Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Adding and Using Maps
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Adding and Using Maps

Table Of Contents

Adding and Using Maps

Creating Maps

Adding a Campus

Adding Buildings

Adding a Building to a Campus Map

Adding a Standalone Building

Adding Outdoor Areas

Adding and Enhancing Floor Plans

Adding Floor Plans to a Campus Building

Adding Floor Plans to a Standalone Building

Using the Map Editor to Enhance Floor Plans

Using Planning Mode to Calculate Access Point Requirements

Adding Access Points

Access Point Placement

Creating a Network Design

Designing a Network

Monitoring Maps

Monitoring Predicted Coverage

Monitoring Channels on a Floor Map

Monitoring Transmit Power Levels on a Floor Map

Monitoring Coverage Holes on a Floor Map

Monitoring Clients on a Floor Map

Monitoring Outdoor Areas

Creating and Applying Calibration Models

Modifying the Appearance of Floor Maps

Monitoring Calibration Models

Analyzing Element Location Accuracy Using Testpoints


Adding and Using Maps


This chapter describes how to add maps to the Cisco WCS database and use them to monitor your wireless LAN. It contains these sections:

Creating Maps

Access Point Placement

Creating a Network Design

Monitoring Maps

Creating and Applying Calibration Models

Analyzing Element Location Accuracy Using Testpoints

Creating Maps

Adding maps to the Cisco WCS database enables you to view your managed system on realistic campus, building, and floor plan maps. Follow the instructions in the sections below to add a campus, buildings, outdoor areas, floor plans, and access points to maps in the Cisco WCS database:

Adding a Campus

Adding Buildings

Adding Outdoor Areas

Adding and Enhancing Floor Plans

Adding Access Points

Adding a Campus

Follow these steps to add a single campus map to the Cisco WCS database.


Step 1 Save the map in .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format.


Note The map can be any size because WCS automatically resizes the map to fit its working areas.


Step 2 Browse to and import the map from anywhere in your file system.

Step 3 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 4 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose New Campus and click GO.

Step 5 On the Maps > New Campus page, enter the campus name and campus contact name.

Step 6 Browse to and choose the image filename containing the map of the campus and click Open.

Step 7 Check the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box to prevent length and width distortion when WCS resizes the map.

Step 8 Enter the horizontal and vertical span of the map in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical span should be larger than any building or floor plan to be added to the campus.


Step 9 Click OK to add this campus map to the Cisco WCS database. WCS displays the Maps page, which lists maps in the database, map types, and campus status.


Adding Buildings

You can add buildings to the Cisco WCS database regardless of whether you have added campus maps to the database. This section explains how to add a building to a campus map or a standalone building to the Cisco WCS database.

Adding a Building to a Campus Map

Follow these steps to add a building to a campus map in the Cisco WCS database.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click the desired campus. WCS displays the Maps > Campus Name page.

Step 3 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose New Building and click GO.

Step 4 On the Campus Name > New Building page, follow these steps to create a virtual building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the building name.

b. Enter the building contact name.

c. Enter the number of floors and basements.

d. Enter an approximate building horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical span should be larger than or the same size as any floors that you might add later.



Tip You can also use Ctrl-click to resize the bounding area in the upper left corner of the campus map. As you change the size of the bounding area, the Horizontal Span and Vertical Span parameters of the building change to match your actions.


e. Click Place to put the building on the campus map. WCS creates a building rectangle scaled to the size of the campus map.

f. Click on the building rectangle and drag it to the desired position on the campus map.

g. Click Save to save this building and its campus location to the database. WCS saves the building name in the building rectangle on the campus map.


Note A hyperlink associated with the building takes you to the corresponding Map page.



Adding a Standalone Building

Follow these steps to add a standalone building to the Cisco WCS database.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose New Building and click GO.

Step 3 On the Maps > New Building page, follow these steps to create a virtual building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the building name.

b. Enter the building contact name.

c. Enter the number of floors and basements.

d. Enter an approximate building horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical span should be larger than or the same size as any floors that you might add later.


e. Click OK to save this building to the database.


Adding Outdoor Areas

Follow these steps to add an outdoor area to a campus map.


Note You can add outdoor areas to a campus map in the Cisco WCS database regardless of whether you have added outdoor area maps to the database.



Step 1 If you want to add a map of the outdoor area to the database, save the map in .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format. Then browse to and import the map from anywhere in your file system.


Note You do not need a map to add an outdoor area. You can simply define the dimensions of the area to add it to the database. The map can be any size because WCS automatically resizes the map to fit the workspace.


Step 2 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 3 Click the desired campus. WCS displays the Maps > Campus Name page.

Step 4 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose New Outdoor Area and click GO.

Step 5 On the Campus Name > New Outdoor Area page, follow these steps to create a manageable outdoor area:

a. Enter the outdoor area name.

b. Enter the outdoor area contact name.

c. If desired, enter or browse to the filename of the outdoor area map.

d. Enter an approximate outdoor horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Tip You can also use Ctrl-click to resize the bounding area in the upper left corner of the campus map. As you change the size of the bounding area, the Horizontal Span and Vertical Span parameters of the outdoor area change to match your actions.


e. Click Place to put the outdoor area on the campus map. WCS creates an outdoor area rectangle scaled to the size of the campus map.

f. Click on the outdoor area rectangle and drag it to the desired position on the campus map.

g. Click Save to save this outdoor area and its campus location to the database. WCS saves the outdoor area name in the outdoor area rectangle on the campus map.


Note A hyperlink associated with the outdoor area takes you to the corresponding Map page.



