Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 4.1
Chapter 7 - Controlling Lightweight Access Points
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Controlling Lightweight Access Points

Table Of Contents

Controlling Lightweight Access Points

The Controller Discovery Process

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller

Using the GUI to Verify that Access Points Join the Controller

Using the CLI to Verify that Access Points Join the Controller

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

Cisco 1030 Remote Edge Lightweight Access Points

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Models

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External and Internal Antennas

External Antenna Connectors

Antenna Sectorization

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point LEDs

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Connectors

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Power Requirements

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External Power Supply

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Mounting Options

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Physical Security

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Monitor Mode

Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Points

Wireless Mesh

Configuring and Deploying the AP1500

Adding the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

Configuring Mesh Parameters

Configuring Bridging Parameters

Configuring Voice and Video Parameters in Mesh Networks

Guidelines for Deploying Bandwidth-Based CAC within a Mesh Network

Using the CLI to View Voice and Video Details for Mesh Networks

Configuring Mesh Multicast for Video Support

Using the CLI to Configure the Mesh Multicast Mode

Viewing Mesh Statistics for an Access Point

Using the GUI to View Mesh Statistics for an Access Point

Using the CLI to View Mesh Statistics for an Access Point

Viewing Neighbor Statistics for an Access Point

Using the GUI to View Neighbor Statistics for an Access Point

Using the CLI to View Neighbor Statistics for an Access Point

Background Scanning in Mesh Networks

Background Scanning Scenarios

Using the CLI to Enable Background Scanning

Using the CLI to View Neighboring Access Points and Channels

Routing Around Interference

Using the CLI to Configure a Secondary Backhaul

Viewing Transmit Power Levels for 1500 Series Access Points

Using the GUI to View Transmit Power Levels for 1500 Series Access Points

Using the CLI to View Transmit Power Levels for 1500 Series Access Points

Verifying Power on 1500 Series Access Points

Autonomous Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Guidelines for Using Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Reverting from Lightweight Mode to Autonomous Mode

Using a Controller to Return to a Previous Release

Using the MODE Button and a TFTP Server to Return to a Previous Release

Authorizing Access Points

Authorizing Access Points Using SSCs

Authorizing Access Points Using MICs

Using DHCP Option 43

Using a Controller to Send Debug Commands to Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Converted Access Points Send Crash Information to Controller

Converted Access Points Send Radio Core Dumps to Controller

Enabling Memory Core Dumps from Converted Access Points

Display of MAC Addresses for Converted Access Points

Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Configuring a Static IP Address on an Access Point Converted to Lightweight Mode

Cisco Workgroup Bridges

Guidelines for Using WGBs

Sample WGB Configuration

Using the GUI to View the Status of Workgroup Bridges

Using the CLI to View the Status of Workgroup Bridges

Using the CLI to Debug WGB Issues

Configuring Country Codes

Guidelines for Configuring Multiple Country Codes

Using the GUI to Configure Country Codes

Using the CLI to Configure Country Codes

Migrating Access Points from the -J Regulatory Domain to the -U Regulatory Domain

Guidelines for Migration

Migrating Access Points to the -U Regulatory Domain

Dynamic Frequency Selection

Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Using the GUI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Using the CLI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Performing a Link Test

Using the GUI to Perform a Link Test

Using the CLI to Perform a Link Test

Configuring Power over Ethernet

Using the GUI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Using the CLI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Configuring Flashing LEDs


Controlling Lightweight Access Points


This chapter describes the Cisco lightweight access points and explains how to connect them to the controller and manage access point settings. It contains these sections:

The Controller Discovery Process

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Points

Autonomous Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Cisco Workgroup Bridges

Configuring Country Codes

Migrating Access Points from the -J Regulatory Domain to the -U Regulatory Domain

Dynamic Frequency Selection

Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Performing a Link Test

Configuring Power over Ethernet

Configuring Flashing LEDs

The Controller Discovery Process

Cisco's lightweight access points use the Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) to communicate between the controller and other lightweight access points on the network. In an LWAPP environment, a lightweight access point discovers a controller by using LWAPP discovery mechanisms and then sends it an LWAPP join request. The controller sends the access point an LWAPP join response allowing the access point to join the controller. When the access point joins the controller, the controller manages its configuration, firmware, control transactions, and data transactions.


Note You must install software release 4.0.155.0 or greater on the controller before connecting 1100 and 1300 series access points to the controller. The 1120 and 1310 access points were not supported prior to software release 4.0.155.0.



Note The Cisco controllers cannot edit or query any access point information using the CLI if the name of the access point contains a space.


Lightweight access points must be discovered by a controller before they can become an active part of the network. The lightweight access points support these controller discovery processes:

Layer 3 LWAPP discovery—Can occur on different subnets from the access point and uses IP addresses and UDP packets rather the MAC addresses used by Layer 2 discovery.

Layer 2 LWAPP discovery—Occurs on the same subnet as the access point and uses encapsulated Ethernet frames containing MAC addresses for communications between the access point and the controller. Layer 2 LWAPP discovery is not suited for Layer 3 environments.

Over-the-air provisioning (OTAP)—This feature is supported by Cisco 4400 series controllers. If this feature is enabled on the controller, all associated access points transmit wireless LWAPP neighbor messages, and new access points receive the controller IP address from these messages. This feature should be disabled when all access points are installed.

Locally stored controller IP address discovery—If the access point was previously associated to a controller, the IP addresses of the primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers are stored in the access point's non-volatile memory. This process of storing controller IP addresses on access points for later deployment is called priming the access point.

DHCP server discovery—This feature uses DHCP option 43 to provide controller IP addresses to the access points. Cisco switches support a DHCP server option that is typically used for this capability. For more information about DHCP option 43, see the "Using DHCP Option 43" section.

DNS discovery—The access point can discover controllers through your domain name server (DNS). For the access point to do so, you must configure your DNS to return controller IP addresses in response to CISCO-LWAPP-CONTROLLER.localdomain, where localdomain is the access point domain name. When an access point receives an IP address and DNS information from a DHCP server, it contacts the DNS to resolve CISCO-LWAPP-CONTROLLER.localdomain. When the DNS sends a list of controller IP addresses, the access point sends discovery requests to the controllers.

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller

When replacing a controller, you need to make sure that access points join the new controller.

Using the GUI to Verify that Access Points Join the Controller

Follow these steps to ensure that access points join the new controller.


Step 1 Follow these steps to configure the new controller as a master controller.

a. Click Controller > Master Controller Mode to access the Master Controller Configuration page.

b. Check the Master Controller Mode check box.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 2 (Optional) Flush the ARP and MAC address tables within the network infrastructure. Ask your network administrator for more information about this step.

Step 3 Restart the access points.

Step 4 Once all the access points have joined the new controller, configure the controller not to be a master controller by unchecking the Master Controller Mode check box on the Master Controller Configuration page.


Using the CLI to Verify that Access Points Join the Controller

Follow these steps to ensure that access points join the new controller.


Step 1 To configure the new controller as a master controller, enter this command:

config network master-base enable

Step 2 (Optional) Flush the ARP and MAC address tables within the network infrastructure. Ask your network administrator for more information about this step.

Step 3 Restart the access points.

Step 4 To configure the controller not to be a master controller once all the access points have joined the new controller, enter this command:

config network master-base disable


Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is a part of the innovative Cisco Unified Wireless Network (UWN) Solution. When associated with controllers as described below, the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point provides advanced 802.11a and/or 802.11b/g access point functions in a single aesthetically pleasing plenum-rated enclosure. Figure 7-1 shows the two types of Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g lightweight access point: without and with connectors for external antennas.

Figure 7-1 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

The Cisco WLAN Solution also offers 802.11a/b/g Cisco 1030 Remote Edge Lightweight Access Points, which are Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points designed for remote deployment, radio resource management (RRM) control via a WAN link, and which include connectors for external antennas.

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is manufactured in a neutral color so it blends into most environments (but can be painted), contains pairs of high-gain internal antennas for unidirectional (180-degree) or omnidirectional (360-degree) coverage, and is plenum-rated for installations in hanging ceiling spaces.

In the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution, most of the processing responsibility is removed from traditional small office, home office (SOHO) access points and resides in the controller.


Note New Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points for the United States, Canada, and the Philippines do not support the UNII-2 band (5.25 to 5.35 GHz). These models are labeled AP10x0-B, where "B" represents a new regulatory domain that replaces the previous "A" domain.


Cisco 1030 Remote Edge Lightweight Access Points

The only exception to the general rule of lightweight access points being continuously controlled by Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers is the Cisco 1030 IEEE 802.11a/b/g remote edge lightweight access point (Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point). The Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point is intended to be located at a remote site, initially configured by a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, and normally controlled by a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller.

However, because the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point bridges the client data (compared with other Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points, which pass all client data through their respective Cisco Wireless LAN Controller), if the WAN link breaks between the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point and its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point continues transmitting wireless LAN 1 client data through other Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access points on its local subnet. However, it cannot take advantage of features accessed from the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, such as establishing new VLANs, until communication is reestablished.

The Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point includes the traditional SOHO (small office, home office) AP processing power, and thus can continue operating if the WAN link to its associated Cisco Wireless LAN Controller fails. Because it is configured by its associated Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it has the same wireless LAN configuration as the rest of the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution. As long as it remains connected to its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it varies its transmit power and channel selection under control of the RRM, and performs the same rogue access point location as any other Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point.

Note that the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point can support multiple wireless LANs while it is connected to its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller. However, when it loses connection to its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it supports only one wireless LAN on its local subnet.

Figure 7-2 shows a typical Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point configuration:

Figure 7-2 Typical 1030 Lightweight Access Point Configuration

Note that the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point must have a DHCP server available on its local subnet, so it can obtain an IP address upon reboot. Also note that the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access points at each remote location must be on the same subnet to allow client roaming.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Models

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point includes one 802.11a and one 802.11b/g radio. The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is available in the following configurations:

AP1010—A 1000 series access point with four high-gain internal antennas and no external antenna adapters.

AP1020—A 1000 series access point with four high-gain internal antennas and one 5-GHz external antenna adapter and two 2.4-GHz external antenna adapters.

AP1030—A 1030 remote edge access point with four high-gain internal antennas and one 5-GHz external antenna adapter and two 2.4-GHz external antenna adapters.

The 1000 series access point is shipped with a color-coordinated ceiling mount base and hanging-ceiling rail clips. You can also order projection- and flush-mount sheet metal wall mounting bracket kits. The base, clips, and optional brackets allow quick mounting to ceiling or wall. The access point can be powered by power over Ethernet or by an external power supply.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External and Internal Antennas

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point enclosure contains one 802.11a or one 802.11b/g radio and four (two 802.11a and two 802.11b/g) high-gain antennas, which can be independently enabled or disabled to produce a 180-degree sectorized or 360-degree omnidirectional coverage area.


Note Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points must use the factory-supplied internal or external antennas to avoid violating FCC requirements and voiding the user's authority to operate the equipment.


Note that the wireless LAN operator can disable either one of each pair of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point internal antennas to produce a 180-degree sectorized coverage area. This feature can be useful, for instance, for outside-wall mounting locations where coverage is only desired inside the building, and in a back-to-back arrangement that can allow twice as many clients in a given area.

External Antenna Connectors

The AP1020 and AP1030 have male reverse-polarity TNC jacks for installations requiring factory-supplied external directional or high-gain antennas. The external antenna option can create more flexibility in Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point antenna placement.


Note The AP1010 is designed to be used exclusively with the internal high-gain antenna. It has no jacks for external antennas.


Note that the 802.11b/g 2.4 GHz Left external antenna connector is associated with the internal Side A antenna, and that the 2.4 GHz Right external antenna connector is associated with the internal Side B antenna. When you have 802.11b/g diversity enabled, the Left external or Side A internal antennas are diverse from the Right external or Side B internal antennas.

Also note that the 802.11a 5 GHz Left external antenna connector is separate from the internal antennas, and adds diversity to the 802.11a transmit and receive path. Note that no external 802.11a antennas are certified in FCC-regulated areas, but external 802.11a antennas may be certified for use in other countries.

Antenna Sectorization

Note that the Cisco WLAN Solution supports Antenna Sectorization, which can be used to increase the number of clients and/or client throughput a given air space. Installers can mount two Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points back-to-back, and the Network operator can disable the second antenna in both access points to create a 360-degree coverage area with two sectors.

Installers can also mount Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points on the periphery of a building and disable the Side B internal antennas. This configuration can be used to supply service to the building interior without extending coverage to the parking lot, at the cost of eliminating the internal antenna diversity function.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point LEDs

Each Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is equipped with four LEDs across the top of the case. They can be viewed from nearly any angle. The LEDs indicate power and fault status, 2.4-GHz (802.11b/g) Cisco radio activity, and 5-GHz (802.11a) Cisco radio activity.

This LED display allows the wireless LAN manager to quickly monitor the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point status. Here is the expected LED behavior. Note that the LED behavior is the same for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 LWAPP mode until you get to step 6.

1. During discovery, the LEDs turn on and off, one after another.

2. The LEDs turn off, and then the Power LED turns on.

3. If the radio state is Up, then the 2.4- or 5-GHz LED is on. If the radio state is Down, then the 2.4- or 5-GHz LED is off.

4. Before the access point joins the controller, its radio state is in the Up state in order to perform over-the-air-provisioning (OTAP).

5. The access point turns its radio Down and sends a join request to the controller. The controller responds and configures the access point to turn its radio Up again.

