Consolidated Platform Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Release 3.3SE (Cisco WLC 5700 Series)
Configuring IPv4 ACLs
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Configuring IPv4 ACLs

Contents

Configuring IPv4 ACLs

Finding Feature Information

Your software release may not support all the features documented in this module. For the latest feature information and caveats, see the release notes for your platform and software release.

Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​go/​cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.

Prerequisites for Configuring Network Security with ACLs

This section lists the prerequisites for configuring network security with Access Control Lists (ACLs).

  • On switches running the LAN base feature set, VLAN maps are not supported.

Restrictions for Configuring Network Security with ACLs

General Network Security

The following are restrictions for configuring network security with ACLs:

  • You cannot apply named MAC extended ACLs to Layer 3 interfaces.
  • Though visible in the command-line help strings, appletalk is not supported as a matching condition for the deny and permit MAC access-list configuration mode commands.

ACL Filtering

The following are restrictions on ACL filtering:

  • If IEEE 802.1Q tunneling is configured on an interface, any IEEE 802.1Q encapsulated IP packets received on the tunnel port can be filtered by MAC ACLs, but not by IP ACLs. This is because the switch does not recognize the protocol inside the IEEE 802.1Q header. This restriction applies to router ACLs, port ACLs, and VLAN maps.

IPv4 ACL Network Interfaces

The following restrictions apply to IPv4 ACLs to network interfaces:

  • When controlling access to an interface, you can use a named or numbered ACL.
  • If you apply an ACL to a Layer 2 interface that is a member of a VLAN, the Layer 2 (port) ACL takes precedence over an input Layer 3 ACL applied to the VLAN interface or a VLAN map applied to the VLAN.
  • If you apply an ACL to a Layer 3 interface and routing is not enabled on the switch, the ACL only filters packets that are intended for the CPU, such as SNMP, Telnet, or web traffic.
  • You do not have to enable routing to apply ACLs to Layer 2 interfaces.
  • When private VLANs are configured, you can apply router ACLs only on the primary-VLAN SVIs. The ACL is applied to both primary and secondary VLAN Layer 3 traffic.

Note


By default, the router sends Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) unreachable messages when a packet is denied by an access group on a Layer 3 interface. These access-group denied packets are not dropped in hardware but are bridged to the switch CPU so that it can generate the ICMP-unreachable message. They do not generate ICMP unreachable messages. 

ICMP unreachable messages can be disabled on router ACLs with the no ip unreachables interface command.


MAC ACLs on a Layer 2 Interface

After you create a MAC ACL, you can apply it to a Layer 2 interface to filter non-IP traffic coming in that interface. When you apply the MAC ACL, consider these guidelines:

  • If you apply an ACL to a Layer 2 interface that is a member of a VLAN, the Layer 2 (port) ACL takes precedence over an input Layer 3 ACL applied to the VLAN interface or a VLAN map applied to the VLAN. Incoming packets received on the Layer 2 port are always filtered by the port ACL.
  • You can apply no more than one IP access list and one MAC access list to the same Layer 2 interface. The IP access list filters only IP packets, and the MAC access list filters non-IP packets.
  • A Layer 2 interface can have only one MAC access list. If you apply a MAC access list to a Layer 2 interface that has a MAC ACL configured, the new ACL replaces the previously configured one.

Note


The mac access-group interface configuration command is only valid when applied to a physical Layer 2 interface. You cannot use the command on EtherChannel port channels.


Information about Network Security with ACLs

This chapter describes how to configure network security on the switch by using access control lists (ACLs), which in commands and tables are also referred to as access lists.

Cisco TrustSec and ACLs

Catalyst 3850 switches running the IP base or IP services feature set also support Cisco TrustSec Security Group Tag (SCT) Exchange Protocol (SXP). This feature supports security group access control lists (SGACLs), which define ACL policies for a group of devices instead of an IP address. The SXP control protocol allows tagging packets with SCTs without a hardware upgrade, and runs between access layer devices at the Cisco TrustSec domain edge and distribution layer devices within the Cisco TrustSec domain. Catalyst 3850 switches operate as access layer switches in the Cisco TrustSec network.

The sections on SXP define the capabilities supported on the Catalyst 3850 switches.

ACL Overview

Packet filtering can help limit network traffic and restrict network use by certain users or devices. ACLs filter traffic as it passes through a router or switch and permit or deny packets crossing specified interfaces or VLANs. An ACL is a sequential collection of permit and deny conditions that apply to packets. When a packet is received on an interface, the switch compares the fields in the packet against any applied ACLs to verify that the packet has the required permissions to be forwarded, based on the criteria specified in the access lists. One by one, it tests packets against the conditions in an access list. The first match decides whether the switch accepts or rejects the packets. Because the switch stops testing after the first match, the order of conditions in the list is critical. If no conditions match, the switch rejects the packet. If there are no restrictions, the switch forwards the packet; otherwise, the switch drops the packet. The switch can use ACLs on all packets it forwards, including packets bridged within a VLAN.

You configure access lists on a router or Layer 3 switch to provide basic security for your network. If you do not configure ACLs, all packets passing through the switch could be allowed onto all parts of the network. You can use ACLs to control which hosts can access different parts of a network or to decide which types of traffic are forwarded or blocked at router interfaces. For example, you can allow e-mail traffic to be forwarded but not Telnet traffic. ACLs can be configured to block inbound traffic, outbound traffic, or both.

Access Control Entries

An ACL contains an ordered list of access control entries (ACEs). Each ACE specifies permit or deny and a set of conditions the packet must satisfy in order to match the ACE. The meaning of permit or deny depends on the context in which the ACL is used.

ACL Supported Types

The switch supports IP ACLs and Ethernet (MAC) ACLs:

  • IP ACLs filter IPv4 traffic, including TCP, User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).
  • Ethernet ACLs filter non-IP traffic.

This switch also supports quality of service (QoS) classification ACLs.

Supported ACLs

The switch supports three types of ACLs to filter traffic:

  • Port ACLs access-control traffic entering a Layer 2 interface. You can apply only one IP access list and one MAC access list to a Layer 2 interface.
  • Router ACLs access-control routed traffic between VLANs and are applied to Layer 3 interfaces in a specific direction (inbound or outbound).
  • VLAN ACLs or VLAN maps access-control all packets (bridged and routed). You can use VLAN maps to filter traffic between devices in the same VLAN. VLAN maps are configured to provide access control based on Layer 3 addresses for IPv4. Unsupported protocols are access-controlled through MAC addresses using Ethernet ACEs. After a VLAN map is applied to a VLAN, all packets (routed or bridged) entering the VLAN are checked against the VLAN map. Packets can either enter the VLAN through a switch port or through a routed port after being routed.

ACL Precedence

When Port ACLs, router ACLs, and VLAN maps are configured on the same switch, the filtering precedence, from greatest to least, is port ACL, router ACL, then VLAN map. The following examples describe simple use cases:

  • When both an input port ACL and a VLAN map are applied, incoming packets received on ports with a port ACL applied are filtered by the port ACL. Other packets are filtered by the VLAN map
  • When an input router ACL and input port ACL exist in a switch virtual interface (SVI), incoming packets received on ports to which a port ACL is applied are filtered by the port ACL. Incoming routed IP packets received on other ports are filtered by the router ACL. Other packets are not filtered.
  • When an output router ACL and input port ACL exist in an SVI, incoming packets received on the ports to which a port ACL is applied are filtered by the port ACL. Outgoing routed IP packets are filtered by the router ACL. Other packets are not filtered.
  • When a VLAN map, input router ACL, and input port ACL exist in an SVI, incoming packets received on the ports to which a port ACL is applied are only filtered by the port ACL. Incoming routed IP packets received on other ports are filtered by both the VLAN map and the router ACL. Other packets are filtered only by the VLAN map.
  • When a VLAN map, output router ACL, and input port ACL exist in an SVI, incoming packets received on the ports to which a port ACL is applied are only filtered by the port ACL. Outgoing routed IP packets are filtered by both the VLAN map and the router ACL. Other packets are filtered only by the VLAN map.

Port ACLs

Port ACLs are ACLs that are applied to Layer 2 interfaces on a switch. Port ACLs are supported only on physical interfaces and not on EtherChannel interfaces. Port ACLs can be applied on outbound and inbound interfaces. The following access lists are supported:

  • Standard IP access lists using source addresses
  • Extended IP access lists using source and destination addresses and optional protocol type information
  • MAC extended access lists using source and destination MAC addresses and optional protocol type information

The switch examines ACLs on an interface and permits or denies packet forwarding based on how the packet matches the entries in the ACL. In this way, ACLs control access to a network or to part of a network.

Figure 1. Using ACLs to Control Traffic in a Network. This is an example of using port ACLs to control access to a network when all workstations are in the same VLAN. ACLs applied at the Layer 2 input would allow Host A to access the Human Resources network, but prevent Host B from accessing the same network. Port ACLs can only be applied to Layer 2 interfaces in the inbound direction.

When you apply a port ACL to a trunk port, the ACL filters traffic on all VLANs present on the trunk port. When you apply a port ACL to a port with voice VLAN, the ACL filters traffic on both data and voice VLANs.

With port ACLs, you can filter IP traffic by using IP access lists and non-IP traffic by using MAC addresses. You can filter both IP and non-IP traffic on the same Layer 2 interface by applying both an IP access list and a MAC access list to the interface.


Note


You cannot apply more than one IP access list and one MAC access list to a Layer 2 interface. If an IP access list or MAC access list is already configured on a Layer 2 interface and you apply a new IP access list or MAC access list to the interface, the new ACL replaces the previously configured one.


Router ACLs

You can apply router ACLs on switch virtual interfaces (SVIs), which are Layer 3 interfaces to VLANs; on physical Layer 3 interfaces; and on Layer 3 EtherChannel interfaces. You apply router ACLs on interfaces for specific directions (inbound or outbound). You can apply one router ACL in each direction on an interface.

The switch supports these access lists for IPv4 traffic:

  • Standard IP access lists use source addresses for matching operations.
  • Extended IP access lists use source and destination addresses and optional protocol type information for matching operations.

As with port ACLs, the switch examines ACLs associated with features configured on a given interface. As packets enter the switch on an interface, ACLs associated with all inbound features configured on that interface are examined. After packets are routed and before they are forwarded to the next hop, all ACLs associated with outbound features configured on the egress interface are examined.

ACLs permit or deny packet forwarding based on how the packet matches the entries in the ACL, and can be used to control access to a network or to part of a network.

VLAN Maps

Use VLAN ACLs or VLAN maps to access-control all traffic. You can apply VLAN maps to all packets that are routed into or out of a VLAN or are bridged within a VLAN in the switch or switch stack.

Use VLAN maps for security packet filtering. VLAN maps are not defined by direction (input or output).

You can configure VLAN maps to match Layer 3 addresses for IPv4 traffic.

