Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Chapter 7 - Controlling Lightweight Access Points
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Controlling Lightweight Access Points

Table Of Contents

Controlling Lightweight Access Points

The Controller Discovery Process

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller Using the GUI

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller Using the CLI

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

Cisco 1030 Remote Edge Lightweight Access Points

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Models

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External and Internal Antennas

External Antenna Connectors

Antenna Sectorization

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point LEDs

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Connectors

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Power Requirements

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External Power Supply

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Mounting Options

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Physical Security

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Monitor Mode

Cisco Aironet 1510 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Points

Wireless Mesh

Configuring and Deploying the AP1510

Adding the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

Configuring Mesh Parameters

Configuring the Mesh Security Timer

Configuring Bridging Parameters

Autonomous Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Guidelines for Using Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Reverting from Lightweight Mode to Autonomous Mode

Using a Controller to Return to a Previous Release

Using the MODE Button and a TFTP Server to Return to a Previous Release

Access Point Authorization

Controllers Accept SSCs from Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Using DHCP Option 43

Using a Controller to Send Debug Commands to Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Converted Access Points Send Crash Information to Controller

Converted Access Points Send Radio Core Dumps to Controller

Enabling Memory Core Dumps from Converted Access Points

Display of MAC Addresses for Converted Access Points

Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Configuring a Static IP Address on an Access Point Converted to Lightweight Mode

Dynamic Frequency Selection

Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Using the GUI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Using the CLI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Performing a Link Test

Using the GUI to Perform a Link Test

Using the CLI to Perform a Link Test

Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

Configuring Power over Ethernet

Using the GUI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Using the CLI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Configuring Flashing LEDs

Authorizing Access Points Using MICs


Controlling Lightweight Access Points


This chapter describes the Cisco lightweight access points and explains how to connect them to the controller and manage access point settings. It contains these sections:

The Controller Discovery Process

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

Cisco Aironet 1510 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Points

Autonomous Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Dynamic Frequency Selection

Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Performing a Link Test

Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

Configuring Power over Ethernet

Configuring Flashing LEDs

Authorizing Access Points Using MICs

The Controller Discovery Process

Cisco's lightweight access points use the Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) to communicate between the controller and other lightweight access points on the network. In an LWAPP environment, a lightweight access point discovers a controller by using LWAPP discovery mechanisms and then sends it an LWAPP join request. The controller sends the access point an LWAPP join response allowing the access point to join the controller. When the access point joins the controller, the controller manages its configuration, firmware, control transactions, and data transactions.


Note You must install software release 4.0.155.0 or greater on the controller before connecting 1100 and 1300 series access points to the controller. The 1120 and 1310 access points were not supported prior to software release 4.0.155.0.



Note The Cisco controllers cannot edit or query any access point information using the CLI if the name of the access point contains a space.


Lightweight access points must be discovered by a controller before they can become an active part of the network. The lightweight access points support these controller discovery processes:

Layer 3 LWAPP discovery—Can occur on different subnets from the access point and uses IP addresses and UDP packets rather the MAC addresses used by Layer 2 discovery.

Layer 2 LWAPP discovery—Occurs on the same subnet as the access point and uses encapsulated Ethernet frames containing MAC addresses for communications between the access point and the controller. Layer 2 LWAPP discovery is not suited for Layer 3 environments.

Over-the-air provisioning (OTAP)—This feature is supported by Cisco 4400 series controllers. If this feature is enabled on the controller, all associated access points transmit wireless LWAPP neighbor messages, and new access points receive the controller IP address from these messages. This feature should be disabled when all access points are installed.

Locally stored controller IP address discovery—If the access point was previously associated to a controller, the IP addresses of the primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers are stored in the access point's non-volatile memory. This process of storing controller IP addresses on access points for later deployment is called priming the access point.

DHCP server discovery—This feature uses DHCP option 43 to provide controller IP addresses to the access points. Cisco switches support a DHCP server option that is typically used for this capability. For more information about DHCP option 43, see the "Using DHCP Option 43" section.

DNS discovery—The access point can discover controllers through your domain name server (DNS). For the access point to do so, you must configure your DNS to return controller IP addresses in response to CISCO-LWAPP-CONTROLLER.localdomain, where localdomain is the access point domain name. When an access point receives an IP address and DNS information from a DHCP server, it contacts the DNS to resolve CISCO-LWAPP-CONTROLLER@localdomain. When the DNS sends a list of controller IP addresses, the access point sends discovery requests to the controllers.

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller

When replacing a controller, you need to make sure that access points join the new controller.

Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller Using the GUI

Follow these steps to ensure that access points join the new controller.


Step 1 Follow these steps to configure the new controller as a master controller.

a. Using the GUI, click Controller > Master Controller Mode.

b. Check the Master Controller Mode check box.

c. Click Apply to commit your changes.

d. Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 2 (Optional) Flush the ARP and MAC address tables within the network infrastructure. Ask your network administrator for more information about this step.

Step 3 Restart the access points.

Step 4 Once all the access points have joined the new controller, configure the controller not to be a master controller by unchecking the Master Controller Mode check box in the GUI.


Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller Using the CLI

Follow these steps to ensure that access points join the new controller.


Step 1 Enter this command to configure the new controller as a master controller:

config network master-base enable

Step 2 (Optional) Flush the ARP and MAC address tables within the network infrastructure. Ask your network administrator for more information about this step.

Step 3 Restart the access points.

Step 4 Once all the access points have joined the new controller, configure the controller not to be a master controller by entering this command in the CLI:

config network master-base disable


Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is a part of the innovative Cisco Unified Wireless Network (UWN) Solution. When associated with controllers as described below, the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point provides advanced 802.11a and/or 802.11b/g Access Point functions in a single aesthetically pleasing plenum-rated enclosure. Figure 7-1 shows the two types of Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g lightweight access point: without and with connectors for external antennas.

Figure 7-1 1000 Series Lightweight Access Points

The Cisco WLAN Solution also offers 802.11a/b/g Cisco 1030 Remote Edge Lightweight Access Points, which are Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points designed for remote deployment, Radio Resource Management (RRM) control via a WAN link, and which include connectors for external antennas.

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is manufactured in a neutral color so it blends into most environments (but can be painted), contains pairs of high-gain internal antennas for unidirectional (180-degree) or omnidirectional (360-degree) coverage, and is plenum-rated for installations in hanging ceiling spaces.

In the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution, most of the processing responsibility is removed from traditional SOHO (small office, home office) access points and resides in the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller.

Cisco 1030 Remote Edge Lightweight Access Points

The only exception to the general rule of lightweight access points being continuously controlled by Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers is the Cisco 1030 IEEE 802.11a/b/g remote edge lightweight access point (Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point). The Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point is intended to be located at a remote site, initially configured by a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, and normally controlled by a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller.

