Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 7.0.116.0
Chapter 15 - Configuring Hybrid REAP
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Table of Contents

Configuring Hybrid REAP

Overview of Hybrid REAP

Hybrid-REAP Authentication Process

Hybrid-REAP Guidelines

Configuring Hybrid REAP

Configuring the Switch at the Remote Site

Configuring the Controller for Hybrid REAP

Using the GUI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP

Using the CLI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP

Configuring an Access Point for Hybrid REAP

Using the GUI to Configure an Access Point for Hybrid REAP

Using the CLI to Configure an Access Point for Hybrid REAP

Using the GUI to Configure an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN

Using the CLI to Configure an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN

Connecting Client Devices to the WLANs

Configuring Hybrid-REAP Groups

Hybrid-REAP Groups and Backup RADIUS Servers

Hybrid-REAP Groups and CCKM

Hybrid-REAP Groups and OKC

Hybrid-REAP Groups and Local Authentication

Using the GUI to Configure Hybrid-REAP Groups

Using the CLI to Configure Hybrid-REAP Groups

Configuring Hybrid REAP

This chapter describes hybrid REAP and explains how to configure this feature on controllers and access points. It contains these sections:

Overview of Hybrid REAP

Hybrid REAP is a wireless solution for branch office and remote office deployments. It enables customers to configure and control access points in a branch or remote office from the corporate office through a wide area network (WAN) link without deploying a controller in each office. The hybrid-REAP access points can switch client data traffic locally and perform client authentication locally when their connection to the controller is lost. When they are connected to the controller, they can also send traffic back to the controller. In connected mode, the hybrid REAP access point can also perform local authentication.

Hybrid REAP is supported only on the 1130AG, 1140, 1240, 1250, 1260, AP801, AP802, and AP3550 access points on the Cisco WiSM, Cisco 5500, 4400, 2100, 2500, and Flex 7500 Series Controllers, the Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch; the Controller Network Module for Integrated Services Routers. Figure 15-1 shows a typical hybrid-REAP deployment.


Note Do not connect hybrid REAP access points directly to any physical port on Cisco 2100 or 2500 Series Controller platform.



Note A newly connected access point cannot be booted in hybrid REAP mode.


Figure 15-1 Hybrid-REAP Deployment

 

There is no deployment restriction on the number of hybrid-REAP access points per location. However, the minimum bandwidth restriction remains 128 kbps with the round-trip latency no greater than 300 ms and the maximum transmission unit (MTU) no smaller than 500 bytes.


Note Hybrid REAP access points do not support client load balancing.


Hybrid-REAP Authentication Process

When an access point boots up, it looks for a controller. If it finds one, it joins the controller, downloads the latest software image and configuration from the controller, and initializes the radio. It saves the downloaded configuration in nonvolatile memory for use in standalone mode.


Note Once the access point is rebooted after downloading the latest controller software, it must be converted to the hybrid REAP mode. This can done using the GUI or CLI.


A hybrid-REAP access point can learn the controller IP address in one of these ways:

  • If the access point has been assigned an IP address from a DHCP server, it can discover a controller through the regular CAPWAP or LWAPP discovery process.

Note OTAP is no longer supported on the controllers with 6.0.196 code and above.


  • If the access point has been assigned a static IP address, it can discover a controller through any of the discovery process methods except DHCP option 43. If the access point cannot discover a controller through Layer 3 broadcast, we recommend DNS resolution. With DNS, any access point with a static IP address that knows of a DNS server can find at least one controller.
  • If you want the access point to discover a controller from a remote network where CAPWAP or LWAPP discovery mechanisms are not available, you can use priming. This method enables you to specify (through the access point CLI) the controller to which the access point is to connect.

Note See “Controlling Lightweight Access Points,” or the controller deployment guide at this URL for more information on how access points find controllers:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/technology/controller/deployment/guide/dep.html


When a hybrid-REAP access point can reach the controller (referred to as connected mode), the controller assists in client authentication. When a hybrid-REAP access point cannot access the controller, the access point enters standalone mode and authenticates clients by itself.


Note The LEDs on the access point change as the device enters different hybrid-REAP modes. See the hardware installation guide for your access point for information on LED patterns.


When a client associates to a hybrid-REAP access point, the access point sends all authentication messages to the controller and either switches the client data packets locally (locally switched) or sends them to the controller (centrally switched), depending on the WLAN configuration. With respect to client authentication (open, shared, EAP, web authentication, and NAC) and data packets, the WLAN can be in any one of the following states depending on the configuration and state of controller connectivity:

  • central authentication, central switching—In this state, the controller handles client authentication, and all client data is tunneled back to the controller. This state is valid only in connected mode.
  • central authentication, local switching—In this state, the controller handles client authentication, and the hybrid-REAP access point switches data packets locally. After the client authenticates successfully, the controller sends a configuration command with a new payload to instruct the hybrid-REAP access point to start switching data packets locally. This message is sent per client. This state is applicable only in connected mode.
  • local authentication, local switching—In this state, the hybrid-REAP access point handles client authentication and switches client data packets locally. This state is valid in standalone mode and connected mode.

In connected mode, the access point provides minimal information about the locally authenticated client to the controller. The following information is not available to the controller:

Policy type

Access VLAN

VLAN name

Supported rates

Encryption cipher

Local authentication is useful where you cannot maintain a remote office setup of a minimum bandwidth of 128 kbps with the round-trip latency no greater than 300 ms and the maximum transmission unit (MTU) no smaller than 500 bytes. In local authentication, the authentication capabilities are present in the access point itself. Local authentication reduces the latency requirements of the branch office.


Note Local authentication can only be enabled on the WLAN of a hybrid-REAP access point that is in local switching mode.


