Resolving Startup Problems
After installing a Cisco Unified IP Phone into your network and adding it to Cisco Unified Communications Manager, the phone should start up as described in the “Verifying the Phone Startup Process” section. If the phone does not start up properly, see the following sections for troubleshooting information:
Symptom: The Cisco Unified IP Phone Does Not Go Through its Normal Startup Process
When you connect a Cisco Unified IP Phone into the network port, the phone should go through its normal startup process as described in the “Verifying the Phone Startup Process” section, and the phone screen should display information. If the phone does not go through the startup process, the cause may be faulty cables, bad connections, network outages, lack of power, and so on. Or, the phone may not be functional.
To determine whether the phone is functional, follow these suggestions to systematically eliminate these other potential problems:
1. Verify that the network port is functional:
– Exchange the Ethernet cables with cables that you know are functional.
– Disconnect a functioning Cisco Unified IP Phone from another port and connect it to this network port to verify the port is active.
– Connect the Cisco Unified IP Phone that will not start up to a different network port that is known to be good.
– Connect the Cisco Unified IP Phone that will not start up directly to the port on the switch, eliminating the patch panel connection in the office.
2. Verify that the phone is receiving power:
– If you are using external power, verify that the electrical outlet is functional.
– If you are using in-line power, use the external power supply instead.
– Switch the external power supply with a unit that you know to be functional.
– If you are using a in-line power, make sure that the phone is connected to a switch that supports IEEE 802.3af Class 3. For more information, see the “Providing Power to the Phone” section.
3. If the phone still does not start up properly, power up the phone with the handset off-hook. When the phone is powered up in this way, it attempts to launch a backup software image.
4. If the phone still does not start up properly, perform a factory reset of the phone. For instructions, see the “Performing a Factory Reset” section.
If after attempting these solutions, the screen on the Cisco Unified IP Phone does not display any characters after at least five minutes, contact a Cisco technical support representative for additional assistance.
Symptom: The Cisco Unified IP Phone Does Not Register with Cisco Unified Communications Manager
If the phone proceeds past the first stage of the startup process (LED buttons flashing on and off) but continues to cycle through the messages displaying on the phone screen, the phone is not starting up properly. The phone cannot successfully start up unless it is connected to the Ethernet network and it has registered with a Cisco Unified Communications Manager server.
These sections can assist you in determining the reason the phone is unable to start up properly:
Identifying Error Messages
As the phone cycles through the startup process, you can access status messages that might provide you with information about the cause of a problem. See the “Status Messages Screen” section for instructions about accessing status messages and for a list of potential errors, their explanations, and their solutions.
Checking Network Connectivity
If the network is down between the phone and the TFTP server or Cisco Unified Communications Manager, the phone cannot start up properly. Ensure that the network is currently running.
Verifying TFTP Server Settings
You can determine the IP address of the TFTP server used by the phone by pressing the Settings button on the phone, choosing IPv4 > Network Configuration, and scrolling to the TFTP Server 1 option.
If you have assigned a static IP address to the phone, you must manually enter a setting for the TFTP Server 1 option. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section.
If you are using DHCP, the phone obtains the address for the TFTP server from the DHCP server. Check the IP address configured in Option 150.
You can also enable the phone to use an alternate TFTP server. Such a setting is particularly useful if the phone was recently moved from one location to another. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for instructions.
Verifying IP Addressing and Routing
You should verify the IP addressing and routing settings on the phone. If you are using DHCP, the DHCP server should provide these values. If you have assigned a static IP address to the phone, you must enter these values manually.
To verify these settings, look at the following options on the Settings > Network Configuration menu on the phone. (For information about displaying this menu, see the “Network Configuration Menu” section.”
- DHCP Server—If you have assigned a static IP address to the phone, you do not need to enter a value for the DHCP Server option. However, if you are using a DHCP server, this option must have a value. If it does not, check your IP routing and VLAN configuration. Refer to Troubleshooting Switch Port Problems, available at this URL: http://www.cisco.com/warp/customer/473/53.shtml
- IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Router—If you have assigned a static IP address to the phone, you must manually enter settings for these options. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for instructions.
If you are using DHCP, check the IP addresses distributed by your DHCP server. Refer to Understanding and Troubleshooting DHCP in Catalyst Switch or Enterprise Networks, available at this URL: http://www.cisco.com/warp/customer/473/100.html#41
Verifying DNS Settings
If you are using DNS to refer to the TFTP server or to Cisco Unified Communications Manager, you must ensure that you have specified a DNS server. Verify this setting by looking at the DNS Server 1 option on the Settings > Network Configuration menu on the phone. (For information about displaying this menu, see the “Displaying a Configuration Menu” section.”) You should also verify that there is a CNAME entry in the DNS server for the TFTP server and for the Cisco Unified Communications Manager system.