All non-IP protocols are access-controlled through MAC addresses and Ethertype using MAC VLAN maps. (IP traffic is not access controlled by MAC VLAN maps.) You can enforce VLAN maps only on packets going through the switch; you cannot enforce VLAN maps on traffic between hosts on a hub or on another switch connected to this switch.

With VLAN maps, forwarding of packets is permitted or denied, based on the action specified in the map.

Figure 2. Using VLAN Maps to Control Traffic. This shows how a VLAN map is applied to prevent a specific type of traffic from Host A in VLAN 10 from being forwarded. You can apply only one VLAN map to a VLAN.

ACEs and Fragmented and Unfragmented Traffic

IP packets can be fragmented as they cross the network. When this happens, only the fragment containing the beginning of the packet contains the Layer 4 information, such as TCP or UDP port numbers, ICMP type and code, and so on. All other fragments are missing this information.

Some access control entries (ACEs) do not check Layer 4 information and therefore can be applied to all packet fragments. ACEs that do test Layer 4 information cannot be applied in the standard manner to most of the fragments in a fragmented IP packet. When the fragment contains no Layer 4 information and the ACE tests some Layer 4 information, the matching rules are modified:

  • Permit ACEs that check the Layer 3 information in the fragment (including protocol type, such as TCP, UDP, and so on) are considered to match the fragment regardless of what the missing Layer 4 information might have been.
  • Deny ACEs that check Layer 4 information never match a fragment unless the fragment contains Layer 4 information.

Example: ACEs and Fragmented and Unfragmented Traffic

Consider access list 102, configured with these commands, applied to three fragmented packets:


           
           
Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.1 eq smtp
Controller(config)# access-list 102 deny tcp any host 10.1.1.2 eq telnet
Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.2
Controller(config)# access-list 102 deny tcp any any


Note


In the first and second ACEs in the examples, the eq keyword after the destination address means to test for the TCP-destination-port well-known numbers equaling Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Telnet, respectively.


  • Packet A is a TCP packet from host 10.2.2.2., port 65000, going to host 10.1.1.1 on the SMTP port. If this packet is fragmented, the first fragment matches the first ACE (a permit) as if it were a complete packet because all Layer 4 information is present. The remaining fragments also match the first ACE, even though they do not contain the SMTP port information, because the first ACE only checks Layer 3 information when applied to fragments. The information in this example is that the packet is TCP and that the destination is 10.1.1.1.
  • Packet B is from host 10.2.2.2, port 65001, going to host 10.1.1.2 on the Telnet port. If this packet is fragmented, the first fragment matches the second ACE (a deny) because all Layer 3 and Layer 4 information is present. The remaining fragments in the packet do not match the second ACE because they are missing Layer 4 information. Instead, they match the third ACE (a permit). Because the first fragment was denied, host 10.1.1.2 cannot reassemble a complete packet, so packet B is effectively denied. However, the later fragments that are permitted will consume bandwidth on the network and resources of host 10.1.1.2 as it tries to reassemble the packet.
  • Fragmented packet C is from host 10.2.2.2, port 65001, going to host 10.1.1.3, port ftp. If this packet is fragmented, the first fragment matches the fourth ACE (a deny). All other fragments also match the fourth ACE because that ACE does not check any Layer 4 information and because Layer 3 information in all fragments shows that they are being sent to host 10.1.1.3, and the earlier permit ACEs were checking different hosts.

ACLs and Switch Stacks

ACL support is the same for a switch stack as for a standalone switch. ACL configuration information is propagated to all switches in the stack. All switches in the stack, including the active switch, process the information and program their hardware.

Active Switch and ACL Functions

The active switch performs these ACL functions:

  • It processes the ACL configuration and propagates the information to all stack members.
  • It distributes the ACL information to any switch that joins the stack.
  • If packets must be forwarded by software for any reason (for example, not enough hardware resources), the active switch forwards the packets only after applying ACLs on the packets.
  • It programs its hardware with the ACL information it processes.

Stack Member and ACL Functions

Stack members perform these ACL functions:

  • They receive the ACL information from the active switch and program their hardware.
  • A stack member configured as a standby switch, performs the functions of the active switch in the event the active switch fails.

Active Switch Failure and ACLs

Both the active and standby switches have the ACL information. When the active switch fails, the standby takes over. The new active switch distributes the ACL information to all stack members.

Standard and Extended IPv4 ACLs

This section describes IP ACLs.

An ACL is a sequential collection of permit and deny conditions. One by one, the switch tests packets against the conditions in an access list. The first match determines whether the switch accepts or rejects the packet. Because the switch stops testing after the first match, the order of the conditions is critical. If no conditions match, the switch denies the packet.

The software supports these types of ACLs or access lists for IPv4:

  • Standard IP access lists use source addresses for matching operations.
  • Extended IP access lists use source and destination addresses for matching operations and optional protocol-type information for finer granularity of control.

IPv4 ACL Switch Unsupported Features

Configuring IPv4 ACLs on the switch is the same as configuring IPv4 ACLs on other Cisco switches and routers.

The switch does not support these Cisco IOS router ACL-related features:

  • Non-IP protocol ACLs
  • IP accounting
  • Reflexive ACLs and dynamic ACLs are not supported.
  • ACL logging for port ACLs and VLAN maps

Access List Numbers

The number you use to denote your ACL shows the type of access list that you are creating.

This lists the access-list number and corresponding access list type and shows whether or not they are supported in the switch. The switch supports IPv4 standard and extended access lists, numbers 1 to 199 and 1300 to 2699.

Table 1 Access List Numbers

Access List Number

Type

Supported

1–99

IP standard access list

Yes

100–199

IP extended access list

Yes

200–299

Protocol type-code access list

No

300–399

DECnet access list

No

400–499

XNS standard access list

No

500–599

XNS extended access list

No

600–699

AppleTalk access list

No

700–799

48-bit MAC address access list

No

800–899

IPX standard access list

No

900–999

IPX extended access list

No

1000–1099

IPX SAP access list

No

1100–1199

Extended 48-bit MAC address access list

No

1200–1299

IPX summary address access list

No

1300–1999

IP standard access list (expanded range)

Yes

2000–2699

IP extended access list (expanded range)

Yes

In addition to numbered standard and extended ACLs, you can also create standard and extended named IP ACLs by using the supported numbers. That is, the name of a standard IP ACL can be 1 to 99; the name of an extended IP ACL can be 100 to 199. The advantage of using named ACLs instead of numbered lists is that you can delete individual entries from a named list.

Numbered Standard IPv4 ACLs

When creating an ACL, remember that, by default, the end of the ACL contains an implicit deny statement for all packets that it did not find a match for before reaching the end. With standard access lists, if you omit the mask from an associated IP host address ACL specification, 0.0.0.0 is assumed to be the mask.

The switch always rewrites the order of standard access lists so that entries with host matches and entries with matches having a don’t care mask of 0.0.0.0 are moved to the top of the list, above any entries with non-zero don’t care masks. Therefore, in show command output and in the configuration file, the ACEs do not necessarily appear in the order in which they were entered.

After creating a numbered standard IPv4 ACL, you can apply it to terminal lines, to interfaces, or to VLANs.

Numbered Extended IPv4 ACLs

Although standard ACLs use only source addresses for matching, you can use extended ACL source and destination addresses for matching operations and optional protocol type information for finer granularity of control. When you are creating ACEs in numbered extended access lists, remember that after you create the ACL, any additions are placed at the end of the list. You cannot reorder the list or selectively add or remove ACEs from a numbered list.

The switch does not support dynamic or reflexive access lists. It also does not support filtering based on the type of service (ToS) minimize-monetary-cost bit.

Some protocols also have specific parameters and keywords that apply to that protocol.

You can define an extended TCP, UDP, ICMP, IGMP, or other IP ACL. The switch also supports these IP protocols:


Note


ICMP echo-reply cannot be filtered. All other ICMP codes or types can be filtered.


These IP protocols are supported:

  • Authentication Header Protocol (ahp)
  • Encapsulation Security Payload (esp)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (eigrp)
  • generic routing encapsulation (gre)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (icmp)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (igmp)
  • any Interior Protocol (ip)
  • IP in IP tunneling (ipinip)
  • KA9Q NOS-compatible IP over IP tunneling (nos)
  • Open Shortest Path First routing (ospf)
  • Payload Compression Protocol (pcp)
  • Protocol-Independent Multicast (pim)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (tcp)
  • User Datagram Protocol (udp)

Named IPv4 ACLs

You can identify IPv4 ACLs with an alphanumeric string (a name) rather than a number. You can use named ACLs to configure more IPv4 access lists in a router than if you were to use numbered access lists. If you identify your access list with a name rather than a number, the mode and command syntax are slightly different. However, not all commands that use IP access lists accept a named access list.


Note


The name you give to a standard or extended ACL can also be a number in the supported range of access list numbers. That is, the name of a standard IP ACL can be 1 to 99. The advantage of using named ACLs instead of numbered lists is that you can delete individual entries from a named list.


Consider these guidelines and limitations before configuring named ACLs:

  • Not all commands that accept a numbered ACL accept a named ACL. ACLs for packet filters and route filters on interfaces can use a name. VLAN maps also accept a name.
  • A standard ACL and an extended ACL cannot have the same name.
  • Numbered ACLs are also available.
  • You can use standard or extended ACLs (named or numbered) in VLAN maps.
  • With IPv4 QoS ACLs, if you enter the class-map { match-all | match-any} class-map-name global configuration command, you can enter these match commands:
    • match access-group acl-name

      Note


      The ACL must be an extended named ACL.


    • match input-interface interface-id-list
    • match ip dscp dscp-list
    • match ip precedence ip-precedence-list You cannot enter the match access-group acl-index command.

ACL Logging

The switch software can provide logging messages about packets permitted or denied by a standard IP access list. That is, any packet that matches the ACL causes an informational logging message about the packet to be sent to the console. The level of messages logged to the console is controlled by the logging console commands controlling the syslog messages.


Note


Because routing is done in hardware and logging is done in software, if a large number of packets match a permit or deny ACE containing a log keyword, the software might not be able to match the hardware processing rate, and not all packets will be logged.


The first packet that triggers the ACL causes a logging message right away, and subsequent packets are collected over 5-minute intervals before they appear or logged. The logging message includes the access list number, whether the packet was permitted or denied, the source IP address of the packet, and the number of packets from that source permitted or denied in the prior 5-minute interval.

Smart Logging

When smart logging is enabled on the switch and an ACL configured with smart logging is attached to a Layer 2 interface (port ACL), the contents of packets denied or permitted because of the ACL are also sent to a specified NetFlow collector.

Hardware and Software Treatment of IP ACLs

ACL processing is performed in hardware. If the hardware reaches its capacity to store ACL configurations, all packets on that interface are dropped.