Notes about local authentication are as follows:

Guest authentication cannot be done on a hybrid-REAP local authentication-enabled WLAN.

Local RADIUS on the controller is not supported.

Once the client has been authenticated, roaming is only supported after the controller and the other hybrid REAP access points in the group are updated with the client information.

Local authentication in connected mode requires a WLAN configuration.


Note When locally switched clients that are connected to a hybrid REAP access point renew the IP addresses, on joining back, the client continues to stay in the run state. These clients are not reauthenticated by the controller.


  • authentication down, switch down—In this state, the WLAN disassociates existing clients and stops sending beacon and probe requests. This state is valid in both standalone mode and connected mode.
  • authentication down, local switching—In this state, the WLAN rejects any new clients trying to authenticate, but it continues sending beacon and probe responses to keep existing clients alive. This state is valid only in standalone mode.

When a hybrid-REAP access point enters standalone mode, WLANs that are configured for open, shared, WPA-PSK, or WPA2-PSK authentication enter the “local authentication, local switching” state and continue new client authentications. In controller software release 4.2 or later releases, this configuration is also correct for WLANs that are configured for 802.1X, WPA-802.1X, WPA2-802.1X, or CCKM, but these authentication types require that an external RADIUS server be configured. You can also configure a local RADIUS server on a HREAP access point to support 802.1X in a standalone mode or with local authentication.

Other WLANs enter either the “authentication down, switching down” state (if the WLAN was configured for central switching) or the “authentication down, local switching” state (if the WLAN was configured for local switching).

When hybrid-REAP access points are connected to the controller (rather than in standalone mode), the controller uses its primary RADIUS servers and accesses them in the order specified on the RADIUS Authentication Servers page or in the config radius auth add CLI command (unless the server order is overridden for a particular WLAN). However, to support 802.1X EAP authentication, hybrid-REAP access points in standalone mode need to have their own backup RADIUS server to authenticate clients.


Note A controller does not use a backup RADIUS server. The controller uses the backup RADIUS server in local authentication mode.


You can configure a backup RADIUS server for individual hybrid-REAP access points in standalone mode by using the controller CLI or for groups of hybrid-REAP access points in standalone mode by using either the GUI or CLI. A backup server configured for an individual access point overrides the backup RADIUS server configuration for a hybrid-REAP.

When a hybrid-REAP access point enters standalone mode, it disassociates all clients that are on centrally switched WLANs. For web-authentication WLANs, existing clients are not disassociated, but the hybrid-REAP access point stops sending beacons when the number of associated clients reaches zero (0). It also sends disassociation messages to new clients associating to web-authentication WLANs. Controller-dependent activities, such as network access control (NAC) and web authentication (guest access), are disabled, and the access point does not send any intrusion detection system (IDS) reports to the controller. Most radio resource management (RRM) features (such as neighbor discovery; noise, interference, load, and coverage measurements; use of the neighbor list; and rogue containment and detection) are disabled. However, a hybrid-REAP access point supports dynamic frequency selection in standalone mode.


Note If your controller is configured for NAC, clients can associate only when the access point is in connected mode. When NAC is enabled, you need to create an unhealthy (or quarantined) VLAN so that the data traffic of any client that is assigned to this VLAN passes through the controller, even if the WLAN is configured for local switching. After a client is assigned to a quarantined VLAN, all of its data packets are centrally switched. See the “Configuring Dynamic Interfaces” section for information on creating quarantined VLANs and the “Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration” section for information on configuring NAC out-of-band support.


When a hybrid-REAP access point enters into a standalone mode, the following occurs:

  • The access point checks whether it is able to reach the default gateway via ARP. If so, it will continue to try and reach the controller.

If the access point fails to establish the ARP, the following will occur.

  • The access point attempts to discover for five times and if it still cannot find the controller, it tries to renew the DHCP on the ethernet interface to get a new DHCP IP.
  • The access point will retry for five times, and if that fails, the access point will renew the IP address of the interface again, this will happen for three attempts.
  • If the three attempts fail, the access point will fall back to the static IP and will reboot (only if the access point is configured with a static IP).
  • Reboot is done to remove the possibility of any unknown error the access point configuration.

Once the access point reestablishes a connection with the controller, it disassociates all clients, applies new configuration information from the controller, and reallows client connectivity.

Starting release 7.0.116.0 and later releases, the controller software release has added a more robust fault tolerance methodology to hybrid REAP access points. In previous releases, whenever a hybrid REAP access point disassociates from a controller, it moves to the standalone mode. The clients that are centrally switched are disassociated. However, the hybrid REAP access point continues to serve locally switched clients. When the hybrid REAP access point rejoins the controller (or a standby controller), all clients are disconnected and are authenticated again. In the controller software 7.0.116.0 and later releases, this functionality has been enhanced and the connection between the clients and the hybrid REAP access points are maintained intact and the clients experience seameless connectivity.


Note This feature can be used only when both the access point and the controller have the same configuration.



Note Clients that are centrally authenticated are reauthenticated.



Note Client connections are restored only for locally switched clients that are in the RUN state when the access point moves from the standalone mode to the connected mode. After the access point moves from the standalone mode to the connected mode, the access point’s radio is also reset.



Note The configuration on the controller must be the same between the time the access point went into standalone mode and the time the access point came back to connected mode. Similarly, if the access point is falling back to a secondary or backup controller, the configuration between the primary and secondary or backup controller must be the same.


Session timeout and reauthentication is performed when the access point establishes a connected to the controller.

After the client connection has been established, the controller does not restore the original attributes of the client. The client username, current rate and supported rates, and listen interval values are reset to the default values only after the session timer expires.

