Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Chapter 5 - Configuring Security Solutions
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Configuring Security Solutions

Table Of Contents

Configuring Security Solutions

Cisco UWN Solution Security

Security Overview

Layer 1 Solutions

Layer 2 Solutions

Layer 3 Solutions

Rogue Access Point Solutions

Rogue Access Point Challenges

Tagging and Containing Rogue Access Points

Integrated Security Solutions

Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones

Using the GUI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the CLI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the CLI to Configure Enhanced Distributed Channel Access

Using Management over Wireless

Using the GUI to Enable Management over Wireless

Using the CLI to Enable Management over Wireless

Configuring DHCP Option 82

Configuring Access Control Lists

Using the GUI to Configure Access Control Lists

Using the CLI to Configure Access Control Lists

Configuring Management Frame Protection

Using the GUI to Configure MFP

Using the GUI to View MFP Settings

Using the CLI to Configure MFP

Using the CLI to View MFP Settings

Configuring Identity Networking

Identity Networking Overview

RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking

QoS-Level

ACL-Name

Interface-Name

VLAN-Tag

Tunnel Attributes

Configuring AAA Override

Using the GUI to Configure AAA Override

Using the CLI to Configure AAA Override

Configuring IDS

Configuring IDS Sensors

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Sensors

Using the CLI to Configure IDS Sensors

Viewing Shunned Clients

Configuring IDS Signatures

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Signatures

Using the CLI to Configure IDS Signatures

Using the CLI to View IDS Signature Events

Configuring AES Key Wrap

Using the GUI to Configure AES Key Wrap

Using the CLI to Configure AES Key Wrap

Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries

Using the GUI to Specify the Maximum Number of Local Database Entries

Using the CLI to Specify the Maximum Number of Local Database Entries


Configuring Security Solutions


This chapter describes security solutions for wireless LANs. It contains these sections:

Cisco UWN Solution Security

Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones

Using Management over Wireless

Configuring DHCP Option 82

Configuring Access Control Lists

Configuring Management Frame Protection

Configuring Identity Networking

Configuring IDS

Configuring AES Key Wrap

Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries

Cisco UWN Solution Security

Cisco UWN Solution security includes the following sections:

Security Overview

Layer 1 Solutions

Layer 2 Solutions

Layer 3 Solutions

Rogue Access Point Solutions

Integrated Security Solutions

Security Overview

The Cisco UWN security solution bundles potentially complicated Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3 802.11 Access Point security components into a simple policy manager that customizes system-wide security policies on a per-WLAN basis. The Cisco UWN security solution provides simple, unified, and systematic security management tools.

One of the biggest hurdles to WLAN deployment in the enterprise is WEP encryption, which is a weak standalone encryption method. A newer problem is the availability of low-cost access points, which can be connected to the enterprise network and used to mount man-in-the-middle and denial-of-service attacks. Also, the complexity of add-on security solutions has prevented many IT managers from embracing the benefits of the latest advances in WLAN security.

Layer 1 Solutions

The Cisco UWN security solution ensures that all clients gain access within an operator-set number of attempts. Should a client fail to gain access within that limit, it is automatically excluded (blocked from access) until the operator-set timer expires. The operating system can also disable SSID broadcasts on a per-WLAN basis.

Layer 2 Solutions

If a higher level of security and encryption is required, the network administrator can also implement industry-standard security solutions, such as: 802.1X dynamic keys with EAP (extensible authentication protocol), or WPA (Wi-Fi protected access) dynamic keys. The Cisco UWN Solution WPA implementation includes AES (advanced encryption standard), TKIP + Michael (temporal key integrity protocol + message integrity code checksum) dynamic keys, or WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) static keys. Disabling is also used to automatically block Layer 2 access after an operator-set number of failed authentication attempts.

Regardless of the wireless security solution selected, all Layer 2 wired communications between controllers and lightweight access points are secured by passing data through LWAPP tunnels.

Layer 3 Solutions

The WEP problem can be further solved using industry-standard Layer 3 security solutions such as passthrough VPNs (virtual private networks).

The Cisco UWN Solution supports local and RADIUS MAC (media access control) filtering. This filtering is best suited to smaller client groups with a known list of 802.11 access card MAC addresses.

Finally, the Cisco UWN Solution supports local and RADIUS user/password authentication. This authentication is best suited to small to medium client groups.

Rogue Access Point Solutions

This section describes security solutions for rogue access points.

Rogue Access Point Challenges

Rogue access points can disrupt WLAN operations by hijacking legitimate clients and using plaintext or other denial-of-service or man-in-the-middle attacks. That is, a hacker can use a rogue access point to capture sensitive information, such as passwords and username. The hacker can then transmit a series of clear-to-send (CTS) frames, which mimics an access point informing a particular NIC to transmit and instructing all others to wait, which results in legitimate clients being unable to access the WLAN resources. WLAN service providers thus have a strong interest in banning rogue access points from the air space.

The operating system security solution uses the radio resource management (RRM) function to continuously monitor all nearby access points, automatically discover rogue access points, and locate them as described in the "Tagging and Containing Rogue Access Points" section.

Tagging and Containing Rogue Access Points

When the Cisco UWN Solution is monitored using WCS. WCS generates the flags as rogue access point traps, and displays the known rogue access points by MAC address. The operator can then display a map showing the location of the lightweight access points closest to each rogue access point, allowing Known or Acknowledged rogue access points (no further action), marking them as Alert rogue access points (watch for and notify when active), or marking them as contained rogue access points. Between one and four lightweight access points discourage rogue access point clients by sending the clients deauthenticate and disassociate messages whenever they associate with the rogue access point.

When the Cisco UWN Solution is monitored using a GUI or a CLI, the interface displays the known rogue access points by MAC address. The operator then has the option of marking them as Known or Acknowledged rogue access points (no further action), marking them as Alert rogue access points (watch for and notify when active), or marking them as Contained rogue access points (have between one and four lightweight access points discourage rogue access point clients by sending the clients deauthenticate and disassociate messages whenever they associate with the rogue access point).

Integrated Security Solutions

Cisco UWN Solution operating system security is built around a robust 802.1X AAA (authorization, authentication and accounting) engine, which allows operators to rapidly configure and enforce a variety of security policies across the Cisco UWN Solution.

The controllers and lightweight access points are equipped with system-wide authentication and authorization protocols across all ports and interfaces, maximizing system security.

Operating system security policies are assigned to individual WLANs, and lightweight access points simultaneously broadcast all (up to 16) configured WLANs. This can eliminate the need for additional access points, which can increase interference and degrade system throughput.

Operating system security uses the RRM function to continually monitor the air space for interference and security breaches, and notify the operator when they are detected.

Operating system security works with industry-standard authorization, authentication, and accounting (AAA) servers, making system integration simple and easy.

Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones

For best integration with the Cisco UWN Solution, SpectraLink NetLink Telephones require an extra operating system configuration step: enable long preambles. The radio preamble (sometimes called a header) is a section of data at the head of a packet that contains information that wireless devices need when sending and receiving packets. Short preambles improve throughput performance, so they are enabled by default. However, some wireless devices, such as SpectraLink NetLink phones, require long preambles.