However, because the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point bridges the client data (compared with other Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points, which pass all client data through their respective Cisco Wireless LAN Controller), if the WAN link breaks between the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point and its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point continues transmitting wireless LAN 1 client data through other Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access points on its local subnet. However, it cannot take advantage of features accessed from the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, such as establishing new VLANs, until communication is reestablished.

The Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point includes the traditional SOHO (small office, home office) AP processing power, and thus can continue operating if the WAN link to its associated Cisco Wireless LAN Controller fails. Because it is configured by its associated Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it has the same wireless LAN configuration as the rest of the Cisco Wireless LAN Solution. As long as it remains connected to its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it varies its transmit power and channel selection under control of the RRM, and performs the same rogue access point location as any other Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point.

Note that the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point can support multiple wireless LANs while it is connected to its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller. However, when it loses connection to its Cisco Wireless LAN Controller, it supports only one wireless LAN on its local subnet.

Figure 7-2 shows a typical Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point configuration:

Figure 7-2 Typical 1030 Lightweight Access Point Configuration

Note that the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access point must have a DHCP server available on its local subnet, so it can obtain an IP address upon reboot. Also note that the Cisco 1030 remote edge lightweight access points at each remote location must be on the same subnet to allow client roaming.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Models

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point includes one 802.11a and one 802.11b/g radio. The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is available in the following configurations:

AP1010—A 1000 series access point with four high-gain internal antennas and no external antenna adapters.

AP1020—A 1000 series access point with four high-gain internal antennas and one 5-GHz external antenna adapter and two 2.4-GHz external antenna adapters.

AP1030—A 1030 remote edge access point with four high-gain internal antennas and one 5-GHz external antenna adapter and two 2.4-GHz external antenna adapters.

The 1000 series access point is shipped with a color-coordinated ceiling mount base and hanging-ceiling rail clips. You can also order projection- and flush-mount sheet metal wall mounting bracket kits. The base, clips, and optional brackets allow quick mounting to ceiling or wall. The access point can be powered by power over Ethernet or by an external power supply.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External and Internal Antennas

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point enclosure contains one 802.11a or one 802.11b/g radio and four (two 802.11a and two 802.11b/g) high-gain antennas, which can be independently enabled or disabled to produce a 180-degree sectorized or 360-degree omnidirectional coverage area.


Note Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points must use the factory-supplied internal or external antennas to avoid violating FCC requirements and voiding the user's authority to operate the equipment.


Note that the wireless LAN operator can disable either one of each pair of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point internal antennas to produce a 180-degree sectorized coverage area. This feature can be useful, for instance, for outside-wall mounting locations where coverage is only desired inside the building, and in a back-to-back arrangement that can allow twice as many clients in a given area.

External Antenna Connectors

The AP1020 and AP1030 have male reverse-polarity TNC jacks for installations requiring factory-supplied external directional or high-gain antennas. The external antenna option can create more flexibility in Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point antenna placement.


Note The AP1010 is designed to be used exclusively with the internal high-gain antenna. It has no jacks for external antennas.


Note that the 802.11b/g 2.4 GHz Left external antenna connector is associated with the internal Side A antenna, and that the 2.4 GHz Right external antenna connector is associated with the internal Side B antenna. When you have 802.11b/g diversity enabled, the Left external or Side A internal antennas are diverse from the Right external or Side B internal antennas.

Also note that the 802.11a 5 GHz Left external antenna connector is separate from the internal antennas, and adds diversity to the 802.11a transmit and receive path. Note that no external 802.11a antennas are certified in FCC-regulated areas, but external 802.11a antennas may be certified for use in other countries.

Antenna Sectorization

Note that the Cisco WLAN Solution supports Antenna Sectorization, which can be used to increase the number of clients and/or client throughput a given air space. Installers can mount two Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points back-to-back, and the Network operator can disable the second antenna in both access points to create a 360-degree coverage area with two sectors.

Installers can also mount Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points on the periphery of a building and disable the Side B internal antennas. This configuration can be used to supply service to the building interior without extending coverage to the parking lot, at the cost of eliminating the internal antenna diversity function.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point LEDs

Each Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point is equipped with four LEDs across the top of the case. They can be viewed from nearly any angle. The LEDs indicate power and fault status, 2.4 GHz (802.11b/g) Cisco Radio activity, and 5 GHz (802.11a) Cisco Radio activity.

This LED display allows the wireless LAN manager to quickly monitor the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point status. For more detailed troubleshooting instructions, refer to the hardware installation guide for the access point.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Connectors

The AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points have the following external connectors:

One RJ-45 Ethernet jack, used for connecting the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point to the network.

One 48 VDC power input jack, used to plug in an optional factory-supplied external power adapter.

Three male reverse-polarity TNC antenna jacks, used to plug optional external antennas into the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point: two for an 802.11b/g radio, and one for an 802.11a radio.


Note The AP1010 Cisco 1000 Series lightweight access points are designed to be used exclusively with the internal high-gain antennas, and have no jacks for external antennas.


The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point communicates with a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller using standard CAT-5 (Category 5) or higher 10/100 Mbps twisted pair cable with RJ-45 connectors. Plug the CAT-5 cable into the RJ-45 jack on the side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point.

Note that the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point can receive power over the CAT-5 cable from network equipment. Refer to Power over Ethernet for more information about this option.

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point can be powered from an optional factory-supplied external AC-to-48 VDC power adapter. If you are powering the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point using an external adapter, plug the adapter into the 48 VDC power jack on the side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point.

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point includes two 802.11a and two 802.11b/g high-gain internal antennas, which provide omnidirectional coverage. However, some Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points can also use optional factory-supplied external high-gain and/or directional antennas. When you are using external antennas, plug them into the male reverse-polarity TNC jacks on the side of the AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points.


Note Cisco 1000 Series lightweight access points must use the factory-supplied internal or external antennas to avoid violating FCC requirements and voiding the user's authority to operate the equipment.


Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Power Requirements

Each Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point requires a 48 VDC nominal (between 38 and 57 VDC) power source capable of providing 7 W. If you use +48 VDC, the connector is center positive. Because the power supply on the access point is isolated, a negative 48-volt supply could be used. In this case, the ground side of the supply would go to the center pole "tip," and the negative 48-volt side would go to the outside "ring" portion.

Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points can receive power from the external power supply (which draws power from a 110-220 VAC electrical outlet) plugged into the side of the access point case, or from Power over Ethernet.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point External Power Supply

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point can receive power from an external 110-220 VAC-
to-48 VDC power supply or from Power over Ethernet equipment.

The external power supply plugs into a secure 110 through 220 VAC electrical outlet. The converter produces the required 48 VDC output for the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point. The converter output feeds into the side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point through a 48 VDC jack.

Note that the AIR-PWR-1000 external power supply can be ordered with country-specific electrical outlet power cords. Contact Cisco when ordering to receive the correct power cord.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Mounting Options

Refer to the Internal-Antenna AP1010 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide or the External-Antenna AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide for the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point mounting options.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Physical Security

The side of the Cisco 1000 series lightweight access point housing includes a slot for a Kensington MicroSaver Security Cable. Refer to the Kensington website for more information about their security products, or to the Internal-Antenna AP1010 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide or External-Antenna AP1020 and AP1030 Cisco 1000 Series IEEE 802.11a/b/g Lightweight Access Point Quick Start Guide for installation instructions.