Note


If an ACL configuration cannot be implemented in hardware due to an out-of-resource condition on a switch or stack member, then only the traffic in that VLAN arriving on that switch is affected.


For router ACLs, other factors can cause packets to be sent to the CPU:

  • Using the log keyword
  • Generating ICMP unreachable messages

When traffic flows are both logged and forwarded, forwarding is done by hardware, but logging must be done by software. Because of the difference in packet handling capacity between hardware and software, if the sum of all flows being logged (both permitted flows and denied flows) is of great enough bandwidth, not all of the packets that are forwarded can be logged.

When you enter the show ip access-lists privileged EXEC command, the match count displayed does not account for packets that are access controlled in hardware. Use the show platform acl counters hardware privileged EXEC command to obtain some basic hardware ACL statistics for switched and routed packets.

Router ACLs function as follows:

  • The hardware controls permit and deny actions of standard and extended ACLs (input and output) for security access control.
  • If log has not been specified, the flows that match a deny statement in a security ACL are dropped by the hardware if ip unreachables is disabled. The flows matching a permit statement are switched in hardware.
  • Adding the log keyword to an ACE in a router ACL causes a copy of the packet to be sent to the CPU for logging only. If the ACE is a permit statement, the packet is still switched and routed in hardware.

VLAN Map Configuration Guidelines

VLAN maps are the only way to control filtering within a VLAN. VLAN maps have no direction. To filter traffic in a specific direction by using a VLAN map, you need to include an ACL with specific source or destination addresses. If there is a match clause for that type of packet (IP or MAC) in the VLAN map, the default action is to drop the packet if the packet does not match any of the entries within the map. If there is no match clause for that type of packet, the default is to forward the packet.

The following are the VLAN map configuration guidelines:

  • If there is no ACL configured to deny traffic on an interface and no VLAN map is configured, all traffic is permitted.
  • Each VLAN map consists of a series of entries. The order of entries in an VLAN map is important. A packet that comes into the switch is tested against the first entry in the VLAN map. If it matches, the action specified for that part of the VLAN map is taken. If there is no match, the packet is tested against the next entry in the map.
  • If the VLAN map has at least one match clause for the type of packet (IP or MAC) and the packet does not match any of these match clauses, the default is to drop the packet. If there is no match clause for that type of packet in the VLAN map, the default is to forward the packet.
  • Logging is not supported for VLAN maps.
  • When a switch has an IP access list or MAC access list applied to a Layer 2 interface, and you apply a VLAN map to a VLAN that the port belongs to, the port ACL takes precedence over the VLAN map.
  • If a VLAN map configuration cannot be applied in hardware, all packets in that VLAN are dropped.
  • You can configure VLAN maps on primary and secondary VLANs. However, we recommend that you configure the same VLAN maps on private-VLAN primary and secondary VLANs.
  • When a frame is Layer-2 forwarded within a private VLAN, the same VLAN map is applied at the ingress side and at the egress side. When a frame is routed from inside a private VLAN to an external port, the private-VLAN map is applied at the ingress side.
    • For frames going upstream from a host port to a promiscuous port, the VLAN map configured on the secondary VLAN is applied.
    • For frames going downstream from a promiscuous port to a host port, the VLAN map configured on the primary VLAN is applied. To filter out specific IP traffic for a private VLAN, you should apply the VLAN map to both the primary and secondary VLANs.

VLAN Maps with Router ACLs

To access control both bridged and routed traffic, you can use VLAN maps only or a combination of router ACLs and VLAN maps. You can define router ACLs on both input and output routed VLAN interfaces, and you can define a VLAN map to access control the bridged traffic.

If a packet flow matches a VLAN-map deny clause in the ACL, regardless of the router ACL configuration, the packet flow is denied.


Note


When you use router ACLs with VLAN maps, packets that require logging on the router ACLs are not logged if they are denied by a VLAN map.


If the VLAN map has a match clause for the type of packet (IP or MAC) and the packet does not match the type, the default is to drop the packet. If there is no match clause in the VLAN map, and no action specified, the packet is forwarded if it does not match any VLAN map entry.

VLAN Maps and Router ACL Configuration Guidelines

These guidelines are for configurations where you need to have an router ACL and a VLAN map on the same VLAN. These guidelines do not apply to configurations where you are mapping router ACLs and VLAN maps on different VLANs.

If you must configure a router ACL and a VLAN map on the same VLAN, use these guidelines for both router ACL and VLAN map configuration:

  • You can configure only one VLAN map and one router ACL in each direction (input/output) on a VLAN interface.
  • Whenever possible, try to write the ACL with all entries having a single action except for the final, default action of the other type. That is, write the ACL using one of these two forms: permit...
permit...
permit...
deny ip any any or deny...
deny...
deny...
permit ip any any
  • To define multiple actions in an ACL (permit, deny), group each action type together to reduce the number of entries.
  • Avoid including Layer 4 information in an ACL; adding this information complicates the merging process. The best merge results are obtained if the ACLs are filtered based on IP addresses (source and destination) and not on the full flow (source IP address, destination IP address, protocol, and protocol ports). It is also helpful to use don’t care bits in the IP address, whenever possible. If you need to specify the full-flow mode and the ACL contains both IP ACEs and TCP/UDP/ICMP ACEs with Layer 4 information, put the Layer 4 ACEs at the end of the list. This gives priority to the filtering of traffic based on IP addresses.

Time Ranges for ACLs

You can selectively apply extended ACLs based on the time of day and the week by using the time-range global configuration command. First, define a time-range name and set the times and the dates or the days of the week in the time range. Then enter the time-range name when applying an ACL to set restrictions to the access list. You can use the time range to define when the permit or deny statements in the ACL are in effect, for example, during a specified time period or on specified days of the week. The time-range keyword and argument are referenced in the named and numbered extended ACL task tables.

These are some benefits of using time ranges:

  • You have more control over permitting or denying a user access to resources, such as an application (identified by an IP address/mask pair and a port number).
  • You can control logging messages. ACL entries can be set to log traffic only at certain times of the day. Therefore, you can simply deny access without needing to analyze many logs generated during peak hours.

Time-based access lists trigger CPU activity because the new configuration of the access list must be merged with other features and the combined configuration loaded into the hardware memory. For this reason, you should be careful not to have several access lists configured to take affect in close succession (within a small number of minutes of each other.)


Note


The time range relies on the switch system clock; therefore, you need a reliable clock source. We recommend that you use Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the switch clock.


IPv4 ACL Interface Considerations

When you apply the ip access-group interface configuration command to a Layer 3 interface (an SVI, a Layer 3 EtherChannel, or a routed port), the interface must have been configured with an IP address. Layer 3 access groups filter packets that are routed or are received by Layer 3 processes on the CPU. They do not affect packets bridged within a VLAN.

For inbound ACLs, after receiving a packet, the switch checks the packet against the ACL. If the ACL permits the packet, the switch continues to process the packet. If the ACL rejects the packet, the switch discards the packet.

For outbound ACLs, after receiving and routing a packet to a controlled interface, the switch checks the packet against the ACL. If the ACL permits the packet, the switch sends the packet. If the ACL rejects the packet, the switch discards the packet.

By default, the input interface sends ICMP Unreachable messages whenever a packet is discarded, regardless of whether the packet was discarded because of an ACL on the input interface or because of an ACL on the output interface. ICMP Unreachables are normally limited to no more than one every one-half second per input interface, but this can be changed by using the ip icmp rate-limit unreachable global configuration command.

When you apply an undefined ACL to an interface, the switch acts as if the ACL has not been applied to the interface and permits all packets. Remember this behavior if you use undefined ACLs for network security.

How to Configure ACLs

Configuring IPv4 ACLs

These are the steps to use IP ACLs on the switch:

SUMMARY STEPS

    1.    Create an ACL by specifying an access list number or name and the access conditions.

    2.    Apply the ACL to interfaces or terminal lines. You can also apply standard and extended IP ACLs to VLAN maps.


DETAILED STEPS
      Command or Action Purpose
    Step 1 Create an ACL by specifying an access list number or name and the access conditions.   
    Step 2 Apply the ACL to interfaces or terminal lines. You can also apply standard and extended IP ACLs to VLAN maps.   

    Creating a Numbered Standard ACL

    Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a numbered standard ACL:

    SUMMARY STEPS

      1.    configure terminal

      2.    access-list access-list-number { deny | permit} source source-wildcard [ log]

      3.    end


    DETAILED STEPS
        Command or Action Purpose
      Step 1 configure terminal


      Example:
      
                   
                   
      Controller# configure terminal
      
      
       

      Enters the global configuration mode.

       
      Step 2 access-list access-list-number { deny | permit} source source-wildcard [ log]


      Example:
      Controller(config)# access-list 2 deny your_host
      
      
       

      Defines a standard IPv4 access list by using a source address and wildcard.

      The access-list-number is a decimal number from 1 to 99 or 1300 to 1999.

      Enter deny or permit to specify whether to deny or permit access if conditions are matched.

      The source is the source address of the network or host from which the packet is being sent specified as:

      • The 32-bit quantity in dotted-decimal format.
      • The keyword any as an abbreviation for source and source-wildcard of 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255. You do not need to enter a source-wildcard.
      • The keyword host as an abbreviation for source and source-wildcard of source 0.0.0.0.

      (Optional) The source-wildcard applies wildcard bits to the source.

      (Optional) Enter log to cause an informational logging message about the packet that matches the entry to be sent to the console.

      (Optional) Enter smartlog to send copies of denied or permitted packets to a NetFlow collector.

      Note   

      Logging is supported only on ACLs attached to Layer 3 interfaces.

       
      Step 3 end


      Example:
      
                   
                   
      Controller(config)# end
      
      
       

      Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

       
      Related Tasks

      Creating a Numbered Extended ACL

      Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a numbered extended ACL:

      SUMMARY STEPS

        1.    configure terminal

        2.    access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} protocol source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        3.    access-list access-list-number { deny | permit} tcp source source-wildcard [ operator port] destination destination-wildcard [ operator port] [ established] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp] [ flag]

        4.    access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} udp source source-wildcard [ operator port] destination destination-wildcard [ operator port] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        5.    access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} icmp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [ icmp-type | [[ icmp-type icmp-code] | [ icmp-message]] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        6.    access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} igmp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [ igmp-type] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        7.    end


      DETAILED STEPS
          Command or Action Purpose
        Step 1 configure terminal


        Example:
        
                     
                     
        Controller# configure terminal
        
        
         

        Enters the global configuration mode.

         
        Step 2 access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} protocol source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        Example:
        
                     
                     
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit ip host 10.1.1.2 any precedence 0 tos 0 log
        
        
         

        Defines an extended IPv4 access list and the access conditions.

        The access-list-number is a decimal number from 100 to 199 or 2000 to 2699.

        Enter deny or permit to specify whether to deny or permit the packet if conditions are matched.