6. Because there are more configurations for Layer 3 mode than Layer 2 mode, you may notice a difference in the LED behavior. In Layer 2 mode, the radio LED turns off and on so quickly that you probably cannot see it. However, in Layer 3 mode, it takes much longer for the radio to turn off and on, so you can see when this occurs.

For more detailed LED troubleshooting instructions, refer to the hardware installation guide for the access point.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Connectors

The AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points have the following external connectors:

One RJ-45 Ethernet jack, used for connecting the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point to the network.

One 48 VDC power input jack, used to plug in an optional factory-supplied external power adapter.

Three male reverse-polarity TNC antenna jacks, used to plug optional external antennas into the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point: two for an 802.11b/g radio, and one for an 802.11a radio.


Note The AP1010 Cisco 1000 Series lightweight access points are designed to be used exclusively with the internal high-gain antennas, and have no jacks for external antennas.


The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point communicates with a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller using standard CAT-5 (Category 5) or higher 10/100 Mbps twisted pair cable with RJ-45 connectors. Plug the CAT-5 cable into the RJ-45 jack on the side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point.

Note that the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point can receive power over the CAT-5 cable from network equipment. Refer to Power over Ethernet for more information about this option.

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point can be powered from an optional factory-supplied external AC-to-48 VDC power adapter. If you are powering the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point using an external adapter, plug the adapter into the 48 VDC power jack on the side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point.

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point includes two 802.11a and two 802.11b/g high-gain internal antennas, which provide omnidirectional coverage. However, some Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points can also use optional factory-supplied external high-gain and/or directional antennas. When you are using external antennas, plug them into the male reverse-polarity TNC jacks on the side of the AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points.


Note Cisco 1000 Series lightweight access points must use the factory-supplied internal or external antennas to avoid violating FCC requirements and voiding the user's authority to operate the equipment.


Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Power Requirements

Each Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point requires a 48 VDC nominal (between 38 and 57 VDC) power source capable of providing 7 Watts. If you use +48 VDC, the connector is center positive. Because the power supply on the access point is isolated, a negative 48-volt supply could be used. In this case, the ground side of the supply would go to the center pole "tip," and the negative 48-volt side would go to the outside "ring" portion.

Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points can receive power from the external power supply (which draws power from a 110-220 VAC electrical outlet) plugged into the side of the access point case, or from Power over Ethernet.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External Power Supply

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point can receive power from an external 110-220 VAC-
to-48 VDC power supply or from Power over Ethernet equipment.

The external power supply plugs into a secure 110 through 220 VAC electrical outlet. The converter produces the required 48 VDC output for the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point. The converter output feeds into the side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point through a 48 VDC jack.

Note that the AIR-PWR-1000 external power supply can be ordered with country-specific electrical outlet power cords. Contact Cisco when ordering to receive the correct power cord.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Mounting Options

Refer to the Internal-Antenna AP1010 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide or the External-Antenna AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide for the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point mounting options.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Physical Security

The side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point housing includes a slot for a Kensington MicroSaver Security Cable. Refer to the Kensington website for more information about their security products, or to the Internal-Antenna AP1010 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide or External-Antenna AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide for installation instructions.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Monitor Mode

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points and Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers can perform rogue access point detection and containment while providing regular service. The rogue access point detection is performed across all 801.11 channels, regardless of the Country Code selected.

However, if the administrator would prefer to dedicate specific Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points to rogue access point detection and containment, the Monitor mode should be enabled for individual Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points.

The Monitor function is set for all 802.11 Cisco Radios on a per-access point basis using any of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller user interfaces.

Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Points

The Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Point (hereafter referred to as AP1500s to address models AP1505 and AP1510) are wireless devices designed for wireless client access and point-to-point bridging, point-to-multipoint bridging, and point-to-multipoint mesh wireless connectivity. Outdoor access points are standalone units that can be mounted on a wall or overhang, on a rooftop pole, or on a streetlight pole.

AP1500s are self-contained outdoor units that can be configured with a wired backhaul connection to an Ethernet segment for a rooftop deployment or with a wireless backhaul for a pole-top deployment. AP1500s can be installed anywhere power is available, without the need for a network connection. Using the Cisco Adaptive Wireless Path Protocol (AWPP), the AP1500s are able to dynamically optimize the best route to the connected network within the mesh.

AP1500s operate with controllers to provide centralized and scalable management, high security, and mobility and are designed to easily and securely join the mesh network. The controller manages and monitors the mesh network through either the GUI or CLI.

Two AP1500 models are available:

The AP1505 is equipped with a single 2.4-GHz radio used for client access and data backhaul to other AP1500s.

The AP1510 is equipped with two simultaneously operating radios: a 2.4-GHz radio used for client access and a 5-GHz radio used for data backhaul to other AP1500s.

A wide variety of antennas is available for both the AP1505 and AP1510 to provide flexibility when deploying them over various terrains. Wireless LAN client traffic passes through the backhaul radio of the access point or is relayed through other AP1500s until it reaches the controller Ethernet connection.


Note A radio site survey (temporary setup of mesh links) should be conducted prior to any physical installation of 1500 series mesh access points to verify that there is no interference to the radio signal path due to physical structures such as trees and buildings or equipment that may be transmitting on the same channel (co-channel interference). For detailed information on conducting site surveys and other factors to consider when planning your network (data rate, distance between access points, interference, and so on), refer to the Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Wireless Mesh AP Version 5.0 Design Guide at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6548/tsd_products_support_series_home.html


Wireless Mesh

In a wireless mesh deployment (see Figure 7-3), multiple AP1500s are deployed as part of the same network. One or more AP1500s have a wired connection to the controller and are designated as root access points (RAPs). Other AP1500s that relay their wireless connections to connect to the controller are called mesh access points (MAPs). The MAPs use the AWPP protocol to determine the best path through the other AP1500s to the controller. The possible paths between the MAPs and RAPs form the wireless mesh that is used to carry traffic from wireless LAN clients connected to MAPs and to carry traffic from devices connected to MAP Ethernet ports.

The mesh network can carry two types of traffic simultaneously: wireless LAN client traffic and MAP bridge traffic. Wireless LAN client traffic terminates on the controller, and MAP bridge traffic terminates on the Ethernet ports of the AP1500s. You need to keep in mind two important concepts when considering the configuration of a mesh network:

Sector—A collection of mesh access points connected together by the AWPP and through a single RAP to the controller.

Network—A collection of sectors that cover a proximate geographic area.

Membership in the mesh network is controlled in a variety of ways:

Each AP1500 MAC address must be entered into the MAC filter list database to ensure that the access points are authorized to use the controller. Each controller to which the access point may connect must have its MAC address entered into the database.

The MAC filter list works in conjunction with the certificate that is stored in the access point's nonvolatile memory to provide strong security for access points connecting to the network. As such, the MAC filter list is required for mesh access points to be able to connect to the controller.


Note The MAC filter lists of all controllers on a controller subnet service set must be identical and include all the RAPs and MAPs that may connect on that subnet. Failure to have uniform MAC filter lists on the service set may prevent access points from being able to communicate.


A bridge group name can be used to logically group access points into sectors. Each sector has a unique bridge group name. Cisco recommends that you use bridge group names whenever multiple sectors are proximate.

An access point that is unable to connect to a sector with its bridge group name temporarily connects to the sector with the best RF characteristics so that its bridge group name can be configured. The access point connects for short periods of time only (roughly 30 minutes) and then disconnects to seek the sector with the correct bridge group name. When an access point connects to the network using a mismatched bridge group name, the parent access point does not allow it to accept children access points or clients.

Figure 7-3 Wireless Mesh Deployment

Configuring and Deploying the AP1500


Note For information on unpacking and initially configuring your 1500 series mesh access points, refer to the Cisco Aironet 1500 Series Outdoor Mesh Access Point Hardware Installation Guide. You can find this document at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6548/tsd_products_support_series_home.html


Before deploying the AP1500, you must perform three procedures on the controller to ensure proper operation:

Add the MAC address of the access point to the controller filter list, page 12

Configure mesh parameters, page 15

Configure bridging parameters, page 18

Adding the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

You must add the MAC address of the access point to the controller filter list in order for the access point to be able to associate to the controller. This process ensures that the access point is included in the database of access points authorized to use the controller. You can add the access point using either the GUI or the CLI.


Note You can also download the list of access point MAC addresses and push them to the controller using the Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS). Refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide for instructions.


Using the GUI to Add the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

Follow these steps to add a MAC filter entry for the access point on the controller using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > MAC Filtering. The MAC Filtering page appears (see Figure 7-4).

Figure 7-4 MAC Filtering Page

Step 2 Click New. The MAC Filters > New page appears (see Figure 7-5).

Figure 7-5 MAC Filters > New Page

Step 3 In the MAC Address field, enter the MAC address of the access point. The MAC address should be entered in the following format: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx.

Step 4 From the WLAN ID drop-down box, choose "Any WLAN."

Step 5 In the Description field, enter a description of the access point. The text that you enter identifies the access point on the controller. You may want to include an abbreviated name and the last few digits of the MAC address, such as ap1510:62:39:10.

Step 6 From the Interface Name drop-down box, choose the controller interface (management or configured dynamic interface) to which the access point is to connect. Management is the most commonly used interface.

Step 7 Click Apply to commit your changes. The access point now appears in the list of MAC filters on the MAC Filtering page.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 9 Repeat this procedure to add the MAC addresses of additional access points to the list.


Using the CLI to Add the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

Follow these steps to add a MAC filter entry for the access point on the controller using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To add the MAC address of the access point to the controller filter list, enter this command:

config macfilter add ap_mac wlan_id interface [description]

A value of zero (0) for the wlan_id parameter specifies any WLAN, and a value of zero (0) for the interface parameter specifies none. You can enter up to 32 characters for the optional description parameter.

Step 2 To configure an IP address in the local MAC filter database, enter this command:

config macfilter ipaddress MAC_address IP_address

where MAC_address is the MAC address of the client and IP_address is the IP address that you are assigning to the MAC address in the local MAC filter database.

This functionality is available only in the controller CLI. This feature can be used with any passive device that does not initiate any traffic but waits for another device to start communication. Note that in controller software 4.1.181.0 and later, you can configure a MAC-filtering IP address for a workgroup bridge (WGB) wired client. This allows passive WGB wired clients, such as terminal servers or printers with static IP addresses, to be added and remain in the controller's client table while the WGB is associated to a controller in the mobility group.

This feature allows the controller to learn the IP address of a passive client when the client sends an IAPP message to the controller that contains only the client's MAC address. Upon receiving this message from the client, the controller checks the local MAC filter list (or the anchor controller's MAC filter list if the client has roamed) for the client's MAC address. If an entry is found and it contains an IP address for the client, the controller adds the client to the controller's client table.


Note Unlike the MAC filtering feature for wireless clients, you are not required to enable MAC filtering on the WLAN for WGB wired clients.



Note WGB wired clients using MAC filtering do not need to obtain an IP address through DHCP to be added to the controller's client table.


Step 3 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Configuring Mesh Parameters

This section provides instructions for configuring the access point to establish a connection with the controller. You can configure the necessary mesh parameters using either the GUI or the CLI. All parameters are applied globally.

Using the GUI to Configure Mesh Parameters

Follow these steps to configure mesh parameters using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Mesh to access the Mesh page (see Figure 7-6).

Figure 7-6 Mesh Page

Step 2 Modify the mesh parameters as appropriate. Table 7-1 provides a description of each parameter and its possible values.

Table 7-1 Mesh Parameters 

Parameter
Description

Range (RootAP to MeshAP)

The optimum distance (in feet) that should exist between the root access point (RAP) and the mesh access point (MAP). This global parameter applies to all access points when they join the controller and all existing access points in the network.

Range: 150 to 132,000 feet

Default: 12,000 feet

Backhaul Client Access

When this feature is enabled, Cisco Aironet 1510 Access Points allow wireless client association over the 802.11a radio. This implies that a 1510 access point may carry both backhaul traffic and 802.11a client traffic over the same 802.11a radio. When this feature is disabled, the AP1510 carries backhaul traffic over the 802.11a radio and allows client association only over the 802.11b/g radio.

Default: Disabled

Note This parameter is applicable only to the AP1510 because it has two radios. However, backhaul client access is always automatically enabled for the AP1505's single 802.11b/g radio.

Note After this feature is enabled, all mesh access points reboot.

Security Mode

Defines the security mode for mesh access points: Pre-Shared Key (PSK) or Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Only local authentication is supported for EAP, and it is provided by the controller. See Chapter 5 for more information on local EAP.

Options: PSK or EAP

Default: EAP

Note External AAA authentication is not supported.


Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Mesh Parameters

Follow these steps to configure global mesh parameters using the controller CLI.


Note Refer to the "Using the GUI to Configure Mesh Parameters" section for descriptions, valid ranges, and default values of the parameters used in the CLI commands.



Step 1 To specify the maximum range (in feet) of all access points in the network, enter this command:

config mesh range feet

To see the current range, enter show mesh range.

Step 2 To enable or disable client association on the primary backhaul (802.11a) of an access point, enter these commands:

config mesh client-access {enable | disable}

config ap wlan {enable | disable} 802.11a Cisco_AP

config ap wlan {add | delete} 802.11a wlan_id Cisco_AP

Step 3 To define the security mode, enter this command:

config mesh security {eap | psk}

Step 4 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Using the CLI to View Mesh Parameters

Use these commands to obtain information on mesh access points:

show Cisco_AP—Shows the mesh configuration for the specified access point.

show mesh client-access Shows the status of the client-access backhaul as either enabled or disabled. When this option is enabled, mesh access points are able to associate with 802.11a wireless clients over the 802.11a backhaul. This client association is in addition to the existing communication on the 802.11a backhaul between the root and mesh access points.

show mesh env {summary | Cisco_AP}Shows the internal temperature of the access point, heater status, Ethernet status, and battery details for either all access points (summary) or a specific access point (Cisco_AP). The access point name, role (RootAP or MeshAP), and model are also shown.