Use one of these methods to enable long preambles:

Using the GUI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the CLI to Enable Long Preambles

Using the GUI to Enable Long Preambles

Use this procedure to use the GUI to enable long preambles to optimize the operation of SpectraLink NetLink phones on your wireless LAN.


Step 1 Log into the controller GUI.

Step 2 Follow this path to navigate to the 802.11b/g Global Parameters page:

Wireless > Global RF > 802.11b/g Network

If the Short Preamble Enabled box is checked, continue with this procedure. However, if the Short Preamble Enabled box is unchecked (which means that long preambles are enabled), the controller is already optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones and you do not need to continue this procedure.

Step 3 Uncheck the Short Preamble Enabled check box to enable long preambles.

Step 4 Click Apply to update the controller configuration.


Note If you do not already have an active CLI session to the controller, Cisco recommends that you start a CLI session to reboot the controller and watch the reboot process. A CLI session is also useful because the GUI loses its connection when the controller reboots.


Step 5 Reboot the controller using Commands > Reboot > Reboot. Click OK in response to this prompt:

Configuration will be saved and switch will be rebooted. Click ok to confirm.

The controller reboots.

Step 6 Log back into the controller GUI and verify that the controller is properly configured. Follow this path to navigate to the 802.11b/g Global Parameters page:

Wireless > Global RF > 802.11b/g Network

If the Short Preamble Enabled box is unchecked, the controller is optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones.


Using the CLI to Enable Long Preambles

Use this procedure to use the CLI to enable long preambles to optimize the operation of SpectraLink NetLink phones on your wireless LAN.


Step 1 Log into the controller CLI.

Step 2 Enter show 802.11b and check the Short preamble mandatory parameter. If the parameter indicates that short preambles are enabled, continue with this procedure. This example shows that short preambles are enabled:

Short Preamble mandatory....................... Enabled

However, if the parameter shows that short preambles are disabled (which means that long preambles are enabled), the controller is already optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones and you do not need to continue this procedure. This example shows that short preambles are disabled:

Short Preamble mandatory....................... Disabled

Step 3 Enter config 802.11b disable network to disable the 802.11b/g network. (You cannot enable long preambles on the 802.11a network.)

Step 4 Enter config 802.11b preamble long to enable long preambles.

Step 5 Enter config 802.11b enable network to re-enable the 802.11b/g network.

Step 6 Enter reset system to reboot the controller. Enter y when this prompt appears:

The system has unsaved changes. Would you like to save them now? (y/n)

The controller reboots.

Step 7 To verify that the controller is properly configured, log back into the CLI and enter show 802.11b to view these parameters:

802.11b Network................................ Enabled
Short Preamble mandatory....................... Disabled

These parameters show that the 802.11b/g network is enabled and that short preambles are disabled.


Using the CLI to Configure Enhanced Distributed Channel Access

Use this CLI command to configure 802.11 enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) parameters to support SpectraLink phones.

config advanced edca-parameters {svp-voice | wmm-default}

where

svp-voice enables SpectraLink voice priority (SVP) parameters and

wmm-default enables wireless multimedia (WMM) default parameters


Note To propagate this command to all access points connected to the controller, make sure to disable and then re-enable the 802.11b/g network after entering this command.


Using Management over Wireless

The Cisco UWN Solution Management over Wireless feature allows operators to monitor and configure local controllers using a wireless client. This feature is supported for all management tasks except uploads to and downloads from (transfers to and from) the controller.

Before you can use the Management over Wireless feature, you must properly configure the controller using one of these sections:

Using the GUI to Enable Management over Wireless

Using the CLI to Enable Management over Wireless

Using the GUI to Enable Management over Wireless


Step 1 Click Management > Mgmt Via Wireless to access the Management Via Wireless page.

Step 2 Check the Enable Controller Management to be accessible from Wireless Clients check box. If the selection box is not checked, continue with Step 3. Otherwise, continue with Step 3.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 5 Use a wireless client web browser to connect to the controller management port or DNS port IP address, and log into the controller GUI to verify that you can manage the WLAN using a wireless client.


Using the CLI to Enable Management over Wireless


Step 1 In the CLI, use the show network command to verify whether the Mgmt Via Wireless Interface is Enabled or Disabled. If Mgmt Via Wireless Interface is Disabled, continue with Step 2. Otherwise, continue with Step 3.

Step 2 To Enable Management over Wireless, enter config network mgmt-via-wireless enable.

Step 3 Use a wireless client to associate with an access point connected to the controller that you want to manage.

Step 4 Enter telnet controller-ip-address and log into the CLI to verify that you can manage the WLAN using a wireless client.


Configuring DHCP Option 82

DHCP option 82 provides additional security when DHCP is used to allocate network addresses. Specifically, it enables the controller to act as a DHCP relay agent to prevent DHCP client requests from untrusted sources. The controller can be configured to add option 82 information to DHCP requests from clients before forwarding the requests to the DHCP server. See Figure 5-1 for an illustration of this process.

Figure 5-1 DHCP Option 82

The access point forwards all DHCP requests from a client to the controller. The controller adds the DHCP option 82 payload and forwards the request to the DHCP server. The payload can contain the MAC address or the MAC address and SSID of the access point, depending on how you configure this option.


Note Any DHCP packets that already include a relay agent option are dropped at the controller.



Note DHCP option 82 is not supported for use with auto-anchor mobility, which is described in Chapter 11.


Use these commands to configure DHCP option 82 on the controller.

1. To configure the format of the DHCP option 82 payload, enter one of these commands:

config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap_mac

This command adds the MAC address of the access point to the DHCP option 82 payload.

config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap_mac:ssid

This command adds the MAC address and SSID of the access point to the DHCP option 82 payload.

2. To enable or disable DHCP option 82 on the controller, enter this command:

config interface dhcp ap-manager opt-82 {enable | disable}

3. To see the status of DHCP option 82 on the controller, enter this command:

show interface detailed ap-manager

Information similar to the following appears:

Interface Name................................... ap-manager
IP Address....................................... 10.30.16.13
IP Netmask....................................... 255.255.248.0
IP Gateway....................................... 10.30.16.1
VLAN............................................. untagged
Active Physical Port............................. LAG (29)
Primary Physical Port............................ LAG (29)
Backup Physical Port............................. Unconfigured
Primary DHCP Server.............................. 10.1.0.10
Secondary DHCP Server............................ Unconfigured
DHCP Option 82................................... Enabled
ACL.............................................. Unconfigured
AP Manager....................................... Yes

Configuring Access Control Lists

An access control list (ACL) is a set of rules used to limit access to a particular interface (for example, if you want to restrict a wireless client from pinging the management interface of the controller). ACLs can be applied to data traffic to and from wireless clients or to all traffic destined for the controller CPU. After they are defined, ACLs can be applied to the management interface, the AP-manager interface, or any of the dynamic interfaces for client data traffic or to the NPU interface for traffic to the controller CPU.


Note If you are using an external web server, you must configure a preauthentication ACL on the WLAN for the external web server.


You can define up to 64 ACLs, each with up to 64 rules (or filters). Each rule has parameters that affect its action. When a packet matches all of the parameters for a rule, the action set for that rule is applied to the packet.

