通用网关和接入服务器 : Cisco AS5200 系列通用接入服务器

1600、2000、2500、3000、AS5100 和 AS5200 的软件安装和升级过程

2015 年 8 月 28 日 - 机器翻译
其他版本: PDFpdf | 英语 (2015 年 4 月 22 日) | 反馈


目录


简介

本文解释如何安装在“运行上的思科IOS�软件从使用简单文件传输协议(TFTP)服务器或远程拷贝协议(RCP)服务器应用的闪存” Cisco路由器。提供的示例根据Cisco 1600系列路由器,但是这是可适用的对在Components Used部分提及的所有平台。

注意: 本文档中的信息根据Cisco IOS软件版本12.1及以上版本。

先决条件

要求

本文档没有任何特定的要求。

使用的组件

本文档中的信息基于以下软件和硬件版本:

  • Cisco 1600 系列路由器

  • Cisco 2000 系列路由器

  • Cisco 2500 系列路由器

  • Cisco 3000 系列路由器

  • Cisco AS5100系列接入服务器

  • Cisco AS5200系列接入服务器

本文档中的信息都是基于特定实验室环境中的设备编写的。本文档中使用的所有设备最初均采用原始(默认)配置。如果您使用的是真实网络,请确保您已经了解所有命令的潜在影响。

规则

有关文档规则的详细信息,请参阅 Cisco 技术提示规则

备份路由器或接入服务器配置

思科建议您保留路由器/接入服务器配置的备份,在您升级Cisco IOS软件镜像前。

步骤 1:安装 TFTP 服务器

在TCP/IP就绪的工作站或PC必须安装TFTP server或RCP服务器应用程序。一旦应用程序安装,必须通过完成这些步骤执行一个最小级别配置:

  1. 配置 TFTP 应用程序使其作为 TFTP 服务器运行,而不是作为 TFTP 客户端

  2. 指定出站文件目录。这是Cisco IOS软件镜像存储的目录(请参阅步骤2)。大多数 TFTP 应用会提供一个帮助执行这些配置任务的设置例程。

    注意: 一定数量的TFTP或RCP应用程序可以从独立软件供应商获得,或者作为共享软件从万维网的公共源获得。

步骤 2:下载 Cisco IOS 软件镜像

下载Cisco IOS软件镜像到您的工作站或PC从下载软件地区

确保Cisco IOS软件镜像您下载支持您的硬件和必需的功能。使用Cisco软件顾问工具(仅限注册用户),您能验证硬件和功能支持。您必须也检查两动态RAM (DRAM)的内存要求,并且闪存为了确保路由器有装载足够的DRAM和的闪存选定Cisco IOS软件版本。在选择正确的Cisco IOS软件版本的更多建议您的路由器的,参考如何选择Cisco IOS软件版本

从闪存安装中运行

完成这些步骤为了从闪存安装运行:

注意: 对于RCP应用程序,将所出现的每一个TFTP替换为RCP。例如,用 copy rcp flash 命令代替 copy tftp flash 命令

  1. 建立一个控制台会话到路由器。

    即使可以通过Telnet会话连接路由器,我们仍强烈建议通过控制台端口直接连接路由器。理由是:如果在升级期间发生了某些故障,则可能需要在离路由器近一点,以便对它进行重启。而且,在升级程序期间时,当路由器重新启动您将丢失Telnet连接。

    使用反转电缆(通常浅黑电缆)将路由器的控制台端口连接到PC的COM端口上。

  2. 一旦PC连接到路由器的控制台端口,您需要打开PC的超级终端,并且使用这些设置:

    Speed 9600 bits per second
    
    8 databits
    
    0 parity bits
    
    1 stop bit
    
    No Flow Control

    注意: 如果在超级终端会话上接收任何垃圾字符,这意味着您未正确地设置超级终端属性,或者路由器的配置寄存器设置为控制台连接速度高于9600位/秒的一个非标准值。使用show version命令检查配置寄存器值(显示在最后一行),保证它已设置为0x2102或0x102。重新加载路由器考虑到此更改是必要的。一旦您确定路由器端的控制台速率为9600 bps ,您则应检查超级终端的属性是否按上述显示设置的。关于设置超级终端属性的更多信息,参考应用正确终端仿真程序设置为控制台连接