Hybrid-REAP Guidelines

Follow these guidelines when using hybrid REAP:

  • You can deploy a hybrid-REAP access point with either a static IP address or a DHCP address. In the case of DHCP, a DHCP server must be available locally and must be able to provide the IP address for the access point at bootup.
  • Hybrid REAP supports up to four fragmented packets or a minimum 500-byte maximum transmission unit (MTU) WAN link.
  • Round-trip latency must not exceed 300 milliseconds (ms) between the access point and the controller, and CAPWAP control packets must be prioritized over all other traffic. In cases where you cannot achieve the 300 milliseconds round-trip latency, you can configure the access point to perform local authentication. See the “Hybrid-REAP Authentication Process” section to know more about hybrid-REAP local authentication using local authentication and local switching.
  • The controller can send multicast packets in the form of unicast or multicast packets to the access point. In hybrid-REAP mode, the access point can receive multicast packets only in unicast form.
  • To use CCKM fast roaming with hybrid-REAP access points, you must configure hybrid-REAP Groups. See the “Configuring Hybrid-REAP Groups” section for more information.
  • Hybrid-REAP access points support a 1-1 network address translation (NAT) configuration. They also support port address translation (PAT) for all features except true multicast. Multicast is supported across NAT boundaries when configured using the Unicast option. Hybrid-REAP access points also support a many-to-one NAT/PAT boundary, except when you want true multicast to operate for all centrally switched WLANs.

Note Although NAT and PAT are supported for hybrid-REAP access points, they are not supported on the corresponding controller. Cisco does not support configurations in which the controller is behind a NAT/PAT boundary.


  • VPN and PPTP are supported for locally switched traffic if these security types are accessible locally at the access point.
  • Hybrid-REAP access points support multiple SSIDs. See the “Using the CLI to Create WLANs” section for more information.
  • NAC out-of-band integration is supported only on WLANs configured for hybrid-REAP central switching. It is not supported for use on WLANs configured for hybrid-REAP local switching. See the “Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration” section for more information.
  • The primary and secondary controllers for a hybrid-REAP access point must have the same configuration. Otherwise, the access point might lose its configuration, and certain features (such as WLAN override, VLANs, static channel number, and so on) might not operate correctly. In addition, make sure to duplicate the SSID of the hybrid-REAP access point and its index number on both controllers.
  • The QoS profile per-user bandwidth contracts are not supported for H-REAP locally switched WLANs. The QoS per-user bandwidth contracts are only supported for centrally switched WLANs and APs in the local mode.
  • HREAP Access Points with Locally Switched WLAN cannot perform IP Source Guard and prevent ARP spoofing. For Centrally Switched WLAN, the wireless controller can perform IP Source Guard and ARP Spoofing.
  • To prevent ARP spoofing attacks in HREAP AP with Local Switching, we recommend you to use ARP Inspection.

Note If you configure a hybrid REAP access point with a syslog server configured on the access point, after the access point is reloaded and the native VLAN other than 1, at time of initialization, few syslog packets from the access point are tagged with VLAN ID 1. This is a known issue.


Configuring Hybrid REAP

To configure hybrid REAP, you must follow the instructions in these sections in the order provided:

Configuring the Switch at the Remote Site

To prepare the switch at the remote site, follow these steps:


Step 1 Attach the access point that will be enabled for hybrid REAP to a trunk or access port on the switch.


Note The sample configuration in this procedure shows the hybrid-REAP access point connected to a trunk port on the switch.


Step 2 See the sample configuration in this procedure to configure the switch to support the hybrid-REAP access point.

In this sample configuration, the hybrid-REAP access point is connected to trunk interface FastEthernet 1/0/2 with native VLAN 100. The access point needs IP connectivity on the native VLAN. The remote site has local servers/resources on VLAN 101. A DHCP pool is created in the local switch for both VLANs in the switch. The first DHCP pool (NATIVE) is used by the hybrid-REAP access point, and the second DHCP pool (LOCAL-SWITCH) is used by the clients when they associate to a WLAN that is locally switched. The bolded text in the sample configuration shows these settings.


Note The addresses in this sample configuration are for illustration purposes only. The addresses that you use must fit into your upstream network.


A sample local switch configuration is as follows:

ip dhcp pool NATIVE
network 10.10.100.0 255.255.255.0
default-router 10.10.100.1
!
ip dhcp pool LOCAL-SWITCH
network 10.10.101.0 255.255.255.0
default-router 10.10.101.1
!
interface FastEthernet1/0/1
description Uplink port
no switchport
ip address 10.10.98.2 255.255.255.0
spanning-tree portfast
!
interface FastEthernet1/0/2
description the Access Point port
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk native vlan 100
switchport trunk allowed vlan 100,101
switchport mode trunk
spanning-tree portfast
!
interface Vlan100
ip address 10.10.100.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.10.100.1
!
interface Vlan101
ip address 10.10.101.1 255.255.255.0
ip helper-address 10.10.101.1
end
!


 

Configuring the Controller for Hybrid REAP

This section describes how to configure the controller for hybrid REAP using either the controller GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP

The controller configuration for hybrid REAP consists of creating centrally switched and locally switched WLANs. Table 15-1 shows the three WLANs as an example.

Table 15-1 WANs Example

WLAN
Security
Authentication
Switching
Interface Mapping (VLAN)

employee

WPA1+WPA2

Central

Central

management (centrally switched VLAN)

employee-local

WPA1+WPA2 (PSK)

Local

Local

101 (locally switched VLAN)

guest-central

Web authentication

Central

Central

management (centrally switched VLAN)

employee-local-auth

WPA1+WPA2

Local

Local

101 (locally switched VLAN)


Note See the “Using the CLI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP” section if you would prefer to configure the controller for hybrid REAP using the CLI.


