IP : IP 版本 6 (IPv6)

OSPFv3的配置示例

2015 年 8 月 28 日 - 机器翻译
其他版本: PDFpdf | 英语 (2015 年 4 月 22 日) | 反馈


目录


简介

开放最短路径优先 (OSPF) 是一种 IP 路由协议。它是一种链路状态协议,与距离矢量协议相对。链路状态协议根据连接源计算机和目标计算机的链路状态做出路由决策。链路状态描述接口以及接口与相邻网络设备的关系。接口信息包括接口的 IPv6 前缀、网络掩码、连接网络类型、该网络所连接的路由器等。此信息在多种类型的链路状态通告 (LSA) 中传播。

RFC 2740 中描述的 OSPF 版本 3 支持 IPv6。

先决条件

要求

在接口上为 IPv6 启用 OSPF 之前,您必须执行以下操作:

  • 完成 OSPF 网络策略和 IPv6 网络计划。例如,您必须确定是否需要多个区域。

  • 启用 IPv6 单播路由。

  • 在接口上启用 IPv6。

  • 在 OSPF 上为 IPv6 配置 IP 安全 (IPSec) 安全套接应用程序编程接口 (API),以启用验证和加密。

使用的组件

本文档不限于特定的软件和硬件版本。

本文档中的信息都是基于特定实验室环境中的设备编写的。本文档中使用的所有设备最初均采用原始(默认)配置。如果您使用的是真实网络,请确保您已经了解所有命令的潜在影响。

规则

有关文档规则的详细信息,请参阅 Cisco 技术提示规则

配置

本部分提供有关如何配置本文档所述功能的信息。

注意: 有关本文档所用命令的详细信息,请使用命令查找工具仅限注册用户)。

网络图

本文档使用以下网络设置:

/image/gif/paws/112100/ospfv3-config-guide-01.gif

配置

图中所示的是路由器的 OSPFv3 配置:

末节路由器
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
!
interface serial 0/0
 no ip address
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 address 2001:ABAB::/64 eui-64
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 2
!
ipv6 router ospf 1
 router-id 3.3.3.3
 area 2 stub
!

ABR1 路由器
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
 no ip address
 speed auto
 ipv6 address 2003::1/124
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 ipv6 address 2002:ABAB::/64 eui-64
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 2
!
ipv6 router ospf 1
 router-id 1.1.1.1
 area 2 stub no-summary
!

ASBR 路由器
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
 no ip address
 ipv6 address 2003::2/124
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 ospf 1 area 0
!
interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 ipv6 address 2003::1:1/124
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 rip EXT enable
!
ipv6 router ospf 1
 router-id 2.2.2.2
 default-metric 25
 redistribute rip EXT metric-type 1 include-connected
!
ipv6 router rip EXT
 redistribute ospf 1 match internal external 1 external 2 include-connected
!

外部路由器
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
!
interface Loopback0
 no ip address
 ipv6 address 2004:ABAB::/64 eui-64
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 rip EXT enable
!
interface Serial0/0
 no ip address
 ipv6 address 2003::1:2/124
 ipv6 enable
 ipv6 rip EXT enable
!
ipv6 router rip EXT

验证

使用本部分可确认配置能否正常运行。

命令输出解释程序仅限注册用户)(OIT) 支持某些 show 命令。使用 OIT 可查看对 show 命令输出的分析。

show ipv6 ospf database 命令显示路由器的链路状态数据库 (LSDB)。

Stub_Router#show ipv6 ospf database

            OSPFv3 Router with ID (3.3.3.3) (Process ID 1)

                Router Link States (Area 2)

ADV Router      Age         Seq#            Fragment ID  Link count  Bits
1.1.1.1             885         0x80000007      0                    1           B
3.3.3.3             919         0x80000008      0                    1           None

                Inter Area Prefix Link States (Area 2)

ADV Router      Age         Seq#                Prefix
1.1.1.1             373         0x80000002          ::/0

                Link (Type-8) Link States (Area 2)

ADV Router      Age         Seq#            Link ID    Interface
1.1.1.1             964         0x80000006      5          Se0/0
3.3.3.3             1165        0x80000006     5          Se0/0

                Intra Area Prefix Link States (Area 2)

ADV Router      Age         Seq#            Link ID    Ref-lstype  Ref-LSID
1.1.1.1             964         0x80000005      0          0x2001      0
3.3.3.3             1172        0x80000005     0          0x2001      0

显示IPv6 OSPF数据库路由器自生成命令显示路由器LSA路由器产生和接收的地方。路由器 LSA 不传输地址或前缀信息。

Stub_Router#

            OSPFv3 Router with ID (3.3.3.3) (Process ID 1)

                Router Link States (Area 2)