The temperature is shown in both Fahrenheit and Celsius.

The heater status is ON or OFF.

The Ethernet status is UP or DOWN.

The battery details include charge, power, serial number, temperature, version, and voltage.


Note The battery details are reported to the access point by the externally attached third-party battery.



Note You can also view mesh environmental details on the controller GUI on the All APs > Details page.


Information similar to the following appears when the show mesh env {summary | Cisco_AP} command is entered:

AP Name    : ap:60:6b:30
AP Model   : OAP1500
AP Role    : MeshAP

Temperature: 33 C, 91 F
Heater     : OFF
Ethernet   : UP

Battery S/W version   : 01.02a

Battery Serial Number : 0638F9500006
WARNING: Replace battery
Battery Input Voltage : 120.0 V
Battery Output Voltage:  55.1 V
Battery Output Power  : 12.2 W
Battery Voltage       :  52.5 V
Battery Temperature   : 23 C 73 F

Battery Charge : 100.000 %

show mesh neigh {detail | summary} Cisco_AP—Shows the mesh neighbors for the specified access point.

show mesh path Cisco_AP—Shows the channel and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) details for a link between a specified access point and its neighbor.

show mesh per-stats Cisco_AP—Shows the percentage of packet errors for packets transmitted by the neighbor mesh access point.

Packet error rate percentage = 1 - (the number of successfully transmitted packets/the number of total packets transmitted)

show mesh queue-stats Cisco_AP—Shows the number of bronze, silver, gold, platinum, and management queues active on the specified access point. The peak and average length of each queue are shown as well as the overflow count.

show mesh security-stats Cisco_AP—Shows packet error statistics and a count of failures, timeouts, and successes with respect to associations and authentications as well as reassociations and reauthentications for the specified access point and its child.

Configuring Bridging Parameters

This section provides instructions for configuring the access point's role in the mesh network and related bridging parameters. You can configure these parameters using either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Bridging Parameters

Follow these steps to configure bridging parameters using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Access Points > All APs. The All APs page appears.

Step 2 Click the name of your mesh access point to access the All APs > Details page (see Figure 7-7).

Figure 7-7 All APs > Details Page

On this page, the AP Mode under General is automatically set to Bridge for access points that have bridge functionality, such as the AP1510. This page also shows the following information under Mesh Information:

The bridge type, which specifies whether the access point is designed for indoor or outdoor use. This field is set to Outdoor for the AP1510.

The backhaul interface, or the radio band that this access point uses to transfer data to other AP1510s. The only possible value is 802.11a.

Step 3 Under Mesh Information, choose one of the following options to specify the role of this access point in the mesh network:

MeshAP—Choose this option if the AP1510 has a wireless connection to the controller. This is the default setting.

RootAP—Choose this option if the AP1510 has a wired connection to the controller.


Note If you upgrade to software release 4.1 from a previous release, your root access points default to the MeshAP role. You must reconfigure them for the RootAP role.



Note You must set the root access point to RootAP. Otherwise, a mesh network is not created.


Step 4 To assign this AP1510 to a bridge group, enter a name for the group in the Bridge Group Name field.

Step 5 Check the Ethernet Bridging check box if you want to enable Ethernet bridging on the access point. Otherwise, uncheck this check box. The default setting is disabled (or unchecked).


Note You must enable bridging on all access points for which you want to allow bridging, including the RAP. Therefore, if you want to allow an Ethernet on a MAP to bridge to the RAP's Ethernet, you must enable bridging on the RAP as well as the MAP.


Step 6 From the Bridge Data Rate drop-down box, choose a value (in Mbps) for the rate at which data is shared between access points on the backhaul interface. The default value is 18 Mbps for the 802.11a backhaul interface.

Step 7 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Bridging Parameters

Follow these steps to configure bridging parameters using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To specify that your AP1510 has bridge functionality, enter this command:

config ap mode bridge Cisco_AP

Step 2 To specify the role of this access point in the mesh network, enter this command:

config ap role {rootAP | meshAP} Cisco_AP

Use the meshAP parameter if the AP1510 has a wireless connection to the controller (this is the default setting in software release 4.0), or use the rootAP parameter if the AP1510 has a wired connection to the controller.


Note If you upgrade to software release 4.0 from a previous release, your root access points default to the meshAP role. You must reconfigure them for the rootAP role.


Step 3 To assign this AP1510 to a bridge group, enter this command:

config ap bridgegroupname set groupname Cisco_AP

Step 4 To specify the rate (in Kbps) at which data is shared between access points on the backhaul interface, enter this command:

config ap bhrate rate Cisco_AP

The default value is 18 Kbps for the 802.11a backhaul interface.

Step 5 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Configuring Voice and Video Parameters in Mesh Networks

You can configure call admission control (CAC) on the controller to manage voice and video quality on the mesh network. CAC enables an access point to maintain controlled quality of service (QoS) when the wireless LAN is experiencing congestion. The Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) protocol deployed in CCXv3 ensures sufficient QoS as long as the wireless LAN is not congested. However, in order to maintain QoS under differing network loads, CAC in CCXv4 is required.


Note CAC is supported in Cisco Compatible Extensions (CCX) v4. See the "Configuring Cisco Client Extensions" section on page 6-19 for more information on CCX.


Two types of CAC are available for lightweight access points: bandwidth-based CAC and load-based CAC.


Note All calls on a mesh network are bandwidth-based, so mesh access points use only bandwidth-based CAC.


Bandwidth-based, or static, CAC enables the client to specify how much bandwidth or shared medium time is required to accept a new call. Each access point determines whether it is capable of accommodating a particular call by looking at the bandwidth available and compares it against the bandwidth required for the call. If there is not enough bandwidth available to maintain the maximum allowed number of calls with acceptable quality, the access point rejects the call.

Guidelines for Deploying Bandwidth-Based CAC within a Mesh Network

Follow these guidelines when using bandwidth-based CAC in a mesh network:

CAC is supported only on the AP1510.

CAC should be deployed within a network using a staged approach to allow for network adjustments as necessary for the best performance.

Voice and video cannot operate on a mesh network simultaneously.

Voice calls should not traverse more than one hop.

When using the Cisco Unified Wireless IP Phone 7921G, only 802.11g is supported.

All RAPs, MAPs, and grand MAPs within a given sector must be on the same controller. Use of bridge group names (BGNs) is recommended to manage this assignment.

The QoS setting for a WLAN determines the level of bandwidth-based CAC support. To use bandwidth-based CAC with voice applications, the WLAN must be configured for Platinum QoS. To use bandwidth-based CAC with video applications, the WLAN must be configured for Gold QoS. Also, make sure that WMM is enabled for the WLAN. See the "Configuring 802.3 Bridging" section on page 4-14 for QoS and WMM configuration instructions.


Note You must enable admission control (ACM) for CCXv4 clients that have WMM enabled. Otherwise, bandwidth-based CAC does not operate properly.


You can configure bandwidth-based CAC for mesh networks using the controller GUI or CLI. The instructions for configuring this feature are essentially the same for both mesh and non-mesh networks.

Follow the instructions in the "Configuring Voice and Video Parameters" section on page 4-26 to configure voice and video parameters for both mesh and non-mesh access points. This section makes note of any differences in configuration.

However, the instructions for viewing voice and video details using the CLI is different for mesh and non-mesh access points. Follow the instructions in the "Using the CLI to View Voice and Video Details for Mesh Networks" below to view these details for mesh access points.

Using the CLI to View Voice and Video Details for Mesh Networks

Use the commands in this section to view details on voice and video calls on the mesh network.


Note Refer to Figure 7-8 when using the CLI commands and viewing their output.


Figure 7-8 Mesh Network Example

To view the total number of voice calls and the bandwidth used for voice calls on each root access point, enter this command:

show mesh cac summary

Information similar to the following appears:

AP Name       Model    Radio   bw used/max   Radio     bw used/max  calls
---------- 	 --------- ------ ------------- ---------  ------------ ------
mesh-rap1     LAP1510  11a     3048/23437    11b/g      1016/23457    3
mesh-rap2    LAP1510  11a       0/23437   11b/g        0/23457    0 

To view the mesh tree topology for the network and the bandwidth utilization (used/maximum available) of voice calls and video links for each access point and radio, enter this command:

show mesh cac bwused {voice | video} Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

AP Name         Model    Radio     bw used/max   Radio      bw used/max
-------------- --------- ------    -----------   ------- 	-----------
    mesh-rap1   LAP1510   11a      3048/23437     11b/g      1016/23437
|   mesh-map6   LAP1510   11a      3048/23437     11b/g 		 	 	  0/23437
||  mesh-map11  AP1505    11b/g    2032/23437
||| mesh-map12  AP1505    11b/g       0/23437
|   mesh-map2   LAP1510   11a      3048/23437     11b/g         0/23437
||  mesh-map10  LAP1510   11a      3048/23437     11b/g         0/23437
||  mesh-map9   LAP1510   11a      3048/23437     11b/g      1016/23437
||| mesh-map13  AP1505    11b/g       0/23437


Note The bars (|) to the left of the AP Name field indicate the number of hops that the mesh access point is from its root access point (RAP).



Note When the radio type is the same, the backhaul bandwidth utilization (bw used/max) at each hop is identical. For example, mesh access points map6, map2, map10, map 9, and rap1 are all on the same radio backhaul (802.11a) and are using the same bandwidth (3048). All of the calls are in the same interference domain. A call placed anywhere in that domain affects the others.


To view the mesh tree topology for the network and display the number of voice calls that are in progress by access point radio, enter this command:

show mesh cac access Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

AP Name         Model    Radio     calls  Radio  calls
-------------- --------- ------    -----  -----  ------
    mesh-rap1   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    1
|   mesh-map6   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map11  AP1505    11b/g     1
||| mesh-map12  AP1505    11b/g     0
|   mesh-map2   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map10  LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map9   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    1
||| mesh-map13  AP1505    11b/g     0


Note Each call received by an access point radio causes the appropriate Calls summary column to increment by one. For example, if a call is received on the 802.11b/g radio on map9, then a value of one is added to the existing value in that radio's Calls column. In this case, the new call is the only active call on the 802.11b/g radio of map9. If one call is active when a new call is received, the resulting value is two.


To view the mesh tree topology for the network and display the voice calls that are in progress, enter this command:

show mesh cac callpath Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

AP Name         Model    Radio     calls  Radio  calls
-------------- --------- ------    -----  -----  ------
    mesh-rap1   LAP1510   11a       2     11b/g    1
|   mesh-map6   LAP1510   11a       1     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map11  AP1505    11b/g     1
||| mesh-map12  AP1505    11b/g     0
|   mesh-map2   LAP1510   11a       1     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map10  LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map9   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    1
||| mesh-map13  AP1505    11b/g     0


Note The Calls column for each mesh access point radio in a call path increments by one. For example, for a call that initiates at map9 and terminates at rap1, one call is added to the map9 802.11b/g radio Calls column, the map2 802.11a backhaul radio Calls column, and the rap1 802.11a backhaul radio Calls column.


To view the mesh tree topology of the network, the voice calls that are rejected at the access point radio due to insufficient bandwidth, and the corresponding access point radio where the rejection occurred, enter this command:

show mesh cac rejected Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

AP Name         Model    Radio     calls  Radio  calls
-------------- -------- ------    ------  -----  ------
    mesh-rap1   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    0
|   mesh-map6   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    4
||  mesh-map11  AP1505    11b/g     2
||| mesh-map12  AP1505    11b/g     0
|   mesh-map2   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    1
||  mesh-map10  LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    0
||  mesh-map9   LAP1510   11a       0     11b/g    1
||| mesh-map13  AP1505    11b/g     1

Note If a call is rejected at the map9 802.11b/g radio, its Calls column increments by one.


Configuring Mesh Multicast for Video Support

In mesh networks, you can configure three mesh multicast modes to manage video camera broadcasts. Once enabled, these modes reduce unnecessary multicast transmissions within the mesh network and conserve backhaul bandwidth.

Mesh multicast modes determine how bridging-enabled access points (RAPs and MAPs) transmit multicasts among Ethernet LANs within a mesh network. Mesh multicast modes manage non-LWAPP multicast traffic only. LWAPP multicast traffic is governed by a different mechanism.

The three mesh multicast modes are:

Regular modeData is multicast across the entire mesh network and all its segments by bridging-enabled RAPs and MAPs. This is the default mode.

In modeMulticast packets received from the Ethernet by a MAP are forwarded to the RAP's Ethernet network (see Figure 7-9). No additional forwarding occurs, which ensures the following:

Non-LWAPP multicasts received by the RAP are not transmitted back to the MAP Ethernet networks within the mesh network (their point of origin).

MAP-to-MAP multicasts do not occur because they are filtered out.

In-out modeThe RAP and MAP both multicast but in a different manner (see Figure 7-10):

If multicast packets are received at a MAP over Ethernet, they are transmitted to the RAP; however, they are not transmitted to other MAP Ethernets, and the MAP-to-MAP packets are filtered out of the multicast.

If multicast packets are received at a RAP over Ethernet, they are sent to all the MAPs and their respective Ethernet networks. When the in-out mode is in operation, it is important to properly partition your network to ensure that a multicast transmitted by one RAP is not received by another RAP on the same Ethernet segment and then transmitted back into the network.