Adding and Enhancing Floor Plans

This section explains how to add floor plans to either a campus building or a standalone building in the Cisco WCS database. It also provides instructions on using the WCS map editor to enhance floor plans that you have created and the WCS planning mode to calculate the number of access points required to cover an area.

Adding Floor Plans to a Campus Building

After you add a building to a campus map, you can add individual floor plan and basement maps to the building. Follow these steps to add floor plans to a campus building.


Step 1 Save your floor plan maps in .PNG, .JPG, or .GIF format.


Note The maps can be any size because WCS automatically resizes the maps to fit the workspace.


Step 2 Browse to and import the floor plan maps from anywhere in your file system.

Step 3 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 4 Click the desired campus. WCS displays the Maps > Campus Name page.

Step 5 Move your cursor over the name within an existing building rectangle to highlight it.


Note When you highlight the name within a building rectangle, the building description appears in the sidebar.


Step 6 Click on the building name to display the Maps > Campus Name > Building Name page.

Step 7 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose New Floor Area and click GO.

Step 8 On the Building Name > New Floor Area page, follow these steps to add floors to a building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the floor or basement name.

b. Enter the floor or basement contact name.

c. Choose the floor or basement number.

d. Choose the floor or basement type.

e. Enter the floor-to-floor height in feet.

f. Check the Image File check box; then browse to and choose the desired floor or basement image filename and click Open.


Note When you choose the floor or basement image filename, WCS displays the image in the building-sized grid.


g. Click Next.

h. Either leave the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box checked to preserve the original image aspect ratio or uncheck the check box to change the image aspect ratio.

i. Enter an approximate floor or basement horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical span should be smaller than or the same size as the building horizontal span and vertical span in the Cisco WCS database.


j. If desired, click Place to locate the floor or basement image on the building grid.


Tip You can use Ctrl-click to resize the image within the building-sized grid.


k. Click OK to save this floor plan to the database. WCS displays the floor plan image on the Maps > Campus Name > Building Name page.

Step 9 Click any of the floor or basement images to view the floor plan or basement map.


Note You can zoom in and out to view the map at different sizes, and you can add access points. See the "Adding Access Points" section for instructions.



Adding Floor Plans to a Standalone Building

After you have added a standalone building to the Cisco WCS database, you can add individual floor plan maps to the building. Follow these steps to add floor plans to a standalone building.


Step 1 Save your floor plan maps in .PNG, .JPG, or .GIF format.


Note The maps can be any size because WCS automatically resizes the maps to fit the workspace.


Step 2 Browse to and import the floor plan maps from anywhere in your file system.

Step 3 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 4 Click the desired building. WCS displays the Maps > Building Name page.

Step 5 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose New Floor Area and click GO.

Step 6 On the Building Name > New Floor Area page, follow these steps to add floors to a building in which to organize related floor plan maps:

a. Enter the floor or basement name.

b. Enter the floor or basement contact name.

c. Choose the floor or basement number.

d. Choose the floor or basement type.

e. Enter the floor-to-floor height in feet.

f. Check the Image File check box; then browse to and choose the desired floor or basement image filename and click Open.


Note When you choose the floor or basement image filename, WCS displays the image in the building-sized grid.


g. Click Next.

h. Either leave the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box checked to preserve the original image aspect ratio or uncheck the check box to change the image aspect ratio.

i. Enter an approximate floor or basement horizontal span and vertical span (width and depth on the map) in feet.


Note The horizontal and vertical span should be smaller than or the same size as the building horizontal span and vertical span in the Cisco WCS database.


j. If desired, click Place to locate the floor or basement image on the building grid.


Tip You can use Ctrl-click to resize the image within the building-sized grid.


k. Click OK to save this floor plan to the database. WCS displays the floor plan image on the Maps > Building Name page.

Step 7 Click any of the floor or basement images to view the floor plan or basement map.


Note You can zoom in and out to view the map at different sizes, and you can add access points. See the "Adding Access Points" section for instructions.



Using the Map Editor to Enhance Floor Plans

You can use the WCS map editor to define, draw, and enhance floor plans. The map editor enables you to create obstacles so that they can be taken into consideration when computing RF prediction heat maps for access points. You can also add coverage areas, which can later be used when defining location-area notifications.

General Notes and Guidelines for Using the Map Editor

Listed below are a summary of items to consider when modifying a building or floor map using the map editor.

Cisco recommends that you use the map editor to draw walls and other obstacles rather than importing an .FPE file from the legacy floor plan editor.

If necessary, you can still import .FPE files. To do so, navigate to the desired floor area, choose Edit Floor Area from the Select a command drop-down menu, click GO, check the FPE File check box, and browse to and choose the .FPE file.

Importing a floor plan editor (FPE) file with more than 200 walls can be slow and the browser may not report any status or redirect you to any other page during that download. It is recommended when importing large FPE files that you allow at least 5 minutes before clicking on the maps page to verify import of the file.

There is no limit to the number of walls that can be added to a floor plan with the map editor; however, the processing power and memory of a client workstation may limit the refresh and rendering aspects of WCS.

Cisco recommends a practical limit of 400 walls per floor for machines with 1GB RAM or less.

All walls are used by WCS when it generating RF coverage heatmaps;

however, the location appliance uses no more than 50 heavy walls in its calculations; and the location appliance does not use light walls in its calculations because those attenuations are already accounted for during the calibration process.

Follow these steps to use the map editor.


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click the desired campus. WCS displays the Maps > Campus Name page.

Step 3 Click on a campus building.

Step 4 Click on the desired floor area. WCS displays the Maps > Campus Name > Building Name > Floor Area Name page.