  Routing Bit Set on this LSA
  LS age: 753
  Options: (V6-Bit R-bit DC-Bit)
  LS Type: Router Links
  Link State ID: 0
  Advertising Router: 1.1.1.1
  LS Seq Number: 80000007
  Checksum: 0xFCA4
  Length: 40
  Area Border Router
  Number of Links: 1

    Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point)
      Link Metric: 64
      Local Interface ID: 5
      Neighbor Interface ID: 5
      Neighbor Router ID: 3.3.3.3


  LS age: 791
  Options: (V6-Bit R-bit DC-Bit)
  LS Type: Router Links
  Link State ID: 0
  Advertising Router: 3.3.3.3
  LS Seq Number: 80000008
  Checksum: 0x178A
  Length: 40
  Number of Links: 1

    Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point)
      Link Metric: 64
      Local Interface ID: 5
      Neighbor Interface ID: 5
      Neighbor Router ID: 1.1.1.1

LSA 传输的 Options 字段包含以下位:

  • V6 位 - 指示路由器/链路是否应该用于路由计算。

  • R 位 - 这是“路由器位”。它指示发送方是否为活动路由器。

  • DC 位 - 指示路由器对需求电路的处理。

显示IPv6 OSPF数据库链路自生成命令显示林克LSA运载林克特定地址。

Stub_Router#show ipv6 ospf database link self-originate

            OSPFv3 Router with ID (3.3.3.3) (Process ID 1)

                Link (Type-8) Link States (Area 2)

  LS age: 627
  Options: (V6-Bit R-bit DC-Bit)
  LS Type: Link-LSA (Interface: Serial0/0)
  Link State ID: 5 (Interface ID)
  Advertising Router: 1.1.1.1
  LS Seq Number: 80000006
  Checksum: 0x215C
  Length: 56
  Router Priority: 1
  Link Local Address: FE80::D20E:16FF:FE50:0
  Number of Prefixes: 1
  Prefix Address: 2002:ABAB::
  Prefix Length: 64, Options: None

  LS age: 828
  Options: (V6-Bit R-bit DC-Bit)
  LS Type: Link-LSA (Interface: Serial0/0)
  Link State ID: 5 (Interface ID)
  Advertising Router: 3.3.3.3
  LS Seq Number: 80000006
  Checksum: 0xB4C2
  Length: 56
  Router Priority: 1
  Link Local Address: FE80::D20D:16FF:FE50:0
  Number of Prefixes: 1
  Prefix Address: 2001:ABAB::
  Prefix Length: 64, Options: None

由于末节路由器属于完全残域,因此,ABR1 路由器仅将默认路由发送到末节路由器。

Stub_Router#
show ipv6 route

IPv6 Routing Table - 6 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
       U - Per-user Static route
       I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
       O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
       ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
OI  ::/0 [110/65]
     via FE80::D20E:16FF:FE50:0, Serial0/0
C   2001:ABAB::/64 [0/0]
     via ::, Serial0/0
L   2001:ABAB::D20D:16FF:FE50:0/128 [0/0]
     via ::, Serial0/0
O   2002:ABAB::/64 [110/128]
     via FE80::D20E:16FF:FE50:0, Serial0/0
L   FE80::/10 [0/0]
     via ::, Null0
L   FF00::/8 [0/0]
     via ::, Null0

ABR1 路由器是区域边界路由器。

ABR1#
show ipv6 ospf

 Routing Process "ospfv3 1" with ID 1.1.1.1
 It is an area border router
 SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
 Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
 LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
 Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
 Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
 Number of external LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x00A1E0
 Number of areas in this router is 2. 1 normal 1 stub 0 nssa
 Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
    Area BACKBONE(0)
        Number of interfaces in this area is 1
        SPF algorithm executed 5 times
        Number of LSA 8. Checksum Sum 0x052E71
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0
    Area 2
        Number of interfaces in this area is 1
        It is a stub area, no summary LSA in this area
          generates stub default route with cost 1
        SPF algorithm executed 6 times
        Number of LSA 7. Checksum Sum 0x042237
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

ABR1 路由器从 ASBR 路由器接收外部路由(RIP 路由)。

ABR1#
show ipv6 route

IPv6 Routing Table - 9 entries
Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP
       U - Per-user Static route
       I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
       O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2
       ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2
O   2001:ABAB::/64 [110/128]
     via FE80::D20D:16FF:FE50:0, Serial0/0
C   2002:ABAB::/64 [0/0]
     via ::, Serial0/0
L   2002:ABAB::D20E:16FF:FE50:0/128 [0/0]
     via ::, Serial0/0
C   2003::/124 [0/0]
     via ::, FastEthernet0/0
L   2003::1/128 [0/0]
     via ::, FastEthernet0/0
OE1  2003::1:0/124 [110/26]
     via FE80::D20F:BFF:FE24:0, FastEthernet0/0
OE1  2004:ABAB::/64 [110/26]
     via FE80::D20F:BFF:FE24:0, FastEthernet0/0
L   FE80::/10 [0/0]
     via ::, Null0
L   FF00::/8 [0/0]
     via ::, Null0