Cisco 1000 Series Lightweight Access Point Monitor Mode

The Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points and Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers can perform rogue access point detection and containment while providing regular service. The rogue access point detection is performed across all 801.11 channels, regardless of the Country Code selected.

However, if the administrator would prefer to dedicate specific Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points to rogue access point detection and containment, the Monitor mode should be enabled for individual Cisco 1000 series lightweight access points.

The Monitor function is set for all 802.11 Cisco Radios on a per-access point basis using any of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller user interfaces.

Cisco Aironet 1510 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Points

The Cisco Aironet 1510 Series Lightweight Outdoor Mesh Access Point (hereafter called AP1510) is a wireless device designed for wireless client access and point-to-point bridging, point-to-multipoint bridging, and point-to-multipoint mesh wireless connectivity. The outdoor access point is a standalone unit that can be mounted on a wall or overhang, on a rooftop pole, or on a street light pole.

It is a self-contained outdoor unit that can be configured with a wired backhaul connection to an Ethernet segment for a rooftop deployment or with a wireless backhaul for a pole-top deployment. The AP1510 can be installed anywhere power is available, without the need for a network connection. Using the Cisco Adaptive Wireless Path Protocol (AWPP), the AP1510 is able to dynamically optimize the best route to the connected network within the mesh.

The AP1510 operates with controllers to provide centralized and scalable management, high security, and mobility. Designed to support zero-configuration deployments, the AP1510 easily and securely joins the mesh network and is available to manage and monitor the network through the controller GUI or CLI.

The AP1510 is equipped with two simultaneously operating radios: a 2.4-GHz radio used for client access and a 5-GHz radio used for data backhaul to other AP1510s. A wide variety of antennas are available that provide flexibility when deploying the AP1510 over various terrains. Wireless LAN client traffic passes through the access point's backhaul radio or is relayed through other AP1510s until it reaches the controller Ethernet connection.


Note For more information on the AP1510, refer to the quick start guide and hardware installation guide for this access point. You can find these documents at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6548/tsd_products_support_series_home.html


Wireless Mesh

In a wireless mesh deployment (see Figure 7-3), multiple AP1510s are deployed as part of the same network. One or more AP1510s have a wired connection to the controller and are designated as root access points (RAPs). Other AP1510s that relay their wireless connections to connect to the controller are called mesh access points (MAPs). The MAPs use the AWPP protocol to determine the best path through the other AP1510s to the controller. The possible paths between the MAPs and RAPs form the wireless mesh that is used to carry traffic from wireless LAN clients connected to MAPs and to carry traffic from devices connected to MAP Ethernet ports.

The mesh network can carry two types of traffic simultaneously: wireless LAN client traffic and MAP bridge traffic. Wireless LAN client traffic terminates on the controller, and MAP bridge traffic terminates on the Ethernet ports of the AP1510s. You need to keep in mind three important concepts when considering the configuration of a mesh network:

Sector—A collection of mesh access points connected together by the AWPP and through a single RAP to the controller.

Network—A collection of sectors that cover a proximate geographic area.

Controller subnet service set—A collection of controllers on a subnet servicing one or more sectors.

Membership in the mesh network is controlled in a variety of ways:

Each AP1510 MAC address must be entered into the MAC filter list database to ensure that the access points are authorized to use the controller. Each controller to which the access point may connect must have its MAC address entered into the database.

The MAC filter list works in conjunction with the certificate that is stored in the access point's nonvolatile memory to provide strong security for access points connecting to the network. As such, the MAC filter list is required for mesh access points to be able to connect to the controller.


Note The MAC filter lists of all controllers on a controller subnet service set must be identical and include all the RAPs and MAPs that may connect on that subnet. Failure to have uniform MAC filter lists on the service set may prevent access points from being able to communicate.


AP1510s are configured with a shared secret for secure access point-to-access point communication over the backhaul. In order to communicate, all radios in the network must have the same shared secret.

A bridge group name can be used to logically group access points into sectors. Each sector has a unique bridge group name. Cisco recommends that you use bridge group names whenever multiple sectors are proximate.

An access point that is unable to connect to a sector with its bridge group name temporarily connects to the sector with the best RF characteristics so that its bridge group name can be configured. The access point connects for short periods of time only (roughly 30 minutes) and then disconnects to seek the sector with the correct bridge group name. When an access point connects to the network using a mismatched bridge group name, the parent access point does not allow it to accept children access points or clients.

Figure 7-3 Wireless Mesh Deployment

Configuring and Deploying the AP1510


Note For information on planning and initially configuring your Cisco mesh network, refer to the Cisco Mesh Networking Solution Deployment Guide. You can find this document at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6548/prod_technical_reference_list.html


Before deploying the AP1510, you must perform three procedures on the controller to ensure proper operation:

Add the MAC address of the access point to the controller filter list, page 12

Configure mesh parameters, page 14

Configure bridging parameters, page 16

Adding the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

You must add the MAC address of the access point to the controller filter list in order for the access point to be able to associate to the controller. This process ensures that the access point is included in the database of access points authorized to use the controller. You can add the access point using either the GUI or the CLI.


Note You can also download the list of access point MAC addresses and push them to the controller using the Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS). Refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide for instructions.


Using the GUI to Add the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

Follow these steps to add a MAC filter entry for the access point on the controller using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Security and then MAC Filtering under AAA. The MAC Filtering page appears (see Figure 7-4).

Figure 7-4 MAC Filtering Page

Step 2 Click New. The MAC Filters > New page appears (see Figure 7-5).

Figure 7-5 MAC Filters > New Page

Step 3 In the MAC Address field, enter the MAC address of the access point.

Step 4 From the WLAN ID drop-down box, choose "Any WLAN."

Step 5 In the Description field, enter a description of the access point. The text that you enter identifies the access point on the controller. You may want to include an abbreviated name and the last few digits of the MAC address, such as ap1510:62:39:10.

Step 6 From the Interface Name drop-down box, choose the controller interface to which the access point is to connect.

Step 7 Click Apply to commit your changes. The access point now appears in the list of MAC filters on the MAC Filtering page.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.

Step 9 Repeat this procedure to add the MAC addresses of additional access points to the list.


Using the CLI to Add the MAC Address of the Access Point to the Controller Filter List

Follow these steps to add a MAC filter entry for the access point on the controller using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To add the MAC address of the access point to the controller filter list, enter this command:

config macfilter add ap_mac wlan_id interface [description]

A value of zero (0) for the wlan_id parameter specifies any WLAN, and a value of zero (0) for the interface parameter specifies none. You can enter up to 32 characters for the optional description parameter.