Step 5 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose Map Editor and click GO. WCS displays the Map Editor page.

Step 6 Make sure that the floor plan images are properly scaled so that all white space outside of the external walls is removed. To make sure that floor dimensions are accurate, choose the compass tool from the toolbar.

Step 7 Position the reference length. When you do, the Scale menu appears with the line length supplied. Enter the dimensions (width and height) of the reference length and click OK.

Step 8 Choose the desired 802.11 standard from the Radio Type drop-down menu.

Step 9 Choose the antenna model from the Antenna drop-down menu.

Step 10 Determine the propogation pattern at the Antenna Mode drop-down menu.

Step 11 Make antenna adjustments by sliding the antenna orientation bar to the desired degree of direction.

Step 12 Choose the desired access point.

Step 13 Click Save.


Using Planning Mode to Calculate Access Point Requirements

You can calculate the recommended number and location of access points based on the following criteria:

traffic type active on the network: data or voice traffic or both

location accuracy requirements

number of active users

number of users per square footage

To calculate the recommended number and placement of access points for a given deployment, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Maps.

The window appears (see Figure 5-1).

Figure 5-1 Monitor > Maps Page

Step 2 Click the appropriate location link from the list that appears.

A color-coded map appears showing placement of all installed elements (access points, clients, tags) and their relative signal strength (see Figure 5-2).

A color-coded map appears showing placement of all installed elements (access points, clients, tags) and their relative signal strength (see Figure 5-2).

Figure 5-2 Selected Floor Area Showing Current Access Point Assignments

Step 3 Select Planning Mode from the Select a command drop-down menu (top-right). Click GO.

A blank floor map appears.

Step 4 Click Add APs.

Step 5 In the page that appears, drag the dashed-line rectangle over the map location for which you want to calculate the recommended access points (see Figure 5-3).


Note Adjust the size or placement of the rectangle by selecting the edge of the rectangle and holding down the Ctrl key. Move the mouse as necessary to outline the targeted location.


Figure 5-3 Add APs Page

Step 6 Select Automatic from the Add APs drop-down menu.

Step 7 Select the AP Type and the appropriate antenna and protocol for that access point.

Step 8 Select the target throughput for the access point.

Step 9 Check the box(es) next to the service(s) that will be used on the floor. Options are Data/Coverage (default), Voice, and Location (Table 5-1).


Note You must select at least one service or an error occurs



Note If you check the Advanced Options box, two additional access point planning options appear: Demand and Override Coverage per AP. Additionally, a Safety Margin parameter appears for the Data/Coverage and Voice service options (Table 5-2).


Table 5-1 Definition of Service Options

Service Options
Description

Data/Coverage

Select if data traffic is transmitted on the wireless LAN. The following densities are used depending on the band and data rates:

Band
Path Loss Model (dBm)
Date Rate (Mbps)
Area (Sq. ft.)

802.11a

-3.3

10-12

6000

802.11a

-3.3

15-18

4500

802.11a

-3.5

10-12

5000

802.11a

-3.5

15-18

3250

802.11bg

-3.3

5

6500

802.11bg

-3.3

6

4500

802.11bg

-3.5

5

5500

802.11bg

-3.5

6

3500

If you enable Advanced Options (click check box), you can select the desired safety margin (aggressive, safe, or very safe) of the signal strength threshold for data.

Aggressive = Minimum (-3 dBm)

Safe = Medium (0 dBm)

Very Safe = Maximum (+3 dBm)

Voice

Select if voice traffic is transmitted on the wireless LAN.

If you enable Advanced Options (click check box), you can select the desired safety margin (aggressive, safe, very safe or 7920-enabled) of the signal strength threshold for voice.

Aggressive = Minimum [-78 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]

Safe = Medium [-75 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]

Very Safe = Maximum [(-72 dBm (802.11a/b/g)]

7920_enabled = [(-72 dBm (802.11a); -67 dBm (802.11b/g)]

Location

Select to ensure that the recommended access point calculation provides the true location of an element within 10 meters at least 90% of the time.

To meet the criteria, access points are collocated within 70 feet of each other in a hexagonal pattern employing staggered and perimeter placement.

Note Each service option includes all services that are listed above it. For example, if you check the Location box, the calculation considers data/coverage, voice, and location in determining the optimum number of access points required.


Table 5-2 Definition of Advanced Options

Advanced Options
Description

Demand

Select if you want to use the total number of users or user ratio per access point as a basis for the access point calculation.

Override Coverage per AP

Select if you want to specify square foot coverage as the basis for access point coverage.

Safety Margin

Select option to qualify relative signal strength requirements for data and voice service in the access point calculation. Options are: Aggressive, Safe, Very Safe and 7920-enabled (voice only). Select Aggressive to require minimal signal strength requirements in the calculation and Very Safe to request the highest signal strength.


Step 10 Click Calculate.

The recommended number of access points given the selected services appears (see Figure 5-4).

Figure 5-4 Recommended Number of Access Points Given Selected Services and Parameters


Note Recommended calculations assume the need for consistently strong signals unless adjusted downward by the safety margin advanced option. In some cases, fewer access points may be required than recommended.



Note Walls are not used or accounted for in planning mode calculations.


Step 11 Click Apply to generate a map that shows proposed deployment of the recommended access points in the selected area based on the selected services and parameters. (see Figure 5-5).

Figure 5-5 Recommended Access Point Deployment Given Selected Services and Parameters

Step 12 Choose Generate Proposal to display a textual and graphical report of the recommended access point number and deployment based on the given input.