To configure the controller for these WLANs, follow these steps:


Step 1 Create a centrally switched WLAN (in our example, this is the first WLAN (employee)) as follows:

a. Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.

b. From the drop-down list, choose Create New and click Go to open the WLANs > New page (see Figure 15-2).

Figure 15-2 WLANs > New Page

 

c. From the Type drop-down list, choose WLAN .

d. In the Profile Name text box, enter a unique profile name for the WLAN.

e. In the WLAN SSID text box, enter a name for the WLAN.

f. From the WLAN ID drop-down list, choose the ID number for this WLAN.

g. Click Apply to commit your changes. The WLANs > Edit page appears (see Figure 15-3).

Figure 15-3 WLANs > Edit Page

 

h. Modify the configuration parameters for this WLAN using the various WLANs > Edit tabs. In our employee WLAN example, you would need to choose WPA+WPA2 for Layer 2 Security from the Security > Layer 2 tabs and then set the WPA+WPA2 parameters.


Note Be sure to enable this WLAN by selecting the Status check box on the General tab.



Note If NAC is enabled and you created a quarantined VLAN and want to use it for this WLAN, be sure to select it from the Interface drop-down list on the General tab.


i. Click Apply to commit your changes.

j. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 2 Create a locally switched WLAN (in our example, this is the second WLAN [employee-local]) as follows:

a. Follow the substeps in Create a centrally switched WLAN (in our example, this is the first WLAN (employee)) as follows: to create a new WLAN. In our example, this WLAN is named “employee-local.”

b. When the WLANs > Edit page appears, modify the configuration parameters for this WLAN. In our employee WLAN example, you would need to choose WPA+WPA2 for Layer 2 Security from the Security > Layer 2 tabs and then set the WPA+WPA2 parameters.


Note Be sure to enable this WLAN by selecting the Status check box on the General tab. Also, be sure to enable local switching by selecting the H-REAP Local Switching check box on the Advanced tab. When you enable local switching, any hybrid-REAP access point that advertises this WLAN is able to locally switch data packets (instead of tunneling them to the controller).



Note When you enable hybrid-REAP local switching, the Learn Client IP Address check box is enabled by default. However, if the client is configured with Fortress Layer 2 encryption, the controller cannot learn the client IP address, and the controller periodically drops the client. Disable this option so that the controller maintains the client connection without waiting to learn the client IP address. The ability to disable this option is supported only with hybrid-REAP local switching; it is not supported with hybrid-REAP central switching.



Note For hybrid-REAP access points, the interface mapping at the controller for WLANs that is configured for H-REAP Local Switching is inherited at the access point as the default VLAN tagging. This mapping can be easily changed per SSID, per hybrid-REAP access point. Nonhybrid-REAP access points tunnel all traffic back to the controller, and VLAN tagging is dictated by each WLAN’s interface mapping.


c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 3 Follow these steps if you also want to create a centrally switched WLAN that is used for guest access. In our example, this is the third WLAN (guest-central). You might want to tunnel guest traffic to the controller so you can exercise your corporate data policies for unprotected guest traffic from a central site.


Note “Managing User Accounts,” provides additional information on creating guest user accounts.


a. Follow the substeps in Create a centrally switched WLAN (in our example, this is the first WLAN (employee)) as follows: to create a new WLAN. In our example, this WLAN is named “guest-central.”

b. When the WLANs > Edit page appears, modify the configuration parameters for this WLAN. In our employee WLAN example, you would need to choose None for both Layer 2 Security and Layer 3 Security on the Security > Layer 2 and Security > Layer 3 tabs and select the Web Policy check box and make sure Authentication is selected on the Layer 3 tab.


Note If you are using an external web server, you must configure a preauthentication access control list (ACL) on the WLAN for the server and then choose this ACL as the WLAN preauthentication ACL on the Layer 3 tab. See Chapter 6, “Configuring Security Solutions” for more information on ACLs.



Note Make sure to enable this WLAN by selecting the Status check box on the General tab.


c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

e. If you want to customize the content and appearance of the login page that guest users will see the first time they access this WLAN, follow the instructions in Chapter6, “Configuring Security Solutions”

f. To add a local user to this WLAN, choose Security > AAA > Local Net Users.

g. When the Local Net Users page appears, click New. The Local Net Users > New page appears (see Figure 15-4).

Figure 15-4 Local Net Users > New Page

 

h. In the User Name and Password text boxes, enter a username and password for the local user.

i. In the Confirm Password text box, reenter the password.

j. Select the Guest User check box to enable this local user account.

k. In the Lifetime text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) for this user account to remain active.

l. If you are adding a new user, you selected the Guest User check box, and you want to assign a QoS role to this guest user, select the Guest User Role check box. The default setting is unselected.


Note If you do not assign a QoS role to a guest user, the bandwidth contracts for this user are defined in the QoS profile for the WLAN.



Note Guest user configuration is not supported with hybrid REAP local switching.


m. If you are adding a new user and you selected the Guest User Role check box, choose the QoS role that you want to assign to this guest user from the Role drop-down list. If you want to create a new QoS role, see the “Configuring Quality of Service” section for instructions.

n. From the WLAN Profile drop-down list, choose the name of the WLAN that is to be accessed by the local user. If you choose Any WLAN , which is the default setting, the user can access any of the configured WLANs.

o. In the Description text box, enter a descriptive title for the local user (such as “Guest user”).

p. Click Apply to commit your changes.

q. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 4 See to the “Configuring an Access Point for Hybrid REAP” section to configure up to six access points for hybrid-REAP.

Using the CLI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP

Use these commands to configure the controller for hybrid REAP:

  • config wlan h-reap local-switching wlan_id enable—Configures the WLAN for local switching.