You can configure ACLs through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Access Control Lists

Follow these steps to configure ACLs using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security > Access Control Lists to access the Access Control Lists page (see Figure 5-2).

Figure 5-2 Access Control Lists Page

This page lists all of the ACLs that have been configured for this controller. It also enables you to edit or remove any of the ACLs.

Step 2 To add a new ACL, click New. The Access Control Lists > New page appears (see Figure 5-3).

Figure 5-3 Access Control Lists > New Page

Step 3 In the Access Control List Name field, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters.

Step 4 Click Apply. When the Access Control Lists page reappears, click the Edit link for the new ACL.

Step 5 When the Access Control Lists > Edit page appears, click Add New Rule. The Access Control Lists > Rules > New page appears (see Figure 5-4).

Figure 5-4 Access Control Lists > Rules > New Page

Step 6 Follow these steps to configure a rule for this ACL:

a. The controller supports up to 64 rules for each ACL. These rules are listed in order from 1 to 64. In the Sequence field, enter a value (between 1 and 64) to determine the order of this rule in relation to any other rules defined for this ACL.


Note If rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 29, it is added as rule 5. If you add or change a sequence number for a rule, the sequence numbers for other rules adjust to maintain a contiguous sequence. For instance, if you change a rule's sequence number from 7 to 5, the rules with sequence numbers 5 and 6 are automatically reassigned as 6 and 7, respectively.


b. From the Source drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the source of the packets to which this ACL applies:

Any—Any source (This is the default value.)

IP Address—A specific source. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the source in the edit boxes.

c. From the Destination drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the destination of the packets to which this ACL applies:

Any—Any destination (This is the default value.)

IP Address—A specific destination. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the destination in the edit boxes.

d. From the Protocol drop-down box, choose the protocol to be used for this ACL. These are the protocol options:

Any—All protocol (This is the default value.)

TCP—Transmission Control Protocol

UDP—User Datagram Protocol

ICMP—Internet Control Message Protocol

ESP—IP Encapsulating Security Payload

AH—Authentication Header

GRE—Generic Routing Encapsulation

IP—Internet Protocol

Eth Over IP—Ethernet-over-Internet Protocol

OSPF—Open Shortest Path First

Other—Any other Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) protocol (http://www.iana.org)

e. If you chose TCP or UDP in the previous step, two additional parameters appear: Source Port and Destination Port. These parameters enable you to choose a specific source port and destination protocol or port ranges. The port options are used by applications that send and receive data to and from the networking stack. Some ports are designated for certain applications such as telnet, ssh, http, ICMP, and so on.

f. From the DSCP drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the differentiated services code point (DSCP) value of this ACL. DSCP is a packet header code that can be used to define the quality of service across the Internet.

Any—Any DSCP (This is the default value.)

Specific—A specific DSCP from 0 to 63, which you enter in the DSCP edit box

g. From the Direction drop-down box, choose one of these options to specify the direction of the traffic to which this ACL applies:

Any—Any direction (This is the default value.)

Inbound—From the client

Outbound—To the client

h. From the Action drop-down box, choose Deny to cause this ACL to block packets or Permit to cause this ACL to allow packets. The default value is Deny.

i. Click Apply to commit your changes. The Access Control Lists > Edit page reappears, showing the rules for this ACL. See Figure 5-5.

Figure 5-5 Access Control Lists > Edit Page

This page also enables you to edit or remove any of the rules.

j. Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules for this ACL.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 8 Repeat this procedure to add any additional ACLs.

Step 9 To apply an ACL to a management, AP-manager, or dynamic interface, choose the desired ACL from the ACL Name drop-down box on the interface's Edit page and click Apply. See Chapter 3 for more information on configuring controller interfaces.


Note You cannot apply an ACL to the NPU-CPU interface through the GUI. You can configure this setting only through the CLI.


Step 10 To apply a preauthentication ACL to a WLAN for an external web server, choose the desired ACL from the Preauthentication ACL drop-down box under Security Policies > Web Policy on the WLAN's Edit page. See Chapter 6 for more information on configuring WLANs.

Step 11 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Access Control Lists

Follow these steps to configure ACLs using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see all of the ACLs that are configured on the controller, enter this command:

show acl summary

Step 2 To see detailed information for a particular ACL, enter this command:

show acl detailed acl_name

Step 3 To add a new ACL, enter this command:

config acl create acl_name

You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the acl_name parameter.

Step 4 To add a rule for an ACL, enter this command:

config acl rule {

action acl_name rule_index {permit | deny} |

add acl_name rule_index |

change index acl_name old_index new_index |

destination address acl_name rule_index ip_address netmask |

destination port range acl_name rule_index start_port end_port |

direction acl_name rule_index {in | out | any} |

dscp acl_name rule_index dscp |

protocol acl_name rule_index protocol |

source address acl_name rule_index ip_address netmask |

source port range acl_name rule_index start_port end_port |

swap index acl_name index_1 index_2}

Refer to Step 6 in the previous section for explanations of the rule parameters.

Step 5 To apply an ACL to the data path, enter this command:

config acl apply acl_name

Step 6 To create a new ACL that restricts the type of traffic (wired, wireless, or both) reaching the controller CPU, enter this command:

config acl cpu acl_name {wired | wireless | both}

Step 7 To see the ACL that is configured on the controller CPU, enter this command:

show acl cpu

Step 8 To apply an ACL to a management, AP-manager, or dynamic interface, enter this command:

config interface acl {management | ap-manager | dynamic_interface_name} acl_name

See Chapter 3 for more information on configuring controller interfaces.

Step 9 To apply a preauthentication ACL to a WLAN for an external web server, enter this command:

config wlan security web-auth acl wlan_id acl_name

See Chapter 6 for more information on configuring WLANs.

Step 10 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Note To delete an ACL, enter config acl delete acl_name. To delete an ACL rule, enter config acl rule delete acl_name rule_index.



Configuring Management Frame Protection

Management frame protection (MFP) provides for the authentication of 802.11 management frames by the wireless network infrastructure. Management frames can be protected in order to detect adversaries that are invoking denial-of-service attacks, flooding the network with associations and probes, interjecting as rogue access points, and affecting network performance by attacking the QoS and radio measurement frames. MFP also provides a quick and effective means to detect and report phishing incidents.

MFP performs three main functions:

Management frame protection—When management frame protection is enabled, the access point protects the management frames it transmits by adding a message integrity check information element (MIC IE) to each frame. Any attempt to copy, alter, or replay the frame invalidates the MIC, causing any receiving access point configured to detect MFP frames to report the discrepancy.

Management frame validation—When management frame validation is enabled, the access point validates every management frame that it receives from other access points in the network. It ensures that the MIC IE is present (when the originator is configured to transmit MFP frames) and matches the content of the management frame. If it receives any frame that does not contain a valid MIC IE from a BSSID belonging to an access point that is configured to transmit MFP frames, it reports the discrepancy to the network management system. In order for the timestamps to operate properly, all controllers must be Network Transfer Protocol (NTP) synchronized.

Event reporting—The access point notifies the controller when it detects an anomaly, and the controller aggregates the received anomaly events and can report the results through SNMP traps to alert the network manager.