Step 2 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config


Configuring Mesh Parameters

This section provides instructions for configuring the access point to establish a connection with the controller. You can configure the necessary mesh parameters using either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Mesh Parameters

Follow these steps to configure mesh parameters using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless and Mesh to access the Mesh page (see Figure 7-6).

Figure 7-6 Mesh Page

Step 2 In the Range field, enter the maximum range (in feet) of all access points in the network. This global parameter applies to all access points joined to the controller, all connected access points in the network, and all new access points upon connecting.

Range: 150 to 132,000 feet

Default: 12,000 feet


Note Cisco recommends that you set all controllers in the mesh network to the same value.


Step 3 Check the Enable Zero Touch Configuration check box to enable the access points to get the shared secret key from the controller. If you uncheck the check box, the controller does not provide the shared secret key, and the access points use a default pre-shared key for secure communication. The default value is enabled (or checked).

Step 4 If you enabled zero-touch configuration, the controller automatically fills in the key format (ASCII or hexadecimal) and the shared secret key. This key enables the access points to establish a connection with the controller. It also enables the access points to communicate with other access points in the same bridge group upon installation. If desired, you can change the shared secret key. When you do so, the access points lose connectivity until they are able to negotiate the new shared secret key from the controller.


Note If you change the shared secret key while the access point is not associated to the controller, an "Invalid bridge key hash" error message appears. To clear this error, set the shared secret back to the default value "youshouldsetme." To change the shared secret, you must first enable zero-touch configuration.


Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Mesh Parameters

Follow these steps to configure mesh parameters using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To enter the maximum range (in feet) of all access points in the network, enter this command:

config mesh range feet

You can enter a value between 150 and 132,000 feet for the feet parameter. The default value is 12,000 feet. This command applies to all access points joined to the controller, all connected access points in the network, and all new access points upon connecting. To see the current range, enter show mesh range.

Step 2 To enable zero-touch configuration, enter this command:

config network zero-config

This command enables the access points to get the shared secret key from the controller. If you do not enable zero-touch configuration, the controller does not provide the shared secret key, and the access points use a default pre-shared key for secure communication.

Step 3 If you enabled zero-touch configuration, the controller automatically provides the shared secret key that enables the access points to establish a connection with the controller. It also enables the access points to communicate with other access points in the same bridge group upon installation. If desired, you can change the shared secret key by entering this command:

config network bridging-shared-secret shared_secret

After you enter this command, the access points lose connectivity until they are able to negotiate the new shared secret key from the controller.

Step 4 To save your changes, enter this command:

save config

Step 5 Use these commands to obtain information on your mesh access points:

show mesh summary Cisco_AP— Displays the mesh configuration for the specified access point.

show mesh stats Cisco_AP—Displays the mesh statistics for the specified access point.

show mesh neigh Cisco_AP—Displays the mesh neighbors for the specified access point.

show mesh path Cisco_AP—Displays the mesh path for the specified access point.


Configuring the Mesh Security Timer

Beginning with controller software release 4.0.206.0, you can configure a security timer for the mesh access point (MAP) with regard to the bridge shared secret. Once the timer is configured, the MAP will only attempt to join a network with the same bridge shared secret for a specified period of time (for example, 10 hours). To eliminate access point stranding, the MAP starts to use PMK after the timer expires. The timer gives the MAP enough buffered time (up to 24 hours) to rejoin the correct network in case of any scheduled or unscheduled network downtime.

Follow these steps to configure the mesh security timer using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To see your current network settings, enter this command:

show network

Step 2 Make sure that Allow Old Bridging APs to Authenticate is disabled.

Step 3 Make sure that the default bridge shared secret is not set to "youshouldsetme."

Step 4 To configure the mesh security timer, enter this command:

config mesh security-timer timer

where timer is a value between 0 and 24 hours.

After you enter this command, all of the MAPs reboot with the security timer set.

Step 5 To see the length of time set for the mesh security timer, enter this command:

show mesh security-timer

Information similar to the following appears:

Bridge Security Timer:    10 hour(s)

Note If you change the bridge shared secret, the MAPs do not re-join the network until the security timer expires. Setting the security timer to zero (0) allows the bridge shared secret to be changed without delay. However, changing the security timer on an operational system may cause the MAPs to reboot.



Configuring Bridging Parameters

This section provides instructions for configuring the access point's role in the mesh network and related bridging parameters. You can configure these parameters using either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Bridging Parameters

Follow these steps to configure bridging parameters using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless and then All APs under Access Points. The All APs page appears.

Step 2 Click the Detail link for your AP1510 to access the All APs > Details page (see Figure 7-7).

Figure 7-7 All APs > Details Page

On this page, the AP Mode under General is automatically set to Bridge for access points that have bridge functionality, such as the AP1510. This page also shows the following information under Bridging Information:

The bridge type, which specifies whether the access point is designed for indoor or outdoor use. This field is set to Outdoor for the AP1510.

The backhaul interface, or the radio band that this access point uses to transfer data to other AP1510s. The only possible value is 802.11a.

Step 3 Under Bridging Information, choose one of the following options to specify the role of this access point in the mesh network:

MeshAP—Choose this option if the AP1510 has a wireless connection to the controller. This is the default setting in software release 4.0.

RootAP—Choose this option if the AP1510 has a wired connection to the controller.


Note If you upgrade to software release 4.0 from a previous release, your root access points default to the MeshAP role. You must reconfigure them for the RootAP role.



Note You must set the root access point to RootAP. Otherwise, a mesh network is not created.


Step 4 To assign this AP1510 to a bridge group, enter a name for the group in the Bridge Group Name field.

Step 5 Check the Ethernet Bridging check box if you want to enable Ethernet bridging on the access point. Otherwise, uncheck this check box. The default setting is disabled (or unchecked).


Note You must enable bridging on all access points for which you want to allow bridging, including the RAP. Therefore, if you want to allow an Ethernet on a MAP to bridge to the RAP's Ethernet, you must enable bridging on the RAP as well as the MAP.


Step 6 From the Bridge Data Rate drop-down box, choose a value (in Mbps) for the rate at which data is shared between access points on the backhaul interface. The default value is 18 Mbps for the 802.11a backhaul interface.

Step 7 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 8 Click Save Configuration to save your changes.


Using the CLI to Configure Bridging Parameters

Follow these steps to configure bridging parameters using the controller CLI.


Step 1 To specify that your AP1510 has bridge functionality, enter this command:

config ap mode bridge Cisco_AP

Step 2 To specify the role of this access point in the mesh network, enter this command:

config ap role {rootAP | meshAP} Cisco_AP

Use the meshAP parameter if the AP1510 has a wireless connection to the controller (this is the default setting in software release 4.0), or use the rootAP parameter if the AP1510 has a wired connection to the controller.


Note If you upgrade to software release 4.0 from a previous release, your root access points default to the meshAP role. You must reconfigure them for the rootAP role.