Note When you enable hybrid-REAP local switching, the controller waits to learn the client IP address by default. However, if the client is configured with Fortress Layer 2 encryption, the controller cannot learn the client IP address, and the controller periodically drops the client. Use the config wlan h-reap learn-ipaddr wlan_id disable command to disable the client IP address learning feature so that the controller maintains the client connection without waiting to learn the client IP address. The ability to disable this feature is supported only with hybrid-REAP local switching; it is not supported with hybrid-REAP central switching. If you later want to re-enable this feature, enter the config wlan h-reap learn-ipaddr wlan_id enable command.


  • config wlan h-reap local-switching wlan_id disable—Configures the WLAN for central switching. This is the default value.

Note See the “Configuring an Access Point for Hybrid REAP” section to configure up to six access points for hybrid REAP.


Use these commands to obtain hybrid-REAP information:

  • show ap config general Cisco_AP—Shows VLAN configurations.
  • show wlan wlan_id—Shows whether the WLAN is locally or centrally switched.
  • show client detail client_mac—Shows whether the client is locally or centrally switched.

Use these commands to obtain debug information:

  • debug hreap aaa {event | error} {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of hybrid-REAP backup RADIUS server events or errors.
  • debug hreap cckm {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of hybrid-REAP CCKM.
  • debug hreap {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of hybrid-REAP Groups.
  • debug pem state {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of the policy manager state machine.
  • debug pem events {enable | disable}—Enables or disables debugging of policy manager events.

Configuring an Access Point for Hybrid REAP

This section describes how to configure an access point for hybrid REAP using either the controller GUI or CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure an Access Point for Hybrid REAP

To configure an access point for hybrid REAP using the controller GUI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Make sure that the access point has been physically added to your network.

Step 2 Choose Wireless to open the All APs page (see Figure 15-5).

Figure 15-5 All APs Page

 

Step 3 Click the name of the desired access point. The All APs > Details (General) page appears (see Figure 15-6).

Figure 15-6 All APs > Details for (General) Page

 

Step 4 Choose H-REAP from the AP Mode drop-down list to enable hybrid REAP for this access point.


Note The last parameter on the inventory tab indicates whether the access point can be configured for hybrid REAP.


Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes and to cause the access point to reboot.

Step 6 Choose the H-REAP tab to open the All APs > Details for (H-REAP) page (see Figure 15-7).

Figure 15-7 All APs > Details for (H-REAP) Page

 

If the access point belongs to a hybrid-REAP group, the name of the group appears in the HREAP Name text box.

Step 7 Select the VLAN Support check box and enter the number of the native VLAN on the remote network (such as 100) in the Native VLAN ID text box.


Note By default, a VLAN is not enabled on the hybrid-REAP access point. Once hybrid REAP is enabled, the access point inherits the VLAN ID associated to the WLAN. This configuration is saved in the access point and received after the successful join response. By default, the native VLAN is 1. One native VLAN must be configured per hybrid-REAP access point in a VLAN-enabled domain. Otherwise, the access point cannot send and receive packets to and from the controller.



Note To preserve the VLAN mappings in the access point after an upgrade or downgrade, it is necessary that the access point join is restricted to the controller for which it is primed. That is, no other discoverable controller with a different configuration should be available by other means. Similarly, at the time the access point joins, if it moves across controllers which have different VLAN mappings, the VLAN mappings at the access point may get mismatched.


Step 8 Click Apply to commit your changes. The access point temporarily loses its connection to the controller while its Ethernet port is reset.

Step 9 Click the name of the same access point and then choose the H-REAP tab.

Step 10 Click VLAN Mappings to open the All APs > Access Point Name > VLAN Mappings page (see Figure 15-8).

Figure 15-8 All APs > Access Point Name > VLAN Mappings Page

 

Step 11 Enter the number of the VLAN from which the clients will get an IP address when doing local switching (VLAN 101, in this example) in the VLAN ID text box.

Step 12 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 13 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 14 Repeat this procedure for any additional access points that need to be configured for hybrid REAP at the remote site.


 

Using the CLI to Configure an Access Point for Hybrid REAP

Use these commands on the controller to configure an access point for hybrid REAP:


Note You have to configure HREAP AP from the CLI to enable VLAN support and configure SSID to VLAN mappings for HREAP locally switched mode. You need to disable the HREAP AP mode to configure the following:
VLAN support
Change the native vlan
Set SSID to VLAN mappings


  • config ap mode h-reap Cisco_AP—Enables hybrid REAP for this access point.
  • config ap h-reap radius auth set { primary | secondary } ip_address auth_port secret Cisco_AP —Configures a primary or secondary RADIUS server for a specific hybrid-REAP access point.

Note Only the Session Timeout RADIUS attribute is supported in standalone mode. All other attributes as well as RADIUS accounting are not supported.



Note To delete a RADIUS server that is configured for a hybrid-REAP access point, enter the config ap h-reap radius auth delete {primary | secondary} Cisco_AP command.


  • config ap h-reap vlan wlan wlan_id vlan-id Cisco_AP—Enables you to assign a VLAN ID to this hybrid-REAP access point. By default, the access point inherits the VLAN ID associated to the WLAN.
  • config ap h-reap vlan {enable | disable} Cisco_AP—Enables or disables VLAN tagging for this hybrid-REAP access point. By default, VLAN tagging is not enabled. Once VLAN tagging is enabled on the hybrid-REAP access point, WLANs enabled for local switching inherit the VLAN assigned at the controller.
  • config ap h-reap vlan native vlan-id Cisco_AP—Enables you to configure a native VLAN for this hybrid-REAP access point. By default, no VLAN is set as the native VLAN. One native VLAN must be configured per hybrid-REAP access point (when VLAN tagging is enabled). Make sure the switchport to which the access point is connected has a corresponding native VLAN configured as well. If the hybrid-REAP access point’s native VLAN setting and the upstream switchport native VLAN do not match, the access point cannot transmit packets to and from the controller.

