异步传输模式 (ATM) : 永久虚电路 (PVC) 和交换虚电路 (SVC)

了解 Cisco 路由器的环回模式

2015 年 8 月 28 日 - 机器翻译
其他版本: PDFpdf | 英语 (2015 年 4 月 22 日) | 反馈


目录


简介

环回是故障排除的重要部分;(特别是当电路发生故障)时,他们用于隔离故障和端到端电路。本文检查环回的两种类型在Cisco路由器ATM接口的:

  • Loopback Diagnostic -这帮助您确定您的接口是否是工作正常。

  • 环回线路-这帮助确定是否有与服务提供商的一问题。

开始使用前

规则

有关文档规则的详细信息,请参阅 Cisco 技术提示规则

先决条件

本文档没有任何特定的前提条件。

使用的组件

本文档中的信息基于以下软件和硬件版本。

  • 在本文的示例不要求任何特定的软件版本。当PA-A1、PA-A2和PA-A3支持两种模式时, AIP支持Loopback Diagnostic。LANE模块支持环回线路,并且其他Cisco路由器支持两种模式。

  • 这仅适用于主接口,不是子接口。

本文档中的信息都是基于特定实验室环境中的设备创建的。本文档中使用的所有设备最初均采用原始(默认)配置。如果您是在真实网络上操作,请确保您在使用任何命令前已经了解其潜在影响。

网络图

我们将使用以下网络说明Loopback模式。

/image/gif/paws/6337/loopback1.jpg

Loopback Diagnostic

loopback diagnostic命令在Cisco路由器的ATM接口下导致流量出去接口回来到路由器。图1和示例1如何说明该进程。为Non-ATM接口要看到环回信息,请点击此处并且移下来对关于特殊串行线路测试的部分。

loopback2.jpg

注意: Tx=transmit接口和Rx=Receive接口。

注意: 要保证适当的时钟频率,设置路由器作为时钟源。要执行此,请指定设置在主接口配置里的atm clock internal。

示例 1

在Loopback Diagnostic前在接口设置

Lt-7507b
 lt7507b# show running-configg
 Building configuration...

 Current configuration:
  !
  version 12.0
  !
  hostname lt-7507b
  !
  ip subnet-zero
  no ip domain-lookup
  !
  interface ATM1/0
   no ip address
   no ip directed-broadcast
   no ip mroute-cache
   no atm ilmi-keepalive
  !
  interface ATM1/0.1 multipoint
   ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
   no ip directed-broadcast
   pvc 0/85 
    protocol ip 10.1.1.1
    encapsulation aal5snap
   !
  ip classless
  no ip http server
  !
  line con 0
  transport input none
  line aux 0
  line vty 0 4
  login
  !
  end

lt-7507b# show interface atm 1/0
     ATM1/0 is up, line protocol is up
     Hardware is cxBus ATM
     MTU 4470 bytes, sub MTU 4470, BW 155520 Kbit, DLY 80 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
     Encapsulation ATM, loopback not set
     Keepalive not supported
     Encapsulation(s): AAL5, PVC mode
     256 TX buffers, 256 RX buffers,
     2048 maximum active VCs, 1024 VCs per VP, 1 current VCCs
     VC idle disconnect time: 300 seconds
     Last input 00:01:55, output 00:01:55, output hang never
     Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
     Queueing strategy: fifo
     Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
     5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     163861 packets input, 3164940 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     33 input errors, 33 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
     144191 packets output, 2138298 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

注意: 要说明回环机制,我们显示我们能发送在PVC的ATM信元。如果环回没有设置,那些信元不会是环回的给我们。请关闭ATM接口在另一路由器lt-7200b。

lt-7507b#debug atm packet interface 
     a1/0.1 vc 0/85
     ATM packets debugging is on
     Displaying packets on interface ATM1/0 VPI 0, VCI 85 only

      
     lt-7507b#ping
     Protocol [ip]:
     Target IP address: 10.1.1.1
     Repeat count [5]: 2
     Datagram size [100]:
     Timeout in seconds [2]:
     Extended commands [n]:
     Sweep range of sizes [n]:
     Type escape sequence to abort.
     Sending 2, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:

ping发生故障,并且ATM调试show traffic出去和不回来。

1w1d: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x5 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     1w1d: 4500 0064 001C 0000 FF01 B778 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 9994 
     0E58 068B 0000
     1w1d: 0000 2D42 A290 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: .
     1w1d: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x5 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     1w1d: 4500 0064 001D 0000 FF01 B777 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 91C3 
     0E59 068B 0000
     1w1d: 0000 2D42 AA60 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: .
     Success rate is 0 percent (0/2)