You can globally configure MFP on a controller. When you do so, management frame protection and validation are enabled by default for each joined access point, and access point authentication is automatically disabled. Once MFP is globally enabled on a controller, you can disable and re-enable it for individual WLANs and access points.


Note Access points support MFP in local and monitor modes and in REAP and H-REAP modes when the access point is connected to a controller.


You can configure MFP through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure MFP

Follow these steps to configure MFP using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security and then AP Authentication/MFP under Wireless Protection Policies. The AP Authentication Policy page appears (see Figure 5-6).

Figure 5-6 AP Authentication Policy Page

Step 2 To enable MFP globally for the controller, choose Management Frame Protection from the Protection Type drop-down box.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 Follow these steps if you want to disable or re-enable MFP protection for a particular WLAN after MFP has been enabled globally for the controller:

a. Click WLANs.

b. Click the Edit link of the desired WLAN. The WLANs > Edit page appears.

c. Uncheck the MFP Signature Generation check box to disable MFP for this WLAN or check this check box to enable MFP for this WLAN.

d. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 Follow these steps if you want to disable or re-enable MFP validation for a particular access point after MFP has been enabled globally for the controller:

a. Click Wireless to access the All APs page.

b. Click the Detail link of the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears.

c. Uncheck the MFP Frame Validation check box to disable MFP for this access point or check this check box to enable MFP for this access point.

d. Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.


Using the GUI to View MFP Settings

Follow these steps to view MFP settings using the controller GUI.


Step 1 To see the controller's current global MFP settings, click Security and then Management Frame Protection under Wireless Protection Policies. The Management Frame Protection Settings page appears (see Figure 5-7).

Figure 5-7 Management Frame Protection Settings Page

On this page, you can see the following MFP settings:

The Management Frame Protection field shows if MFP is enabled globally for the controller.

The Controller Time Source Valid field indicates whether the controller time is set locally (by manually entering the time) or through an external source (such as NTP server). If the time is set by an external source, the value of this field is "True." If the time is set locally, the value is "False." The time source is used for validating management frames between access points of different controllers that also have mobility configured.

The MFP Protection field shows if MFP is enabled for individual WLANs.

The MFP Validation field shows if MFP is enabled for individual access points.

Step 2 To see the current MFP state for a particular access point, click Wireless, 802.11a Radios or 802.11b/g Radios under Access Points, and the Configure link of the desired access point. The 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Cisco APs > Configure page appears (see Figure 5-8).

Figure 5-8 802.11a Cisco APs > Configure Page

Under Management Frame Protection, this page shows the level of MFP protection and validation.


Using the CLI to Configure MFP

Use these commands to configure MFP using the controller CLI.

1. To enable or disable MFP globally for the controller, enter this command:

config wps mfp {enable | disable}

2. If MFP is enabled globally for the controller and you want to disable or re-enable it for a particular WLAN, enter this command:

config wlan mfp protection {enable | disable} wlan_id

3. If MFP is enabled globally for the controller and you want to disable or re-enable it for a particular access point, enter this command:

config ap mfp validation {enable | disable} Cisco_AP

Using the CLI to View MFP Settings

Use these commands to view MFP settings using the controller CLI.

1. To see a summary of the controller's current wireless protection policies (including MFP), enter this command:

show wps summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Client Exclusion Policy
  Excessive 802.11-association failures.......... Enabled
  Excessive 802.11-authentication failures....... Enabled
  Excessive 802.1x-authentication................ Enabled
  Network access control failure................. Enabled
  IP-theft....................................... Enabled
  Excessive Web authentication failure........... Enabled

Trusted AP Policy
  Management Frame Protection.................... Enabled
  Mis-configured AP Action....................... Alarm Only
    Enforced encryption policy................... none
    Enforced preamble policy..................... none
    Enforced radio type policy................... none
    Validate SSID................................ Disabled
  Alert if Trusted AP is missing................. Disabled
  Trusted AP timeout............................. 120

Untrusted AP Policy
  Rogue Location Discovery Protocol.............. Disabled
    RLDP Action.................................. Alarm Only
    Automatically contain rogues advertising .... Alarm Only
    Detect Ad-Hoc Networks....................... Alarm Only
  Rogue Clients
    Validate rogue clients against AAA........... Disabled
    Detect trusted clients on rogue APs.......... Alarm Only
  Rogue AP timeout............................... 1200

Signature Policy
  Signature Processing........................... Enabled

2. To see the controller's current global MFP settings, enter this command:

show wps mfp summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Management Frame Protection state................ enabled
Controller Time Source Valid..................... true
WLAN ID  WLAN Name               Status     MFP Protection
-------  ----------------------  ---------  --------------
1        tester-2006             Enabled    Enabled  
                      MFP                      Operational         MFP Capability
AP Name               Validation  Slot  Radio  State           Protection  Validation
--------------------  ----------  ----  -----  --------------  ----------  ----------
tester-1000           Enabled     0     a      Up              Full        Full  
                                  1     b/g    Up              Full        Full  
tester-1000b          Enabled     0     a      Up              Full        Full  
                                  1     b/g    Up              Full        Full

3. To see the current MFP state for a particular WLAN, enter this command:

show wlan wlan_id

Information similar to the following appears:

WLAN Identifier.................................. 1
Network Name (SSID).............................. tester-2006
Status........................................... Enabled
MAC Filtering.................................... Disabled
Broadcast SSID................................... Disabled
AAA Policy Override.............................. Disabled
Network Access Control........................... Disabled
Number of Active Clients......................... 0
Exclusionlist.................................... Disabled
Session Timeout.................................. 1800 seconds
Interface........................................ management
DHCP Server...................................... Default
Quality of Service............................... Silver (best effort)
WMM.............................................. Disabled
CCX - AironetIe Support.......................... Disabled
Dot11-Phone Mode (7920).......................... Disabled
Wired Protocol................................... None
IPv6 Support..................................... Disabled
Radio Policy..................................... All
Security
   802.11 Authentication:........................ Open System
   Static WEP Keys............................... Disabled
   802.1X........................................ Enabled
   Encryption:................................... 104-bit WEP
   Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA1)................. Disabled
   Wi-Fi Protected Access v2 (WPA2).............. Disabled
   IP Security Passthru.......................... Disabled
   Web Based Authentication...................... Disabled
   Web-Passthrough............................... Disabled
   Auto Anchor................................... Disabled
   Management Frame Protection .................. Enabled

4. To see the current MFP state for a particular access point, enter this command:

show ap config general AP_name

Information similar to the following appears:

Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 0
Cisco AP Name.................................... ap:52:c5:c0
AP Regulatory Domain............................. 80211bg: -N 80211a: -N
Switch Port Number .............................. 1
MAC Address...................................... 00:0b:85:52:c5:c0
IP Address Configuration......................... Static IP assigned
IP Address....................................... 10.67.73.33
IP NetMask....................................... 255.255.255.192
Cisco AP Location................................ default_location
Cisco AP Group Name.............................. default-group
Primary Cisco Switch............................. tester-2006
Secondary Cisco Switch...........................
Tertiary Cisco Switch............................
Administrative State ............................ ADMIN_ENABLED
Operation State ................................. REGISTERED
Mirroring Mode .................................. Disabled
AP Mode ......................................... Local
Remote AP Debug ................................. Disabled
S/W  Version .................................... 4.0.2.0
Boot  Version ................................... 2.1.78.0
Mini IOS Version ................................      --
Stats Reporting Period .......................... 180
LED State........................................ Enabled
ILP Pre Standard Switch.......................... Disabled
ILP Power Injector............................... Disabled
Number Of Slots.................................. 2
AP Model......................................... AP1020
AP Serial Number................................. WCN09260057
AP Certificate Type.............................. Manufacture Installed
Management Frame Protection Validation .......... Enabled

5. To see MFP statistics for the controller, enter this command:

show wps mfp statistics

Information similar to the following appears:

BSSID              Radio  Validator AP Name Invalid MIC   Invalid Seq   No MIC   MIC
---------------- -------  ----------------- ------------  ------------  ------- ------
00:12:44:b0:6a:80  a      tester-1000b               28 			 0 			 			 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	0 	 0
00:0b:85:56:c2:c0  b/g    tester-1000b                0 	 0          			 		 	 	3 			 	 	 0
00:14:1b:5b:fc:80  a      tester-1000b              774 	 0           	 	 0 	 	 	 0

6. Use these commands to obtain MFP debug information:

debug wps mfp ?

where ? is one of the following:

lwapp—Shows debug information for MFP messages.

detail—Shows detailed debug information for MFP messages.

report—Shows debug information for MFP reporting.

mm—Shows debug information for MFP mobility (inter-controller) messages.

Configuring Identity Networking

These sections explain the identity networking feature, how it is configured, and the expected behavior for various security policies:

Identity Networking Overview

RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking

Configuring AAA Override

Identity Networking Overview

In most wireless LAN systems, each WLAN has a static policy that applies to all clients associated with an SSID. Although powerful, this method has limitations since it requires clients to associate with different SSIDs to inherit different QoS and security policies.

However, the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution supports identity networking, which allows the network to advertise a single SSID but allows specific users to inherit different QoS or security policies based on their user profiles. The specific policies that you can control using identity networking include:

Quality of Service. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the QoS-Level value overrides the QoS value specified in the WLAN profile.

ACL. When the ACL attribute is present in the RADIUS Access Accept, the system applies the ACL-Name to the client station after it authenticates. This overrides any ACLs that are assigned to the interface.

VLAN. When a VLAN Interface-Name or VLAN-Tag is present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the system places the client on a specific interface.


Note The VLAN feature only supports MAC filtering, 802.1X, and WPA. The VLAN feature does not support Web Authentication or IPSec.


Tunnel Attributes.


Note When any of the other RADIUS attributes (QoS-Level, ACL-Name, Interface-Name, or VLAN-Tag), which are described later in this section, are returned, the Tunnel Attributes must also be returned.


The operating system's local MAC Filter database has been extended to include the interface name, allowing local MAC filters to specify to which interface the client should be assigned. A separate RADIUS server can also be used, but the RADIUS server must be defined using the Security menus.

RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking

This section explains the RADIUS attributes used in identity networking.

QoS-Level

This attribute indicates the Quality of Service level to be applied to the mobile client's traffic within the switching fabric, as well as over the air. This example shows a summary of the QoS-Level Attribute format. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|     Type      |  Length       |            Vendor-Id 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     Vendor-Id (cont.)          | Vendor type   | Vendor length | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|                           QoS Level                           | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 

Type - 26 for Vendor-Specific

Length - 10

Vendor-Id - 14179

Vendor type - 2

Vendor length - 4

Value - Three octets:

0 - Bronze (Background)

1 - Silver (Best Effort)

2 - Gold (Video)

3 - Platinum (Voice)

ACL-Name

This attribute indicates the ACL name to be applied to the client. A summary of the ACL-Name Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|     Type      |  Length       |            Vendor-Id 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     Vendor-Id (cont.)          | Vendor type   | Vendor length | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|        ACL Name... 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- 

Type - 26 for Vendor-Specific

Length - >7

Vendor-Id - 14179

Vendor type - 6

Vendor length - >0

Value - A string that includes the name of the ACL to use for the client

Interface-Name

This attribute indicates the VLAN Interface a client is to be associated to. A summary of the Interface-Name Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|     Type      |  Length       |            Vendor-Id 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     Vendor-Id (cont.)          |  Vendor type  | Vendor length | 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|    Interface Name... 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- 

Type - 26 for Vendor-Specific

Length - >7

Vendor-Id - 14179

Vendor type - 5

Vendor length - >0

Value - A string that includes the name of the interface the client is to be assigned to.


Note This Attribute only works when MAC filtering is enabled or if 802.1X or WPA is used as the security policy.


VLAN-Tag

This attribute indicates the group ID for a particular tunneled session, and is also known as the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attribute.

This attribute might be included in the Access-Request packet if the tunnel initiator can predetermine the group resulting from a particular connection and should be included in the Access-Accept packet if this tunnel session is to be treated as belonging to a particular private group. Private groups may be used to associate a tunneled session with a particular group of users. For example, it may be used to facilitate routing of unregistered IP addresses through a particular interface. It should be included in Accounting-Request packets which contain Acct-Status-Type attributes with values of either Start or Stop and which pertain to a tunneled session.

A summary of the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.

 0                   1                   2                   3 
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
|      Type     |    Length     |     Tag       |   String... 
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 

Type - 81 for Tunnel-Private-Group-ID.

Length - >= 3

Tag - The Tag field is one octet in length and is intended to provide a means of grouping attributes in the same packet which refer to the same tunnel. If the value of the Tag field is greater than 0x00 and less than or equal to 0x1F, it should be interpreted as indicating which tunnel (of several alternatives) this attribute pertains. If the Tag field is greater than 0x1F, it should be interpreted as the first byte of the following String field.

String - This field must be present. The group is represented by the String field. There is no restriction on the format of group IDs.

Tunnel Attributes


Note When any of the other RADIUS attributes (QoS-Level, ACL-Name, Interface-Name, or VLAN-Tag) are returned, the Tunnel Attributes must also be returned.


Reference RFC2868 defines RADIUS tunnel attributes used for authentication and authorization, and RFC2867 defines tunnel attributes used for accounting. Where the IEEE 802.1X Authenticator supports tunneling, a compulsory tunnel may be set up for the Supplicant as a result of the authentication.

In particular, it may be desirable to allow a port to be placed into a particular Virtual LAN (VLAN), defined in IEEE8021Q, based on the result of the authentication. This can be used, for example, to allow a wireless host to remain on the same VLAN as it moves within a campus network.

The RADIUS server typically indicates the desired VLAN by including tunnel attributes within the Access-Accept. However, the IEEE 802.1X Authenticator may also provide a hint as to the VLAN to be assigned to the Supplicant by including Tunnel attributes within the Access- Request.

For use in VLAN assignment, the following tunnel attributes are used:

Tunnel-Type=VLAN (13)

Tunnel-Medium-Type=802

Tunnel-Private-Group-ID=VLANID

Note that the VLANID is 12-bits, taking a value between 1 and 4094, inclusive. Since the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID is of type String as defined in RFC2868, for use with IEEE 802.1X, the VLANID integer value is encoded as a string.