Step 3 To assign this AP1510 to a bridge group, enter this command:

config ap bridgegroupname set groupname Cisco_AP

Step 4 To specify the rate (in Kbps) at which data is shared between access points on the backhaul interface, enter this command:

config ap bhrate rate Cisco_AP

The default value is 18 Kbps for the 802.11a backhaul interface.

Step 5 To save your settings, enter this command:

save config


Autonomous Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

You can use an upgrade conversion tool to convert autonomous Cisco Aironet 1100, 1130AG, 1200, 1240AG, and 1300 Series Access Points to lightweight mode. When you upgrade one of these access points to lightweight mode, the access point communicates with a controller and receives a configuration and software image from the controller.


Note The conversion tool adds the self-signed certificate (SSC) key-hash to only one of the controllers on the Cisco WiSM. After the conversion has been completed, add the SSC key-hash to the second controller on the Cisco WiSM by copying the SSC key-hash from the first controller to the second controller. To copy the SSC key-hash, open the AP Policies page of the controller GUI (Security > AAA > AP Policies) and copy the SSC key-hash from the SHA1 Key Hash column under AP Authorization List (see Figure 7-8). Then, using the second controller's GUI, open the same page and paste the key-hash into the SHA1 Key Hash field under Add AP to Authorization List. If you have more than one Cisco WiSM, use WCS to push the SSC key-hash to all the other controllers.


Figure 7-8 Security > AAA > AP Policies Page

Refer to the Upgrading Autonomous Cisco Aironet Access Points to Lightweight Mode document for instructions on upgrading an autonomous access point to lightweight mode. You can find this document at this URL:

http://cisco-images.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/access_point/conversion/lwapp/upgrade/guide/lwapnote.html

Guidelines for Using Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Keep these guidelines in mind when you use autonomous access points that have been converted to lightweight mode:

Converted access points support 20064400, and WiSM controllers only. When you convert an autonomous access point to lightweight mode, the access point can communicate with Cisco 2006 series controllers4400 series controllers, or the controllers on a WiSM only.

Access points converted to lightweight mode do not support Wireless Domain Services (WDS). Converted access points communicate only with Cisco wireless LAN controllers and cannot communicate with WDS devices. However, the controller provides functionality equivalent to WDS when the access point associates to it.

Access points converted to LWAPP mode support 8 BSSIDs per radio and a total of 8 wireless LANs per access point. (Cisco 1000 series access points support 16 BSSIDs per radio and 16 wireless LANs per access point.) When a converted access point associates to a controller, only wireless LANs with IDs 1 through 8 are pushed to the access point.

Access points converted to lightweight mode do not support Layer 2 LWAPP. Access Points converted to lightweight mode must get an IP address and discover the controller using DHCP, DNS, or IP subnet broadcast.

After you convert an access point to lightweight mode, the console port provides read-only access to the unit.

The 1130AG and 1240AG access points support hybrid-REAP mode. See Chapter 12 for details.

Reverting from Lightweight Mode to Autonomous Mode

After you use the upgrade tool to convert an autonomous access point to lightweight mode, you can convert the access point from a lightweight unit back to an autonomous unit by loading a Cisco IOS release that supports autonomous mode (Cisco IOS release 12.3(7)JA or earlier). If the access point is associated to a controller, you can use the controller to load the Cisco IOS release. If the access point is not associated to a controller, you can load the Cisco IOS release using TFTP. In either method, the access point must be able to access a TFTP server that contains the Cisco IOS release to be loaded.

Using a Controller to Return to a Previous Release

Follow these steps to revert from lightweight mode to autonomous mode using a wireless LAN controller:


Step 1 Log into the CLI on the controller to which the access point is associated.

Step 2 Enter this command:

config ap tftp-downgrade tftp-server-ip-address filename access-point-name

Step 3 Wait until the access point reboots and reconfigure the access point using the CLI or GUI.


Using the MODE Button and a TFTP Server to Return to a Previous Release

Follow these steps to revert from lightweight mode to autonomous mode by using the access point MODE (reset) button to load a Cisco IOS release from a TFTP server:


Step 1 The PC on which your TFTP server software runs must be configured with a static IP address in the range of 10.0.0.2 to 10.0.0.30.

Step 2 Make sure that the PC contains the access point image file (such as c1200-k9w7-tar.123-7.JA.tar for a 1200 series access point) in the TFTP server folder and that the TFTP server is activated.

Step 3 Rename the access point image file in the TFTP server folder to c1200-k9w7-tar.default for a 1200 series access point.

Step 4 Connect the PC to the access point using a Category 5 (CAT5) Ethernet cable.

Step 5 Disconnect power from the access point.

Step 6 Press and hold the MODE button while you reconnect power to the access point.


Note The MODE button on the access point must be enabled. Follow the steps in the "Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode" section to check the status of the access point MODE button.


Step 7 Hold the MODE button until the status LED turns red (approximately 20 to 30 seconds), and release the MODE button.

Step 8 Wait until the access point reboots as indicated by all LEDs turning green followed by the Status LED blinking green.

Step 9 After the access point reboots, reconfigure the access point using the GUI or the CLI.


Access Point Authorization

Depending on whether access points have manufacturing-installed certificates (MICs), the controller may either use self-signed certificates (SSCs) to authenticate access points or send the authorization information to a RADIUS server.

Controllers Accept SSCs from Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

The lightweight access point protocol (LWAPP) secures the control communication between the access point and controller by means of a secure key distribution requiring X.509 certificates on both the access point and controller. LWAPP relies on a priori provisioning of the X.509 certificates. Cisco Aironet access points shipped before July 18, 2005 do not have a MIC, so these access points create an SSC when upgraded to operate in lightweight mode. Controllers are programmed to accept local SSCs for authentication of specific access points and do not forward those authentication requests to a RADIUS server. This behavior is acceptable and secure.

Using DHCP Option 43

Cisco 1000 series access points use a string format for DHCP option 43, whereas Cisco Aironet access points use the type-length-value (TLV) format for DHCP option 43. DHCP servers must be programmed to return the option based on the access point's DHCP Vendor Class Identifier (VCI) string (DHCP Option 60). Table 7-1 lists the VCI strings for Cisco access points capable of operating in lightweight mode.

Table 7-1 VCI Strings For Lightweight Access Points 

Access Point
VCI String

Cisco 1000 Series

Airespace 1200

Cisco Aironet 1130 Series

Cisco AP c1130

Cisco Aironet 1200 Series

Cisco AP c1200

Cisco Aironet 1240 Series

Cisco AP c1240


This is the format of the TLV block:

Type: 0xf1 (decimal 241)

Length: Number of controller IP addresses * 4

Value: List of the IP addresses of controller management interfaces

Refer to the product documentation for your DHCP server for instructions on configuring DHCP option 43. The Upgrading Autonomous Cisco Aironet Access Points to Lightweight Mode document contains example steps for configuring option 43 on a DHCP server.