Adding Access Points

After you add the .PNG, .JPG, .JPEG, or .GIF format floor plan and outdoor area maps to the Cisco WCS database, you can position lightweight access point icons on the maps to show where they are installed in the buildings. Follow these steps to add access points to floor plan and outdoor area maps.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Network Summary to display the Network Summary page.

Step 2 Under Coverage Areas, click the desired floor plan or outdoor area map. WCS displays the associated coverage area map.

Step 3 From the Select a Command drop-down menu, choose Add Access Points and click GO.

Step 4 On the Add Access Points page, choose the access points to add to the map.

Step 5 Click OK to add the access points to the map and display the Position Access Points map.


Note The access point icons appear in the upper left area of the map.


Step 6 Click and drag the icons to indicate their physical locations.

Step 7 Click each icon and choose the antenna orientation in the sidebar.


Note The antenna angle is relative to the map's X axis. Because the origin of the X and Y axes is in the upper left corner of the map, 0 degrees points side A of the access point to the right, 90 degrees points side A down, 180 degrees points side A to the left, and so on.



Note Make sure each access point is in the correct location on the map and has the correct antenna orientation. Accurate access point positioning is critical when you use the maps to find coverage holes and rogue access points.


Step 8 Click Save to store the access point locations and orientations. WCS computes the RF prediction for the coverage area. These RF predictions are popularly known as heat maps because they show the relative intensity of the RF signals on the coverage area map. Figure 5-6 shows an RF prediction heat map.


Note This display is only an approximation of the actual RF signal intensity because it does not take into account the attenuation of various building materials, such as drywall or metal objects, nor does it display the effects of RF signals bouncing off obstructions.


Figure 5-6 RF Prediction Heat Map


Access Point Placement

To determine the optimum location of all devices in the wireless LAN coverage areas, you need to consider the access point density and location.

Ensure that no fewer than 3 access points, and preferably 4 or 5, provide coverage to every area where device location is required. The more access points that detect a device, the better. This high level guideline translates into the following best practices, ordered by priority:

1. Most importantly, access points should surround the desired location.

2. Roughly one access point should be placed every 50 to 70 linear feet (~17 to 20 meters). This translates into one access point every 2,500 to 5000 square feet (~230 to 450 square meters).


Note The access point must be mounted so that it is under 20 feet high. For best performance, a mounting at 10 feet would be ideal.


Following these guidelines makes it more likely that access points will detect tracked devices. Rarely do two physical environments have the same RF characteristics. Users may need to adjust those parameters to their specific environment and requirements.


Note Devices must be detected at signals greater than -75 dBm for the controllers to forward information to the location appliance. No fewer than three access points should be able to detect any device at signals below -75 dBm.


Meaningful placement of the access points is important to the system for location. Following a few basic rules contributes to location accuracy.

1. Focus on placing access points along the periphery of coverage areas to help locate devices close to the exterior of rooms and buildings (see Figure 5-7). Access points placed in the center of these coverage areas provide good data on devices that would otherwise appear equidistant from all other access points.

Figure 5-7 Access Points Clustered Together Can Result in Poor Location Accuracy

2. By increasing overall access point density and moving access points towards the perimeter of the coverage area, location accuracy is greatly improved (see Figure 5-8).

Figure 5-8 Improved Location Accuracy by Increasing Number and Placement

In long and narrow coverage areas, avoid placing access points in a straight line (see Figure 5-9). Instead, attempt to stagger them so that each access point is more likely to provide a unique snapshot of a device's location.

Figure 5-9 Refrain From Straight Line Placement

Although the design in Figure 5-9 may provide enough access point density for high bandwidth applications, location suffers because each access point's view of a single device is not varied enough; therefore, location is difficult to determine.

Move the access points to the perimeter of the coverage area and stagger them. Each has a greater likelihood of offering a distinctly different view of the device, resulting in higher location accuracy (see Figure 5-10).

Figure 5-10 Improved Location Accuracy by Staggering Around Perimeter

Designing a location-aware wireless LAN, while planning for voice as well, is better done with a few things in mind. Most current wireless handsets support only 802.11b, which offers only three non-overlapping channels. Therefore, wireless LANs designed for telephony tend to be less dense than those planned to carry data. Also, when traffic is queued in the Platinum QoS bucket (typically reserved for voice and other latency-sensitive traffic), lightweight access points postpone their scanning functions that allow them to peak at other channels and collect, among other things, device location information. The user has the option to supplement the wireless LAN deployment with access points set to monitor-only mode. Access points that perform only monitoring functions do not provide service to clients and do not create any interference. They simply scan the airwaves for device information.

Less dense wireless LAN installations, such as voice networks, find their location accuracy greatly increased by the addition and proper placement of access points (see Figure 5-11).

Figure 5-11 Less Dense Wireless LAN Installations

Less dense wireless LAN installations, such as voice networks, find their location fidelity greatly increased by the addition and proper placement of monitor access points.

Verify coverage using a wireless laptop, handheld, or possibly a phone to ensure that no fewer than three access points are detected by the device. To verify client and asset tag location, ensure that WCS reports client devices and tags within the specified accuracy range (10m, 90%).

Creating a Network Design

After access points have been installed and have joined a controller, and WCS has been configured to manage the controllers, set up a network design. A network design is a representation within WCS of the physical placement of access points throughout facilities. A hierarchy of a single campus, the buildings that comprise that campus, and the floors of each building constitute a single network design. These steps assume that the location appliance is set to poll the controllers in that network, as well as be configured to synchronize with that specific network design, in order to track devices in that environment. The concept and steps to perform synchronization between WCS and the location appliance are explained in "Importing the Location Appliance into WCS" section on page 10-8.