现在请添加Loopback Diagnostic,并且show interface显示环回设置。

lt-7507b#configure terminal
     Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
     lt-7507b(config)#int a1/0
     lt-7507b(config-if)#loopback diagnostic
     lt-7507b(config-if)#atm clock internal

注意: 必须配置Loopback命令在主接口,不在子接口。

lt-7507b# show interface a1/0
     ATM1/0 is up, line protocol is up
     Hardware is cxBus ATM
     MTU 4470 bytes, sub MTU 4470, BW 155520 Kbit, DLY 80 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
     Encapsulation ATM, loopback set
     Keepalive not supported
     Encapsulation(s): AAL5, PVC mode
     256 TX buffers, 256 RX buffers,
     2048 maximum active VCs, 1024 VCs per VP, 1 current VCCs
     VC idle disconnect time: 300 seconds
     Last input 00:03:16, output 00:03:16, output hang never
     Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
     Queueing strategy: fifo
     Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
     5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     163861 packets input, 3164940 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     33 input errors, 33 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
     144191 packets output, 2138298 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

ping将发生故障,但是ATM调试show traffic出去的(o)和回来在(i)。

lt-7507b#ping
     Protocol [ip]:
     Target IP address: 10.1.1.1
     Repeat count [5]: 2
     Datagram size [100]:
     Timeout in seconds [2]:
     Extended commands [n]:
     Sweep range of sizes [n]:
     Type escape sequence to abort.
     Sending 2, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:

      
     1w1d: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x5 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     1w1d: 4500 0064 001A 0000 FF01 B77A 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 119A 
     13A2 07C5 0000
     1w1d: 0000 2D41 2408 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d:
     1w1d: ATM1/0.1(I):
     VCD:0x5 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 Type:0x0 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     1w1d: 4500 0064 001A 0000 0101 B57B 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 119A 
     13A2 07C5 0000
     1w1d: 0000 2D41 2408 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: .
     1w1d: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x5 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     1w1d: 4500 0064 001B 0000 FF01 B779 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 09C9 
     13A3 07C5 0000
     1w1d: 0000 2D41 2BD8 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d:
     1w1d: ATM1/0.1(I):
     VCD:0x5 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 Type:0x0 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     1w1d: 4500 0064 001B 0000 0101 B57A 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 09C9 
     13A3 07C5 0000
     1w1d: 0000 2D41 2BD8 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     1w1d: .
     Success rate is 0 percent (0/2)

loopback line 命令

loopback line命令在Cisco路由器的ATM接口下造成流入的数据流被退还的到网络。请参阅下面图2和示例2。

/image/gif/paws/6337/loopback3.jpg

示例 2

路由器配置lt-7200b

Lt-7200b
lt-7200b# show running-configg
  Building configuration...

 Current configuration:
  !
  version 12.0
  service timestamps debug uptime
  service timestamps log uptime
  no service password-encryption
  !
  hostname lt-7200b
  !
  interface ATM2/0
   no ip address
   no ip directed-broadcast
   no atm ilmi-keepalive
  !
  interface ATM2/0.1 multipoint
   ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
   no ip directed-broadcast
   pvc 0/85 
    protocol ip 10.1.1.2
    encapsulation aal5snap
   !
  !
  ip classless
  no ip http server
  !
  line con 0
  transport input none
  line aux 0
  line vty 0 4
  login
  !
  end

在环回线路前在接口设置

lt-7200b# show interface atm 2/0
     ATM2/0 is up, line protocol is up
     Hardware is TI1570 ATM
     MTU 4470 bytes, sub MTU 4470, BW 155520 Kbit, DLY 80 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
     Encapsulation ATM, loopback not set
     Keepalive not supported
     Encapsulation(s): AAL5, PVC mode
     2048 maximum active VCs, 1024 VCs per VP, 1 current VCCs
     VC idle disconnect time: 300 seconds
     Last input 00:00:43, output 00:00:43, output hang never
     Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
     Queueing strategy: fifo
     Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
     5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     94912 packets input, 1637823 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
     102893 packets output, 2042225 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 3 interface resets
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