When Tunnel attributes are sent, it is necessary to fill in the Tag field. As noted in RFC2868, section 3.1:

The Tag field is one octet in length and is intended to provide a means of grouping attributes in the same packet which refer to the same tunnel. Valid values for this field are 0x01 through 0x1F, inclusive. If the Tag field is unused, it must be zero (0x00).

For use with Tunnel-Client-Endpoint, Tunnel-Server-Endpoint, Tunnel-Private-Group-ID, Tunnel-Assignment-ID, Tunnel-Client-Auth-ID or Tunnel-Server-Auth-ID attributes (but not Tunnel-Type, Tunnel-Medium-Type, Tunnel-Password, or Tunnel-Preference), a tag field of greater than 0x1F is interpreted as the first octet of the following field.

Unless alternative tunnel types are provided, (e.g. for IEEE 802.1X Authenticators that may support tunneling but not VLANs), it is only necessary for tunnel attributes to specify a single tunnel. As a result, where it is only desired to specify the VLANID, the tag field should be set to zero (0x00) in all tunnel attributes. Where alternative tunnel types are to be provided, tag values between 0x01 and 0x1F should be chosen.

Configuring AAA Override

The Allow AAA Override option of a WLAN allows you to configure the WLAN for identity networking. This option allows you to apply VLAN tagging, QoS, and ACLs to individual clients based on the returned RADIUS attributes from the AAA server.

Most of the configuration for allowing AAA override is done at the RADIUS server where you should configure the Access Control Server (ACS) with the override properties you would like it to return to the controller (for example, Interface-Name, QoS-Level, and VLAN-Tag).

On the controller, all you have to do is enable the Allow AAA Override configuration parameter using the GUI or CLI. Enabling this flag allows the controller to accept the attributes returned by the RADIUS server. The controller then applies these attributes to its clients.


Note Multicast traffic is not supported when the AAA override for a client assigns a VLAN other than one mapped to the WLAN.


Using the GUI to Configure AAA Override

Follow these steps to configure AAA override using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click WLANs.

Step 2 Click the Edit link for the WLAN you want to configure.

Step 3 Check the Allow AAA Override check box (see Figure 5-9).

Figure 5-9 WLANs > Edit Page

Step 4 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 5 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure AAA Override

To enable AAA override using the controller CLI, enter this command:

config wlan aaa-override enable wlan-id

For wlan-id, enter an ID from 1 to 16.

Configuring IDS

The Cisco intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system (CIDS/IPS) instructs controllers to block certain clients from accessing the wireless network when attacks involving these clients are detected at Layer 3 through Layer 7. This system offers significant network protection by helping to detect, classify, and stop threats including worms, spyware/adware, network viruses, and application abuse. Two methods are available to detect IDS attacks:

IDS sensors, see below

IDS signatures, see page 30

Configuring IDS Sensors

You can configure IDS sensors to detect various types of IP-level attacks in your network. When the sensors identify an attack, they can alert the controller to shun the offending client. When you add a new IDS sensor, you register the controller with that IDS sensor so that the controller can query the sensor to get the list of shunned clients. You can configure IDS sensor registration through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Sensors

Follow these steps to configure IDS sensors using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security and then Sensors under CIDS. The CIDS Sensors List page appears (see Figure 5-10).

Figure 5-10 CIDS Sensors List Page

This page lists all of the IDS sensors that have been configured for this controller. It also enables you to edit or remove any of the sensors.

Step 2 To add an IDS sensor to the list, click New. The CIDS Sensor Add page appears (see Figure 5-11).

Figure 5-11 CIDS Sensor Add Page

Step 3 The controller supports up to five IPS sensors. From the Index drop-down box, choose a number (between 1 and 5) to determine the sequence in which the controller consults the IPS sensors. For example, if you choose 1, the controller consults this IPS sensor first.

Step 4 In the Server Address field, enter the IP address of your IDS server.

Step 5 The Port field contains the number of the HTTPS port through which the controller is to communicate with the IDS sensor. Cisco recommends that you set this parameter to 443 because the sensor uses this value to communicate by default.

Default: 0

Range: 1 to 65535

Step 6 In the Username field, enter the name that the controller uses to authenticate to the IDS sensor.


Note This username must be configured on the IDS sensor and have at least a read-only privilege.


Step 7 In the Password and Confirm Password fields, enter the password that the controller uses to authenticate to the IDS sensor.

Step 8 In the Query Interval field, enter the time (in seconds) for how often the controller should query the IDS server for IDS events.

Default: 0 seconds

Range: 10 to 3600 seconds

Step 9 Check the State check box to register the controller with this IDS sensor or uncheck this check box to disable registration.

Step 10 Enter a 40-hexadecimal-character security key in the Fingerprint field. This key is used to verify the validity of the sensor and is used to prevent security attacks.


Note Do not include the colons that appear between every two bytes within the key. For example, enter AABBCCDD instead of AA:BB:CC:DD.


Step 11 Click Apply. Your new IDS sensor appears in the list of sensors on the CIDS Sensors List page.

Step 12 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure IDS Sensors

Follow these steps to configure IDS sensors using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To add an IDS sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor add index ids_ip_address username password

The index parameter determines the sequence in which the controller consults the IPS sensors. The controller supports up to five IPS sensors. Enter a number (between 1 and 5) to determine the priority of this sensor. For example, if you enter 1, the controller consults this IPS sensor first.


Note The username must be configured on the IDS sensor and have at least a read-only privilege.


Step 2 (Optional) To specify the number of the HTTPS port through which the controller is to communicate with the IDS sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor port index port_number

For the port-number parameter, you can enter a value between 1 and 65535. The default value is 443. This step is optional because Cisco recommends that you use the default value of 443. The sensor uses this value to communicate by default.

Step 3 To specify how often the controller should query the IDS server for IDS events, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor interval index interval

For the interval parameter, you can enter a value between 10 and 3600 seconds. The default value is 60 seconds.

Step 4 To enter a 40-hexadecimal-character security key used to verify the validity of the sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor fingerprint index sha1 fingerprint

You can get the value of the fingerprint by entering show tls fingerprint on the sensor's console.


Note Make sure to include the colons that appear between every two bytes within the key (for example, AA:BB:CC:DD).


Step 5 To enable or disable this controller's registration with an IDS sensor, enter this command:

config wps cids-sensor {enable | disable} index

Step 6 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Step 7 To view the IDS sensor configuration, enter one of these commands:

show wps cids-sensor summary

show wps cids-sensor detail index

The second command provides more information than the first.

Step 8 To obtain debug information regarding IDS sensor configuration, enter this command:

debug wps cids enable


Note If you ever want to delete or change the configuration of a sensor, you must first disable it by entering config wps cids-sensor disable index. To then delete the sensor, enter config wps cids-sensor delete index.



Viewing Shunned Clients

When an IDS sensor detects a suspicious client, it alerts the controller to shun this client. The shun entry is distributed to all controllers within the same mobility group. If the client to be shunned is currently joined to a controller in this mobility group, the anchor controller adds this client to the dynamic exclusion list, and the foreign controller removes the client. The next time the client tries to connect to a controller, the anchor controller rejects the handoff and informs the foreign controller that the client is being excluded. See Chapter 11 for more information on mobility groups.