        For protocol, enter the name or number of an P protocol: ahp, eigrp, esp, gre, icmp, igmp, igrp, ip, ipinip, nos, ospf, pcp, pim, tcp, or udp, or an integer in the range 0 to 255 representing an IP protocol number. To match any Internet protocol (including ICMP, TCP, and UDP), use the keyword ip.

        The source is the number of the network or host from which the packet is sent.

        The source-wildcard applies wildcard bits to the source.

        The destination is the network or host number to which the packet is sent.

        The destination-wildcard applies wildcard bits to the destination.

        Source, source-wildcard, destination, and destination-wildcard can be specified as:

        • The 32-bit quantity in dotted-decimal format.
        • The keyword any for 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 (any host).
        • The keyword host for a single host 0.0.0.0.

        The other keywords are optional and have these meanings:

        • precedence—Enter to match packets with a precedence level specified as a number from 0 to 7 or by name: routine (0), priority (1), immediate (2), flash (3), flash-override (4), critical (5), internet (6), network (7).
        • fragments—Enter to check non-initial fragments.
        • tos—Enter to match by type of service level, specified by a number from 0 to 15 or a name: normal (0), max-reliability (2), max-throughput (4), min-delay (8).
        • log—Enter to create an informational logging message to be sent to the console about the packet that matches the entry or log-input to include the input interface in the log entry.
        • smartlog—Enter when smart logging is globally enabled to have a copy of the denied or permitted packet sent to a NetFlow collector.
        • time-range—Specify the time-range name.
        • dscp—Enter to match packets with the DSCP value specified by a number from 0 to 63, or use the question mark (?) to see a list of available values.
        Note   

        If you enter a dscp value, you cannot enter tos or precedence. You can enter both a tos and a precedence value with no dscp.

         
        Step 3 access-list access-list-number { deny | permit} tcp source source-wildcard [ operator port] destination destination-wildcard [ operator port] [ established] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp] [ flag]


        Example:
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq 500
        
        
         

        Defines an extended TCP access list and the access conditions.

        The parameters are the same as those described for an extended IPv4 ACL, with these exceptions:

        (Optional) Enter an operator and port to compare source (if positioned after source source-wildcard) or destination (if positioned after destination destination-wildcard) port. Possible operators include eq (equal), gt (greater than), lt (less than), neq (not equal), and range (inclusive range). Operators require a port number (range requires two port numbers separated by a space).

        Enter the port number as a decimal number (from 0 to 65535) or the name of a TCP port.

        The other optional keywords have these meanings:

        • established—Enter to match an established connection. This has the same function as matching on the ack or rst flag.
        • flag—Enter one of these flags to match by the specified TCP header bits: ack (acknowledge), fin (finish), psh (push), rst (reset), syn (synchronize), or urg (urgent).
         
        Step 4 access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} udp source source-wildcard [ operator port] destination destination-wildcard [ operator port] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        Example:
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit udp any any eq 100
        
        
         

        (Optional) Defines an extended UDP access list and the access conditions.

        The UDP parameters are the same as those described for TCP except that the [operator [port]] port number or name must be a UDP port number or name, and the flag and established keywords are not valid for UDP.

         
        Step 5 access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} icmp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [ icmp-type | [[ icmp-type icmp-code] | [ icmp-message]] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        Example:
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit icmp any any 200
        
        
         

        Defines an extended ICMP access list and the access conditions.

        The ICMP parameters are the same as those described for most IP protocols in an extended IPv4 ACL, with the addition of the ICMP message type and code parameters. These optional keywords have these meanings:

        • icmp-type—Enter to filter by ICMP message type, a number from 0 to 255.
        • icmp-code—Enter to filter ICMP packets that are filtered by the ICMP message code type, a number from 0 to 255.
        • icmp-message—Enter to filter ICMP packets by the ICMP message type name or the ICMP message type and code name.
         
        Step 6 access-list access-list-number 
{ deny | permit} igmp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard [ igmp-type] [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ fragments] [ log [ log-input] ] [ time-range time-range-name] [ dscp dscp]

        Example:
        
                     
                     
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit igmp any any 14
        
        
         

        (Optional) Defines an extended IGMP access list and the access conditions.

        The IGMP parameters are the same as those described for most IP protocols in an extended IPv4 ACL, with this optional parameter.

        igmp-type—To match IGMP message type, enter a number from 0 to 15, or enter the message name: dvmrp, host-query, host-report, pim, or trace.

         
        Step 7 end


        Example:
        
                     
                     
        Controller(config)# end
        
        
         

        Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

         

        Extended IP ACL with the any Keyword

        To use an abbreviation for a source and source wildcard of 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 and an abbreviation for a destination and destination wildcard of 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 when defining an extended IP ACL, use the any keyword in place of source and destination address and wildcard:

        Controller# configure terminal
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit ip any any precedence 0 tos 0 fragments log time-range workhours dscp 10
        Controller(config)# end
        
        

        To use an abbreviation for a source and a source wildcard of source 0.0.0.0 and an abbreviation for a destination and destination wildcard of destination 0.0.0.0 when defining an extended IP ACL, use the host keyword in place of the source and destination wildcard or mask.

        Controller# configure terminal
        Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit ip host 10.1.1.2 any 
        Controller(config)# end
        
        
        Related Tasks

        Creating Named Standard ACLs

        Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a standard ACL using names:

        SUMMARY STEPS

          1.    configure terminal

          2.    ip access-list standard name

          3.    Use one of the following:

          • deny { source [ source-wildcard] | host source | any} [ log]
          • permit { source [ source-wildcard] | host source | any} [ log]]

          4.    end


        DETAILED STEPS
            Command or Action Purpose
          Step 1 configure terminal


          Example:
          
                       
                       
          Controller# configure terminal
          
          
           

          Enters the global configuration mode.

           
          Step 2 ip access-list standard name


          Example:
          
                       
                       
          Controller(config)# ip access-list standard 20
          
          
           

          Defines a standard IPv4 access list using a name, and enter access-list configuration mode.

          The name can be a number from 1 to 99.

           
          Step 3 Use one of the following:
          • deny { source [ source-wildcard] | host source | any} [ log]
          • permit { source [ source-wildcard] | host source | any} [ log]]


          Example:
          
                       
                       
          Controller(config-std-nacl)# deny 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 255.255.0.0 0.0.255.255
          
          

          or

          
                       
                       
          Controller(config-std-nacl)# permit 10.108.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 0.0.0.0
          
          
           

          In access-list configuration mode, specify one or more conditions denied or permitted to decide if the packet is forwarded or dropped.

          • host source—A source and source wildcard of source 0.0.0.0.
          • any—A source and source wildcard of 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255.
           
          Step 4 end


          Example:
          Controller(config-std-nacl)# end
          
          
           

          Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

           

          Creating Extended Named ACLs

          Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create an extended ACL using names:

          SUMMARY STEPS

            1.    configure terminal

            2.    ip access-list extended name

            3.    { deny | permit} protocol { source [ source-wildcard] | host source | any} { destination [ destination-wildcard] | host destination | any} [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ established] [ log] [ time-range time-range-name]

            4.    end


          DETAILED STEPS
              Command or Action Purpose
            Step 1 configure terminal


            Example:
            
                         
                         
            Controller# configure terminal
            
            
             

            Enters the global configuration mode.

             
            Step 2 ip access-list extended name


            Example:
            
                         
                         
            Controller(config)# ip access-list extended 150
            
            
             

            Defines an extended IPv4 access list using a name, and enter access-list configuration mode.

            The name can be a number from 100 to 199.

             
            Step 3 { deny | permit} protocol { source [ source-wildcard] | host source | any} { destination [ destination-wildcard] | host destination | any} [ precedence precedence] [ tos tos] [ established] [ log] [ time-range time-range-name]

            Example:
            
                         
                         
            Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit 0 any any
            
            
             

            In access-list configuration mode, specify the conditions allowed or denied. Use the log keyword to get access list logging messages, including violations.

            • host source—A source and source wildcard of source 0.0.0.0.
            • host destintation—A destination and destination wildcard of destination 0.0.0.0.
            • any—A source and source wildcard or destination and destination wildcard of 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255.
             
            Step 4 end


            Example:
            
                         
                         
            Controller(config-ext-nacl)# end
            
            
             

            Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

             

            When you are creating extended ACLs, remember that, by default, the end of the ACL contains an implicit deny statement for everything if it did not find a match before reaching the end. For standard ACLs, if you omit the mask from an associated IP host address access list specification, 0.0.0.0 is assumed to be the mask.

            After you create an ACL, any additions are placed at the end of the list. You cannot selectively add ACL entries to a specific ACL. However, you can use no permit and no deny access-list configuration mode commands to remove entries from a named ACL. This example shows how you can delete individual ACEs from the named access list border-list:

            
                     
                     
            Controller(config)# ip access-list extended border-list
            Controller(config-ext-nacl)# no permit ip host 10.1.1.3 any
            
            

            Being able to selectively remove lines from a named ACL is one reason you might use named ACLs instead of numbered ACLs.

            What to Do Next

            After creating a named ACL, you can apply it to interfaces or to VLANs .

            Configuring Time Ranges for ACLs

            Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a time-range parameter for an ACL:

            SUMMARY STEPS

              1.    configure terminal

              2.    time-range time-range-name

              3.    Use one of the following:

              • absolute [ start time date] 
[ end time date]
              • periodic day-of-the-week hh:mm to [ day-of-the-week] hh:mm
              • periodic { weekdays | weekend | daily} hh:mm to hh:mm

              4.    end


            DETAILED STEPS
                Command or Action Purpose
              Step 1 configure terminal


              Example:
              
                           
                           
              Controller# configure terminal
              
              
               

              Enters the global configuration mode.

               
              Step 2 time-range time-range-name


              Example:
              
                           
                           
              Controller(config)# time-range workhours
              
              
               

              Assigns a meaningful name (for example, workhours) to the time range to be created, and enter time-range configuration mode. The name cannot contain a space or quotation mark and must begin with a letter.

               
              Step 3 Use one of the following:
              • absolute [ start time date] 
[ end time date]
              • periodic day-of-the-week hh:mm to [ day-of-the-week] hh:mm
              • periodic { weekdays | weekend | daily} hh:mm to hh:mm


              Example:
              
                           
                           
              Controller(config-time-range)# absolute start 00:00 1 Jan 2006 end 23:59 1 Jan 2006
              
              

              or

              
                           
                           
              Controller(config-time-range)# periodic weekdays 8:00 to 12:00
              
              
               

              Specifies when the function it will be applied to is operational.

              • You can use only one absolute statement in the time range. If you configure more than one absolute statement, only the one configured last is executed.
              • You can enter multiple periodic statements. For example, you could configure different hours for weekdays and weekends.

              See the example configurations.