ASBR 路由器是网络的自治系统边界路由器。它通过 Serial 0/0 接口连接到 RIP 网络。

ASBR#
show ipv6 ospf

 Routing Process "ospfv3 1" with ID 2.2.2.2
 It is an autonomous system boundary router
 Redistributing External Routes (with default metric 25) from,
    rip with metric-type 1 include-connected
 SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
 Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
 LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
 Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
 Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
 Number of external LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x00A1E0
 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
    Area BACKBONE(0)
        Number of interfaces in this area is 1
        SPF algorithm executed 2 times
        Number of LSA 8. Checksum Sum 0x052E71
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

ASBR#
show ipv6 rip

RIP process "EXT", port 521, multicast-group FF02::9, pid 156
     Administrative distance is 120. Maximum paths is 16
     Updates every 30 seconds, expire after 180
     Holddown lasts 0 seconds, garbage collect after 120
     Split horizon is on; poison reverse is off
     Default routes are not generated
     Periodic updates 69, trigger updates 6
  Interfaces:
    Serial0/0
  Redistribution:
    Redistributing protocol ospf 1 include-connected

故障排除

使用本部分可排除配置故障。

注意: 使用 debug 命令之前,请参阅有关 Debug 命令的重要信息

debug ipv6

在末节路由器上启用 OSPFv3 之后,即发送 OSPFv3 类型 1 Hello 消息到 FF02::5 多播地址。收到来自 ABR1 路由器的 Hello 数据包之后,即协商主/从关系,然后开始发送 DBD 数据包。

Stub_Router#debug ipv6 ospf events

Stub_Router# debug ipv6 ospf packet
*Mar  1 00:14:20.999: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:1 l:36 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:142A inst:0 from Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:14:21.023: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:2 l:28 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:EB8A inst:0 from Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:14:21.027: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:1 l:40 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:E1C inst:0 from Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:14:21.027: OSPFv3: 2 Way Communication to 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0, state 2WAY
*Mar  1 00:14:21.027: OSPFv3: Send DBD to 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1737 opt 0x0011 
flag 0x7 len 28
*Mar  1 00:14:21.031: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x2402 opt 0x0011 
flag 0x7 len 28  mtu 1500 state EXSTART
*Mar  1 00:14:21.031: OSPFv3: First DBD and we are not SLAVE
*Mar  1 00:14:21.035: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:2 l:88 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:5CF3 inst:0 from Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:14:21.039: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1737 opt 0x0011 flag 
0x2 len 88  mtu 1500 state EXSTART
*Mar  1 00:14:21.039: OSPFv3: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the MASTER
*Mar  1 00:14:21.039: OSPFv3: Send DBD to 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1738 opt 0x0011 flag 
0x3 len 88
*Mar  1 00:14:21.043: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:2 l:28 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:F85B inst:0 from Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:14:21.047: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1738 opt 0x0011 flag 
0x0 len 28  mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:14:21.047: OSPFv3: Send DBD to 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1739 opt 0x0011 flag 
0x1 len 28Send LS REQ to 1.1.1.1 length 36 LSA count 3
*Mar  1 00:14:21.051: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:3 l:52 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:C326 inst:0 from Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:14:21.055: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:2 l:28 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:F85A inst:0 from Serial0/0

DBD 数据包交换之后,路由器即发送链路状态请求 (LS REQ) 和链路状态更新 (LS UPD) 消息,以建立其 LSDB。在连续的 LS REQ 和 LS UPD 消息之后且状态达到 FULL 时,路由器继续交换 Hello 数据包。

Stub_Router#
*Mar  1 00:14:21.055: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:4 l:144 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:58BC inst:0 from Serial0/0Rcv LS REQ from 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 length 52 
LSA count 3Send UPD to 131.88.101.156 on Serial0/0 length 128 LSA count 3
*Mar  1 00:14:21.059: OSPFv3: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1739 opt 0x0011 flag 
0x0 len 28  mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:14:21.063: OSPFv3: Exchange Done with 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0Rcv LS UPD from 
1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 length 144 LSA count 3
*Mar  1 00:14:21.067: OSPFv3: Synchronized with 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0, state FULL
*Mar  1 00:14:21.067: %OSPFv3-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 from 
LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
*Mar  1 00:14:21.687: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:4 l:60 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:66EB inst:0 from Serial0/0Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.1 on Serial0/0 length 60 
LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:14:23.683: OSPFv3: rcv. v:3 t:5 l:96 rid:1.1.1.1
      aid:0.0.0.2 chk:4BB5 inst:0 from Serial0/0

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相关信息


Document ID: 112100