Note If 802.11b clients need to receive LWAPP multicasts, then multicast must be enabled globally on the controller as well as on the mesh network (using the config network multicast global enable CLI command). If multicast does not need to extend to 802.11b clients beyond the mesh network, then the global multicast parameter should be disabled (using the config network multicast global disable CLI command). For more details, refer to the "Configuring Multicast Mode" section on page 4-18.


Figure 7-9 Mesh In Multicast Implementation

Figure 7-10 Mesh In-Out Multicast Implementation

Using the CLI to Configure the Mesh Multicast Mode

Follow these steps to enable multicast on a mesh network using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To enable multicast mode on a mesh network, enter this command:

config mesh multicast {regular | in | in-out}

Step 2 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 3 To verify your configuration, enter this command:

show network

Information similar to the following appears:

RF-Network Name............................. wcs 
Web Mode.................................... Enable 
Secure Web Mode............................. Enable 
Secure Shell (ssh).......................... Enable 
Telnet...................................... Enable 
Ethernet Multicast Mode..................... Disable   Mode: Ucast 
Ethernet Broadcast Mode..................... Disable 
User Idle Timeout........................... 300 seconds 
ARP Idle Timeout............................ 300 seconds 
ARP Unicast Mode............................ Disabled 
Cisco AP Default Master..................... Disable 
Mgmt Via Wireless Interface................. Disable 
Mgmt Via Dynamic Interface.................. Disable 
Bridge MAC filter Config.................... Enable 
Bridge Security Mode........................ EAP 
Mesh Multicast Mode......................... Regular 
Over The Air Provisioning of AP's........... Enable 
Mobile Peer to Peer Blocking................ Disable 
AP Fallback ................................... Enable
Web Auth Redirect Ports .................... 80 
Fast SSID Change ........................... Disabled 
802.3 Bridging ............................. Disable 


Viewing Mesh Statistics for an Access Point

This section explains how to use the controller GUI or CLI to view mesh statistics for specific access points.


Note You can modify the Statistics Timer interval setting on the All APs > Details page of the controller GUI.


Using the GUI to View Mesh Statistics for an Access Point

Follow these steps to view mesh statistics for a specific access point using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Access Points > All APs to access the All APs page (see Figure 7-11).

Figure 7-11 All APs Page

Step 2 To view statistics for a specific access point, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose Statistics. The All APs > Access Point Name > Statistics page for the selected access point appears (see Figure 7-12).

Figure 7-12 All APs > Access Point Name > Statistics Page

This page shows the role of the access point in the mesh network, the name of the bridge group to which the access point belongs, the backhaul interface on which the access point operates, and the number of the physical switch port. It also displays a variety of mesh statistics for this access point. Table 7-2 describes each of the statistics.

Table 7-2 Mesh Access Point Statistics 

Statistics
Parameter
Description

Mesh Node Stats

Malformed Neighbor Packets

The number of malformed packets received from the neighbor. Examples of malformed packets include malicious floods of traffic such as malformed or short DNS packets and malformed DNS replies.

Poor Neighbor SNR Reporting

The number of times the signal-to-noise ratio falls below 12 dB on the backhaul link.

Excluded Packets

The number of packets received from excluded neighbor mesh access points.

Insufficient Memory Reporting

The number of insufficient memory conditions.

Rx Neighbor Requests

The number of broadcast and unicast requests received from the neighbor mesh access points.

Rx Neighbor Responses

The number of responses received from the neighbor mesh access points.

Tx Neighbor Requests

The number of unicast and broadcast requests sent to the neighbor mesh access points.

Tx Neighbor Responses

The number of responses sent to the neighbor mesh access points.

Parent Changes Count

The number of times a mesh access point (child) moves to another parent.

Neighbor Timeouts Count

The number of neighbor timeouts.

Queue Stats

Gold Queue

The average and peak number of packets waiting in the gold (video) queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Silver Queue

The average and peak number of packets waiting in the silver (best effort) queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Platinum Queue

The average and peak number of packets waiting in the platinum (voice) queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Bronze Queue

The average and peak number of packets waiting in the bronze (background) queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Management Queue

The average and peak number of packets waiting in the management queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Mesh Node Security Stats

Transmitted Packets

The number of packets transmitted during security negotiations by the selected mesh access point.

Received Packets

The number of packets received during security negotiations by the selected mesh access point.

Association Request Failures

The number of association request failures that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Association Request Timeouts

The number of association request timeouts that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Association Requests Successful

The number of successful association requests that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Authentication Request Failures

The number of failed authentication requests that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Authentication Request Timeouts

The number of authentication request timeouts that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Authentication Requests Successful

The number of successful authentication requests between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Reassociation Request Failures

The number of failed reassociation requests between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Reassociation Request Timeouts

The number of reassociation request timeouts between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Reassociation Requests Successful

The number of successful reassociation requests between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Reauthentication Request Failures

The number of failed reauthentication requests between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Reauthentication Request Timeouts

The number of reauthentication request timeouts that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Reauthentication Requests Successful

The number of successful reauthentication requests that occur between the selected mesh access point and its parent.

Unknown Association Requests

The number of unknown association requests received by the parent mesh access point from its child. The unknown association requests often occur when a child is an unknown neighbor mesh access point.

Invalid Association Requests

The number of invalid association requests received by the parent mesh access point from the selected child mesh access point. This state may occur when the selected child is a valid neighbor but is not in a state that allows association.

Mesh Node Security Stats (continued)

Unknown Reauthentication Requests

The number of unknown reauthentication requests received by the parent mesh access point node from its child. This state may occur when a child mesh access point is an unknown neighbor.

Invalid Reauthentication Requests

The number of invalid reauthentication requests received by the parent mesh access point from a child. This state may occur when a child is a valid neighbor but is not in a proper state for reauthentication.

Unknown Reassociation Requests

The number of unknown reassociation requests received by the parent mesh access point from a child. This state may occur when a child mesh access point is an unknown neighbor.

Invalid Reassociation Requests

The number of invalid reassociation requests received by the parent mesh access point from a child. This state may occur when a child is a valid neighbor but is not in a proper state for reassociation.


Using the CLI to View Mesh Statistics for an Access Point

Use these commands to view mesh statistics for a specific access point using the controller CLI.

To view packet error statistics; a count of failures, timeouts, and successes with respect to associations and authentications; and reassociations and reauthentications for a specific access point, enter this command:

show mesh security-stats Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

AP MAC : 00:0B:85:5F:FA:F0
Packet/Error Statistics:
-----------------------------
x Packets 14, Rx Packets 19, Rx Error Packets 0

Parent-Side Statistics:
--------------------------
Unknown Association Requests 0
Invalid Association Requests 0
Unknown Re-Authentication Requests 0
Invalid Re-Authentication Requests 0
Unknown Re-Association Requests 0
Invalid Re-Association Requests 0
Unknown Re-Association Requests 0
Invalid Re-Association Requests 0

Child-Side Statistics:
--------------------------
Association Failures 0
Association Timeouts 0
Association Successes 0
Authentication Failures 0
Authentication Timeouts 0
Authentication Successes 0
Re-Association Failures 0
Re-Association Timeouts 0
Re-Association Successes 0
Re-Authentication Failures 0
Re-Authentication Timeouts 0
Re-Authentication Successes 0 

To view the number of packets in the queue by type, enter this command:

setting show mesh queue-stats Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

Queue Type  Overflows  Peak length  Average length
 ----------  ---------  -----------  --------------
 Silver      0          1            0.000
 Gold        0          4            0.004
 Platinum    0          4            0.001
 Bronze      0          0            0.000
 Management  0          0            0.000

OverflowsThe total number of packets dropped due to queue overflow.

Peak LengthThe peak number of packets waiting in the queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Average LengthThe average number of packets waiting in the queue during the defined statistics time interval.

Viewing Neighbor Statistics for an Access Point

This section explains how to use the controller GUI or CLI to view neighbor statistics for a selected access point. It also describes how to run a link test between the selected access point and its parent.

Using the GUI to View Neighbor Statistics for an Access Point

Follow these steps to view neighbor statistics for a specific access point using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Access Points > All APs to access the All APs page (see Figure 7-13).

Figure 7-13 All APs Page

Step 2 To view neighbor statistics for a specific access point, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose Neighbor Information. The All APs > Access Point Name > Neighbor Info page for the selected access point appears (see Figure 7-14).

Figure 7-14 All APs > Access Point Name > Neighbor Info Page

This page lists the parent, children, and neighbors of the access point. It provides each access point's name and radio MAC address.

Step 3 To perform a link test between the access point and its parent or children, follow these steps:

a. Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow of the parent or desired child and choose LinkTest. A pop-up window appears (see Figure 7-15).

Figure 7-15 Link Test Window

b. Click Submit to start the link test. The link test results appear on the Mesh > LinkTest Results page (see Figure 7-16).

Figure 7-16 Mesh > LinkTest Results Page

c. Click Back to return to the All APs > Access Point Name > Neighbor Info page.

Step 4 To view the details for any of the access points on this page, follow these steps:

a. Hover your mouse over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose Details. The All APs > Access Point Name > Link Details > Neighbor Name page appears (see Figure 7-17).

Figure 7-17 All APs > Access Point Name > Link Details > Neighbor Name Page

b. Click Back to return to the All APs > Access Point Name > Neighbor Info page.

Step 5 To view statistics for any of the access points on this page, follow these steps:

a. Hover your mouse over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose Stats. The All APs > Access Point Name > Mesh Neighbor Stats page appears (see Figure 7-18).

Figure 7-18 All APs > Access Point Name > Mesh Neighbor Stats Page

b. Click Back to return to the All APs > Access Point Name > Neighbor Info page.


Using the CLI to View Neighbor Statistics for an Access Point

Use these commands to view neighbor statistics for a specific access point using the controller CLI.

To view the mesh neighbors for a specific access point, enter this command:

show mesh neigh {detail | summary} Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears when you request a summary display:

AP Name/Radio Mac  Channel Snr-Up Snr-Down Link-Snr Flags 	State
-----------------  ------- ------ -------- -------- ------ 	-------
mesh-45-rap1       165     15     18       16       0x86b 		 UPDATED NEIGH PARENT BEACON
00:0B:85:80:ED:D0  149     5      6        5        0x1a60 	NEED UPDATE BEACON DEFAULT
00:17:94:FE:C3:5F 	149 	 	 	 	7      0 	 	 	 	 	 	0 	 	0x860    	 BEACON 

To view the channel and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) details for a link between an access point and its neighbor, enter this command:

show mesh path Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

AP Name/Radio Mac  Channel Snr-Up Snr-Down Link-Snr Flags 	State
-----------------  ------- ------ -------- -------- ------ 	-------
mesh-45-rap1       165     15     18       16       0x86b 	UPDATED NEIGH PARENT BEACON
mesh-45-rap1 is a Root AP. 

To view the percentage of packet errors for packets transmitted by the neighbor mesh access point, enter this command:

show mesh per-stats Cisco_AP

Information similar to the following appears:

Neighbor MAC Address 00:0B:85:5F:FA:F0
Total Packets transmitted: 104833
Total Packets transmitted successfully: 104833
Total Packets retried for transmission: 33028

Neighbor MAC Address 00:0B:85:80:ED:D0
Total Packets transmitted: 0
Total Packets transmitted successfully: 0
Total Packets retried for transmission: 0

Neighbor MAC Address 00:17:94:FE:C3:5F
Total Packets transmitted: 0
Total Packets transmitted successfully: 0
Total Packets retried for transmission: 0

Note Packet error rate percentage = 1 - (number of successfully transmitted packets/number of total packets transmitted).


Background Scanning in Mesh Networks

Background scanning allows Cisco Aironet 1505 and 1510 Access Points to actively and continuously monitor neighboring channels for more optimal paths and parents. Because the access points are searching on neighboring channels as well as the current channel, the list of optimal alternate paths and parents is greater.

Identifying this information prior to the loss of a parent results in a faster transfer and the best link possible for the access points. Additionally, access points might switch to a new channel if a link on that channel is found to be better than the current channel in terms of fewer hops, stronger signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and so on.

Background scanning on other channels and data collection from neighbors on those channels are performed on the primary backhaul between two access points:

For 1510 access points, the primary backhaul operates on the 802.11a link.

For 1505 access points, the primary backhaul operates on the 802.11b/g link.

You can enable background scanning on a global basis using the controller CLI.


Note Latency might increase for voice calls when they are switched to a new channel.



Note In the EMEA regulatory domain, locating neighbors on other channels might take longer given DFS requirements.


Background Scanning Scenarios

A few scenarios are provided below to better illustrate how background scanning operates.

In Figure 7-19, when the mesh access point (MAP1) initially comes up, it is aware of both root access points (RAP1 and RAP2) as possible parents. It chooses RAP2 as its parent because the route through RAP2 is better in terms of hops, SNR, and so on. Once the link is established, background scanning (once enabled) continuously monitors all channels in search of a more optimal path and parent. RAP2 continues to act as parent for MAP1 and communicate on channel 2 until either the link goes down or a more optimal path is located on another channel.

Figure 7-19 Mesh Access Point (MAP 1) Selects a Parent

In Figure 7-20, the link between MAP1 and RAP2 is lost. Data from ongoing background scanning identifies RAP1 and channel 1 as the next best parent and communication path for MAP1 so that link is established immediately without the need for additional scanning after the link to RAP2 goes down.