注意: ATM信息包调试打开和ping从路由器lt-7507b到路由器lt-7200b。您能看到测验从7500再进行(其中我们删除最初的环回)。这是正常,因为环回线路允许我们发现电信网络是否是工作正常。

lt-7507b#debug atm packet
     ATM packets debugging is on
     Displaying all ATM packets
     lt-7507b#debug atm packet sh debug

      
     lt-7507b#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!
Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms

ping是成功的,并且ATM调试show traffic是出去和回来。

00:45:14: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x1 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     00:45:14: 4500 0064 0005 0000 FF01 B78F 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 028C 
     02D4 0C51 0000
     00:45:14: 0000 0029 6C70 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:45:14: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:45:14: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:45:14:
     00:45:14: ATM1/0.1(I):
     VCD:0x1 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 Type:0x0 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     00:45:14: 4500 0064 0005 0000 FE01 B88F 0A01 0101 0A01 0102 0000 0A8C 
     02D4 0C51 0000
     00:45:14: 0000 0029 6C70 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:45:14: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:45:14: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD

     
    Success rate is 100 percent (1/1)

配置在路由器lt-7200b ATM接口的环回线路

lt-7200b#configure terminal
     Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
     lt-7200b(config)#int a2/0
     lt-7200b(config-if)#loopback line
     lt-7200b(config-if)#^Z
     lt-7200b#config show interface a2/0
     ATM2/0 is up, line protocol is up
     Hardware is TI1570 ATM
     MTU 4470 bytes, sub MTU 4470, BW 155520 Kbit, DLY 80 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
     Encapsulation ATM,loopback set
     Keepalive not supported
     Encapsulation(s): AAL5, PVC mode
     2048 maximum active VCs, 1024 VCs per VP, 1 current VCCs
     VC idle disconnect time: 300 seconds
     Last input 00:02:45, output 00:02:45, output hang never
     Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
     Queueing strategy: fifo
     Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
     5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     94917 packets input, 1638383 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
     102898 packets output, 2042785 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 5 interface resets
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

注意: 从路由器lt-7507b的Pingping将发生故障正如所料,但是流量是循环往从网络的路由器lt-7507b,并且ATM调试显示流量出去的(o)然后回来在(i)。

lt-7507b#ping 10.1.1.1

      
     Type escape sequence to abort.
     Sending 2, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
        ..
     Success rate is 0 percent (0/2)

      
     00:52:00: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x1 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     00:52:00: 4500 0064 000F 0000 FF01 B785 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 CE44 1
     21D 0009 0000
     00:52:00: 0000 002F 9DB0 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:00: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:00: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:00:
     00:52:00: ATM1/0.1(I):
     VCD:0x1 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 Type:0x0 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     00:52:00: 4500 0064 000F 0000 0101 B586 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 CE44 
     121D 0009 0000
     00:52:00: 0000 002F 9DB0 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:00: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:00: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:00: .
     00:52:02: ATM1/0.1(O):
     VCD:0x1 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 DM:0x100 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     00:52:02: 4500 0064 0010 0000 FF01 B784 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 C673 
     121E 0009 0000
     00:52:02: 0000 002F A580 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:02: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:02: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:02:
     00:52:02: ATM1/0.1(I):
     VCD:0x1 VPI:0x0 VCI:0x55 Type:0x0 SAP:AAAA CTL:03 OUI:000000 
     TYPE:0800 Length:0x70
     00:52:02: 4500 0064 0010 0000 0101 B585 0A01 0102 0A01 0101 0800 C673 
     121E 0009 0000
     00:52:02: 0000 002F A580 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:02: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD 
     ABCD ABCD ABCD
     00:52:02: ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
     Success rate is 0 percent (0/2)

结论

当您排除故障失败的电路时,环回是使用的有用工具。他们可以:

  • 帮助您确定物理接口问题。

  • 帮助您排除故障ATM服务提供商。

我们运行了在本文的测验就象通常方式:ping另一侧。如果使用正确的映射,或者,如果使用一个点对点子接口,用户可能ping他自己的IP地址。所以, ICMP回音在接口明确地将发送,并且由路由器回答。换句话说,在一个实际环境,您能运行同样测验,不用启用的任何调试。您能检查是否能ping您自己的IP地址和看到测验是否成功。

相关的思科支持社区讨论

思科支持社区是您提问、解答问题、分享建议以及与工作伙伴协作的论坛。


相关信息


Document ID: 6337