Note To preserve the VLAN mappings in the access point after an upgrade or downgrade, it is necessary that the access point join is restricted to the controller for which it is primed. That is, no other discoverable controller with a different configuration should be available by other means. Similarly, at the time the access point joins, if it moves across controllers which have different VLAN mappings, the VLAN mappings at the access point may get mismatched.


Use these commands on the hybrid-REAP access point to obtain status information:

  • show capwap reap status—Shows the status of the hybrid-REAP access point (connected or standalone).
  • show capwap reap association—Shows the list of clients associated to this access point and their SSIDs.

Use these commands on the hybrid-REAP access point to obtain debug information:

  • debug capwap reap—Shows general hybrid-REAP activities.
  • debug capwap reap mgmt—Shows client authentication and association messages.
  • debug capwap reap load—Shows payload activities, which is useful when the hybrid-REAP access point boots up in standalone mode.
  • debug dot11 mgmt interface—Shows 802.11 management interface events.
  • debug dot11 mgmt msg—Shows 802.11 management messages.
  • debug dot11 mgmt ssid—Shows SSID management events.
  • debug dot11 mgmt state-machine—Shows the 802.11 state machine.
  • debug dot11 mgmt station—Shows client events.

Using the GUI to Configure an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN

To configure an access point to enable an access point for local authentication on a WLAN using the controller GUI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.

Step 2 Click the ID number of the desired WLAN. The WLANs > Edit page appears.

Step 3 Choose the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page.

Step 4 Enable H-REAP local switching by selecting the H-reap Local Switching check box under the H-REAP section.

Step 5 Enable H-REAP local authentication by selecting the H-REAP Local Auth check box.


Note Do not connect access points in HREAP mode directly to a Cisco 2100 and 2500 Series Controllers.


Step 6 Click Apply to commit your changes.


 

Using the CLI to Configure an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN

Use the following commands to configure an access point for local authentication on a WLAN:


Note You must enable local switching on the WLAN where you want to enable local authentication for an access point. See the “Using the CLI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP” section for more information.


  • config wlan h-reap ap-auth wlan_id {enable | disable}—Configures the access point to enable or disable local authentication on a WLAN.

Note Do not connect the access points in HREAP mode directly to Cisco 2100 and 2500 Series Controllers.


  • show wlan wlan-id —Displays the configuration for the WLAN. If local authentication is enabled, the following information appears.
. . .
. . .
Web Based Authentication...................... Disabled
Web-Passthrough............................... Disabled
Conditional Web Redirect...................... Disabled
Splash-Page Web Redirect...................... Disabled
Auto Anchor................................... Disabled
H-REAP Local Switching........................ Enabled
H-REAP Local Authentication................... Enabled
H-REAP Learn IP Address....................... Enabled
Client MFP.................................... Optional
Tkip MIC Countermeasure Hold-down Timer....... 60
Call Snooping.................................... Disabled
Roamed Call Re-Anchor Policy..................... Disabled
. . .
. . .

See the “Using the CLI to Configure the Controller for Hybrid REAP” section for more information on viewing and debugging.

Connecting Client Devices to the WLANs

Follow the instructions for your client device to create profiles to connect to the WLANs you created in the “Configuring the Controller for Hybrid REAP” section.

In our example, you would create three profiles on the client:

1. To connect to the “employee” WLAN, you would create a client profile that uses WPA/WPA2 with PEAP-MSCHAPV2 authentication. Once the client becomes authenticated, it should get an IP address from the management VLAN of the controller.

2. To connect to the “local-employee” WLAN, you would create a client profile that uses WPA/WPA2 authentication. Once the client becomes authenticated, it should get an IP address from VLAN 101 on the local switch.

3. To connect to the “guest-central” WLAN, you would create a client profile that uses open authentication. Once the client becomes authenticated, it should get an IP address from VLAN 101 on the network local to the access point. Once the client connects, the local user can type any http address in the web browser. The user is automatically directed to the controller to complete the web-authentication process. When the web login page appears, the user enters his or her username and password.

To see if a client’s data traffic is being locally or centrally switched, choose Monitor > Clients on the controller GUI, click the Detail link for the desired client, and look at the Data Switching parameter under AP Properties.

Configuring Hybrid-REAP Groups

In order to better organize and manage your hybrid-REAP access points, you can create hybrid-REAP Groups and assign specific access points to them.

The number of hybrid-REAP groups and access point support depends on the platform that you are using. You can configure the following:

  • Up to 100 hybrid-REAP groups for a Cisco 5500 Series Controller
  • Up to 500 hybrid-REAP groups for a Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller. The Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller can accommodate up to 50 access points per hybrid REAP group.
  • Up to 20 hybrid-REAP groups with up to 25 access points per group for the remaining controller platforms.

All of the hybrid-REAP access points in a group share the same backup RADIUS server, CCKM, and local authentication configuration information. This feature is helpful if you have multiple hybrid-REAP access points in a remote office or on the floor of a building and you want to configure them all at once. For example, you can configure a backup RADIUS server for a hybrid-REAP rather than having to configure the same server on each access point. Figure 15-9 shows a typical hybrid-REAP deployment with a backup RADIUS server in the branch office.

Figure 15-9 Hybrid-REAP Group Deployment

 

Hybrid-REAP Groups and Backup RADIUS Servers

You can configure the controller to allow a hybrid-REAP access point in standalone mode to perform full 802.1X authentication to a backup RADIUS server. You can configure a primary backup RADIUS server or both a primary and secondary backup RADIUS server. These servers can be used when the hybrid-REAP access point is in of these two modes: standalone or connected.