Designing a Network

Follow these steps to design a network.


Step 1 Open the WCS web interface and log in.


Note To create or edit a network design, you must log into WCS and have SuperUser, Admin, or ConfigManager access privileges.


Step 2 Click the Monitor tab and choose the Maps subtab.

Step 3 From the drop-down menu on the right-hand side, choose either New Campus or New Building (see Figure 5-12), depending on the size of the network design and the organization of maps (see Figure 5-11). If you chose New Campus, continue to Step 4. To create a building without a campus, skip to Step 13.

Figure 5-12 Creating a New Network Design

Step 4 Click Go.

Step 5 Enter a name for the campus network design, a contact name, and the file path to the campus image file. .bmps and .jgps are importable. AutoCAD and non-supported images first need to be converted into these formats.

Step 6 Check the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box. Enabling this check box causes the horizontal span of the campus to be 5000 feet and adjusts the vertical span according to the image file's aspect ratio. Adjusting either the horizontal or vertical span changes the other field in accordance with the image ratio.

You should uncheck the Maintain Aspect Ratio check box if you want to override this automatic adjustment. You could then adjust both span values to match the real world campus dimensions.

Step 7 Click OK.

Step 8 On the Monitor > Maps subtab, click the hyperlink associated with the above-made campus map. A window showing the new campus image is displayed.

Step 9 From the drop-down menu on the upper right of the window, select New Building and click Go (see Figure 5-13).

Figure 5-13 New Building

Step 10 Enter the name of the building, the contact person, and the number of floors and basements in the building.

Step 11 Indicate which building on the campus map is the correct building by clicking the blue box in the upper left of the campus image and dragging it to the intended location (see Figure 5-14). To resize the blue box, hold down the Ctrl key and click and drag to adjust its horizontal size. You can also enter dimensions of the building by entering numerical values in the Horizontal Span and Vertical Span fields and click Place. After resizing, reposition the blue box if necessary by clicking on it and dragging it to the desired location. Click Save.

Figure 5-14 Repositioning Building Highlighted in Blue

Step 12 WCS is then returned to the campus image with the newly created building highlighted in a green box. Click the green box (see Figure 5-15).

Figure 5-15 Newly Created Building Highlighted in Green

Step 13 To create a building without a campus, choose New Building and click Go.

Step 14 Enter the building's name, contact information, number of floors and basements, and dimension information. Click Save. WCS is returned to the Monitor > Maps window.

Step 15 Click the hyperlink associated with the newly created building.

Step 16 On the Monitor > Maps > [Campus Name] > [Building Name] window, go to the drop-down menu and choose New Floor Area. Click Go.

Step 17 Enter a name for the floor, a contact, a floor number, floor type, and height at which the access points are installed and the path of the floor image. Click Next.


Note The Floor Type (RF Model) field specifies the type of environment on that specific floor. This RF Model indicates the amount of RF signal attenuation likely to be present on that floor. If the available models do not properly characterize a floor's makeup, details on how to create RF models specific to a floor's attenuation characteristics are available in "Creating and Applying Calibration Models" section.


Step 18 If the floor area is a different dimension than the building, adjust floor dimensions by either making numerical changes to the text fields under the Dimensions heading or by holding the Ctrl key and clicking and dragging the blue box around the floor image. If the floor's location is offset from the upper left corner of the building, change the placement of the floor within the building by either clicking and dragging the blue box to the desired location or by altering the numerical values under the Coordinates of top left corner heading (see Figure 5-16). After making changes to any numerical values, click Place.

Figure 5-16 Repositioning Using Numerical Value Fields

Step 19 At this point you can adjust the floor's characteristics with the WCS map editor by choosing the check box next to Launch Map Editor. For an explanation of the map editor feature, see "Using the Map Editor to Enhance Floor Plans" section.

Step 20 At the new floor's image window (Monitor > Maps > [CampusName] > [BuildingName] > [FloorName]), go to the drop-down menu on the upper right and choose Add Access Points. Click Go.

Step 21 All access points that are connected to controllers are displayed. Even controllers that WCS is configured to manage but which have not yet been added to another floor map are displayed. Select the access points to be placed on the specific floor map by checking the boxes to the left of the access point entries. Check the box to the left of the Name column to select all access points. Click OK.

Step 22 Each access point you have chosen to add to the floor map is represented by a gray circle (differentiated by access point name or MAC address) and is lined up in the upper left part of the floor map. Drag each access point to the appropriate location. (Access points turn blue when you click on them to relocate them.) The small black arrow at the side of each access point represents Side A of each access point, and each access point's arrow must correspond with the direction in which the access points were installed. (Side A is clearly noted on each 1000 series access point and has no relevance to the 802.11a radio.) To adjust the directional arrow, choose the appropriate orientation in the Antenna Angle drop-down menu. Click Save when you are finished placing and adjusting each access point's direction. See Figure 5-17 for an example. This image is for illustrative purposes only and does not indicate proper access point density or placement.

Figure 5-17 Appropriate Orientation Using Antenna Angles


Note Access point placement and direction must directly reflect the actual access point deployment or the system cannot pinpoint the device location.


Repeat the above processes to create campuses, buildings, and floors until each device location is properly detailed in a network design.