You can view the list of clients that the IDS sensors have identified to be shunned through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to View Shunned Clients

Follow these steps to view the list of clients that the IDS sensors have identified to be shunned using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security and then Shunned Clients under CIDS. The CIDS Shun List page appears (see Figure 5-12).

Figure 5-12 CIDS Shun List Page

This page shows the IP address and MAC address of each shunned client, the length of time that the client's data packets should be blocked by the controller as requested by the IDS sensor, and the IP address of the IDS sensor that discovered the client.

Step 2 Click Re-sync to purge and reset the list as desired.


Using the CLI to View Shunned Clients

Follow these steps to view the list of clients that the IDS sensors have identified to be shunned using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To view the list of clients to be shunned, enter this command:

show wps shun-list

Step 2 To force the controller to sync up with other controllers in the mobility group for the shun list, enter this command:

config wps shun-list re-sync


Configuring IDS Signatures

You can configure IDS signatures, or bit-pattern matching rules used to identify various types of attacks in incoming 802.11 packets, on the controller. When the signatures are enabled, the access points joined to the controller perform signature analysis on the received 802.11 data or management frames and report any discrepancies to the controller.

A standard signature file exists on the controller by default. You can upload this signature file from the controller, or you can create a custom signature file and download it to the controller or modify the standard signature file to create a custom signature. You can configure signatures through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure IDS Signatures

You must follow these instructions to configure signatures using the controller GUI:

Uploading or downloading IDS signatures, page 31

Enabling or disabling IDS signatures, page 32

Viewing IDS signature events, page 35

Using the GUI to Upload or Download IDS Signatures

Follow these steps to upload or download IDS signatures using the controller GUI.


Step 1 If desired, create your own custom signature file.

Step 2 Make sure that you have a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server available. Keep these guidelines in mind when setting up a TFTP server:

If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP server must be on the same subnet as the service port because the service port is not routable.

If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP server can be on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.

A third-party TFTP server cannot run on the same computer as the Cisco WCS because the WCS built-in TFTP server and the third-party TFTP server require the same communication port.

Step 3 If you are downloading a custom signature file (*.sig), copy it to the default directory on your TFTP server.

Step 4 Click Commands to access the Download File to Controller page (see Figure 5-13).

Figure 5-13 Download File to Controller Page

Step 5 Perform one of the following:

If you want to download a custom signature file to the controller, choose Signature File from the File Type drop-down box on the Download File to Controller page.

If you want to upload a standard signature file from the controller, click Upload File and then choose Signature File from the File Type drop-down box on the Upload File from Controller page.

Step 6 In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.

Step 7 If you are downloading the signature file, enter the maximum number of times the controller should attempt to download the signature file in the Maximum Retries field.

Range: 1 to 254

Default: 10

Step 8 If you are downloading the signature file, enter the amount of time in seconds before the controller times out while attempting to download the signature file in the Timeout field.

Range: 1 to 254 seconds

Default: 6 seconds

Step 9 In the File Path field, enter the path of the signature file to be downloaded or uploaded. The default value is "/."

Step 10 In the File Name field, enter the name of the signature file to be downloaded or uploaded.


Note When uploading signatures, the controller uses the filename you specify as a base name and then adds "_std.sig" and "_custom.sig" to it in order to upload both standard and custom signature files to the TFTP server. For example, if you upload a signature file called "ids1," the controller automatically generates and uploads both ids1_std.sig and ids1_custom.sig to the TFTP server. If desired, you can then modify ids1_custom.sig on the TFTP server (making sure to set "Revision = custom") and download it by itself.


Step 11 Click Download to download the signature file to the controller or Upload to upload the signature file from the controller.


Using the GUI to Enable or Disable IDS Signatures

Follow these steps to enable or disable IDS signatures using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security and then Standard Signatures or Custom Signatures under Wireless Protection Policies. The Standard Signatures page (see Figure 5-14) or the Custom Signatures page appears.

Figure 5-14 Standard Signatures Page

The Standard Signatures page shows the list of Cisco-supplied signatures that are currently on the controller. The Custom Signatures page shows the list of customer-supplied signatures that are currently on the controller. This page shows the following information for each signature:

The order, or precedence, in which the controller performs the signature checks.

The name of the signature, which specifies the type of attack that the signature is trying to detect.

The frame type on which the signature is looking for a security attack. The possible frame types are data and management.

The action that the controller is directed to take when the signature detects an attack. The possible action are None and Report.

The state of the signature, which indicates whether the signature is enabled to detect security attacks.

A description of the type of attack that the signature is trying to detect.

Step 2 Perform one of the following:

If you want to allow all signatures (both standard and custom) whose individual states are set to Enabled to remain enabled, check the Enable Check for All Standard and Custom Signatures check box at the top of either the Standard Signatures page or the Custom Signatures page. The default value is enabled (or checked). When the signatures are enabled, the access points joined to the controller perform signature analysis on the received 802.11 data or management frames and report any discrepancies to the controller.

If you want to disable all signatures (both standard and custom) on the controller, uncheck the Enable Check for All Standard and Custom Signatures check box. If you uncheck this check box, all signatures are disabled, even the ones whose individual states are set to Enabled.

Step 3 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 4 To enable or disable an individual signature, click the Detail link for the desired signature. The Signature > Detail page appears (see Figure 5-15).

Figure 5-15 Signature > Detail Page

This page shows much of the same information as the Standard Signatures and Custom Signatures pages but provides these additional details:

The measurement interval, or the number of seconds that must elapse before the controller resets the signature threshold counters

The tracking method used by the access points to perform signature analysis and report the results to the controller. The possible values are:

Per Signature—Signature analysis and pattern matching are tracked and reported on a per-signature and per-channel basis.

Per MAC—Signature analysis and pattern matching are tracked and reported separately for individual client MAC addresses on a per-channel basis.

Per Signature and MAC—Signature analysis and pattern matching are tracked and reported on a per-signature and per-channel basis as well as on a per-MAC-address and per-channel basis.

The signature frequency, or the number of matching packets per second that must be identified at the individual access point level before an attack is detected

The signature MAC frequency, or the number of matching packets per second that must be identified per client per access point before an attack is detected

The quiet time, or the length of time (in seconds) after which no attacks have been detected at the individual access point level and the alarm can stop

The pattern that is being used to detect a security attack

Step 5 Check the State check box to enable this signature to detect security attacks or uncheck it to disable this signature. The default value is enabled (or checked).

Step 6 Click Apply to commit your changes. The Standard Signatures or Custom Signatures page reflects the signature's updated state.

Step 7 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the GUI to View IDS Signature Events

Follow these steps to view signature events using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security and then Signature Events Summary under Wireless Protection Policies. The Signature Events Summary page appears (see Figure 5-16).

Figure 5-16 Signature Events Summary Page

This page shows the number of attacks detected by the enabled signatures.

Step 2 To see more information on the attacks detected by a particular signature, click the Detail link for that signature. The Signature Events Detail page appears (see Figure 5-17).