Hybrid-REAP Groups and CCKM

Hybrid-REAP Groups are required for CCKM fast roaming to work with hybrid-REAP access points. CCKM fast roaming is achieved by caching a derivative of the master key from a full EAP authentication so that a simple and secure key exchange can occur when a wireless client roams to a different access point. This feature prevents the need to perform a full RADIUS EAP authentication as the client roams from one access point to another. The hybrid-REAP access points need to obtain the CCKM cache information for all the clients that might associate so they can process it quickly instead of sending it back to the controller. If, for example, you have a controller with 300 access points and 100 clients that might associate, sending the CCKM cache for all 100 clients is not practical. If you create a hybrid-REAP that includes a limited number of access points (for example, you create a group for four access points in a remote office), the clients roam only among those four access points, and the CCKM cache is distributed among those four access points only when the clients associate to one of them.


Note CCKM fast roaming among hybrid-REAP and non-hybrid-REAP access points is not supported. See the “WPA1 and WPA2” section for information on configuring CCKM.


Hybrid-REAP Groups and OKC

Startingin the 7.0.116.0 release, hybrid-REAP groups enable Opportunistic Key Caching (OKC) to enable fast roaming of clients. OKC facilitates fast roaming by using PMK caching in access points that are in the same Hybrid- REAP group.

This feature prevents the need to perform a full authentication as the client roams from one access point to another. Whenever a client roams from one hybrid-REAP access point to another, the hybrid-REAP group access point calculates the PMKID using the cached PMK.

To see the PMK cache entries at the hybrid-REAP access point, use the show capwap reap pmk command. This feature is supported on Cisco hybrid-REAP access points.


Note The hybrid-REAP access point must be in connected mode when the PMK is derived during WPA2/802.1x authentication.


When using hybrid REAP groups for OKC or CCKM, the PMK-cache is shared only across the access points that are part of the same hybrid REAP group and are associated to the same controller. If the access points are in the same hybrid REAP group but are associated to different controllers that are part of the same mobility group, the PMK cache is not updated and CCKM roaming will fail.

Hybrid-REAP Groups and Local Authentication

You can configure the controller to allow a hybrid-REAP access point in standalone mode to perform LEAP or EAP-FAST authentication for up to 100 statically configured users. The controller sends the static list of usernames and passwords to each hybrid-REAP access point when it joins the controller. Each access point in the group authenticates only its own associated clients.

This feature is ideal for customers who are migrating from an autonomous access point network to a lightweight hybrid-REAP access point network and are not interested in maintaining a large user database or adding another hardware device to replace the RADIUS server functionality available in the autonomous access point.


Note This feature can be used with the hybrid-REAP backup RADIUS server feature. If a hybrid-REAP is configured with both a backup RADIUS server and local authentication, the hybrid-REAP access point always attempts to authenticate clients using the primary backup RADIUS server first, followed by the secondary backup RADIUS server (if the primary is not reachable), and finally the hybrid-REAP access point itself (if the primary and secondary are not reachable).


The number of hybrid-REAP groups and access point support depends on the platform that you are using. You can configure the following:

  • Up to 100 hybrid-REAP groups for a Cisco 5500 Series Controller
  • Up to 500 hybrid-REAP groups for a Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller. The Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller can accommodate up to 50 access points per hybrid REAP group.
  • Up to 20 hybrid-REAP groups with up to 25 access points per group for the remaining platforms.

Follow the instructions in this section to configure hybrid-REAPs using the controller GUI or CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Hybrid-REAP Groups

To configure hybrid-REAP groups using the controller GUI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Choose Wireless > HREAP Groups to open the HREAP Groups page (see Figure 15-10).

Figure 15-10 Hybrid REAP Groups Page

 

This page lists any hybrid-REAP groups that have already been created.


Note If you want to delete an existing group, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that group and choose Remove.


Step 2 To create a new hybrid REAP Group, click New .

Step 3 When the HREAP Groups > New page appears, enter the name of the new group in the Group Name text Box. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters.

Step 4 Click Apply to commit your changes. The new group appears on the HREAP Groups page.

Step 5 To edit the properties of a group, click the name of the desired group. The HREAP Groups > Edit (General) page appears (see Figure 15-11).

Figure 15-11 Hybrid REAPs > Edit (General) Page

 

Step 6 If you want to configure a primary RADIUS server for this group (for example, the access points are using 802.1X authentication), choose the desired server from the Primary RADIUS Server drop-down list. Otherwise, leave the text box set to the default value of None.

Step 7 If you want to configure a secondary RADIUS server for this group, choose the server from the Secondary RADIUS Server drop-down list. Otherwise, leave the field set to the default value of None.

Step 8 To add an access point to the group, click Add AP . Additional fields appear on the page under “Add AP”.

 

Step 9 Perform one of the following:

  • To choose an access point that is connected to this controller, select the Select APs from Current Controller check box and choose the name of the access point from the AP Name drop-down list.

Note If you choose an access point on this controller, the MAC address of the access point is automatically entered in the Ethernet MAC text box to prevent any mismatches from occurring.


  • To choose an access point that is connected to a different controller, leave the Select APs from Current Controller check box unselected and enter its MAC address in the Ethernet MAC text box.

Note If the hybrid-REAP access points within a group are connected to different controllers, all of the controllers must belong to the same mobility group.


Step 10 Click Add to add the access point to this hybrid-REAP group. The access point’s MAC address, name, and status appear at the bottom of the page.


Note If you want to delete an access point, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that access point and choose Remove.


Step 11 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 12 Repeat Perform one of the following: through Click Apply to commit your changes. if you want to add more access points to this hybrid-REAP Group.