Monitoring Maps

This section describes how to use maps to monitor your wireless LANs. You can use maps to monitor the following information:

Monitoring Predicted Coverage

Monitoring Channels on a Floor Map

Monitoring Transmit Power Levels on a Floor Map

Monitoring Coverage Holes on a Floor Map

Monitoring Clients on a Floor Map

Monitoring Calibration Models

Modifying the Appearance of Floor Maps

Monitoring Calibration Models

Monitoring Predicted Coverage

Follow these steps to monitor the predicted wireless LAN coverage on a map.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click an item in the Name column and click the floor map.

Step 3 Click the View Filters icon. The AP Filter window appears.

Step 4 From the Protocol drop-down menu, choose one of the following 802.11 protocols to display on the coverage map:

802.11a & b/g—Displays all the access points in the area.

802.11a—Displays a colored overlay depicting the coverage patterns for the 802.11a radios. The colors show the received signal strength from red (-35 dBm) through dark blue (-85 dBm).

802.11b/g—Displays a colored overlay depicting the coverage patterns for the 802.11b/g radios. The colors show the received signal strength from red (-35 dBm) through dark blue (-85 dBm). This is the default value.

Step 5 From the Display drop-down menu, choose one of the following options to specify the information that appears in the flag next to each access point on the map:

Names—Displays the access point name. This is the default value.

MAC Addresses—Displays the MAC address of the access point, regardless of whether the access point is associated to a controller.

Controller IP—Displays the IP address of the controller to which the access point is associated or "Not Associated" for disassociated access points.

Utilization—Displays the percentage of bandwidth used by the associated client devices, "Unavailable" for disassociated access points, or "MonitorOnly" for access points in monitor-only mode.

Channels—Shows the Cisco Radio channel number as Ch#nn, where nn is the channel number, or shows Unavailable for unconnected access points.

TX Power Level—Shows the current Cisco Radio transmit power level as Tx Power n, where n is power level 1 (high) through 5 (low) or shows Unavailable for unconnected access points.

Coverage Holes—Shows the percentage of clients whose signal has become weaker until the client lost its connection, shows Unavailable for unconnected access points, or shows MonitorOnly for access points in Monitor-Only mode.

Profiles—Shows the Load, Noise, Interference and Coverage components of the corresponding operator-defined thresholds: Okay for thresholds not exceeded, Issue for exceeded thresholds, or Unavailable for unconnected access points.

Users—Shows the number of Cisco WLAN Solution clients, shows Unavailable for unconnected access points, or shows MonitorOnly for access points in Monitor-Only mode.

Step 6 Click OK.

Figure 5-18 shows a typical RF prediction heat map with access points covering one floor of a building.

Figure 5-18 RF Prediction Heat Map


Monitoring Channels on a Floor Map

Follow these steps to monitor channels on a floor map.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click an item in the Name column and click the floor map.

Step 3 Click the View Filters icon. The AP Filter window appears.

Step 4 From the Display drop-down menu, choose Channels and click OK. The number of the channel being used by each radio appears in the flag next to each access point. "Unavailable" appears for disassociated access points.


Note The available channels are defined by the country code setting and are regulated by each country. For a complete list of country codes supported per product, go to http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/ps5679/ps5861/product_data_sheet0900aecd80537b6a_ps430_Products_Data_Sheet.html.



Monitoring Transmit Power Levels on a Floor Map

Follow these steps to monitor transmit power levels on a floor map.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click an item in the Name column and click the floor map.

Step 3 Click the View Filters icon. The AP Filter window appears.

Step 4 From the Display drop-down menu, choose Tx Power Level and click OK. The number of the transmit power level being used by each radio appears in the flag next to each access point. "Unavailable" appears for disassociated access points.

Table 5-3 lists the transmit power level numbers and their corresponding power settings:

Table 5-3 Transmit Power Level Values

Transmit Power
Level Number
Power Setting

1

Maximum power allowed per country code setting

2

50% power

3

25% power

4

12.5 to 6.25% power

5

6.25 to 0.195% power



Note The power levels are defined by the country code setting and are regulated by each country. For a complete list of country codes supported per product, go to http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/ps5679/ps5861/product_data_sheet0900aecd80537b6a_ps430_Products_Data_Sheet.html.


Monitoring Coverage Holes on a Floor Map

Coverage holes are areas where clients cannot receive a signal from the wireless network. When you deploy a wireless network, there is a trade-off between the cost of the initial network deployment and the percentage of coverage hole areas. A reasonable coverage hole criterion for launch is between 2 and 10 percent. This means that between two and ten test locations out of 100 random test locations might receive marginal service. After launch, Cisco Unified Wireless Network Solution radio resource management (RRM) identifies these coverage hole areas and reports them to the IT manager, who can fill holes based on user demand.

Follow these steps to monitor coverage holes on a floor map.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click an item in the Name column and click the floor map.

Step 3 Click the View Filters icon. The AP Filter window appears.

Step 4 From the Display drop-down menu, choose Coverage Holes and click OK. The percentage of clients that have lost their connection to the wireless network appears in the flag next to each access point. "Unavailable" appears for disassociated access points, and "MonitorOnly" appears for access points in monitor-only mode.


Monitoring Clients on a Floor Map

Follow these steps to monitor client devices on a floor map.


Step 1 Click Monitor > Maps to display the Maps page.

Step 2 Click an item in the Name column and click the floor map.

Step 3 Click the View Filters icon. The AP Filter window appears.

Step 4 From the Display drop-down menu, choose Users and click OK. The number of client devices associated to each radio appears in the flag next to each access point. "Unavailable" appears for disassociated access points, and "MonitorOnly" appears for access points in monitor-only mode.

Step 5 Click the number of clients to display a list of specific client devices and parameters. Table 5-4 lists the parameters that appear.