Using a Controller to Send Debug Commands to Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

Enter this command to enable the controller to send debug commands to an access point converted to lightweight mode:

config ap remote-debug [enable | disable | exc-command] Cisco_AP

When this feature is enabled, the controller sends debug commands to the converted access point as character strings. You can send any debug command supported by Cisco Aironet access points that run Cisco IOS software in lightweight mode.

Converted Access Points Send Crash Information to Controller

When a converted access point unexpectedly reboots, the access point stores a crash file on its local flash memory at the time of crash. After the unit reboots, it sends the reason for the reboot to the controller. If the unit rebooted because of a crash, the controller pulls up the crash file using existing LWAPP messages and stores it in the controller flash memory. The crash info copy is removed from the access point flash memory when the controller pulls it from the access point.

Converted Access Points Send Radio Core Dumps to Controller

When a radio module in a converted access point generates a core dump, the access point stores the core dump file of the radio on its local flash memory at the time of the radio crash. It sends a notification message to the controller indicating which radio generated a core dump file. The controller sends a trap alerting the network administrator, and the administrator can retrieve the radio core file from the access point.

On the controller CLI, enter this command to pull the core file from the access point:

config ap get-radio-core-dump slot ap-name

For slot, enter the radio interface number on the access point.

The retrieved core file is stored in the controller flash and can subsequently be uploaded through TFTP to an external server for analysis. The core file is removed from the access point flash memory when the controller pulls it from the access point.

Enabling Memory Core Dumps from Converted Access Points

By default, access points converted to lightweight mode do not send memory core dumps to the controller. To enable this feature, enter this command:

config ap core-dump enable tftp-server-ip-address filename {compress | uncompress} {ap-name | all}

For tftp-server-ip-address, enter the IP address of the TFTP server to which the access point sends core files. The access point must be able to reach the TFTP server.

For filename, enter a filename that the access points uses to label the core file.

Enter compress to configure the access point to send compressed core files. Enter uncompress to configure the access point to send uncompressed core files.

For ap-name, enter the name of a specific access point, or enter all to enable memory core dumps from all access points converted to lightweight mode.

Display of MAC Addresses for Converted Access Points

There are some differences in the way that controllers display the MAC addresses of converted access points on information pages in the controller GUI:

On the AP Summary page, the controller lists the Ethernet MAC addresses of converted access points.

On the AP Detail page, the controller lists the BSS MAC addresses and Ethernet MAC addresses of converted access points.

On the Radio Summary page, the controller lists converted access points by radio MAC address.

Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode

You can disable the reset button on access points converted to lightweight mode. The reset button is labeled MODE on the outside of the access point.

Use this command to disable or enable the reset button on one or all converted access points associated to a controller:

config ap reset-button {enable | disable} {ap-name | all}

The reset button on converted access points is enabled by default.

Configuring a Static IP Address on an Access Point Converted to Lightweight Mode

After an access point converted to lightweight mode associates to a controller, enter this command to configure a static IP address on the access point:

config ap static-ip enable ap-name ip-address mask gateway


Note If you configure an access point to use a static IP address that is not on the same subnet on which the access point's previous DHCP address was, the access point falls back to a DHCP address after the access point reboots. If the access point falls back to a DHCP address, the show ap config general ap-name CLI command correctly shows that the access point is using a fallback IP address. However, the GUI shows both the static IP address and the DHCP address, but it does not identify the DHCP address as a fallback address.


Dynamic Frequency Selection

The Cisco UWN Solution complies with regulations that require radio devices to use Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) to detect radar signals and avoid interfering with them.

When a lightweight access point with a 5-GHz radio operates on one of the 15 channels listed in Table 7-2, the controller to which the access point is associated automatically uses DFS to set the operating frequency.

When you manually select a channel for DFS-enabled 5-GHz radios, the controller checks for radar activity on the channel for 60 seconds. If there is no radar activity, the access point operates on the channel you selected. If there is radar activity on the channel you selected the controller automatically selects a different channel, and after 30 minutes, the access point re-tries the channel you selected.


Note The Rogue Location Detection Protocol (RLDP) is not supported on the channels listed in Table 7-2.



Note The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5-GHz channels than for others. When it randomly selects a 5-GHz channel on which power is restricted, the controller automatically reduces transmit power to comply with power limits for that channel.


Table 7-2 5-GHz Channels on Which DFS is Automatically Enabled

52 (5260 MHz)

104 (5520 MHz)

124 (5620 MHz)

56 (5280 MHz)

108 (5540 MHz)

128 (5640 MHz)

60 (5300 MHz)

112 (5560 MHz)

132 (5660 MHz)

64 (5320 MHz)

116 (5580 MHz)

136 (5680 MHz)

100 (5500 MHz)

120 (5600 MHz)

140 (5700 MHz)


Using DFS, the controller monitors operating frequencies for radar signals. If it detects radar signals on a channel, the controller takes these steps:

It changes the access point channel to a channel that has not shown radar activity. The controller selects the channel at random.

If the channel selected is one of the channels in Table 7-2, it scans the new channel for radar signals for 60 seconds. If there are no radar signals on the new channel, the controller accepts client associations.

It records the channel that showed radar activity as a radar channel and prevents activity on that channel for 30 minutes.

It generates a trap to alert the network manager.

Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

The unique device identifier (UDI) standard uniquely identifies products across all Cisco hardware product families, enabling customers to identify and track Cisco products throughout their business and network operations and to automate their asset management systems. The standard is consistent across all electronic, physical, and standard business communications. The UDI consists of five data elements:

The orderable product identifier (PID)

The version of the product identifier (VID)

The serial number (SN)

The entity name

The product description

The UDI is burned into the EEPROM of controllers and lightweight access points at the factory. It can be retrieved through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Follow these steps to retrieve the UDI on controllers and access points using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Controller > Inventory to access the Inventory page (see Figure 7-9).

Figure 7-9 Inventory Page

This page shows the five data elements of the controller UDI.

Step 2 Click Wireless to access the All APs page.

Step 3 Click the Detail link for the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears (see Figure 7-10).

Figure 7-10 All APs > Details Page

This page shows the five data elements of the access point UDI under Inventory Information.


Using the CLI to Retrieve the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points

Enter these commands to retrieve the UDI on controllers and access points using the CLI:

show inventory—Shows the UDI string of the controller. Information similar to the following appears:

NAME: "Chassis"    , DESCR: "Cisco Wireless Controller"
PID: WS-C3750G-24PS-W24,  VID: V01,  SN: FLS0952H00F

show inventory ap ap_id—Shows the UDI string of the access point specified.

Performing a Link Test

A link test is used to determine the quality of the radio link between two devices. Two types of link-test packets are transmitted during a link test: request and response. Any radio receiving a link-test request packet fills in the appropriate fields and echoes the packet back to the sender with the response type set.