Figure 7-20 Background Scanning Identifies a New Parent

Using the CLI to Enable Background Scanning

Follow these steps to enable background scanning through the CLI.


Step 1 To enable or disable background scanning on the controller, enter this command:

config mesh background-scanning {enable | disable}

The default value is enabled.

Step 2 To verify that background scanning is enabled, enter this command:

show mesh background-scanning


Using the CLI to View Neighboring Access Points and Channels

Use these commands to see neighboring access points and channels.

1. To view all access points associated to the controller, enter this command:

show ap summary

2. To view neighboring access points on all channels, enter this command:

show mesh neigh {summary | detail} ap-name

Routing Around Interference

You can configure a wireless secondary backhaul between two Cisco Aironet 1510 Access Points to provide a temporary path for traffic that cannot be sent on the primary backhaul due to intermittent interference. Traffic is automatically diverted, as necessary, on a packet-by-packet basis from the primary backhaul to the secondary backhaul.


Note You can configure a secondary backhaul only on mesh access points that have two radios, such as the AP1510. This feature is not available on mesh access points with only one radio, such as the AP1505.


Possible causes of interference include:

Hidden node collisions (packets from a hidden node are sent to the access point at the same time as an expected packet transmission)

Fading (signal attenuation)

Radio interference on the channel from a non-802.11 source

Background scanning of channels by the access point


Note See the "Background Scanning in Mesh Networks" section for more details on background scanning.


The secondary backhaul communication path is between the two 802.11b/g radios in the AP1510s while the primary backhaul continues to operate between the 802.11a radios using the Adaptive Wireless Point Protocol (AWPP). The secondary backhaul is not for load balancing. It is solely a backup path for the primary backhaul.

You can enable a secondary backhaul on a global basis using the controller CLI.

Using the CLI to Configure a Secondary Backhaul

Follow these steps to configure a secondary backhaul through the CLI.


Step 1 To enable or disable a secondary backhaul on the controller, enter this command:

config mesh secondary-backhaul {enable | disable} force-same-secondary-channel

Step 2 To verify the status of the secondary backhaul, enter this command:

show mesh secondary-backhaul

Step 3 To view statistics related to secondary backhaul usage, enter this command:

show mesh secbh-stats Cisco_AP


Viewing Transmit Power Levels for 1500 Series Access Points

In controller software release 4.1.178.0 and greater, power levels for the AP1505 and AP1510 are reported as either Tx Power Level 1 or Tx Power Level 2. Previously, only a maximum transmission power (Max Tx Power) was reported.

Tx Power Level 1 = The maximum power level that exists across all of the data rates

Tx Power Level 2 = Tx Power Level 1 minus 3 dBm


Note The CLI command summary displays the dBm value for power levels 1 and 2, but this reading is not available on the controller GUI.


Using the GUI to View Transmit Power Levels for 1500 Series Access Points

Follow these steps to view transmit power levels for an AP1505 or AP1510 using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n to access the 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) Radios page.

Step 2 Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose Detail. The 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) AP Interfaces > Details page appears (see Figure 7-21).

Figure 7-21 802.11a/n AP Interfaces > Details Page

This page shows the current transmit power level under the "Tx Power" section.


Using the CLI to View Transmit Power Levels for 1500 Series Access Points

To view transmit power levels for an AP1505 or AP1510 using the CLI, enter these commands:

show ap config 802.11a Cisco_AP

show ap config 802.11b Cisco_AP


Note The show ap config 802.11a Cisco_AP command is not applicable to the AP1505 because it has only one radio, the 802.11b/g/n.


Information similar to the following appears:

show ap config 802.11a mesh-RAP-45
Tx Power 
      Num Of Supported Power Levels ............. 2
      Tx Power Level 1 .......................... 26 dBm
      Tx Power Level 2 .......................... 23 dBm
      Tx Power Configuration .................... CUSTOMIZED
      Current Tx Power Level .................... 2
show ap config 802.11b mesh-RAP-45
Tx Power 
      Num Of Supported Power Levels ............. 2
      Tx Power Level 1 .......................... 24 dBm
      Tx Power Level 2 .......................... 21 dBm
      Tx Power Configuration .................... AUTOMATIC
      Current Tx Power Level .................... 1

Verifying Power on 1500 Series Access Points

You can attach an LED indicator to the Power over Ethernet (PoE) connector of AC-powered Cisco Aironet 1505 and 1510 Access Points to verify that power is on (see Figure 7-22).

A steady green color indicates that the access point is receiving power and that LWAPP is connected and ready to serve clients. You may notice a blinking green light between the initial and final steady green light as the LED confirms LWAPP connectivity.


Note 1500 series access points with a serial number of WCN10160121 or greater support the use of the LED indicator.



NoteDo not install the LED indicator if the access point has an Ethernet connection to the network.

As an alternative, you can verify power on the access point using the power injector LED (if in use) or verify that the access point and the controller are communicating by examining the log file.


For details on installing the LED indicator, refer to the Cisco Aironet Series 1500 Access Point LED Indicator Installation Instructions at this URL:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/access_point/1500/installation/guide/LED1500.html

Figure 7-22 AP1510 with LED Indicator

1

5-GHz antenna bracket

6

5-GHz connector (N-Type)

2

Vent (do not remove)

7

AC power cable

3

2.4-GHz connector (N-Type)

8

LED indicator

4

Power over Ethernet (PoE) connector

9

Protective connector cover

5

AC power connector

   

Autonomous Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

You can use an upgrade conversion tool to convert autonomous Cisco Aironet 1100, 1130AG, 1200, 1240AG, and 1300 Series Access Points to lightweight mode. When you upgrade one of these access points to lightweight mode, the access point communicates with a controller and receives a configuration and software image from the controller.


Note The conversion tool adds the self-signed certificate (SSC) key-hash to only one of the controllers on the Cisco WiSM. After the conversion has been completed, add the SSC key-hash to the second controller on the Cisco WiSM by copying the SSC key-hash from the first controller to the second controller. To copy the SSC key-hash, open the AP Policies page of the controller GUI (Security > AAA > AP Policies) and copy the SSC key-hash from the SHA1 Key Hash column under AP Authorization List (see Figure 7-23). Then, using the second controller's GUI, open the same page and paste the key-hash into the SHA1 Key Hash field under Add AP to Authorization List. If you have more than one Cisco WiSM, use WCS to push the SSC key-hash to all the other controllers.


Figure 7-23 AP Policies Page

Refer to the Upgrading Autonomous Cisco Aironet Access Points to Lightweight Mode document for instructions on upgrading an autonomous access point to lightweight mode. You can find this document at this URL:

http://cisco-images.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/access_point/conversion/lwapp/upgrade/guide/lwapnote.html

Guidelines for Using Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Keep these guidelines in mind when you use autonomous access points that have been converted to lightweight mode:

Converted access points support 2006, and 4400, and WiSM controllers only. When you convert an autonomous access point to lightweight mode, the access point can communicate with Cisco 2006 series controllers, and 4400 series controllers, or the controllers on a Cisco WiSM only.

Access points converted to lightweight mode do not support Wireless Domain Services (WDS). Converted access points communicate only with Cisco wireless LAN controllers and cannot communicate with WDS devices. However, the controller provides functionality equivalent to WDS when the access point associates to it.

Access points converted to LWAPP mode support 8 BSSIDs per radio and a total of 8 wireless LANs per access point. (Cisco 1000 series access points support 16 BSSIDs per radio and 16 wireless LANs per access point.) When a converted access point associates to a controller, only wireless LANs with IDs 1 through 8 are pushed to the access point.

Access points converted to lightweight mode do not support Layer 2 LWAPP. Access Points converted to lightweight mode must get an IP address and discover the controller using DHCP, DNS, or IP subnet broadcast.

After you convert an access point to lightweight mode, the console port provides read-only access to the unit.

The 1130AG and 1240AG access points support hybrid-REAP mode. See Chapter 12 for details.

Reverting from Lightweight Mode to Autonomous Mode

After you use the upgrade tool to convert an autonomous access point to lightweight mode, you can convert the access point from a lightweight unit back to an autonomous unit by loading a Cisco IOS release that supports autonomous mode (Cisco IOS release 12.3(7)JA or earlier). If the access point is associated to a controller, you can use the controller to load the Cisco IOS release. If the access point is not associated to a controller, you can load the Cisco IOS release using TFTP. In either method, the access point must be able to access a TFTP server that contains the Cisco IOS release to be loaded.

Using a Controller to Return to a Previous Release

Follow these steps to revert from lightweight mode to autonomous mode using a wireless LAN controller:


Step 1 Log into the CLI on the controller to which the access point is associated.

Step 2 Enter this command:

config ap tftp-downgrade tftp-server-ip-address filename access-point-name

Step 3 Wait until the access point reboots and reconfigure the access point using the CLI or GUI.


Using the MODE Button and a TFTP Server to Return to a Previous Release

Follow these steps to revert from lightweight mode to autonomous mode by using the access point MODE (reset) button to load a Cisco IOS release from a TFTP server:


Step 1 The PC on which your TFTP server software runs must be configured with a static IP address in the range of 10.0.0.2 to 10.0.0.30.

Step 2 Make sure that the PC contains the access point image file (such as c1200-k9w7-tar.123-7.JA.tar for a 1200 series access point) in the TFTP server folder and that the TFTP server is activated.

Step 3 Rename the access point image file in the TFTP server folder to c1200-k9w7-tar.default for a 1200 series access point.

Step 4 Connect the PC to the access point using a Category 5 (CAT5) Ethernet cable.

Step 5 Disconnect power from the access point.

Step 6 Press and hold the MODE button while you reconnect power to the access point.


Note The MODE button on the access point must be enabled. Follow the steps in the "Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode" section to check the status of the access point MODE button.


Step 7 Hold the MODE button until the status LED turns red (approximately 20 to 30 seconds), and release the MODE button.

Step 8 Wait until the access point reboots as indicated by all LEDs turning green followed by the Status LED blinking green.

Step 9 After the access point reboots, reconfigure the access point using the GUI or the CLI.


Authorizing Access Points

Depending on whether access points have manufacturing-installed certificates (MICs), the controller may either use self-signed certificates (SSCs) to authenticate access points or send the authorization information to a RADIUS server.

Authorizing Access Points Using SSCs

The lightweight access point protocol (LWAPP) secures the control communication between the access point and controller by means of a secure key distribution requiring X.509 certificates on both the access point and controller. LWAPP relies on a priori provisioning of the X.509 certificates. Cisco Aironet access points shipped before July 18, 2005 do not have a MIC, so these access points create an SSC when upgraded to operate in lightweight mode. Controllers are programmed to accept local SSCs for authentication of specific access points and do not forward those authentication requests to a RADIUS server. This behavior is acceptable and secure.

Authorizing Access Points Using MICs

You can configure controllers to use RADIUS servers to authorize access points using MICs. The controller uses an access point's MAC address as both the username and password when sending the information to a RADIUS server. For example, if the MAC address of the access point is 000b85229a70, both the username and password used by the controller to authorize the access point are 000b85229a70.


Note The lack of a strong password by the use of the access point's MAC address should not be an issue because the controller uses MIC to authenticate the access point prior to authorizing the access point through the RADIUS server. Using MIC provides strong authentication.



Note If you use the MAC address as the username and password for access point authentication on a RADIUS AAA server, do not use the same AAA server for client authentication.


Using DHCP Option 43

Cisco 1000 series access points use a string format for DHCP option 43, whereas Cisco Aironet access points use the type-length-value (TLV) format for DHCP option 43. DHCP servers must be programmed to return the option based on the access point's DHCP Vendor Class Identifier (VCI) string (DHCP Option 60). Table 7-3 lists the VCI strings for Cisco access points capable of operating in lightweight mode.

Table 7-3 VCI Strings For Lightweight Access Points 

Access Point
VCI String

Cisco 1000 Series

Airespace 1200

Cisco Aironet 1130 Series

Cisco AP c1130

Cisco Aironet 1200 Series

Cisco AP c1200

Cisco Aironet 1240 Series

Cisco AP c1240


This is the format of the TLV block:

Type: 0xf1 (decimal 241)

Length: Number of controller IP addresses * 4

Value: List of the IP addresses of controller management interfaces

Refer to the product documentation for your DHCP server for instructions on configuring DHCP option 43. The Upgrading Autonomous Cisco Aironet Access Points to Lightweight Mode document contains example steps for configuring option 43 on a DHCP server.

Using a Controller to Send Debug Commands to Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Enter this command to enable the controller to send debug commands to an access point converted to lightweight mode:

config ap remote-debug [enable | disable | exc-command] Cisco_AP

When this feature is enabled, the controller sends debug commands to the converted access point as character strings. You can send any debug command supported by Cisco Aironet access points that run Cisco IOS software in lightweight mode.

Converted Access Points Send Crash Information to Controller

When a converted access point unexpectedly reboots, the access point stores a crash file on its local flash memory at the time of crash. After the unit reboots, it sends the reason for the reboot to the controller. If the unit rebooted because of a crash, the controller pulls up the crash file using existing LWAPP messages and stores it in the controller flash memory. The crash info copy is removed from the access point flash memory when the controller pulls it from the access point.

Converted Access Points Send Radio Core Dumps to Controller

When a radio module in a converted access point generates a core dump, the access point stores the core dump file of the radio on its local flash memory at the time of the radio crash. It sends a notification message to the controller indicating which radio generated a core dump file. The controller sends a trap alerting the network administrator, and the administrator can retrieve the radio core file from the access point.