Table 5-4 Client Parameters

Parameter
Description

User

The username of the client

Vendor

The manufacturer of the client

IP Address

The IP address of the client

MAC Address

The MAC address of the client

Access Point

The name of the access point to which the client is associated

Controller

The IP address of the controller to which the access point is connected

Port

The port number of the controller to which the access point is connected

802.11 State

Indicates whether the client is associated or disassociated

SSID

The service set identifier (SSID) being broadcast by the access point

Authenticated

Indicates whether authentication is enabled or disabled

Protocol

Indicates whether the 802.11a or 802.11b/g protocol is being used



Monitoring Outdoor Areas

Follow these steps to add outdoor areas to a campus.


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Maps.

Step 2 Click a campus name in the Name column.

Step 3 From the Select a command drop-down menu, choose New Outdoor Area and click GO.

Step 4 Enter the user-defined name of the new outdoor area.

Step 5 Provide a contact name.

Step 6 Use the drop-down menu to choose what type of structures exist in this area. You can choose cubes and walled offices, drywall office only, or outdoor open space.

Step 7 Enter the height in feet where the access point is mounted.

Step 8 Enter the name of the file containing the outdoor area map or use the Browse button to locate the file. Click Next to continue with the new outdoor area process.

Step 9 A blue rectangle appears in the upper right-hand corner, superimposed on the map of the campus. Using the mouse, drag this rectangle to the desired outdoor location. To resize the blue rectangle, use Ctrl+Left+Click.

Step 10 The name and contact information carries over to this screen. Use the zoom to get a different view of the map.

Step 11 Click the Maintain Image Aspect Ratio check box if you want to maintain the ratio of horizontal and vertical pixels of the map image. Maintaining the aspect ratio prevents visual distortion of the map.

Step 12 Enter the horizontal distance from the corner of the outdoor area rectangle to the left edge of the campus map in feet or meters.

Step 13 Enter the vertical distance from the corner of the outdoor area rectangle to the top edge of the campus map in feet or meters.

Step 14 Enter the left to right horizontal span of the outdoor area rectangle in feet or meters.

Step 15 Enter the up and down vertical span of the outdoor area rectangle in feet or meters.


Note To change the unit of measurement (feet or meters), choose Monitor > Maps and then choose Properties from the Select a command drop-down menu and click GO. The first drop-down menu on the Maps > Properties window allows you choose between feet or meters as a unit of dimension.


Step 16 Choose Place to fix the changes on the display or Save to add them to the database.


Creating and Applying Calibration Models

If the provided RF models do not sufficiently characterize the floor layout, you can create a calibration model that is applied to the floor and better represents the attenuation characteristics of that floor. In environments in which many floors share common attenuation characteristics (such as in a library), one calibration model can be created and then applied to floors with the same physical layout and same deployment.

The calibration models are used as RF overlays with measured RF signal characteristics that can be applied to different floor areas. This enables the Cisco WLAN solution installation team to lay out one floor in a multi-floor area, use the RF calibration tool to measure, save the RF characteristics of that floor as a new calibration model, and apply that calibration model to all the other floors with the same physical layout.

Use a laptop or other wireless device to open a browser to the WCS server and perform the calibration process.


Step 1 Navigate to Monitor > Maps and choose RF Calibration Models from the drop-down menu in the upper right. Click Go.

Step 2 Choose Create New Model from the drop-down menu in the upper right. Click Go.

Step 3 Assign a name to the model and click OK.

Step 4 The new model appears along with the other RF calibration models, but its status is listed as Not Yet Calibrated. To start the calibration process, click on the hyperlink associated with the new model name. A new window appears which indicates the details of the new model. In the upper right-hand corner, choose Add Data Points from the drop-down menu and click Go.

Step 5 If this process is being performed from a mobile device connected to the Cisco Centralized architecture through WCS, the MAC address field is automatically populated with the device's address. Otherwise, you can manually enter the MAC address of the device being used to perform the calibration. MAC addresses that are manually entered must be delimited with colons (such as FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF).

Step 6 Choose the appropriate campus, building, and floor where the calibration is performed (see Figure 5-19). Click Next.

Figure 5-19 Starting to Calibrate

Step 7 When the chosen floor map and access point locations are presented, a grid of dots indicates the locations where data collection for calibration is performed. Using these locations as guidelines, position a wireless device in a known location on the floor. Click on the map to position the red crosshairs, indicate where the device should be located, and click Save (see Figure 5-20).

Figure 5-20 Positioning the Crosshairs


Note Use a client device that supports both 802.11a and 802.11b/g to expedite the calibration process for both spectrums.


Step 8 Using the suggested location coordinates as a guideline, continue moving the mobile device throughout the floor, ensuring that the red cross hair exactly correlate with the actual location of the device. Click Save to store each location measurement.

Perform this process for each spectrum in which locationing is required until the calibration wizard shows that the process is complete. The calibration wizard shows a complete calibration after roughly 50 distinct locations and 150 measurements have been gathered. For every location point saved in the calibration process, more than one data point is gathered. Information on calibration status is provided in a legend on the left-hand side of the window. As data points are collected and areas of the map are properly calibrated, coverage is indicated by colored areas that correspond with the specific wireless LAN standard used to collect that data.The progress of the calibration process is indicated by two status bars above the legend, one for 802.11b/g and one for 802.11a progress.

Step 9 When the calibration is complete for each spectrum in which locationing is required, click on the name of the calibration model at the top of the window to return to the main screen for that model.

Step 10 After all the raw data collection is performed, compile the model, and then WCS and the location appliance use the data to understand RF attenuation characteristics. To compute the collected data points, choose Calibrate from the drop-down menu and click Go.