               
              Step 4 end


              Example:
              
                           
                           
              Controller(config)# end
              
              
               

              Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

               
              What to Do Next

              Repeat the steps if you have multiple items that you want in effect at different times.

              Related Concepts

              Applying an IPv4 ACL to a Terminal Line

              You can use numbered ACLs to control access to one or more terminal lines. You cannot apply named ACLs to lines. You must set identical restrictions on all the virtual terminal lines because a user can attempt to connect to any of them.

              Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to restrict incoming and outgoing connections between a virtual terminal line and the addresses in an ACL:

              SUMMARY STEPS

                1.    configure terminal

                2.    line [ console | vty] line-number

                3.    access-class access-list-number { in |  out}

                4.    end

                5.    show running-config

                6.    copy running-config startup-config


              DETAILED STEPS
                  Command or Action Purpose
                Step 1 configure terminal


                Example:
                
                             
                             
                Controller# configure terminal
                
                
                 

                Enters the global configuration mode.

                 
                Step 2 line [ console | vty] line-number


                Example:
                
                             
                             
                Controller(config)# line console 0
                
                
                 

                Identifies a specific line to configure, and enter in-line configuration mode.

                • console—Specifies the console terminal line. The console port is DCE.
                • vty—Specifies a virtual terminal for remote console access.

                The line-number is the first line number in a contiguous group that you want to configure when the line type is specified. The range is from 0 to 16.

                 
                Step 3 access-class access-list-number { in |  out}

                Example:
                
                             
                             
                Controller(config-line)# access-class 10 in
                
                
                 

                Restricts incoming and outgoing connections between a particular virtual terminal line (into a device) and the addresses in an access list.

                 
                Step 4 end


                Example:
                
                             
                             
                Controller(config-line)# end
                
                
                 

                Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                 
                Step 5 show running-config


                Example:
                
                             
                             
                Controller# show running-config
                
                
                 

                Displays the access list configuration.

                 
                Step 6 copy running-config startup-config


                Example:
                
                             
                             
                Controller# copy running-config startup-config
                
                
                 

                (Optional) Saves your entries in the configuration file.

                 

                Applying an IPv4 ACL to an Interface

                This section describes how to apply IPv4 ACLs to network interfaces.

                Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to control access to an interface:

                SUMMARY STEPS

                  1.    configure terminal

                  2.    interface interface-id

                  3.    ip access-group {access-list-number | name} {in | out}

                  4.    end

                  5.    show running-config

                  6.    copy running-config startup-config


                DETAILED STEPS
                    Command or Action Purpose
                  Step 1 configure terminal


                  Example:
                  
                               
                               
                  Controller# configure terminal
                  
                  
                   

                  Enters the global configuration mode.

                   
                  Step 2 interface interface-id


                  Example:
                  
                               
                               
                  Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
                  
                  
                   

                  Identifies a specific interface for configuration, and enter interface configuration mode.

                  The interface can be a Layer 2 interface (port ACL), or a Layer 3 interface (router ACL).

                   
                  Step 3 ip access-group {access-list-number | name} {in | out}


                  Example:
                  
                               
                               
                  Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 2 in
                  
                  
                   

                  Controls access to the specified interface.

                  The out keyword is not supported for Layer 2 interfaces (port ACLs).

                   
                  Step 4 end


                  Example:
                  
                               
                               
                  Controller(config-if)# end
                  
                  
                   

                  Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                   
                  Step 5 show running-config


                  Example:
                  
                               
                               
                  Controller# show running-config
                  
                  
                   

                  Displays the access list configuration.

                   
                  Step 6 copy running-config startup-config


                  Example:
                  
                               
                               
                  Controller# copy running-config startup-config
                  
                  
                   

                  (Optional) Saves your entries in the configuration file.

                   

                  Creating Named MAC Extended ACLs

                  You can filter non-IPv4 traffic on a VLAN or on a Layer 2 interface by using MAC addresses and named MAC extended ACLs. The procedure is similar to that of configuring other extended named ACLs.

                  Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a named MAC extended ACL:

                  SUMMARY STEPS

                    1.    configure terminal

                    2.    mac access-list extended name

                    3.    { deny | permit} { any | host source MAC address | source MAC address mask} { any | host destination MAC address | destination MAC address mask} [ type mask | lsap lsap mask | aarp | amber | dec-spanning | decnet-iv | diagnostic | dsm | etype-6000 | etype-8042 | lat | lavc-sca | mop-console | mop-dump | msdos | mumps | netbios | vines-echo | vines-ip | xns-idp | 0 -65535] [ cos cos]

                    4.    end


                  DETAILED STEPS
                      Command or Action Purpose
                    Step 1 configure terminal


                    Example:
                    
                                 
                                 
                    Controller# configure terminal
                    
                    
                     

                    Enters the global configuration mode.

                     
                    Step 2 mac access-list extended name


                    Example:
                    
                                 
                                 
                    Controller(config)# mac access-list extended mac1
                    
                    
                     

                    Defines an extended MAC access list using a name.

                     
                    Step 3 { deny | permit} { any | host source MAC address | source MAC address mask} { any | host destination MAC address | destination MAC address mask} [ type mask | lsap lsap mask | aarp | amber | dec-spanning | decnet-iv | diagnostic | dsm | etype-6000 | etype-8042 | lat | lavc-sca | mop-console | mop-dump | msdos | mumps | netbios | vines-echo | vines-ip | xns-idp | 0 -65535] [ cos cos]

                    Example:
                    
                                 
                                 
                    Controller(config-ext-macl)# deny any any decnet-iv
                    
                    

                    or

                    
                                 
                                 
                    Controller(config-ext-macl)# permit any any
                    
                    
                     

                    In extended MAC access-list configuration mode, specifies to permit or deny any source MAC address, a source MAC address with a mask, or a specific host source MAC address and any destination MAC address, destination MAC address with a mask, or a specific destination MAC address.

                    (Optional) You can also enter these options:

                    • type mask—An arbitrary EtherType number of a packet with Ethernet II or SNAP encapsulation in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal with optional mask of don’t care bits applied to the EtherType before testing for a match.
                    • lsap lsap mask—An LSAP number of a packet with IEEE 802.2 encapsulation in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal with optional mask of don’t care bits.
                    • aarp | amber | dec-spanning | decnet-iv | diagnostic | dsm | etype-6000 | etype-8042 | lat | lavc-sca | mop-console | mop-dump | msdos | mumps | netbios | vines-echo | vines-ip | xns-idp—A non-IP protocol.
                    • cos cos—An IEEE 802.1Q cost of service number from 0 to 7 used to set priority.
                     
                    Step 4 end


                    Example:
                    
                                 
                                 
                    Controller(config-ext-macl)# end
                    
                    
                     

                    Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                     
                    Related Tasks

                    Applying a MAC ACL to a Layer 2 Interface

                    Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to apply a MAC access list to control access to a Layer 2 interface:

                    SUMMARY STEPS

                      1.    configure terminal

                      2.    interface interface-id

                      3.    mac access-group { name} { in | out }

                      4.    end

                      5.    show mac access-group [ interface interface-id]

                      6.    copy running-config startup-config


                    DETAILED STEPS
                        Command or Action Purpose
                      Step 1 configure terminal


                      Example:
                      
                                   
                                   
                      Controller# configure terminal
                      
                      
                       

                      Enters the global configuration mode.

                       
                      Step 2 interface interface-id


                      Example:
                      
                                   
                                   
                      Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/2
                      
                      
                       

                      Identifies a specific interface, and enter interface configuration mode. The interface must be a physical Layer 2 interface (port ACL).

                       
                      Step 3 mac access-group { name} { in | out }


                      Example:
                      
                                   
                                   
                      Controller(config-if)# mac access-group mac1 in
                      
                      
                       

                      Controls access to the specified interface by using the MAC access list.

                      Port ACLs are supported in the outbound and inbound directions.

                       
                      Step 4 end


                      Example:
                      Controller(config-if)# end
                      
                      
                       

                      Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                       
                      Step 5 show mac access-group [ interface interface-id]


                      Example:
                      
                                   
                                   
                      Controller# show mac access-group interface gigabitethernet1/0/2
                      
                      
                       

                      Displays the MAC access list applied to the interface or all Layer 2 interfaces.

                       
                      Step 6 copy running-config startup-config


                      Example:
                      
                                   
                                   
                      Controller# copy running-config startup-config
                      
                      
                       

                      (Optional) Saves your entries in the configuration file.

                       

                      After receiving a packet, the switch checks it against the inbound ACL. If the ACL permits it, the switch continues to process the packet. If the ACL rejects the packet, the switch discards it. When you apply an undefined ACL to an interface, the switch acts as if the ACL has not been applied and permits all packets. Remember this behavior if you use undefined ACLs for network security.

                      Configuring VLAN Maps

                      To create a VLAN map and apply it to one or more VLANs, perform these steps:

                      Before You Begin

                      Create the standard or extended IPv4 ACLs or named MAC extended ACLs that you want to apply to the VLAN.

                      SUMMARY STEPS

                        1.    vlan access-map name [ number]

                        2.    match { ip | mac} address { name | number} [ name | number]

                        3.    Enter one of the following commands to specify an IP packet or a non-IP packet (with only a known MAC address) and to match the packet against one or more ACLs (standard or extended):

                        • action { forward}
                          
                                       
                                       
                          Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                          
                          
                        • action { drop}
                          Controller(config-access-map)# action drop
                          
                          

                        4.    vlan filter mapname vlan-list list


                      DETAILED STEPS
                          Command or Action Purpose
                        Step 1 vlan access-map name [ number]


                        Example:
                        Controller(config)# vlan access-map map_1 20
                        
                        
                         

                        Creates a VLAN map, and give it a name and (optionally) a number. The number is the sequence number of the entry within the map.

                        When you create VLAN maps with the same name, numbers are assigned sequentially in increments of 10. When modifying or deleting maps, you can enter the number of the map entry that you want to modify or delete.

                        VLAN maps do not use the specific permit or deny keywords. To deny a packet by using VLAN maps, create an ACL that would match the packet, and set the action to drop. A permit in the ACL counts as a match. A deny in the ACL means no match.

                        Entering this command changes to access-map configuration mode.

                         
                        Step 2 match { ip | mac} address { name | number} [ name | number]


                        Example:
                        
                                     
                                     
                        Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address ip2
                        
                        
                         

                        Match the packet (using either the IP or MAC address) against one or more standard or extended access lists. Note that packets are only matched against access lists of the correct protocol type. IP packets are matched against standard or extended IP access lists. Non-IP packets are only matched against named MAC extended access lists.

                        Note   

                        If the VLAN map is configured with a match clause for a type of packet (IP or MAC) and the map action is drop, all packets that match the type are dropped. If the VLAN map has no match clause, and the configured action is drop, all IP and Layer 2 packets are dropped.