The radio link quality in the client-to-access point direction can differ from that in the access point-to-client direction due to the asymmetrical distribution of transmit power and receive sensitivity on both sides. Two types of link tests can be performed: a ping test and a CCX link test.

With the ping link test, the controller can test link quality only in the client-to-access point direction. The RF parameters of the ping reply packets received by the access point are polled by the controller to determine the client-to-access point link quality.

With the CCX link test, the controller can also test the link quality in the access point-to-client direction. The controller issues link-test requests to the client, and the client records the RF parameters [received signal strength indicator (RSSI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), etc.] of the received request packet in the response packet. Both the link-test requestor and responder roles are implemented on the access point and controller. Therefore, not only can the access point or controller initiate a link test to a CCX v4 client, but a CCX v4 client can initiate a link test to the access point or controller.

The controller shows these link-quality metrics for CCX link tests in both directions (out: access point to client; in: client to access point):

Signal strength in the form of RSSI (minimum, maximum, and average)

Signal quality in the form of SNR (minimum, maximum, and average)

Total number of packets that are retried

Maximum retry count for a single packet

Number of lost packets

Data rate of a successfully transmitted packet

The controller shows this metric regardless of direction:

Link test request/reply round-trip time (minimum, maximum, and average)

The 4.0 release of controller software supports CCX versions 1 through 4. CCX support is enabled automatically for every WLAN on the controller and cannot be disabled. The controller stores the CCX version of the client in its client database and uses it to limit the features for this client. If a client does not support CCX v4, the controller performs a ping link test on the client. If a client supports CCX v4, the controller performs a CCX link test on the client. If a client times out during a CCX link test, the controller switches to the ping link test automatically. See the "Configuring Quality of Service Profiles" section on page 6-19 for more information on CCX.


Note CCX is not supported on the AP1030.


Follow the instructions in this section to perform a link test using either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Perform a Link Test

Follow these steps to run a link test using the GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless > Clients to access the Clients page (see Figure 7-11).

Figure 7-11 Clients Page

Step 2 Click the LinkTest link for the desired client. A link test page appears (see Figure 7-12).


Note You can also access this screen by clicking the Detail link for the desired client and then clicking the Link Test button on the top of the Clients > Detail page.


Figure 7-12 Link Test Page

This page shows the results of the CCX link test.


Note If the client and/or controller does not support CCX v4, the controller performs a ping link test on the client instead, and a much more limited link test page appears.


Step 3 Click OK to exit the link test page.


Using the CLI to Perform a Link Test

Use these commands to run a link test using the CLI.

1. To run a link test, enter this command:

linktest ap_mac

When CCX v4 is enabled on both the controller and the client being tested, information similar to the following appears:

CCX Link Test to 00:0d:88:c5:8a:d1.
     Link Test Packets Sent...................................... 20
     Link Test Packets Received................................. 10
     Link Test Packets Lost (Total/AP to Client/Client to AP).... 10/5/5
     Link Test Packets round trip time (min/max/average)......... 5ms/20ms/15ms
     RSSI at AP (min/max/average)................................ -60dBm/-50dBm/-55dBm
     RSSI at Client (min/max/average)............................ -50dBm/-40dBm/-45dBm
     SNR at AP (min/max/average)................................. 40dB/30dB/35dB
     SNR at Client (min/max/average)............................. 40dB/30dB/35dB
     Transmit Retries at AP (Total/Maximum)...................... 5/3
     Transmit Retries at Client (Total/Maximum).................. 4/2
     Transmit rate:  1M   2M   5.5M   6M   9M  11M 12M 18M   24M   36M  48M  54M  108M
     Packet Count:   0     0     0    0    0    0   0   0     0     2    0   18     0
     Transmit rate:  1M   2M   5.5M   6M   9M  11M 12M 18M   24M   36M  48M  54M  108M
     Packet Count:   0     0     0    0    0    0   0   0     0     2    0    8     0

When CCX v4 is not enabled on either the controller or the client being tested, fewer details appear:

Ping Link Test to 00:0d:88:c5:8a:d1.
        Link Test Packets Sent.......................... 20
        Link Test Packets Received...................... 20
        Local Signal Strength........................... -49dBm
        Local Signal to Noise Ratio..................... 39dB

2. To adjust the link-test parameters that are applicable to both the CCX link test and the ping test, enter these commands from config mode:

config > linktest frame-size size_of_link-test_frames

config > linktest num-of-frame number_of_link-test_request_frames_per_test

Configuring Cisco Discovery Protocol

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a device discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco-manufactured equipment. A device enabled with CDP sends out periodic interface updates to a multicast address in order to make itself known to neighboring devices.

The default value for the frequency of periodic transmissions is 60 seconds, and the default advertised time-to-live value is 180 seconds. The second and latest version of the protocol, CDPv2, introduces new time-length-values (TLVs) and provides a reporting mechanism that allows for more rapid error tracking, thereby reducing down time.

CDPv1 and CDPv2 are supported on the following devices:

2000, 2100 and 4400 series controllers


Note CDP is not supported on the controllers that are integrated into Cisco switches and routers, including those inthe Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller Switch, the Cisco WiSM and the Cisco 28/37/38xx Series Integrated Services Router.


LWAPP-enabled access points

1000 series access points that run VxWorks

An access point connected directly to a 2000 or 2100 series controller

This support enables network management applications to discover Cisco devices.

These TLVs are supported by both the controller and the access point:

Device-ID TLV: 0x0001—The host name of the controller or the access point.

Address TLV: 0x0002—The IP address of the controller or the access point.

Port-ID: 0x0003—The name of the interface on which CDP packets are sent out.

Capabilities TLV: 0x0004—The capabilities of the device. The controller sends out this TLV with a value of Host: 0x10, and the access point sends out this TLV with a value of Transparent Bridge: 0x02.

Version TLV: 0x0005—The software version of the controller or the access point.

Platform TLV: 0x0006—The hardware platform of the controller or the access point.

This TLV is supported only by the access point:

Full/Half Duplex TLV: 0x000b—The full- or half-duplex mode of the Ethernet link on which the CDP packet is sent out. This TLV is not supported on access points that are connected directly to a 2000 or 2100 series controller.

Power Consumption TLV: 0x0010—The maximum amount of power consumed by the access point. This TLV is not supported on access points that are connected directly to a 2000 or 2100 series controller.

Use these commands to configure CDP.

1. To enable or disable CDP on the controller, enter this command:

config cdp {enable | disable}

CDP is enabled by default.

2. To specify the refresh time interval, enter this command:

config cdp timer seconds

The range is 5 to 900 seconds, and the default value is 60 seconds.

3. To specify the holdtime that would be advertised as the time-to-live value in generated CDP packets, enter this command:

config cdp holdtime seconds

The range is 10 to 255 seconds, and the default value is 180 seconds.

4. To specify the highest CDP version supported on the controller, enter this command:

config cdp advertise {v1 | v2}

The default value is CDPv1.