Step 11 To use the newly created calibration model, you must apply the model to the floor on which it was created (and on any other floors with similar attenuation characteristics as well). Navigate to Monitor > Maps and find the specific floor to which the model is applied. At the floor map interface, choose Edit Floor Area from the drop-down menu and click Go.

Step 12 From the Floor Type (RF Model) drop-down menu, choose the newly created calibration model. Click OK to apply the model to the floor.


Note This process can be repeated for as many models and floors as needed. After a model is applied to a floor, all location determination performed on that floor is done using the specific collected attenuation data from the calibration model.



Modifying the Appearance of Floor Maps

You can modify the appearance of the floor map by selecting an option from the View drop-down list. From the drop-down list, you can choose the following options:

Show/Hide APs

Show/Hide AP Heatmaps

Show AP Mesh Info (displayed only when bridging access points are added to the floor): When this option is chosen, Cisco WCS initiates a contact with the controllers and displays information about bridging access points. The following information is displayed:

Link between the child and the parent access point.

An arrow that indicates the direction from child to parent access point.

A color coded link that indicates the signal-to-noise radio (SNR). A green link represents a high SNR (above 25 dB), an amber link represents an acceptable SNR (20-25 dB), and a red link represents a very low SNR (below 20 dB).

Show/Hide Clients

Show/Hide 802.11 tags

Show/Hide Rogue APs

Show/Hide Rogue Clients

Show/Hide Grid

Show/Hide 802.11 coverage areas

Full screen

Set as default

Monitoring Calibration Models

Follow the steps below to adjust the properties of the RF calibration model.


Step 1 Choose Monitor > Maps.

Step 2 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose RF Calibration Models and click GO.

Step 3 Click an RF calibrated model name.

Step 4 From the Select a command drop-down list, choose Properties and click GO.

Step 5 Click the Sweep Client Power for Location check box if you want to enable. You may want to enable this if a high density of access points exists, and transmit power is reduced or unknown. The sweeping range of client transmit powers may improve accuracy, but scalability is negatively affected.

Step 6 Choose the binsize (4, 8, 16, 32) from the HeatMap Binsize drop-down menu.

Step 7 Determine the heatmap cutoff. A low heatmap cutoff is recommended, particularly if the access point density is high, and RF propogration conditions are favorable. A higher cutoff value increases scalability yet may cause difficulty when locating clients.

Step 8 Determine the heatmap cutoff. A low heatmap cutoff is recommended, particularly if the access point density is high, and RF propogation conditions are favorable. A higher cutoff value increases scalability yet may cause difficulty when locating clients.


Analyzing Element Location Accuracy Using Testpoints

You can analyze the location accuracy of rogue and non-rogue clients and asset tags by entering testpoints on an area or floor map. You can use this feature to validate location information generated either automatically by access points or manually by calibration.


Note By checking for location accuracy, you are checking the ability of the existing access point deployment to estimate the true location of an element within 10 meters at least 90% of the time.



Note Before starting this process, be sure to have the MAC addresses and locations for all elements within the area or floor to be analyzed. You need this information when placing the testpoints on the map. If analyzing location after calibration, you should analyze the location accuracy of at least as many elements entered during calibration.



Note The Advanced Debug option must be enabled on both the location appliance and WCS to allow use of the location accuracy testpoint feature.


Follow these steps to enable the advanced debug option, and; assign testpoints to a floor map to check location accuracy.


Step 1 Choose Location > Location Servers.

Step 2 Select a server from the All Location Servers page that appears.

Step 3 Select Advanced Parameters from the Administration menu of the Location Server General Properties page (see Figure 5-21).

Figure 5-21 Location Server General Properties Page

Step 4 On the page that appears, scroll down to the Advanced Parameters section (see Figure 5-22) of the page.

Figure 5-22 Location Server > Advanced Parameters Page

Step 5 Check the Advanced Debug box to enable the feature. Click Save.


Note If the Advanced Debug check box is already checked, you do not need to do anything further. Click Cancel.


You are now ready to begin assigning testpoints to a selected area or map.

Step 6 Choose Monitor > Maps.

Step 7 Select Properties from the Select a command drop-down menu.

Step 8 On the Maps > Properties page (see Figure 5-23), select Enable from the Advanced Debug drop-down menu. Click OK.

You are now ready to assign testpoints.

Figure 5-23 Maps > Properties Page

Step 9 Choose Monitor > Maps. Select the area or floor you want to analyze from the map summary that appears.

The page seen in Figure 5-24 appears.

Figure 5-24 Selected Area or Floor Map Chosen at Monitor > Maps Page

Step 10 Select Position TestPoint from the Select a command drop-down menu (top-right). Click GO.

A blank map of the selected area or floor appears for testpoint assignment (see Figure 5-25).

Figure 5-25 Position TestPoint Assignment Page

Step 11 Move the red cross-hair cursor (top-left) to the map location that corresponds to the element.


Note Instead of using the cursor, you can enter the horizontal (Horz) and vertical (Vert) coordinates of the asset tag or client to mark its location.


Step 12 Select the MAC Address (MAC Addr) associated with that element. Click Save.


Note If you entered horizontal and vertical coordinates, click Place TP instead of Save.


A pop up box will appear noting successful addition of the testpoint for the element and its MAC address.

Step 13 Repeat steps 11 and 12 for each client or asset tag you want to add to the map.

Step 14 Click Analyze (far-right) to determine location accuracy of the entered testpoints.

A pop up window appears providing accuracy information (see Figure 5-26).

Figure 5-26 Location Accuracy Results