                         
                        Step 3 Enter one of the following commands to specify an IP packet or a non-IP packet (with only a known MAC address) and to match the packet against one or more ACLs (standard or extended):
                        • action { forward}
                          
                                         
                                         
                          Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                          
                          
                        • action { drop}
                          Controller(config-access-map)# action drop
                          
                          
                         

                        Sets the action for the map entry.

                         
                        Step 4 vlan filter mapname vlan-list list


                        Example:
                        
                                     
                                     
                        Controller(config)# vlan filter map 1 vlan-list 20-22
                        
                        
                         

                        Applies the VLAN map to one or more VLAN IDs.

                        The list can be a single VLAN ID (22), a consecutive list (10-22), or a string of VLAN IDs (12, 22, 30). Spaces around the comma and hyphen are optional.

                         

                        Creating a VLAN Map

                        Each VLAN map consists of an ordered series of entries. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create, add to, or delete a VLAN map entry:

                        SUMMARY STEPS

                          1.    configure terminal

                          2.    vlan access-map name [ number]

                          3.    match { ip | mac} address { name | number} [ name | number]

                          4.    action { drop | forward}

                          5.    end

                          6.    show running-config

                          7.    copy running-config startup-config


                        DETAILED STEPS
                            Command or Action Purpose
                          Step 1 configure terminal


                          Example:
                          
                                       
                                       
                          Controller# configure terminal
                          
                          
                           

                          Enters global configuration mode.

                           
                          Step 2 vlan access-map name [ number]


                          Example:
                          Controller(config)# vlan access-map map_1 20
                          
                          
                           

                          Creates a VLAN map, and give it a name and (optionally) a number. The number is the sequence number of the entry within the map.

                          When you create VLAN maps with the same name, numbers are assigned sequentially in increments of 10. When modifying or deleting maps, you can enter the number of the map entry that you want to modify or delete.

                          VLAN maps do not use the specific permit or deny keywords. To deny a packet by using VLAN maps, create an ACL that would match the packet, and set the action to drop. A permit in the ACL counts as a match. A deny in the ACL means no match.

                          Entering this command changes to access-map configuration mode.

                           
                          Step 3 match { ip | mac} address { name | number} [ name | number]


                          Example:
                          
                                       
                                       
                          Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address ip2
                          
                          
                           

                          Match the packet (using either the IP or MAC address) against one or more standard or extended access lists. Note that packets are only matched against access lists of the correct protocol type. IP packets are matched against standard or extended IP access lists. Non-IP packets are only matched against named MAC extended access lists.

                           
                          Step 4 action { drop | forward}


                          Example:
                          
                                       
                                       
                          Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                          
                          
                           

                          (Optional) Sets the action for the map entry. The default is to forward.

                           
                          Step 5 end


                          Example:
                          Controller(config-access-map)# end
                          
                          
                           

                          Returns to global configuration mode.

                           
                          Step 6 show running-config


                          Example:
                          
                                       
                                       
                          Controller# show running-config
                          
                          
                           

                          Displays the access list configuration.

                           
                          Step 7 copy running-config startup-config


                          Example:
                          
                                       
                                       
                          Controller# copy running-config startup-config
                          
                          
                           

                          (Optional) Saves your entries in the configuration file.

                           
                          Related Tasks

                          Applying a VLAN Map to a VLAN

                          Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to apply a VLAN map to one or more VLANs:

                          SUMMARY STEPS

                            1.    configure terminal

                            2.    vlan filter mapname vlan-list list

                            3.    end

                            4.    show running-config

                            5.    copy running-config startup-config


                          DETAILED STEPS
                              Command or Action Purpose
                            Step 1 configure terminal


                            Example:
                            
                                         
                                         
                            Controller# configure terminal
                            
                            
                             

                            Enters the global configuration mode.

                             
                            Step 2 vlan filter mapname vlan-list list


                            Example:
                            
                                         
                                         
                            Controller(config)# vlan filter map 1 vlan-list 20-22
                            
                            
                             

                            Applies the VLAN map to one or more VLAN IDs.

                            The list can be a single VLAN ID (22), a consecutive list (10-22), or a string of VLAN IDs (12, 22, 30). Spaces around the comma and hyphen are optional.

                             
                            Step 3 end


                            Example:
                            
                                         
                                         
                            Controller(config)# end
                            
                            
                             

                            Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                             
                            Step 4 show running-config


                            Example:
                            
                                         
                                         
                            Controller# show running-config
                            
                            
                             

                            Displays the access list configuration.

                             
                            Step 5 copy running-config startup-config


                            Example:
                            
                                         
                                         
                            Controller# copy running-config startup-config
                            
                            
                             

                            (Optional) Saves your entries in the configuration file.

                             
                            Related Tasks

                            Configuring VACL Logging

                            Beginning in privileged EXEC mode:

                            SUMMARY STEPS

                              1.    configure terminal

                              2.    vlan access-map name [ number]

                              3.    action drop log

                              4.    exit

                              5.    vlan access-log { maxflow max_number | threshold pkt_count}

                              6.    end


                            DETAILED STEPS
                                Command or Action Purpose
                              Step 1 configure terminal


                              Example:
                              
                                           
                                           
                              Controller# configure terminal
                              
                              
                               

                              Enters the global configuration mode.

                               
                              Step 2 vlan access-map name [ number]


                              Example:
                              
                                           
                                           
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map gandymede 10
                              
                              
                               

                              Creates a VLAN map. Give it a name and optionally a number. The number is the sequence number of the entry within the map.

                              The sequence number range is from 0 to 65535.

                              When you create VLAN maps with the same name, numbers are assigned sequentially in increments of 10. When modifying or deleting maps, you can enter the number of the map entry that you want to modify or delete.

                              Specifying the map name and optionally a number enters the access-map configuration mode.

                               
                              Step 3 action drop log


                              Example:
                              
                                           
                                           
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action drop log
                              
                              
                               

                              Sets the VLAN access map to drop and log IP packets.

                               
                              Step 4 exit


                              Example:
                              
                                           
                                           
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit
                              
                              
                               

                              Exits the VLAN access map configuration mode and return to the global configuration mode.

                               
                              Step 5 vlan access-log { maxflow max_number | threshold pkt_count}


                              Example:
                              
                                           
                                           
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-log threshold 4000
                              
                              
                               

                              Configures the VACL logging parameters.

                              • maxflow max_number—Sets the log table size. The content of the log table can be deleted by setting the maxflow to 0. When the log table is full, the software drops logged packets from new flows. The range is from 0 to 2048. The default is 500.
                              • threshold pkt_count—Sets the logging threshold. A logging message is generated if the threshold for a flow is reached before the 5-minute interval. The threshold range is from 0 to 2147483647. The default threshold is 0, which means that a syslog message is generated every 5 minutes.
                               
                              Step 6 end


                              Example:
                              
                                           
                                           
                              Controller(config)# end
                              
                              
                               

                              Returns to privileged EXEC mode.

                               

                              Monitoring IPv4 ACLs

                              You can monitor IPv4 ACLs by displaying the ACLs that are configured on the switch, and displaying the ACLs that have been applied to interfaces and VLANs.

                              When you use the ip access-group interface configuration command to apply ACLs to a Layer 2 or 3 interface, you can display the access groups on the interface. You can also display the MAC ACLs applied to a Layer 2 interface. You can use the privileged EXEC commands as described in this table to display this information.

                              Table 2 Commands for Displaying Access Lists and Access Groups
                              Command Purpose

                              show access-lists [ number | name]

                              Displays the contents of one or all current IP and MAC address access lists or a specific access list (numbered or named).

                              show ip access-lists [ number | name]

                              Displays the contents of all current IP access lists or a specific IP access list (numbered or named).

                              show ip interface interface-id

                              Displays detailed configuration and status of an interface. If IP is enabled on the interface and ACLs have been applied by using the ip access-group interface configuration command, the access groups are included in the display.

                              show running-config [ interface interface-id]

                              Displays the contents of the configuration file for the switch or the specified interface, including all configured MAC and IP access lists and which access groups are applied to an interface.

                              show mac access-group [ interface interface-id]

                              Displays MAC access lists applied to all Layer 2 interfaces or the specified

                              Layer 2 interface.

                              You can also monitor VLAN maps by displaying information about VLAN access maps or VLAN filters. Use the privileged EXEC commands in this table to display VLAN map information.



                              Table 3 Commands for Displaying VLAN Map Information
                              Command Purpose

                              show vlan access-map [ mapname]

                              Displays information about all VLAN access maps or the specified access map.

                              show vlan filter [ access-map name | vlan vlan-id]

                              Displays information about all VLAN filters or about a specified VLAN or VLAN access map.

                              Configuration Examples for ACLs

                              Examples: Using Time Ranges with ACLs

                              This example shows how to verify after you configure time ranges for workhours and to configure January 1, 2006, as a company holiday.

                              
                                        
                                        
                              Controller# show time-range
                              time-range entry: new_year_day_2003 (inactive)
                                 absolute start 00:00 01 January 2006 end 23:59 01 January 2006
                              time-range entry: workhours (inactive)
                                 periodic weekdays 8:00 to 12:00
                                 periodic weekdays 13:00 to 17:00
                              
                              

                              To apply a time range, enter the time-range name in an extended ACL that can implement time ranges. This example shows how to create and verify extended access list 188 that denies TCP traffic from any source to any destination during the defined holiday times and permits all TCP traffic during work hours.

                              
                                        
                                        
                              Controller(config)# access-list 188 deny tcp any any time-range new_year_day_2006
                              Controller(config)# access-list 188 permit tcp any any time-range workhours
                              Controller(config)# end
                              Controller# show access-lists
                              Extended IP access list 188
                                 10 deny tcp any any time-range new_year_day_2006 (inactive)
                                 20 permit tcp any any time-range workhours (inactive)
                              
                              

                              This example uses named ACLs to permit and deny the same traffic.

                              
                                        
                                        
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended deny_access
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny tcp any any time-range new_year_day_2006
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended may_access
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any time-range workhours
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# end
                              Controller# show ip access-lists
                              Extended IP access list lpip_default
                                  10 permit ip any any
                              Extended IP access list deny_access
                                  10 deny tcp any any time-range new_year_day_2006 (inactive)
                              Extended IP access list may_access
                                  10 permit tcp any any time-range workhours (inactive)
                              
                              

                              Examples: Including Comments in ACLs

                              You can use the remark keyword to include comments (remarks) about entries in any IP standard or extended ACL. The remarks make the ACL easier for you to understand and scan. Each remark line is limited to 100 characters.

                              The remark can go before or after a permit or deny statement. You should be consistent about where you put the remark so that it is clear which remark describes which permit or deny statement. For example, it would be confusing to have some remarks before the associated permit or deny statements and some remarks after the associated statements.

                              To include a comment for IP numbered standard or extended ACLs, use the access-list access-list number remark remark global configuration command. To remove the remark, use the no form of this command.

