 0
        .... ...0 = ECN-CE: 0
    Total Length: 128
    Identification: 0x1b27 (6951)
    Flags: 0x00
        0.. = Reserved bit: Not Set
        .0. = Don't fragment: Not Set
        ..0 = More fragments: Not Set
    Fragment offset: 0
    Time to live: 254
    Protocol: PIM (0x67)
    Header checksum: 0x9aea [correct]
        [Good: True]
        [Bad : False]
    Source: 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1)
    Destination: 192.168.2.2 (192.168.2.2)
Protocol Independent Multicast
    Version: 2
    Type: Register (1)
    Checksum: 0xdeff [correct]
    PIM parameters
        Flags: 0x00000000
            0... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... = Not border
            .0.. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... = Not Null-Register
        Internet Protocol, Src: 172.16.1.1 (172.16.1.1), Dst: 239.1.1.1 (239.1.1.1)
            Version: 4
            Header length: 20 bytes
            Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP 0x00: Default; ECN: 0x00)
                0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0x00)
                .... ..0. = ECN-Capable Transport (ECT): 0
                .... ...0 = ECN-CE: 0
            Total Length: 100
            Identification: 0x0000 (0)
            Flags: 0x00
                0.. = Reserved bit: Not Set
                .0. = Don't fragment: Not Set
                ..0 = More fragments: Not Set
            Fragment offset: 0
            Time to live: 254
            Protocol: ICMP (0x01)
            Header checksum: 0xa294 [correct]
                [Good: True]
                [Bad : False]
            Source: 172.16.1.1 (172.16.1.1)
            Destination: 239.1.1.1 (239.1.1.1)
        Internet Control Message Protocol
            Type: 8 (Echo (ping) request)
            Code: 0 ()
            Checksum: 0x9484 [correct]
            Identifier: 0x0000
            Sequence number: 0 (0x0000)
            Data (72 bytes)

0000  00 00 00 00 00 71 e9 54 ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd   .....q.T........
0010  ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd   ................
0020  ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd   ................
0030  ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd   ................
0040  ab cd ab cd ab cd ab cd                           ........
                Data: 000000000071E954ABCDABCDABCDABCDABCDABCDABCDABCD...
                [Length: 72]

您能使用此过滤器获取在带内的PIM数据包连结:

ethanalyzer本地接口带内捕获过滤器“ip原始103"限制捕捉帧0写入logflash :pim.pcap

这将开始不确定捕获PIM数据包,直到cntrl+c按。数据包在屏幕显示以及将写入到在logflash的pim.pcap文件。您能也包括IP地址获取从特定PIM邻居(“ip原始103的数据包和主机<ip_address>")。

相关调试

这些是有用检查在连结的注册过程的两调试:

  • debug ip pim数据寄存器发送

  • debug ip pim数据寄存器接收

Nexus-1

2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.537472 pim: [6405] (default-base) Received Register from 172.16.1.2 for (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) 
2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.537656 pim: [6405] (default-base) Create route for (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) 
2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.537716 pim: [6405] (default-base) Add route (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) to MRIB, multi-route TRUE 
2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.537745 pim: [6405] (default-base) RP 10.1.1.1 is an Anycast-RP 
2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.537771 pim: [6405] (default-base) Forward Register to Anycast-RP member 192.168.2.2 
2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.537825 pim: [6405] (default-base) Send Register-Stop to 172.16.1.2 for (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) 
2012 Sep 20 12:25:52.538591 pim: [6405] (default-base) Received Register-Stop from 10.1.1.1 for (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32)

Nexus-2

2012 Sep 20 12:26:36.367862 pim: [7189] (default-base) Received Register from 192.168.1.1 for (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) 
2012 Sep 20 12:26:36.368093 pim: [7189] (default-base) Create route for (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) 
2012 Sep 20 12:26:36.368175 pim: [7189] (default-base) Add route (172.16.1.1/32, 239.1.1.1/32) to MRIB, multi-route FALSE 
2012 Sep 20 12:26:36.368223 pim: [7189] (default-base) RP 10.1.1.1 is an Anycast-RP 
2012 Sep 20 12:26:36.368240 pim: [7189] (default-base) Register received from Anycast-RP member 192.168.1.1

此RFC在PIM注册过程提供更多信息:http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4610.txtleavingcisco.com

并且,参考配置PIM和PIM6欲知更多信息。


相关信息


Document ID: 115011