    启动问题—一旦连接到路由器的控制台端口,您也许注意路由器在ROMmon或Boot模式。这两种模式用于恢复与诊断程序。如果看不到通常的路由器提示,请使用这些建议为了继续升级程序安装。

    • 路由器在ROMmon模式启动,并且此消息出现,当您发行dir flash :指令:

      rommon 1 > dir flash: 
      device does not contain a valid magic number 
      dir: cannot open device "flash:" 
      rommon 2 >

      当您看到此错误消息时,含义闪存是空的或文件系统是损坏的。关于如何的参考的使用ROMmon下载Xmodem控制台的步骤排除故障此问题的信息。

    • 路由器在boot模式启动,与在控制台的这些消息:

      router(boot)>
      device does not contain a valid magic number
      boot: cannot open "flash:"
      boot: cannot determine first file name on device "flash:"

      当您收到在控制台输出时的这些错误消息,意味着闪存是空的或文件系统是损坏的。通过完成在本文提供的步骤复制在闪存的有效镜像。

  3. 配置路由器或接入服务器启动到RxBoot模式。

    在这些平台上, Cisco IOS软件镜像直接地从闪存实际上运行。因此,如果您使用的是用户特权EXEC模式(Router #),您就不能从TFTP服务器将Cisco IOS软件镜像复制到闪存上。您能从此输出看到闪存是在用户特权的EXEC模式的只读。

    Router#show flash:
    
    PCMCIA flash directory:
    File  Length   Name/status
      1   9615124  c1600-sy-l.122-7b.bin
    [9615188 bytes used, 7162024 available, 16777212 total]
    16384K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read ONLY)
    
    Router#

    您必须更改配置寄存器值为了配置路由器或接入服务器启动到RxBoot模式。

    检查配置寄存器的当前值。您在show version命令的输出的最后一行能看到它。它通常设置为0x2102或0x102。您将需要一个最新步骤的此值。

    更换配置寄存器对值0x2101。这将准备路由器启动到RxBoot模式:

    Router>enable
    Password: 
    ! --- Enter the password here.
    
    Router#
    Router#configure terminal
    Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
    Router(config)#config-register 0x2101
    Router(config)#^Z
    Router#
    %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console 
    
    !--- It is not necessary to save the configuration here, as the 
    !--- configuration register has already been changed in NVRAM.
      
    
    Router#reload
    

    注意: 如果通过Telnet连接,会话在重新加载以后失去。请稍候片刻并重试。强烈建议您不要远程执行Cisco IOS软件升级,因为大多数灾难恢复程序需要您在路由器实际安装的地方。

  4. 恢复下一次重新加载的先前配置寄存器值。

    注意: 当路由器在boot模式时,请勿保存配置。避免使用保存命令(write memorycopy running-config startup-config),并且回答对建议的所有提示符您保存您的当前配置。如果保存配置,当路由器在此模式时,配置可以部分或完全清除。

    在以下命令,请用该的配置寄存器值替换****您注释下来在上一步:

    Router(boot)>
    Router(boot)>enable
    Password: 
    Router(boot)#configure terminal
    Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
    Router(boot)(config)#config-register 0x****
    Router(boot)(config)#^Z
    Router(boot)#
    

    注意: 如果您不记得以前设置的配置寄存器的值,您可以在此步骤中使用0x2102。

  5. 验证TFTP服务器到路由器的连通性。

    TFTP 服务器和路由器之间必须有网络连接,且必须能 ping 出 TFTP 软件升级的目标路由器 IP 地址。为了达到此,路由器接口和TFTP server必须有:

    • 同范围的IP地址,或者

    • 配置了默认网关。

  6. 复制从TFTP server的新的软件Cisco IOS软件镜像到路由器或接入服务器。

    现在您已经拥有IP连接性,并且能在充当TFTP服务器的计算机和路由器之间ping通,可以将Cisco IOS软件镜像复制到闪存中。

    注意: 在您复制前,请确保您开始在您的PC和那的TFTP服务器软件您有在TFTP server根目录提及的文件名。思科建议您保留路由器的备份或接入服务器配置,在您升级前。升级不影响在非易失性RAM的配置((NVRAM))存储。但是,如果没有正确执行操作步骤,则可能会产生影响。

    对于RCP应用程序,将所出现的每一个TFTP替换为RCP。例如,用 copy rcp flash 命令代替 copy tftp flash 命令

    Router (boot)#copy tftp flash
    
  7. 指定TFTP服务器的IP地址。

    当提示,请输入TFTP server的IP地址正如在此示例:

    Address or name of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.17.247.195
    
  8. 指定新的Cisco IOS软件镜像的文件名。

    当提示,请输入在此示例将安装的,正如Cisco IOS软件镜像的文件名:

    Source file name? c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin
    

    注意: 文件名区分大小写,因此请确保它正确地被输入。

  9. 指定目标镜像文件名。

    这是新软件镜像加载至路由器时所具有的名称。镜像可以任意命名,但普遍做法是输入同一个镜像文件名。

    Destination file name [c1600-y-l.112-18.P]? c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin
  10. 在您回答是或否前,请清除闪存设备。

    当您看到此提示符:

    Erase flash device before writing? [confirm] yes/no
    
    • 在您复制新的前,请输入清除路由器的闪存的现有的软件镜像。

    • 输入保持现有软件镜像。验证您有保持足够的内存两个。

    复制的进程花费几分钟。时间从网络有所不同到网络。在复制过程中,会显示一些消息,说明哪些文件已经被访问过。

    感叹号(!)表明复制过程发生。每个感叹号(!)表明十数据包顺利地转接。镜像的校验和验证将在镜像写入闪存后执行。当软件升级完成时,路由器或接入服务器必须重新加载与新的镜像。

  11. 在重新加载前,请验证镜像安装。

    确认镜像已正确安装在闪存上,同时boot system命令指向适当的文件开始下载。

    为了重新加载,输入:

    Router(boot)#reload
    *Mar 1 00:30:49.972: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
    System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]: NO
    Proceed with reload? [confirm] YES
    
  12. 验证路由器是否使用正确的映像运行。

    在重新加载完成之后,路由器应运行所需的 Cisco IOS 软件映像。发出show version命令为了验证升级。

输出示例 - Cisco 1600 系列路由器 - 从闪存安装中运行

Router >enable
Password:
Router#show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software 
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-NY-L), Version 12.0(9), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Tue 05-Mar-02 01:14 by pwade
Image text-base: 0x08039850, data-base: 0x02005000

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE 
SOFTWARE (fc1)
ROM: 1600 Software (C1600-BOOT-R), Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT 
RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) 

Router uptime is 7 minutes
System returned to ROM by reload
System image file is "flash:c1600-ny-l.120-9.bin"

cisco 1602 (68360) processor (revision C) with 7680K/2560K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 14236252, with hardware revision 00000000
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
1 Serial network interface(s)
On-board Switched 56K Line Interface.
System/IO memory with parity disabled
2048K bytes of DRAM onboard 8192K bytes of DRAM on SIMM 
System running from FLASH
7K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
12288K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read ONLY)

Configuration register is 0x2102

!-- This is the original value of the configuration register.


Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#config-register 0x2101 
Router(config)#^Z
Router#
*Mar  1 00:03:32.656: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]
 
*Mar  1 00:02:00: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested

System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1997 by cisco Systems, Inc.
C1600 processor with 10240 Kbytes of main memory

              Restricted Rights Legend

Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

           cisco Systems, Inc.
           170 West Tasman Drive
           San Jose, California 95134-1706


Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software 
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-BOOT-R), Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT 
RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) 
Copyright (c) 1986-1997 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Tue 18-Mar-97 14:01 by ccai
Image text-base: 0x04018060, data-base: 0x02005000

cisco 1602 (68360) processor (revision C) with 9728K/512K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 14236252
X.25 software, Version 2.0, NET2, BFE and GOSIP compliant.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface.
1 Serial network interface.
On-board Switched 56K Line Interface.
System/IO memory with parity disabled
8K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
12288K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read/Write)


Press RETURN to get started!

00:00:14: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0, changed state to up

Router(boot)>enable
Password:
Router(boot)#
Router(boot)#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(boot)(config)#config-register 0x2102
Router(boot)(config)#^Z
Router(boot)#
Router(boot)#ping 172.17.247.195
 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echoes to 172.17.247.195, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/200/1000 ms
 
Router(boot)#copy tftp flash
 
PCMCIA flash directory:
File  Length   Name/status
  1   5235300  /c1600-ny-l.120-9  
[5235364 bytes used, 7347548 available, 12582912 total]
Address or name of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.17.247.195
Source file name? c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin
Destination file name [c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin]? y
Accessing file 'c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin' on 172.17.247.195...
Loading c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin from 172.17.247.195 (via Ethernet0): ! [OK]

 
Erase flash device before writing? [confirm] NO

!--- Enter "Yes" if your router does not have enough memory in the 
!--- Flash for both Cisco IOS software images.


  
Copy 'c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin' from server
  as 'c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin' into Flash WITH erase? [yes/no]N
Loading c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin from 172.17.247.195 (via Ethernet0): !!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
[OK - 7120752/12582912 bytes]

Verifying checksum...  OK (0xA523)
Flash device copy took 00:06:28 [hh:mm:ss]
 
Router(boot)#reload
*Mar  1 00:30:49.972: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by consoled
 
System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]: NO
Proceed with reload? [confirm] YES
 
*Mar  1 00:13:15: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested

System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1997 by cisco Systems, Inc.
C1600 processor with 10240 Kbytes of main memory

              Restricted Rights Legend

Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

           cisco Systems, Inc.
           170 West Tasman Drive
           San Jose, California 95134-1706


Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software 
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-Y-L), Version 12.2(7b), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Tue 05-Mar-02 01:14 by pwade
Image text-base: 0x08039850, data-base: 0x02005000

cisco 1602 (68360) processor (revision C) with 7680K/2560K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 14236252, with hardware revision 00000000
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
1 Serial network interface(s)
On-board Switched 56K Line Interface.
System/IO memory with parity disabled
2048K bytes of DRAM onboard 8192K bytes of DRAM on SIMM 
System running from FLASH
7K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
12288K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read ONLY)
 
Press RETURN to get started!

发出show version命令为了验证正确Cisco IOS软件镜像装载,并且配置寄存器是0x2102。

Router >enable
Router# show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software 
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600-Y-L), Version 12.2(7b), RELEASE SOFTWARE 
(fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Tue 05-Mar-02 01:14 by pwade
Image text-base: 0x08039850, data-base: 0x02005000

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE 
SOFTWARE (fc1)
ROM: 1600 Software (C1600-BOOT-R), Version 11.1(10)AA, EARLY DEPLOYMENT 
RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) 

Router uptime is 7 minutes
System returned to ROM by reload
System image file is "flash:c1600-y-l.122-7b.bin"

cisco 1602 (68360) processor (revision C) with 7680K/2560K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 14236252, with hardware revision 00000000
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
1 Serial network interface(s)
On-board Switched 56K Line Interface.
System/IO memory with parity disabled
2048K bytes of DRAM onboard 8192K bytes of DRAM on SIMM 
System running from FLASH
7K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
12288K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read ONLY)

Configuration register is 0x2102

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Document ID: 15084