The retrieved core file is stored in the controller flash and can subsequently be uploaded through TFTP to an external server for analysis. The core file is removed from the access point flash memory when the controller pulls it from the access point.

Follow these steps to retrieve the radio core dump file using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To transfer the radio core dump file from the access point to the controller, enter this command:

config ap crash-file get-radio-core-dump slot Cisco_AP

For the slot parameter, enter the slot ID of the radio that crashed.

Step 2 To verify that the file was downloaded to the controller, enter this command:

show ap crash-file

Information similar to the following appears:

Local Core Files:

lrad_AP1130.rdump0 (156)

The number in parentheses indicates the size of the file. The size should be greater than zero if a core dump file is available.

Step 3 To transfer the file from the controller to a TFTP server, enter these commands:

transfer upload datatype radio-core-dump

transfer upload filename filename

transfer upload serverip tftp_server_ip

transfer upload start


Enabling Memory Core Dumps from Converted Access Points

By default, access points converted to lightweight mode do not send memory core dumps to the controller. To enable this feature, enter this command:

config ap core-dump enable tftp-server-ip-address filename {compress | uncompress} {ap-name | all}

For tftp-server-ip-address, enter the IP address of the TFTP server to which the access point sends core files. The access point must be able to reach the TFTP server.

For filename, enter a filename that the access points uses to label the core file.

Enter compress to configure the access point to send compressed core files. Enter uncompress to configure the access point to send uncompressed core files.

For ap-name, enter the name of a specific access point, or enter all to enable memory core dumps from all access points converted to lightweight mode.

Display of MAC Addresses for Converted Access Points

There are some differences in the way that controllers display the MAC addresses of converted access points on information pages in the controller GUI:

On the AP Summary page, the controller lists the Ethernet MAC addresses of converted access points.

On the AP Detail page, the controller lists the BSS MAC addresses and Ethernet MAC addresses of converted access points.

On the Radio Summary page, the controller lists converted access points by radio MAC address.

Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

You can disable the reset button on access points converted to lightweight mode. The reset button is labeled MODE on the outside of the access point.

Use this command to disable or enable the reset button on one or all converted access points associated to a controller:

config ap reset-button {enable | disable} {ap-name | all}

The reset button on converted access points is enabled by default.

Configuring a Static IP Address on an Access Point Converted to Lightweight Mode

After an access point converted to lightweight mode associates to a controller, enter this command to configure a static IP address on the access point:

config ap static-ip enable ap-name ip-address mask gateway


Note If you configure an access point to use a static IP address that is not on the same subnet on which the access point's previous DHCP address was, the access point falls back to a DHCP address after the access point reboots. If the access point falls back to a DHCP address, the show ap config general ap-name CLI command correctly shows that the access point is using a fallback IP address. However, the GUI shows both the static IP address and the DHCP address, but it does not identify the DHCP address as a fallback address.


Cisco Workgroup Bridges

A workgroup bridge (WGB) is a mode that can be configured on an autonomous IOS access point to provide wireless connectivity to a lightweight access point on behalf of clients that are connected by Ethernet to the WGB access point. A WGB connects a wired network over a single wireless segment by learning the MAC addresses of its wired clients on the Ethernet interface and reporting them to the lightweight access point using Internet Access Point Protocol (IAPP) messaging. The WGB provides wireless access connectivity to wired clients by establishing a single wireless connection to the lightweight access point. The lightweight access point treats the WGB as a wireless client. See the example in Figure 7-24.

Figure 7-24 WGB Example


Note If the lightweight access point fails, the WGB attempts to associate to another access point.


Figure 7-25 shows how a WGB is connected in a basic mesh network.

Figure 7-25 WGB in Mesh Network

Guidelines for Using WGBs

Follow these guidelines for using WGBs on your network:

The WGB can be any autonomous access point that supports the workgroup bridge mode and is running Cisco IOS Release 12.4(3g)JA or later (on 32-MB access points) or Cisco IOS Release 12.3(8)JEB or later (on 16-MB access points). These access points include the AP1120, AP1121, AP1130, AP1231, AP1240, and AP1310. Cisco IOS Releases prior to 12.4(3g)JA and 12.3(8)JEB are not supported.


Note If your access point has two radios, you can configure only one for workgroup bridge mode. This radio is used to connect to the lightweight access point. Cisco recommends that you disable the second radio.



Note The controller supports only Cisco WGB products. Linksys and OEM WGB devices are not supported. Although the Cisco Wireless Unified Solution does not support the Linksys WET54G and WET11B Ethernet Bridges, you can use these devices in a Wireless Unified Solution configuration if you follow these guidelines:
1. Connect only one device to the WET54G or WET11B.
2. Enable the MAC cloning feature on the WET54G or WET11B to clone the connected device.
3. Install the latest drivers and firmware on devices connected to the WET54G or WET11B. This guideline is especially important for JetDirect printers because early firmware versions might cause problems with DHCP.
Note: Because these devices are not supported in the Cisco Wireless Unified Solution, Cisco Technical Support cannot help you troubleshoot any problems associated with them.


Perform one of the following to enable the workgroup bridge mode on the WGB:

On the WGB access point GUI, choose Workgroup Bridge for the role in radio network on the Settings > Network Interfaces page.

On the WGB access point CLI, enter this command: station-role workgroup-bridge


Note See the sample WGB access point configuration in the "Sample WGB Configuration" section.


The WGB can associate only to lightweight access points (except the Cisco Airespace AP1000 series access points, which are not supported).

Only WGBs in client mode (which is the default value) are supported. Those in infrastructure mode are not supported. Perform one of the following to enable client mode on the WGB:

On the WGB access point GUI, choose Disabled for the Reliable Multicast to WGB parameter.

On the WGB access point CLI, enter this command: no infrastructure client.


Note VLANs are not supported for use with WGBs.



Note See the sample WGB access point configuration in the "Sample WGB Configuration" section.


These features are supported for use with a WGB:

Guest N+1 redundancy

Local EAP

These features are not supported for use with a WGB:

Cisco Centralized Key Management (CCKM)

Hybrid REAP

Idle timeout

Web authentication


Note If a WGB associates to a web-authentication WLAN, the WGB is added to the exclusion list, and all of the WGB wired clients are deleted.


In a mesh network, a WGB can associate to any mesh access point, regardless of whether it acts as a root access point or a mesh access point.

Wired clients connected to the WGB are not authenticated for security. Instead, the WGB is authenticated against the access point to which it associates. Therefore, Cisco recommends that you physically secure the wired side of the WGB.

With Layer 3 roaming, if you plug a wired client into the WGB network after the WGB has roamed to another controller (for example, to a foreign controller), the wired client's IP address displays only on the anchor controller, not on the foreign controller.

If a wired client does not send traffic for an extended period of time, the WGB removes the client from its bridge table, even if traffic is continuously being sent to the wired client. As a result, the traffic flow to the wired client fails. To avoid the traffic loss, prevent the wired client from being removed from the bridge table by configuring the aging-out timer on the WGB to a large value using the following IOS commands on the WGB:

configure terminal
bridge bridge-group-number aging-time seconds
exit
end 

where bridge-group-number is a value between 1 and 255, and seconds is a value between 10 and 1,000,000 seconds. Cisco recommends configuring the seconds parameter to a value greater than the wired client's idle period.

When you delete a WGB record from the controller, all of the WGB wired clients' records are also deleted.

Wired clients connected to a WGB inherit the WGB's QoS and AAA override attributes.

These features are not supported for wired clients connected to a WGB:

MAC filtering

Link tests

Idle timeout

You do not need to configure anything on the controller to enable the WGB to communicate with the lightweight access point. However, to ensure proper communication, you should create a WLAN on the controller that matches the SSID and security method that was configured on the WGB.

Sample WGB Configuration

Here is a sample configuration of a WGB access point using static WEP with a 40-bit WEP key:

ap#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
ap(config)#dot11 ssid WGB_with_static_WEP
ap(config-ssid)#authentication open
ap(config-ssid)#guest-mode
ap(config-ssid)#exit
ap(config)#interface  dot11Radio 0
ap(config)#station-role workgroup-bridge
ap(config-if)#encry mode wep 40
ap(config-if)#encry key 1 size 40 0 1234567890
ap(config-if)#WGB_with_static_WEP
ap(config-if)#end 

To verify that the WGB is associated to an access point, enter this command on the WGB:

show dot11 association

Information similar to the following appears:

ap#show dot11 associations
802.11 Client Stations on Dot11Radio0:
SSID [FCVTESTING] :
MAC Address    IP address      Device        Name            Parent         State
000b.8581.6aee 10.11.12.1      WGB-client    map1            -              Assoc
ap#

Using the GUI to View the Status of Workgroup Bridges

Follow these steps to view the status of WGBs on your network using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Clients to access the Clients page (see Figure 7-26).

Figure 7-26 Clients Page

The WGB field on the right side of the page indicates whether any of the clients on your network are workgroup bridges.

Step 2 Click the MAC address of the desired client. The Clients > Detail page appears (see Figure 7-27).

Figure 7-27 Clients > Detail Page

The Client Type field under Client Properties shows "WGB" if this client is a workgroup bridge, and the Number of Wired Client(s) field shows the number of wired clients that are connected to this WGB.

Step 3 To see the details of any wired clients that are connected to a particular WGB, follow these steps:

a. Click Back on the Clients > Detail page to return to the Clients page.

b. Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired WGB and choose Show Wired Clients. The WGB Wired Clients page appears (see Figure 7-28).

Figure 7-28 WGB Wired Clients Page


Note If you ever want to disable or remove a particular client, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired client and choose Remove or Disable, respectively.


c. Click the MAC address of the desired client to see more details for this particular client. The Clients > Detail page appears (see Figure 7-29).

Figure 7-29 Clients > Detail Page

The Client Type field under Client Properties shows "WGB Client," and the rest of the fields on this page provide additional information for this client.


Using the CLI to View the Status of Workgroup Bridges

Follow these steps to view the status of WGBs on your network using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see any WGBs on your network, enter this command:

show wgb summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of WGBs................................... 1
 
MAC Address        IP Address 	AP Name 		 Status 		 WLAN 		 Auth  Protocol  Clients
----------------- 	---------- 	 -------- 	------ 		 ---- 	 ----- --------- -------- 
00:0d:ed:dd:25:82  10.24.8.73      a1 		 	 Assoc 	 	 3 	 	 	 	 Yes   802.11b   	1 

Step 2 To see the details of any wired clients that are connected to a particular WGB, enter this command:

show wgb detail wgb_mac_address

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of wired client(s): 1
 
MAC Address        	 IP Address 	AP Name 	 Mobility   WLAN   Auth		
------------------- 	---------- 	-------- ---------  ----- 	-----
00:0d:60:fc:d5:0b  	 10.24.8.75 	 	 a1 	 	 	 	 	 Local      3 	 	 	 	 Yes 


Using the CLI to Debug WGB Issues

Use the commands in this section if you experience any problems with the WGB.

1. To enable debugging for IAPP messages, errors, and packets, enter these commands:

debug iapp all enable—Enables debugging for IAPP messages.

debug iapp error enable—Enables debugging for IAPP error events.

debug iapp packet enable—Enables debugging for IAPP packets.

2. If you experience a roaming issue, enter this command:

debug mobility handoff enable

3. If you experience an IP assignment issue and DHCP is used, enter these commands:

debug dhcp message enable

debug dhcp packet enable

4. If you experience an IP assignment issue and static IP is used, enter these commands:

debug dot11 mobile enable

debug dot11 state enable

Configuring Country Codes

Controllers and access points are designed for use in many countries with varying regulatory requirements. The radios within the access points are assigned to a specific regulatory domain at the factory (such as -E for Europe), but the country code enables you to specify a particular country of operation (such as FR for France or ES for Spain). Configuring a country code ensures that each radio's broadcast frequency bands, interfaces, channels, and transmit power levels are compliant with country-specific regulations.

Generally, you configure one country code per controller, the one matching the physical location of the controller and its access points. However, controller software release 4.1 allows you to configure up to 20 country codes per controller. This multiple-country support enables you to manage access points in various countries from a single controller.


Note Although the controller supports different access points in different regulatory domains (countries), it requires all radios in a single access point to be configured for the same regulatory domain. For example, you should not configure a Cisco 1231 access point's 802.11b/g radio for the US (-A) regulatory domain and its 802.11a radio for the Great Britain (-E) regulatory domain. Otherwise, the controller allows only one of the access point's radios to turn on, depending on which regulatory domain you selected for the access point on the controller. Therefore, make sure that the same country code is configured for both of the access point's radios.


For a complete list of country codes supported per product, go to http://cisco-images.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/access_point/conversion/lwapp/upgrade/guide/lwapnote.html

Guidelines for Configuring Multiple Country Codes

Follow these guidelines when configuring multiple country codes:

The multiple-country feature is not supported for use with Cisco Aironet mesh access points. If a mesh access point is already connected to the controller, multiple-country configuration is rejected. If multiple-country support is configured, mesh access points are not permitted to join the controller.

When the multiple-country feature is being used, all controllers intended to join the same RF group must be configured with the same set of countries, configured in the same order.

When multiple countries are configured and the radio resource management (RRM) auto-RF feature is enabled, the auto-RF feature is limited to only the channels that are legal in all configured countries and to the lowest power level common to all configured countries. The access points are always able to use all legal frequencies, but non-common channels can only be assigned manually.


Note If an access point was already set to a higher legal power level or is configured manually, the power level is limited only by the particular country to which that access point is assigned.