                              In this example, the workstation that belongs to Jones is allowed access, and the workstation that belongs to Smith is not allowed access:

                              
                                        
                                        
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 remark Permit only Jones workstation through
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 permit 171.69.2.88
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 remark Do not allow Smith through
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 deny 171.69.3.13
                              
                              

                              For an entry in a named IP ACL, use the remark access-list configuration command. To remove the remark, use the no form of this command.

                              In this example, the Jones subnet is not allowed to use outbound Telnet:

                              
                                        
                                        
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended telnetting
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# remark Do not allow Jones subnet to telnet out
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny tcp host 171.69.2.88 any eq telnet
                              
                              

                              Examples: Troubleshooting ACLs

                              If this ACL manager message appears and [chars] is the access-list name,

                              
                                        
                                        
                              ACLMGR-2-NOVMR: Cannot generate hardware representation of access list [chars]
                              
                              

                              The switch has insufficient resources to create a hardware representation of the ACL. The resources include hardware memory and label space but not CPU memory. A lack of available logical operation units or specialized hardware resources causes this problem. Logical operation units are needed for a TCP flag match or a test other than eq (ne, gt, lt, or range) on TCP, UDP, or SCTP port numbers.

                              Use one of these workarounds:

                              • Modify the ACL configuration to use fewer resources.
                              • Rename the ACL with a name or number that alphanumerically precedes the ACL names or numbers.

                              To determine the specialized hardware resources, enter the show platform layer4 acl map privileged EXEC command. If the switch does not have available resources, the output shows that index 0 to index 15 are not available.

                              For more information about configuring ACLs with insufficient resources, see CSCsq63926 in the Bug Toolkit.

                              For example, if you apply this ACL to an interface:

                              
                                        
                                        
                              permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard range 5 60
                              permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard range 15 160
                              permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard range 115 1660
                              permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard
                              
                              

                              And if this message appears:

                              
                                        
                                        
                              ACLMGR-2-NOVMR: Cannot generate hardware representation of access list [chars]
                              
                              

                              The flag-related operators are not available. To avoid this issue,

                              • Move the fourth ACE before the first ACE by using ip access-list resequence global configuration command:
                                
                                            
                                            
                                permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard
                                permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard range 5 60
                                permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard range 15 160
                                permit tcp source source-wildcard destination destination-wildcard range 115 1660
                                
                                
                                or
                              • Rename the ACL with a name or number that alphanumerically precedes the other ACLs (for example, rename ACL 79 to ACL 1).

                              You can now apply the first ACE in the ACL to the interface. The switch allocates the ACE to available mapping bits in the Opselect index and then allocates flag-related operators to use the same bits in the hardware memory.

                              IPv4 ACL Configuration Examples

                              This section provides examples of configuring and applying IPv4 ACLs. For detailed information about compiling ACLs, see the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide, Release 12.4 and to the Configuring IP Services” section in the “IP Addressing and Services” chapter of the Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide, Release 12.4.

                              ACLs in a Small Networked Office

                              Figure 3. Using Router ACLs to Control Traffic. This shows a small networked office environment with routed Port 2 connected to Server A, containing benefits and other information that all employees can access, and routed Port 1 connected to Server B, containing confidential payroll data. All users can access Server A, but Server B has restricted access.

                              Use router ACLs to do this in one of two ways:

                              • Create a standard ACL, and filter traffic coming to the server from Port 1.
                              • Create an extended ACL, and filter traffic coming from the server into Port 1.

                              Examples: ACLs in a Small Networked Office

                              This example uses a standard ACL to filter traffic coming into Server B from a port, permitting traffic only from Accounting’s source addresses 172.20.128.64 to 172.20.128.95. The ACL is applied to traffic coming out of routed Port 1 from the specified source address.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 6 permit 172.20.128.64 0.0.0.31
                              Controller(config)# end
                              Controller# how access-lists
                              Standard IP access list 6
                                  10 permit 172.20.128.64, wildcard bits 0.0.0.31
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 6 out
                              
                              

                              This example uses an extended ACL to filter traffic coming from Server B into a port, permitting traffic from any source address (in this case Server B) to only the Accounting destination addresses 172.20.128.64 to 172.20.128.95. The ACL is applied to traffic going into routed Port 1, permitting it to go only to the specified destination addresses. Note that with extended ACLs, you must enter the protocol (IP) before the source and destination information.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 106 permit ip any 172.20.128.64 0.0.0.31
                              Controller(config)# end
                              Controller# show access-lists
                              Extended IP access list 106
                                  10 permit ip any 172.20.128.64 0.0.0.31
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 106 in
                              
                              

                              Example: Numbered ACLs

                              In this example, network 36.0.0.0 is a Class A network whose second octet specifies a subnet; that is, its subnet mask is 255.255.0.0. The third and fourth octets of a network 36.0.0.0 address specify a particular host. Using access list 2, the switch accepts one address on subnet 48 and reject all others on that subnet. The last line of the list shows that the switch accepts addresses on all other network 36.0.0.0 subnets. The ACL is applied to packets entering a port.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 2 permit 36.48.0.3
                              Controller(config)# access-list 2 deny 36.48.0.0 0.0.255.255
                              Controller(config)# access-list 2 permit 36.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet2/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 2 in
                              
                              

                              Examples: Extended ACLs

                              In this example, the first line permits any incoming TCP connections with destination ports greater than 1023. The second line permits incoming TCP connections to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) port of host 128.88.1.2. The third line permits incoming ICMP messages for error feedback.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any 128.88.0.0 0.0.255.255 gt 1023
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any host 128.88.1.2 eq 25
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit icmp any any
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet2/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 102 in
                              
                              

                              In this example, suppose that you have a network connected to the Internet, and you want any host on the network to be able to form TCP connections to any host on the Internet. However, you do not want IP hosts to be able to form TCP connections to hosts on your network, except to the mail (SMTP) port of a dedicated mail host.

                              SMTP uses TCP port 25 on one end of the connection and a random port number on the other end. The same port numbers are used throughout the life of the connection. Mail packets coming in from the Internet have a destination port of 25. Outbound packets have the port numbers reversed. Because the secure system of the network always accepts mail connections on port 25, the incoming and outgoing services are separately controlled. The ACL must be configured as an input ACL on the outbound interface and an output ACL on the inbound interface.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any 128.88.0.0 0.0.255.255 eq 23
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any 128.88.0.0 0.0.255.255 eq 25
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 102 in
                              
                              

                              In this example, the network is a Class B network with the address 128.88.0.0, and the mail host address is 128.88.1.2. The established keyword is used only for the TCP to show an established connection. A match occurs if the TCP datagram has the ACK or RST bits set, which show that the packet belongs to an existing connection. Gigabit Ethernet interface 1 on stack member 1 is the interface that connects the router to the Internet.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any 128.88.0.0 0.0.255.255 established
                              Controller(config)# access-list 102 permit tcp any host 128.88.1.2 eq 25
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group 102 in
                              
                              

                              Examples: Named ACLs

                              This example creates a standard ACL named internet_filter and an extended ACL named marketing_group. The internet_filter ACL allows all traffic from the source address 1.2.3.4.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list standard Internet_filter
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit 1.2.3.4
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              
                              

                              The marketing_group ACL allows any TCP Telnet traffic to the destination address and wildcard 171.69.0.0 0.0.255.255 and denies any other TCP traffic. It permits ICMP traffic, denies UDP traffic from any source to the destination address range 171.69.0.0 through 179.69.255.255 with a destination port less than 1024, denies any other IP traffic, and provides a log of the result.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended marketing_group
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any 171.69.0.0 0.0.255.255 eq telnet
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny tcp any any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny udp any 171.69.0.0 0.0.255.255 lt 1024
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip any any log
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              
                              

                              The Internet_filter ACL is applied to outgoing traffic and the marketing_group ACL is applied to incoming traffic on a Layer 3 port.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet3/0/2
                              Controller(config-if)# no switchport
                              Controller(config-if)# ip address 2.0.5.1 255.255.255.0
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group Internet_filter out
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group marketing_group in
                              
                              

                              Examples: Time Range Applied to an IP ACL

                              This example denies HTTP traffic on IP on Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m (18:00). The example allows UDP traffic only on Saturday and Sunday from noon to 8:00 p.m. (20:00).

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# time-range no-http
                              Controller(config)# periodic weekdays 8:00 to 18:00
                              !
                              Controller(config)# time-range udp-yes
                              Controller(config)# periodic weekend 12:00 to 20:00
                              !
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended strict
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny tcp any any eq www time-range no-http
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp any any time-range udp-yes
                              !
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet2/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group strict in
                              
                              

                              Examples: Commented IP ACL Entries

                              In this example of a numbered ACL, the workstation that belongs to Jones is allowed access, and the workstation that belongs to Smith is not allowed access:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 remark Permit only Jones workstation through
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 permit 171.69.2.88
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 remark Do not allow Smith workstation through
                              Controller(config)# access-list 1 deny 171.69.3.13
                              
                              

                              In this example of a numbered ACL, the Winter and Smith workstations are not allowed to browse the web:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 100 remark Do not allow Winter to browse the web
                              Controller(config)# access-list 100 deny host 171.69.3.85 any eq www
                              Controller(config)# access-list 100 remark Do not allow Smith to browse the web
                              Controller(config)# access-list 100 deny host 171.69.3.13 any eq www
                              
                              

                              In this example of a named ACL, the Jones subnet is not allowed access:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list standard prevention
                              Controller(config-std-nacl)# remark Do not allow Jones subnet through
                              Controller(config-std-nacl)# deny 171.69.0.0 0.0.255.255
                              
                              

                              In this example of a named ACL, the Jones subnet is not allowed to use outbound Telnet:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended telnetting
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# remark Do not allow Jones subnet to telnet out
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny tcp 171.69.0.0 0.0.255.255 any eq telnet
                              
                              

                              Examples: ACL Logging

                              Two variations of logging are supported on router ACLs. The log keyword sends an informational logging message to the console about the packet that matches the entry; the log-input keyword includes the input interface in the log entry.