Figure 5-17 Signature Events Detail Page

This page shows the following information:

The MAC addresses of the clients identified as attackers

The method used by the access point to track the attacks

The number of matching packets per second that were identified before an attack was detected

The number of access points on the channel on which the attack was detected

The day and time when the access point detected the attack

Step 3 To see more information for a particular attack, click the Detail link for that attack. The Signature Events Track Detail page appears (see Figure 5-18).

Figure 5-18 Signature Events Track Detail Page

This page shows the following information:

The MAC address of the access point that detected the attack

The name of the access point that detected the attack

The type of radio (802.11a or 802.11b/g) used by the access point to detect the attack

The radio channel on which the attack was detected

The day and time when the access point reported the attack


Using the CLI to Configure IDS Signatures

Follow these steps to configure IDS signatures using the controller CLI.


Step 1 If desired, create your own custom signature file.

Step 2 Make sure that you have a TFTP server available. See the guidelines for setting up a TFTP server in Step 2 of the "Using the GUI to Upload or Download IDS Signatures" section.

Step 3 Copy the custom signature file (*.sig) to the default directory on your TFTP server.

Step 4 To specify the download or upload mode, enter transfer {download | upload} mode tftp.

Step 5 To specify the type of file to be downloaded or uploaded, enter transfer {download | upload} datatype signature.

Step 6 To specify the IP address of the TFTP server, enter transfer {download | upload} serverip tftp-server-ip-address.


Note Some TFTP servers require only a forward slash (/) as the TFTP server IP address, and the TFTP server automatically determines the path to the correct directory.


Step 7 To specify the download or upload path, enter transfer {download | upload} path absolute-tftp-server-path-to-file.

Step 8 To specify the file to be downloaded or uploaded, enter transfer {download | upload} filename filename.sig.


Note When uploading signatures, the controller uses the filename you specify as a base name and then adds "_std.sig" and "_custom.sig" to it in order to upload both standard and custom signature files to the TFTP server. For example, if you upload a signature file called "ids1," the controller automatically generates and uploads both ids1_std.sig and ids1_custom.sig to the TFTP server. If desired, you can then modify ids1_custom.sig on the TFTP server (making sure to set "Revision = custom") and download it by itself.


Step 9 Enter transfer {download | upload} start and answer y to the prompt to confirm the current settings and start the download or upload.

Step 10 To enable or disable individual signatures, enter this command:

config wps signature {standard | custom} state precedence# {enable | disable}

Step 11 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Using the CLI to View IDS Signature Events

Use these commands to view signature events using the controller CLI.

1. To see all of the standard and custom signatures installed on the controller, enter this command:

show wps signature summary

2. To see the number of attacks detected by the enabled signatures, enter this command:

show wps signature events summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Precedence Signature Name 		 		 		 	 Type 		 	 No. Events
---------- ------------------		 	----- 	 	 	-----------
1 			Bcast deauth 		 	 	 	Standard 			 2
2 			NULL probe resp 1 	 Standard 	 		 	 1

3. To see more information on the attacks detected by a particular standard or custom signature, enter this command:

show wps signature events {standard | custom} precedence# summary

Information similar to the following appears:

Precedence....................................... 1
Signature Name................................... Bcast deauth
Type............................................. Standard
Number of active events....................... 2 

Source MAC Addr 		 	 Track Method 			 Frequency 		No. APs	 Last Heard
----------------- 	------------ 		 --------- -------- ------------------------
00:01:02:03:04:01 	Per Signature 		 	 4 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	3 	 Tue Dec 6 00:17:44 2005
00:01:02:03:04:01 	Per Mac 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	6	 	 	2 	 Tue Dec 6 00:30:04 2005

4. To see information on attacks that are tracked by access points on a per-signature and per-channel basis, enter this command:

show wps signature events {standard | custom} precedence# detailed per-signature source_mac

5. To see information on attacks that are tracked by access points on an individual-client basis (by MAC address), enter this command:

show wps signature events {standard | custom} precedence# detailed per-mac source_mac

Information similar to the following appears:

Source MAC....................................... 00:01:02:03:04:01
Precedence....................................... 1
Signature Name................................... Bcast deauth
Type............................................. Standard
Track............................................ Per Mac
Frequency........................................ 6
Reported By
	AP 1
		MAC Address.............................. 00:0b:85:01:4d:80
		Name..................................... Test_AP_1
		Radio Type............................... 802.11bg
		Channel.................................. 4
		Last reported by this AP................. Tue Dec 6 00:17:49 2005
	AP 2
		MAC Address.............................. 00:0b:85:26:91:52
		Name..................................... Test_AP_2
		Radio Type............................... 802.11bg
		Channel.................................. 6

Last reported by this AP................. Tue Dec 6 00:30:04 2005

Configuring AES Key Wrap

You can use the GUI or CLI to configure a controller to use AES key wrap, which makes the shared secret between the controller and the RADIUS server more secure. AES key wrap is designed for Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) customers and requires a key-wrap compliant RADIUS authentication server.

Using the GUI to Configure AES Key Wrap

To configure a controller to use AES key wrap using the GUI, follow these steps.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > RADIUS Authentication to access the RADIUS Authentication Servers page.

Step 2 To enable AES key wrap, check the Use AES Key Wrap check box.

Step 3 Click Apply.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration.

Step 5 Click New to configure a new RADIUS authentication server or click the Edit link of one of the servers listed on the page to configure AES key wrap.

Step 6 Check the Key Wrap check box (see Figure 5-19).

Step 7 Choose ASCII or Hex from the Key Wrap Format drop-down box to specify the format of the AES key wrap keys: Key Encryption Key (KEK) and Message Authentication Code Key (MACK).

Step 8 Enter the 16-byte KEK in the Key Encryption Key (KEK) field.

Step 9 Enter the 20-byte KEK in the Message Authentication Code Key (MACK) field.

Figure 5-19 RADIUS Authentication Servers > New Page

Step 10 Click Apply.

Step 11 Click Save Configuration.


Using the CLI to Configure AES Key Wrap

To configure a controller to use AES key wrap using the CLI, follow these steps.


Step 1 To enable the use of AES key wrap attributes, enter this command:

config radius auth keywrap enable

Step 2 To configure AES key wrap attributes, enter this command:

config radius auth keywrap add {ascii | hex} index

The index attribute specifies the index of the RADIUS authentication server on which to configure AES key wrap.


Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries

You can use the GUI or CLI to specify the maximum local database entries used for storing users' authentication information. The information in the database is used in conjunction with the web authentication feature of the controller.

Using the GUI to Specify the Maximum Number of Local Database Entries

To configure a controller to use the maximum local database entries using the GUI, follow these steps.


Step 1 Click Security > AAA > General to open the General page (see Figure 5-20).

Step 2 Type the desired maximum value in the Maximum Local Database entries field. The range of possible values is 512 to 2048 (which also includes any configured MAC filter entries). The default value is 2048.

Figure 5-20 Security > AAA > General Page

Step 3 Click Apply.

Step 4 Click Save Configuration.


Using the CLI to Specify the Maximum Number of Local Database Entries

To configure the maximum number of local database entries using the CLI, enter this command:

config database size max_entries