When multiple countries are configured, only channels that are common to all configured countries are allowed. Each access point radio can only be in one country and only operates if it has a regulatory domain that is supported by that country. The controller allow only access points that have radios with regulatory domains that match one or more of the country codes, as defined within the controller table. The regulatory domain check is per radio, not per access point. So, if one of the radios has a regulatory domain that doesn't match, that radio is shutdown, but the access point is allowed to join the controller and the other radio remains up.

For example, the regulatory domain rules for GB, NZ and US are listed below:

GB (United Kingdom) allows only 802.11bg radios and 802.11a radios for -E regulatory domains.

NZ (New Zealand) allows only 802.11bg radios for the -N and A regulatory domains, and 802.11a radios for the -N regulatory domain.

US (United States) allows only 802.11bg and 802.11a radios for the -A or -B regulatory domains.

If a 1230 AP contains 2 radios: 802.11bg(-A) and 802.11a(-E) then the 802.11bg(-A) radio only works when located in New Zealand (NZ) or the United States (US), but the 802.11a(-E) radio only works when in the United Kinbdom (GB). Anything else is illegal.

It is recommended that you install 2 radios with compatible regulatory domains into a single access point, such as -A and -A or -E and -E or -A and -N.

When multiple countries are configured, the 802.11a network is disabled for all countries if any country does not support the 802.11a radio or there are no common channels on the 802.11a radio.

You can configure country codes through the controller GUI or CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Country Codes

Follow these steps to configure country codes using the GUI.


Step 1 Follow these steps to disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks:

a. Click Wireless > 802.11a > Network.

b. Uncheck the 802.11a Network Status Enabled check box.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Click Wireless > 802.11b/g > Network.

e. Uncheck the 802.11b/g Network Status Enabled check box.

f. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 2 Click Wireless > Country to access the Country page (see Figure 7-30).

Figure 7-30 Country Page

Step 3 Check the check box for each country where your access points are installed.

Step 4 If you checked more than one check box in Step 3, a message appears indicating that RRM channels and power levels are limited to common channels and power levels. Click OK to continue or Cancel to cancel the operation.

Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 If you selected multiple country codes in Step 3, each access point is assigned to a country. Follow these steps to see the default country chosen for each access point and to choose a different country if necessary.


Note If you ever remove a country code from the configuration, any access points currently assigned to the deleted country reboot and when they rejoin the controller, they get re-assigned to one of the remaining countries if possible.


a. Perform one of the following:

Leave the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks disabled.

Re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks and then disable only the access points for which you are configuring a country code. To disable an access point, click Wireless > Access Points > All APs, click the link of the desired access point, choose Disable from the Admin Status drop-down box, and click Apply.

b. Click Wireless > Access Points > All APs to access the All APs page.

c. Click the link for the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears (see Figure 7-31).

Figure 7-31 All APs > Details Page

d. The default country for this access point appears in the Country Code drop-down box. If the access point is installed in a country other than the one shown, choose the correct country from the drop-down box. The box contains only those country codes that are compatible with the regulatory domain of at least one of the access point's radios.

e. Click Apply to commit your changes.

f. Repeat these steps to assign all access points joined to the controller to a specific country.

g. Re-enable any access points that you disabled in a..

Step 7 Re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks, provided you did not re-enable them in Step 6.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.


Using the CLI to Configure Country Codes

Follow these steps to configure country codes using the CLI.


Step 1 To see a list of all available country codes, enter this command:

show country supported

Step 2 Enter these commands to disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks:

config 802.11a disable network

config 802.11b disable network

Step 3 To configure the country codes for the countries where your access points are installed, enter this command:

config country code1[,code2,code3,...]

If you are entering more than one country code, separate each by a comma (for example, config country US,CA,MX). Information similar to the following appears:

Changing country code could reset channel configuration.
If running in RFM One-Time mode, reassign channels after this command.
Check customized APs for valid channel values after this command.
Are you sure you want to continue? (y/n) y

Step 4 Enter Y when prompted to confirm your decision. Information similar to the following appears:

Configured Country............................. Multiple Countries:US,CA,MX
Auto-RF for this country combination is limited to common channels and power.
      KEY: * = Channel is legal in this country and may be configured manually.
           A = Channel is the Auto-RF default in this country.
           . = Channel is not legal in this country.
           C = Channel has been configured for use by Auto-RF.
           x = Channel is available to be configured for use by Auto-RF.
         (-) = Regulatory Domains allowed by this country.
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
802.11BG    :                            
Channels    :                   1 1 1 1 1
            : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 US (-AB)   : A * * * * A * * * * A . . .
 CA (-AB)   : A * * * * A * * * * A . . .
 MX (-NA)   : A * * * * A * * * * A . . .
 Auto-RF    : C x x x x C x x x x C . . .
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 802.11A    :                         1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Channels    : 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
--More-- or (q)uit
            : 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 2 6 0 4 0 4 8 2 6 0 4 8 2 6 0 9 3 7 1 5
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 US (-AB)   : . A . A . A . A A A A A * * * * * . . . * * * A A A A *
 CA (-ABN)  : . A . A . A . A A A A A * * * * * . . . * * * A A A A *
 MX (-N)    : . A . A . A . A A A A A . . . . . . . . . . . A A A A *
    Auto-RF : . C . C . C . C C C C C . . . . . . . . . . . C C C C x

Step 5 To verify your country code configuration, enter this command:

show country

Step 6 To see the list of available channels for the country codes configured on your controller, enter this command:

show country channels

Information similar to the following appears:

Configured Country............................. Multiple Countries:US,CA,MX
Auto-RF for this country combination is limited to common channels and power.
      KEY: * = Channel is legal in this country and may be configured manually.
           A = Channel is the Auto-RF default in this country.
           . = Channel is not legal in this country.
           C = Channel has been configured for use by Auto-RF.
           x = Channel is available to be configured for use by Auto-RF.
         (-) = Regulatory Domains allowed by this country.
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
802.11BG    :                            
Channels    :                   1 1 1 1 1
            : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 US (-AB)   : A * * * * A * * * * A . . .
 CA (-AB)   : A * * * * A * * * * A . . .
 MX (-NA)   : A * * * * A * * * * A . . .
 Auto-RF    : C x x x x C x x x x C . . .
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 802.11A    :                         1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Channels    : 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6
--More-- or (q)uit
            : 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 2 6 0 4 0 4 8 2 6 0 4 8 2 6 0 9 3 7 1 5
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
 US (-AB)   : . A . A . A . A A A A A * * * * * . . . * * * A A A A *
 CA (-ABN)  : . A . A . A . A A A A A * * * * * . . . * * * A A A A *
 MX (-N)    : . A . A . A . A A A A A . . . . . . . . . . . A A A A *
    Auto-RF : . C . C . C . C C C C C . . . . . . . . . . . C C C C x
------------:+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

Step 7 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Step 8 To see the countries to which your access points have been assigned, enter this command:

show ap summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Number of APs.................................... 2

AP Name 		 Slots  AP Model 	 	 	 	 	 	 	Ethernet MAC 	 	 	 		 Location 	 	 	 	 	Port  		Country
-------- ------ ----------------- 	----------------- 		 ---------------- 	 	------- --------
ap1 		 	2 	AP1030 	 				00:0b:85:5b:8e:c0  	default location  	 	 	 1 		 	 	 	 	US 
ap2 	 	 	2 	AIR-AP1242AG-A-K9 	 00:14:1c:ed:27:fe  	default location		 		 		 		 	 1	 	 	 	 	 	US 

Step 9 If you entered multiple country codes in Step 3, follow these steps to assign each access point to a specific country:

a. Perform one of the following:

Leave the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks disabled.

Re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks and then disable only the access points for which you are configuring a country code. To re-enable the networks, enter these commands:

config 802.11a enable network

config 802.11b enable network

To disable an access point, enter this command:

config ap disable ap_name

b. To assign an access point to a specific country, enter this command:

config ap country code {ap_name | all}

Make sure that the country code you choose is compatible with the regulatory domain of at least one of the access point's radios.


Note If you enabled the networks and disabled some access points and then run the config ap country code all command, the specified country code is configured on only the disabled access points. All other access points are ignored.


For example, if you enter config ap country mx all, information similar to the following appears:

To change country code: first disable target AP(s) (or disable all networks).
  Changing the country may reset any customized channel assignments.
  Changing the country will reboot disabled target AP(s).

 Are you sure you want to continue? (y/n) y

AP Name 		 	Country  Status
--------- 		 -------- --------
ap2 			 US 		 enabled 	(Disable AP before configuring country)
ap1 	 	 	 MX 		 changed	 (New country configured, AP rebooting) 

c. To re-enable any access points that you disabled in a., enter this command:

config ap enable ap_name

Step 10 If you did not re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks in Step 9, enter these commands to re-enable them now:

config 802.11a enable network

config 802.11b enable network

Step 11 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Migrating Access Points from the -J Regulatory Domain to the -U Regulatory Domain

The Japanese government has changed its 5-GHz radio spectrum regulations. These regulations allow a field upgrade of 802.11a 5-GHz radios. Japan allows three frequency sets:

J52 = 34 (5170 MHz), 38 (5190 MHz), 42 (5210 MHz), 46 (5230 MHz)

W52 = 36 (5180 MHz), 40 (5200 MHz), 44 (5220 MHz), 48 (5240 MHz)

W53 = 52 (5260 MHz), 56 (5280 MHz), 60 (5300 MHz), 64 (5320 MHz)

Cisco has organized these frequency sets into the following regulatory domains:

-J regulatory domain = J52

-P regulatory domain = W52 + W53

-U regulatory domain = W52

Regulatory domains are used by Cisco to organize the legal frequencies of the world into logical groups. For example, most of the European countries are included in the -E regulatory domain. Cisco access points are configured for a specific regulatory domain at the factory and, with the exception of this migration process, never change. The regulatory domain is assigned per radio, so an access point's 802.11a and 802.11b/g radios may be assigned to different domains.


Note Controllers and access points may not operate properly if they are not designed for use in your country of operation. For example, an access point with part number AIR-AP1030-A-K9 (which is included in the Americas regulatory domain) cannot be used in Australia. Always be sure to purchase controllers and access points that match your country's regulatory domain.


The Japanese regulations allow the regulatory domain that is programmed into an access point's radio to be migrated from the -J domain to the -U domain. New access points for the Japanese market contain radios that are configured for the -P regulatory domain. -J radios are no longer being sold. In order to make sure that your existing -J radios work together with the new -P radios in one network, you need to migrate your -J radios to the -U domain.

Country codes, as explained in the previous section, define the channels that can be used legally in each country. These country codes are available for Japan:

JP—Allows only -J radios to join the controller

J2—Allows only -P radios to join the controller

J3—Uses the -U frequencies but allows both -U and -P radios to join the controller


Note After migration, you need to use the J3 country code. If your controller is running software release 4.1 or greater, you can use the multiple-country feature, explained in the previous section, to choose both J2 and J3. Then you can manually configure your -P radios to use the channels not supported by J3.


Refer to the Channels and Maximum Power Settings for Cisco Aironet Lightweight Access Points document for the list of channels and power levels supported by access points in the Japanese regulatory domains.

Guidelines for Migration

Follow these guidelines before migrating your access points to the -U regulatory domain:

You can migrate only Cisco Aironet 1000, 1130, 1200, and 1240 lightweight access points that support the -J regulatory domain and Airespace AS1200 access points. Other access points cannot be migrated.

Your controller and all access points must be running software release 4.1 or greater or software release 3.2.193.0.


Note Software release 4.0 is not supported. If you migrate your access points using software release 3.2.193.0, you cannot upgrade to software release 4.0. You can upgrade only to software release 4.1 or greater or to a later release of the 3.2 software.


You must have had one or more Japan country codes (JP, J2, or J3) configured on your controller at the time you last booted your controller.

You must have at least one access point with a -J regulatory domain joined to your controller.

You cannot migrate your access points from the -U regulatory domain back to the -J domain. The Japanese government has made reverse migration illegal.


Note You cannot undo an access point migration. Once an access point has been migrated, you cannot return to software release 4.0. Migrated access points will have non-functioning 802.11a radios under software release 4.0.


Migrating Access Points to the -U Regulatory Domain

Follow these steps to migrate your access points from the -J regulatory domain to the -U regulatory domain using the controller CLI. This process cannot be performed using the controller GUI.


Step 1 To determine which access points in your network are eligible for migration, enter this command:

show ap migrate

Information similar to the following appears:

These 1 APs are eligible for migration:
00:14:1c:ed:27:fe AIR-AP1242AG-J-K9	ap1240					 	 	 	 	 	 "J"Reg. Domain

No APs have already been migrated. 

Step 2 Enter these commands to disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks:

config 802.11a disable network

config 802.11b disable network

Step 3 Enter this command to change the country code of the access points to be migrated to J3:

config country J3

Step 4 Wait for any access points that may have rebooted to rejoin the controller.

Step 5 Enter this command to migrate the access points from the -J regulatory domain to the -U regulatory domain:

config ap migrate j52w52 {all | ap_name}

Information similar to the following appears:

Migrate APs with 802.11A Radios in the "J" Regulatory Domain to the "U" Regulatory Domain.
The "J" domain allows J52 frequencies, the "U" domain allows W52 frequencies.
WARNING: This migration is permanent and is not reversible, as required by law.
WARNING: Once migrated the 802.11A radios will not operate with previous OS versions.
WARNING: All attached "J" radios will be migrated.
WARNING: All migrated APs will reboot.
WARNING: All migrated APs must be promptly reported to the manufacturer.
Send the AP list and your company name to: migrateapj52w52@cisco.com

This AP is eligible for migration:
00:14:1c:ed:27:fe AIR-AP1242AG-J-K9	ap1240				

Begin to migrate Access Points from "J"(J52) to "U"(W52). Are you sure? (y/n) 

Step 6 Enter Y when prompted to confirm your decision to migrate.