Step 13 Enable local authentication for a hybrid-REAP Group as follows:

a. Make sure that the Primary RADIUS Server and Secondary RADIUS Server parameters are set to None .

b. Select the Enable AP Local Authentication check box to enable local authentication for this hybrid-REAP Group. The default value is unselected.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Choose the Local Authentication tab to open the Hybrid REAPs > Edit (Local Authentication > Local Users) page (see Figure 15-12).

Figure 15-12 Hybrid REAP > Edit (Local Authentication > Local Users) Page

 

e. To add clients that you want to be able to authenticate using LEAP or EAP-FAST, perform one of the following:

  • Upload a comma-separated values (CSV) file by selecting the Upload CSV File check box, clicking the Browse button to browse to an CSV file that contains usernames and passwords (each line of the file needs to be in the following format: username, password), and clicking Add to upload the CSV file. The clients’ names appear on the left side of the page under the “User Name” heading.
  • Add clients individually by entering the client’s username in the User Name text box and a password for the client in the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, and clicking Add to add this client to the list of supported local users. The client name appears on the left side of the page under the “User Name” heading.

Note You can add up to 100 clients.


f. Click Apply to commit your changes.

g. Choose the Protocols tab to open the Hybrid REAPs > Edit (Local Authentication > Protocols) page (see Figure 15-13).

Figure 15-13 HREAP Groups > Edit (Local Authentication > Protocols) Page

 

h. To allow a hybrid-REAP access point to authenticate clients using LEAP, select the Enable LEAP Authentication check box and then go to Click Apply to commit your changes..

i. To allow a hybrid-REAP access point to authenticate clients using EAP-FAST, select the Enable EAP-FAST Authentication check box and then go to the next step. The default value is unselected.

j. Perform one of the following, depending on how you want protected access credentials (PACs) to be provisioned:

  • To use manual PAC provisioning, enter the server key used to encrypt and decrypt PACs in the Server Key and Confirm Server Key text boxes. The key must be 32 hexadecimal characters.
  • To allow PACs to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning, select the Enable Auto Key Generation check box.

k. In the Authority ID text box, enter the authority identifier of the EAP-FAST server. The identifier must be 32 hexadecimal characters.

l. In the Authority Info text box, enter the authority identifier of the EAP-FAST server in text format. You can enter up to 32 hexadecimal characters.

m. To specify a PAC timeout value, select the PAC Timeout check box and enter the number of seconds for the PAC to remain viable in the text box. The default value is unselected, and the valid range is 2 to 4095 seconds when enabled.

n. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 14 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 15 Repeat this procedure if you want to add more hybrid-REAPs.


Note To see if an individual access point belongs to a hybrid-REAP Group, you can choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs > the name of the desired access point > the H-REAP tab. If the access point belongs to a hybrid-REAP, the name of the group appears in the Hybrid REAP Name text box.



 

Using the CLI to Configure Hybrid-REAP Groups

To configure hybrid-REAP Groups using the controller CLI, follow these steps:


Step 1 Add or delete a hybrid-REAP Group by entering this command:

config hreap group_name { add | delete }

Step 2 Configure a primary or secondary RADIUS server for the hybrid-REAP Group by entering this command:

config hreap group_name radius server { add | delete } { primary | secondary } server_index

Step 3 Add an access point to the hybrid-REAP Group by entering this command:

config hreap group_name ap { add | delete } ap_mac

Step 4 Configure local authentication for a hybrid-REAP group as follows:

a. Make sure that a primary and secondary RADIUS server are not configured for the hybrid-REAP Group.

b. To enable or disable local authentication for this hybrid-REAP group, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap { enable | disable }

c. To enter the username and password of a client that you want to be able to authenticate using LEAP or EAP-FAST, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap user add username password password


Note You can add up to 100 clients.


d. To allow a hybrid-REAP access point to authenticate clients using LEAP or to disable this behavior, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap leap { enable | disable }

e. To allow a hybrid-REAP access point to authenticate clients using EAP-FAST or to disable this behavior, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap eap-fast { enable | disable }

f. Enter one of the following commands, depending on how you want PACs to be provisioned:

  • config hreap group_name radius ap server-key key—S pecifies the server key used to encrypt and decrypt PACs. The key must be 32 hexadecimal characters.
  • config hreap group_name radius ap server-key auto Allows PACs to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning.

g. To specify the authority identifier of the EAP-FAST server, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap authority id id

where id is 32 hexadecimal characters.

h. To specify the authority identifier of the EAP-FAST server in text format, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap authority info info

where info is up to 32 hexadecimal characters.

i. To specify the number of seconds for the PAC to remain viable, enter this command:

config hreap group_name radius ap pac-timeout timeout

where timeout is a value between 2 and 4095 seconds (inclusive) or 0. A value of 0, which the default value, disables the PAC timeout.

Step 5 Save your changes by entering this command:

save config

Step 6 See the current list of hybrid-REAP Groups by entering this command:

show hreap summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Hreap Summary: Count 2
 
Group Name # Aps
Group 1 1
Group 2 1

Step 7 See the details for a specific hybrid-REAP Groups by entering this command:

show hreap group detail group_name

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of Ap's in Group: 3
 
00:1d:45:12:f2:24 AP1240.EW3.f224 Joined
00:1d:45:12:f7:12 AP1240.10.f712 Joined
00:1d:a1:ed:9f:84 AP1131.23.9f84 Joined
 
 
Group Radius Servers Settings:
Primary Server Index............................ Disabled
Secondary Server Index.......................... Disabled
 
Group Radius AP Settings:
AP RADIUS server............ Enabled
EAP-FAST Auth............... Enabled
LEAP Auth................... Enabled
Server Key Auto Generated... No
Server Key.................. <hidden>
Authority ID................ 436973636f0000000000000000000000
Authority Info.............. Cisco A_ID
PAC Timeout................. 0
Number of User's in Group: 20
 
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