5. To enable or disable CDP on all access points that are joined to this controller, enter this command:

config ap cdp {enable | disable} all

The config ap cdp disable all command disables CDP on all access points that are joined to the controller and all access points that join in the future. CDP remains disabled on both current and future access points even after the controller or access point reboots. To disable this behavior, enter config ap cdp enable all.


Note After you enable CDP on all access points joined to the controller, you can disable and then re-enable CDP on individual access points using the commands in #6 below. After you disable CDP on all access points joined to the controller, you cannot enable and then disable CDP on individual access points.


6. To enable or disable CDP on a specific access point, enter this command:

config ap cdp {enable | disable} Cisco_AP

7. To save your settings, enter this command:

save config

Use these commands to obtain information about CDP neighbors on the controller.

1. To see the status of CDP and to view CDP protocol information, enter this command:

show cdp

2. To see a list of all CDP neighbors on all interfaces, enter this command:

show cdp neighbors [detail]

The optional detail command provides detailed information for the controller's CDP neighbors.


Note This command shows only the CDP neighbors of the controller. It does not show the CDP neighbors of the controller's associated access points.


3. To see all CDP entries in the database, enter this command:

show cdp entry all

4. To see various traffic-related parameters on a given port (for example, packets sent and received, CRC errors, and so on), enter this command:

show cdp traffic

5. To see the CDP status for a specific access point, enter this command:

show ap cdp Cisco_AP

6. To see the CDP status for all access points that are connected to this controller, enter this command:

show ap cdp all

Use these commands to obtain CDP debug information for the controller.

1. To obtain debug information related to CDP packets, enter this command:

debug cdp packets

2. To obtain debug information related to CDP events, enter this command:

debug cdp events

Configuring Power over Ethernet

When an LWAPP-enabled access point (such as an AP1131 or AP1242) is powered by a power injector that is connected to a Cisco pre-Intelligent Power Management (pre-IPM) switch, you need to configure power over Ethernet (PoE), also known as inline power. You can configure PoE through either the GUI or the CLI.

Using the GUI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Follow these steps to configure PoE using the controller GUI.


Step 1 Click Wireless and then the Detail link of the desired access point. The All APs > Details page appears (see Figure 7-13).

Figure 7-13 All APs > Details Page

Step 2 Perform one of the following:

Check the Pre-Standard State check box if the access point is being powered by a high-power Cisco switch. These switches provide more than the traditional 6 Watts of power but do not support the intelligent power management (IPM) feature. These switches include:

WS-C3550, WS-C3560, WS-C3750,

C1880,

2600, 2610, 2611, 2621, 2650, 2651,

2610XM, 2611XM, 2621XM, 2650XM, 2651XM, 2691,

2811, 2821, 2851,

3620, 3631-telco, 3640, 3660,

3725, 3745,

3825, and 3845.

Uncheck the Pre-Standard State check box if power is being provided by a power injector or by a switch not on the above list.

Step 3 Check the Power Injector State check box if the attached switch does not support IPM and a power injector is being used. If the attached switch supports IPM, you do not need to check this check box.

Step 4 If you checked the Power Injector State check box in the previous step, the Power Injector Selection parameter appears. This parameter enables you to protect your switch port from an accidental overload if the power injector is inadvertently bypassed. Choose one of these options from the drop-down box to specify the desired level of protection:

Installed—This option examines and remembers the MAC address of the currently connected switch port and assumes that a power injector is connected. Choose this option if your network contains older Cisco 6-Watt switches and you want to avoid possible overloads by forcing a double-check of any relocated access points.


Note Each time an access point is relocated, the MAC address of the new switch port will fail to match the remembered MAC address, and the access point will remain in low-power mode. You must then physically verify the existence of a power injector and reselect this option to cause the new MAC address to be remembered.


Override—This option allows the access point to operate in high-power mode without first verifying a matching MAC address. It is acceptable to use this option if your network does not contain any older Cisco 6-Watt switches that could be overloaded if connected directly to a 12-Watt access point. The advantage of this option is that if you relocate the access point, it continues to operate in high-power mode without any further configuration. The disadvantage of this option is that if the access point is connected directly to a 6-Watt switch, an overload will occur.

Foreign—This option causes the Injector Switch MAC Address parameter to appear. The Injector Switch MAC Address parameter allows the remembered MAC address to be modified by hand. Choose this option if you know the MAC address of the connected switch port and do not wish to automatically detect it using the Installed option.

Step 5 Click Apply to commit your changes.

Step 6 Click Save Configuration to save your settings.


Using the CLI to Configure Power over Ethernet

Use these commands to configure PoE using the controller CLI.

1. config ap power injector enable ap installed

This command is recommended if your network contains any older Cisco 6-Watt switches that could be accidentally overloaded if connected directly to a 12-Watt access point. The access point remembers that a power injector is connected to this particular switch port. If you relocate the access point, you must reissue this command after the presence of a new power injector is verified.


Note Make sure CDP is enabled before issuing this command. Otherwise, this command will fail. See the previous section for information on enabling CDP.


2. config ap power injector enable ap override

This command removes the safety checks and allows the access point to be connected to any switch port. It is acceptable to use this command if your network does not contain any older Cisco 6-Watt switches that could be overloaded if connected directly to a 12-Watt access point. The access point assumes that a power injector is always connected. If you relocate the access point, it continues to assume that a power injector is present.

Configuring Flashing LEDs

Controller software release 4.0 enables you to flash the LEDs on an access point in order to locate it. All IOS lightweight access points support this feature.

Use these commands to configure LED flashing from the Privileged Exec mode of the controller.


Note The output of these commands is sent only to the controller console, regardless of whether the commands were issued on the console or in a TELNET/SSH CLI session.


1. To enable the controller to send commands to the access point from its CLI, enter this command:

config ap remote-debug enable Cisco_AP

2. To cause a specific access point to flash its LEDs for a specified number of seconds, enter this command:

config ap remote-debug exc-command "led flash seconds" Cisco_AP

You can enter a value between 1 and 3600 seconds for the seconds parameter.

3. To disable LED flashing for a specific access point, enter this command:

config ap remote-debug exc-command "led flash disable" Cisco_AP

This command disables LED flashing immediately. For example, if you run the previous command (with the seconds parameter set to 60 seconds) and then disable LED flashing after only 20 seconds, the access point's LEDs stop flashing immediately.

Authorizing Access Points Using MICs

You can configure controllers to use RADIUS servers to authorize access points using MICs. The controller uses an access point's MAC address as both the username and password when sending the information to a RADIUS server. For example, if the MAC address of the access point is 000b85229a70, both the username and password used by the controller to authorize the access point are 000b85229a70.


Note The lack of a strong password by the use of the access point's MAC address should not be an issue because the controller uses MIC to authenticate the access point prior to authorizing the access point through the RADIUS server. Using MIC provides strong authentication.



Note If you use the MAC address as the username and password for access point authentication on a RADIUS AAA server, do not use the same AAA server for client authentication.