                              In this example, standard named access list stan1 denies traffic from 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255, allows traffic from all other sources, and includes the log keyword.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list standard stan1
                              Controller(config-std-nacl)# deny 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 log
                              Controller(config-std-nacl)# permit any log
                              Controller(config-std-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/1
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group stan1 in
                              Controller(config-if)# end
                              Controller# show logging
                              Syslog logging: enabled (0 messages dropped, 0 flushes, 0 overruns)
                                  Console logging: level debugging, 37 messages logged
                                  Monitor logging: level debugging, 0 messages logged
                                  Buffer logging: level debugging, 37 messages logged
                                  File logging: disabled
                                  Trap logging: level debugging, 39 message lines logged
                              
                              Log Buffer (4096 bytes):
                              
                              00:00:48: NTP: authentication delay calculation problems
                              
                              <output truncated>
                              
                              00:09:34:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGS:list stan1 permitted 0.0.0.0 1 packet
                              00:09:59:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGS:list stan1 denied 10.1.1.15 1 packet
                              00:10:11:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGS:list stan1 permitted 0.0.0.0 1 packet
                              
                              

                              This example is a named extended access list ext1 that permits ICMP packets from any source to 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 and denies all UDP packets.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended ext1
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit icmp any 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 log
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# deny udp any any log
                              Controller(config-std-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# interface gigabitethernet1/0/2
                              Controller(config-if)# ip access-group ext1 in
                              
                              

                              This is a an example of a log for an extended ACL:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              01:24:23:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGDP:list ext1 permitted icmp 10.1.1.15 -> 10.1.1.61 (0/0), 1 packet
                              01:25:14:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGDP:list ext1 permitted icmp 10.1.1.15 -> 10.1.1.61 (0/0), 7 packets
                              01:26:12:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGP:list ext1 denied udp 0.0.0.0(0) -> 255.255.255.255(0), 1 packet
                              01:31:33:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGP:list ext1 denied udp 0.0.0.0(0) -> 255.255.255.255(0), 8 packets
                              
                              

                              Note that all logging entries for IP ACLs start with %SEC-6-IPACCESSLOG with minor variations in format depending on the kind of ACL and the access entry that has been matched.

                              This is an example of an output message when the log-input keyword is entered:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              00:04:21:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGDP:list inputlog permitted icmp 10.1.1.10 (Vlan1 0001.42ef.a400) -> 
                              10.1.1.61 (0/0), 1 packet
                              
                              

                              A log message for the same sort of packet using the log keyword does not include the input interface information:

                              
                                         
                                         
                              00:05:47:%SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGDP:list inputlog permitted icmp 10.1.1.10 -> 10.1.1.61 (0/0), 1 packet
                              
                              

                              Configuration Examples for ACLs and VLAN Maps

                              Example: Creating an ACL and a VLAN Map to Deny a Packet

                              This example shows how to create an ACL and a VLAN map to deny a packet. In the first map, any packets that match the ip1 ACL (TCP packets) would be dropped. You first create the ip1 ACL to permit any TCP packet and no other packets. Because there is a match clause for IP packets in the VLAN map, the default action is to drop any IP packet that does not match any of the match clauses.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended ip1
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit 
                                          
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map map_1 10
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address ip1 
                                          
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action drop
                              

                              Example: Creating an ACL and a VLAN Map to Permit a Packet

                              This example shows how to create a VLAN map to permit a packet. ACL ip2 permits UDP packets and any packets that match the ip2 ACL are forwarded. In this map, any IP packets that did not match any of the previous ACLs (that is, packets that are not TCP packets or UDP packets) would get dropped.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended ip2
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit udp any any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map map_1 20
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address ip2
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              

                              Example: Default Action of Dropping IP Packets and Forwarding MAC Packets

                              In this example, the VLAN map has a default action of drop for IP packets and a default action of forward for MAC packets. Used with standard ACL 101 and extended named access lists igmp-match and tcp-match, the map will have the following results:

                              • Forward all UDP packets
                              • Drop all IGMP packets
                              • Forward all TCP packets
                              • Drop all other IP packets
                              • Forward all non-IP packets
                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# access-list 101 permit udp any any
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended igmp-match
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit igmp any any
                              Controller(config)# action forward
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-ip-default 10
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address 101
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-ip-default 20
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address igmp-match
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action drop
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-ip-default 30
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address tcp-match
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              

                              Example: Default Action of Dropping MAC Packets and Forwarding IP Packets

                              In this example, the VLAN map has a default action of drop for MAC packets and a default action of forward for IP packets. Used with MAC extended access lists good-hosts and good-protocols, the map will have the following results:

                              • Forward MAC packets from hosts 0000.0c00.0111 and 0000.0c00.0211
                              • Forward MAC packets with decnet-iv or vines-ip protocols
                              • Drop all other non-IP packets
                              • Forward all IP packets
                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# mac access-list extended good-hosts
                              Controller(config-ext-macl)# permit host 000.0c00.0111 any
                              Controller(config-ext-macl)# permit host 000.0c00.0211 any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# action forward
                              Controller(config-ext-macl)# mac access-list extended good-protocols
                              Controller(config-ext-macl)# permit any any vines-ip
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-mac-default 10
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match mac address good-hosts
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit 
                                          
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-mac-default 20 
                                          
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match mac address good-protocols
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              

                              Example: Default Action of Dropping All Packets

                              In this example, the VLAN map has a default action of drop for all packets (IP and non-IP). Used with access lists tcp-match and good-hosts from Examples 2 and 3, the map will have the following results:

                              • Forward all TCP packets
                              • Forward MAC packets from hosts 0000.0c00.0111 and 0000.0c00.0211
                              • Drop all other IP packets
                              • Drop all other MAC packets
                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-all-default 10
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address tcp-match
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map drop-all-default 20
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match mac address good-hosts
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              

                              Configuration Examples for Using VLAN Maps in Your Network

                              Example: Wiring Closet Configuration

                              Figure 4. Wiring Closet Configuration. In a wiring closet configuration, routing might not be enabled on the switch. In this configuration, the switch can still support a VLAN map and a QoS classification ACL. Assume that Host X and Host Y are in different VLANs and are connected to wiring closet switches A and C. Traffic from Host X to Host Y is eventually being routed by Switch B, a Layer 3 switch with routing enabled. Traffic from Host X to Host Y can be access-controlled at the traffic entry point, Switch A.

                              If you do not want HTTP traffic switched from Host X to Host Y, you can configure a VLAN map on Switch A to drop all HTTP traffic from Host X (IP address 10.1.1.32) to Host Y (IP address 10.1.1.34) at Switch A and not bridge it to Switch B.

                              First, define the IP access list http that permits (matches) any TCP traffic on the HTTP port.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended http
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp host 10.1.1.32 host 10.1.1.34 eq www
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              
                              

                              Next, create VLAN access map map2 so that traffic that matches the http access list is dropped and all other IP traffic is forwarded.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map map2 10
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address http
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action drop
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit
                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended match_all
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# permit ip any any
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl)# exit
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map map2 20
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address match_all
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              
                              

                              Then, apply VLAN access map map2 to VLAN 1.

                              
                                         
                                         
                              Controller(config)# vlan filter map2 vlan 1
                              
                              

                              Example: Restricting Access to a Server on Another VLAN

                              Figure 5. Restricting Access to a Server on Another VLAN.

                              You can restrict access to a server on another VLAN. For example, server 10.1.1.100 in VLAN 10 needs to have access denied to these hosts:

                              • Hosts in subnet 10.1.2.0/8 in VLAN 20 should not have access.
                              • Hosts 10.1.1.4 and 10.1.1.8 in VLAN 10 should not have access.


                              Example: Denying Access to a Server on Another VLAN

                              This example shows how to deny access to a server on another VLAN by creating the VLAN map SERVER 1 that denies access to hosts in subnet 10.1.2.0.8, host 10.1.1.4, and host 10.1.1.8 and permits other IP traffic. The final step is to apply the map SERVER1 to VLAN 10.

                              Define the IP ACL that will match the correct packets.

                              Controller(config)# ip access-list extended SERVER1_ACL
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl))# permit ip 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255 host 10.1.1.100
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl))# permit ip host 10.1.1.4 host 10.1.1.100
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl))# permit ip host 10.1.1.8 host 10.1.1.100
                              Controller(config-ext-nacl))# exit
                              
                              

                              Define a VLAN map using this ACL that will drop IP packets that match SERVER1_ACL and forward IP packets that do not match the ACL.

                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map SERVER1_MAP
                              Controller(config-access-map)# match ip address SERVER1_ACL
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action drop
                              Controller(config)# vlan access-map SERVER1_MAP 20
                              Controller(config-access-map)# action forward
                              Controller(config-access-map)# exit
                              
                              

                              Apply the VLAN map to VLAN 10.

                              Controller(config)# vlan filter SERVER1_MAP vlan-list 10
                              
                              

                              Configuration Examples of Router ACLs and VLAN Maps Applied to VLANs

                              This section gives examples of applying router ACLs and VLAN maps to a VLAN for switched, bridged, routed, and multicast packets. Although the following illustrations show packets being forwarded to their destination, each time the packet’s path crosses a line indicating a VLAN map or an ACL, it is also possible that the packet might be dropped, rather than forwarded.

                              Example: ACLs and Switched Packets

                              Figure 6. Applying ACLs on Switched Packets.

                              This example shows how an ACL is applied on packets that are switched within a VLAN. Packets switched within the VLAN without being routed or forwarded by fallback bridging are only subject to the VLAN map of the input VLAN.



                              Example: ACLs and Bridged Packets

                              Figure 7. Applying ACLs on Bridged Packets.

                              This example shows how an ACL is applied on fallback-bridged packets. For bridged packets, only Layer 2 ACLs are applied to the input VLAN. Only non-IP, non-ARP packets can be fallback-bridged.



                              Example: ACLs and Routed Packets

                              Figure 8. Applying ACLs on Routed Packets.

                              This example shows how ACLs are applied on routed packets. The ACLs are applied in this order:

                              1. VLAN map for input VLAN
                              2. Input router ACL
                              3. Output router ACL
                              4. VLAN map for output VLAN


                              Example: ACLs and Multicast Packets

                              Figure 9. Applying ACLs on Multicast Packets.

                              This example shows how ACLs are applied on packets that are replicated for IP multicasting. A multicast packet being routed has two different kinds of filters applied: one for destinations that are other ports in the input VLAN and another for each of the destinations that are in other VLANs to which the packet has been routed. The packet might be routed to more than one output VLAN, in which case a different router output ACL and VLAN map would apply for each destination VLAN. The final result is that the packet might be permitted in some of the output VLANs and not in others. A copy of the packet is forwarded to those destinations where it is permitted. However, if the input VLAN map drops the packet, no destination receives a copy of the packet.



                              Additional References

                              Related Documents

                              Related Topic Document Title

                              IPv4 Access Control List topics

                              Securing the Data Plane Configuration Guide Library, Cisco IOS XE Release 3SE (Catalyst 3850 Switches)

                              http:/​/​www.cisco.com/​en/​US/​docs/​ios-xml/​ios/​security/​config_library/​xe-3se/​3850/​secdata-xe-3se-3850-library.html

                              Error Message Decoder

                              Description Link

                              To help you research and resolve system error messages in this release, use the Error Message Decoder tool.

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                              All supported MIBs for this release.

                              To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:

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                              Feature Information for ACLs

                              Release Feature Information
                              Cisco IOS XE 3.2SE This feature was introduced.