Step 7 Wait for all access points to reboot and rejoin the controller. This process may take up to 15 minutes, depending on access point. The AP1130, AP1200, and AP1240 reboot twice; all other access points reboot once.

Step 8 Enter this command to verify migration for all access points:

show ap migrate

Information similar to the following appears:

No APs are eligible for migration.

These 1 APs have already been migrated:
00:14:1c:ed:27:fe AIR-AP1242AG-J-K9	ap1240					 	 	 	 	 	 "U"Reg. Domain 
	 	 	 		

Step 9 Enter these commands to re-enable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks:

config 802.11a enable network

config 802.11b enable network

Step 10 Send an email with your company name and the list of access points that have been migrated to this email address: migrateapj52w52@cisco.com. We recommend that you cut and paste the output from the show ap migrate command in Step 8 into the email.


Dynamic Frequency Selection

The Cisco UWN Solution complies with regulations that require radio devices to use dynamic frequency selection (DFS) to detect radar signals and avoid interfering with them.

When a lightweight access point with a 5-GHz radio operates on one of the 15 channels listed in Table 7-4, the controller to which the access point is associated automatically uses DFS to set the operating frequency.

When you manually select a channel for DFS-enabled 5-GHz radios, the controller checks for radar activity on the channel for 60 seconds. If there is no radar activity, the access point operates on the channel you selected. If there is radar activity on the channel you selected, the controller automatically selects a different channel, and after 30 minutes, the access point retries the channel you selected.


Note After radar has been detected on a DFS-enabled channel, it cannot be used for 30 minutes.



Note The Rogue Location Detection Protocol (RLDP) and rogue containment are not supported on the channels listed in Table 7-4.



Note The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5-GHz channels than for others. When the controller randomly selects a 5-GHz channel on which power is restricted, it automatically reduces transmit power to comply with power limits for that channel.


Table 7-4 5-GHz Channels on Which DFS Is Automatically Enabled

52 (5260 MHz)

104 (5520 MHz)

124 (5620 MHz)

56 (5280 MHz)

108 (5540 MHz)

128 (5640 MHz)

60 (5300 MHz)

112 (5560 MHz)

132 (5660 MHz)

64 (5320 MHz)

116 (5580 MHz)

136 (5680 MHz)

100 (5500 MHz)

120 (5600 MHz)

140 (5700 MHz)


Using DFS, the controller monitors operating frequencies for radar signals. If it detects radar signals on a channel, the controller takes these steps:

It changes the access point channel to a channel that has not shown radar activity within the last 30 minutes. (The radar event is cleared after 30 minutes.) The controller selects the channel at random.

If the channel selected is one of the channels in Table 7-4, it scans the new channel for radar signals for 60 seconds. If there are no radar signals on the new channel, the controller accepts client associations.

It records the channel that showed radar activity as a radar channel and prevents activity on that channel for 30 minutes.

It generates a trap to alert the network manager.

Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

The unique device identifier (UDI) standard uniquely identifies products across all Cisco hardware product families, enabling customers to identify and track Cisco products throughout their business and network operations and to automate their asset management systems. The standard is consistent across all electronic, physical, and standard business communications. The UDI consists of five data elements:

The orderable product identifier (PID)

The version of the product identifier (VID)

The serial number (SN)

The entity name

The product description

The UDI is burned into the EEPROM of controllers and lightweight access points at the factory. It can be retrieved through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Follow these steps to retrieve the UDI on controllers and access points using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller > Inventory to access the Inventory page (see Figure 7-32).

Figure 7-32 Inventory Page

This page shows the five data elements of the controller UDI.

Step 2 Click Wireless to access the All APs page.

Step 3 Click the name of the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears (see Figure 7-33).

Figure 7-33 All APs > Details Page

This page shows the five data elements of the access point UDI under Inventory Information.


Using the CLI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Enter these commands to retrieve the UDI on controllers and access points using the CLI:

show inventory—Shows the UDI string of the controller. Information similar to the following appears:

NAME: "Chassis"    , DESCR: "Cisco Wireless Controller"
PID: WS-C3750G-24PS-W24,  VID: V01,  SN: FLS0952H00F

show inventory ap ap_id—Shows the UDI string of the access point specified.

Performing a Link Test

A link test is used to determine the quality of the radio link between two devices. Two types of link-test packets are transmitted during a link test: request and response. Any radio receiving a link-test request packet fills in the appropriate fields and echoes the packet back to the sender with the response type set.

The radio link quality in the client-to-access point direction can differ from that in the access point-to-client direction due to the asymmetrical distribution of transmit power and receive sensitivity on both sides. Two types of link tests can be performed: a ping test and a CCX link test.

With the ping link test, the controller can test link quality only in the client-to-access point direction. The RF parameters of the ping reply packets received by the access point are polled by the controller to determine the client-to-access point link quality.

With the CCX link test, the controller can also test the link quality in the access point-to-client direction. The controller issues link-test requests to the client, and the client records the RF parameters [received signal strength indicator (RSSI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), etc.] of the received request packet in the response packet. Both the link-test requestor and responder roles are implemented on the access point and controller. Therefore, not only can the access point or controller initiate a link test to a CCX v4 client, but a CCX v4 client can initiate a link test to the access point or controller.

The controller shows these link-quality metrics for CCX link tests in both directions (out: access point to client; in: client to access point):

Signal strength in the form of RSSI (minimum, maximum, and average)

Signal quality in the form of SNR (minimum, maximum, and average)

Total number of packets that are retried

Maximum retry count for a single packet

Number of lost packets

Data rate of a successfully transmitted packet

The controller shows this metric regardless of direction:

Link test request/reply round-trip time (minimum, maximum, and average)

The 4.1 release of controller software supports CCX versions 1 through 4. CCX support is enabled automatically for every WLAN on the controller and cannot be disabled. The controller stores the CCX version of the client in its client database and uses it to limit the features for this client. If a client does not support CCXv4, the controller performs a ping link test on the client. If a client supports CCXv4, the controller performs a CCX link test on the client. If a client times out during a CCX link test, the controller switches to the ping link test automatically. See the "Configuring Cisco Client Extensions" section on page 6-28 for more information on CCX.


Note CCX is not supported on the AP1030.


Follow the instructions in this section to perform a link test using either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Perform a Link Test

Follow these steps to run a link test using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Clients to access the Clients page (see Figure 7-34).

Figure 7-34 Clients Page

Step 2 Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired client and choose LinkTest. A link test page appears (see Figure 7-35).


Note You can also access this page by clicking the MAC address of the desired client and then clicking the Link Test button on the top of the Clients > Detail page.


Figure 7-35 Link Test Page

This page shows the results of the CCX link test.


Note If the client and/or controller does not support CCX v4, the controller performs a ping link test on the client instead, and a much more limited link test page appears.


Step 3 Click OK to exit the link test page.


Using the CLI to Perform a Link Test

Use these commands to run a link test using the CLI.

1. To run a link test, enter this command:

linktest ap_mac

When CCX v4 is enabled on both the controller and the client being tested, information similar to the following appears:

CCX Link Test to 00:0d:88:c5:8a:d1.
     Link Test Packets Sent...................................... 20
     Link Test Packets Received................................. 10
     Link Test Packets Lost (Total/AP to Client/Client to AP).... 10/5/5
     Link Test Packets round trip time (min/max/average)......... 5ms/20ms/15ms
     RSSI at AP (min/max/average)................................ -60dBm/-50dBm/-55dBm
     RSSI at Client (min/max/average)............................ -50dBm/-40dBm/-45dBm
     SNR at AP (min/max/average)................................. 40dB/30dB/35dB
     SNR at Client (min/max/average)............................. 40dB/30dB/35dB
     Transmit Retries at AP (Total/Maximum)...................... 5/3
     Transmit Retries at Client (Total/Maximum).................. 4/2
     Transmit rate:  1M   2M   5.5M   6M   9M  11M 12M 18M   24M   36M  48M  54M  108M
     Packet Count:   0     0     0    0    0    0   0   0     0     2    0   18     0
     Transmit rate:  1M   2M   5.5M   6M   9M  11M 12M 18M   24M   36M  48M  54M  108M
     Packet Count:   0     0     0    0    0    0   0   0     0     2    0    8     0

When CCX v4 is not enabled on either the controller or the client being tested, fewer details appear:

Ping Link Test to 00:0d:88:c5:8a:d1.
        Link Test Packets Sent.......................... 20
        Link Test Packets Received...................... 20
        Local Signal Strength........................... -49dBm
        Local Signal to Noise Ratio..................... 39dB

2. To adjust the link-test parameters that are applicable to both the CCX link test and the ping test, enter these commands from config mode:

config > linktest frame-size size_of_link-test_frames

config > linktest num-of-frame number_of_link-test_request_frames_per_test

Configuring Power over Ethernet

When an LWAPP-enabled access point (such as an AP1131 or AP1242) is powered by a power injector that is connected to a Cisco pre-Intelligent Power Management (pre-IPM) switch, you need to configure power over Ethernet (PoE), also known as inline power. You can configure PoE through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Follow these steps to configure PoE using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless and then the name of the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears (see Figure 7-36).

Figure 7-36 All APs > Details Page

Step 2 Perform one of the following:

Check the Pre-Standard State check box if the access point is being powered by a high-power Cisco switch. These switches provide more than the traditional 6 Watts of power but do not support the intelligent power management (IPM) feature. These switches include:

WS-C3550, WS-C3560, WS-C3750,

C1880,

2600, 2610, 2611, 2621, 2650, 2651,

2610XM, 2611XM, 2621XM, 2650XM, 2651XM, 2691,

2811, 2821, 2851,

3620, 3631-telco, 3640, 3660,

3725, 3745,

3825, and 3845.

Uncheck the Pre-Standard State check box if power is being provided by a power injector or by a switch not on the above list.

Step 3 Check the Power Injector State check box if the attached switch does not support IPM and a power injector is being used. If the attached switch supports IPM, you do not need to check this check box.

Step 4 If you checked the Power Injector State check box in the previous step, the Power Injector Selection parameter appears. This parameter enables you to protect your switch port from an accidental overload if the power injector is inadvertently bypassed. Choose one of these options from the drop-down box to specify the desired level of protection:

Installed—This option examines and remembers the MAC address of the currently connected switch port and assumes that a power injector is connected. Choose this option if your network contains older Cisco 6-Watt switches and you want to avoid possible overloads by forcing a double-check of any relocated access points.


Note Each time an access point is relocated, the MAC address of the new switch port will fail to match the remembered MAC address, and the access point will remain in low-power mode. You must then physically verify the existence of a power injector and reselect this option to cause the new MAC address to be remembered.


Override—This option allows the access point to operate in high-power mode without first verifying a matching MAC address. It is acceptable to use this option if your network does not contain any older Cisco 6-Watt switches that could be overloaded if connected directly to a 12-Watt access point. The advantage of this option is that if you relocate the access point, it continues to operate in high-power mode without any further configuration. The disadvantage of this option is that if the access point is connected directly to a 6-Watt switch, an overload will occur.

Foreign—This option causes the Injector Switch MAC Address parameter to appear. The Injector Switch MAC Address parameter allows the remembered MAC address to be modified by hand. Choose this option if you know the MAC address of the connected switch port and do not wish to automatically detect it using the Installed option.

Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.


Using the CLI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Use these commands to configure PoE using the controller CLI.

1. config ap power injector enable ap installed

This command is recommended if your network contains any older Cisco 6-Watt switches that could be accidentally overloaded if connected directly to a 12-Watt access point. The access point remembers that a power injector is connected to this particular switch port. If you relocate the access point, you must reissue this command after the presence of a new power injector is verified.


Note Make sure CDP is enabled before issuing this command. Otherwise, this command will fail. See the previous section for information on enabling CDP.


2. config ap power injector enable ap override

This command removes the safety checks and allows the access point to be connected to any switch port. It is acceptable to use this command if your network does not contain any older Cisco 6-Watt switches that could be overloaded if connected directly to a 12-Watt access point. The access point assumes that a power injector is always connected. If you relocate the access point, it continues to assume that a power injector is present.

Configuring Flashing LEDs

Controller software release 4.0 and greater enables you to flash the LEDs on an access point in order to locate it. All IOS lightweight access points (1000, 1100, and 1200) support this feature.

Use these commands to configure LED flashing from the Privileged Exec mode of the controller.


Note The output of these commands is sent only to the controller console, regardless of whether the commands were issued on the console or in a TELNET/SSH CLI session.


1. To enable the controller to send commands to the access point from its CLI, enter this command:

config ap remote-debug enable Cisco_AP

2. To cause a specific access point to flash its LEDs for a specified number of seconds, enter this command:

config ap remote-debug exc-command "led flash seconds" Cisco_AP

You can enter a value between 1 and 3600 seconds for the seconds parameter.

3. To disable LED flashing for a specific access point, enter this command:

config ap remote-debug exc-command "led flash disable" Cisco_AP

This command disables LED flashing immediately. For example, if you run the previous command (with the seconds parameter set to 60 seconds) and then disable LED flashing after only 20 seconds, the access point's LEDs stop flashing immediately.