You must also ensure that DNS is configured to do reverse look-ups.
Verifying Cisco Unified Communications Manager Settings
On the Cisco Unified IP Phone, press the Settings button, choose Device Configuration, and look at the CM Configuration options. (For information about displaying this menu, see the “Network Configuration Menu” section.”) The Cisco Unified IP Phone attempts to open a TCP connection to all the Cisco Unified Communications Manager servers that are part of the assigned Cisco Unified Communications Manager group. If none of these options contain IP addresses or show Active or Standby, the phone is not properly registered with Cisco Unified Communications Manager. See the “Registering the Phone with Cisco Unified Communications Manager” section for tips on resolving this problem.
Cisco CallManager and TFTP Services Are Not Running
If the Cisco Unified Communications Manager or TFTP services are not running, phones may not be able to start up properly. However, in such a situation, it is likely that you are experiencing a system-wide failure, and other phones and devices are unable to start up properly.
If the Cisco CallManager service is not running, all devices on the network that rely on it to make phone calls will be affected. If the TFTP service is not running, many devices will not be able to start up successfully.
Note A service must be activated before it can be started or stopped. To activate a service, choose Tools > Service Activation.
To start a service, follow these steps:
Step 1 From Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, choose Cisco Unified Serviceability from the Navigation drop-down list, and click Go.
Step 2 Choose Tools > Control Center - Network Services.
Step 3 Choose the primary Cisco Unified Communications Manager server from the Server drop-down list.
The window displays the service names for the server that you chose, the status of the services, and a service control panel to stop or start a service.
Step 4 If a service has stopped, click its radio button and then click the Start button.
The Service Status symbol changes from a square to an arrow.
Creating a New Configuration File
If you continue to have problems with a particular phone that other suggestions in this chapter do not resolve, the configuration file may be corrupted.
To create a new configuration file, follow these steps:
Step 1 From Cisco Unified Communications Manager, choose Device > Phone > Find to locate the phone experiencing problems.
Step 2 Choose Delete to remove the phone from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database.
Step 3 Add the phone back to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database. See the “Adding Phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Database” section for details.
Step 4 Power cycle the phone.
Note ● When you remove a phone from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, its configuration file is deleted from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager TFTP server. The phone’s directory number or numbers remain in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database. They are called “unassigned DNs” and can be used for other devices. If unassigned DNs are not used by other devices, delete them from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database. You can use the Route Plan Report to view and delete unassigned reference numbers. Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide for more information.
- Changing the buttons on a phone button template, or assigning a different phone button template to a phone, may result in directory numbers that are no longer accessible from the phone. The directory numbers are still assigned to the phone in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, but there is no button on the phone with which calls can be answered. These directory numbers should be removed from the phone and deleted if necessary.
Registering the Phone with Cisco Unified Communications Manager
A Cisco Unified IP Phone can register with a Cisco Unified Communications Manager server only if the phone has been added to the server or if auto-registration is enabled. Review the information and procedures in the “Adding Phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Database” section to ensure that the phone has been added to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database.
To verify that the phone is in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, choose Device > Phone > Find from Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration to search for the phone based on its MAC Address. For information about determining a MAC address, see the “Determining the MAC Address of a Cisco Unified IP Phone” section.
If the phone is already in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, its configuration file may be damaged. See the “Creating a New Configuration File” section for assistance.
Symptom: Cisco Unified IP Phone Unable to Obtain IP Address
If a phone is unable to obtain an IP address when it starts up, the phone may be not be on the same network or VLAN as the DHCP server, or the switch port to which the phone is connected may be disabled.
Make sure that the network or VLAN to which the phone is connected has access to the DHCP server, and make sure that the switch port is enabled.
Cisco Unified IP Phone Resets Unexpectedly
If users report that their phones are resetting during calls or while idle on their desk, you should investigate the cause. If the network connection and Cisco Unified Communications Manager connection are stable, a Cisco Unified IP Phone should not reset on its own.
Typically, a phone resets if it has problems connecting to the Ethernet network or to Cisco Unified Communications Manager. These sections can help you identify the cause of a phone resetting in your network:
Verifying Physical Connection
Verify that the Ethernet connection to which the Cisco Unified IP Phone is connected is up. For example, check whether the particular port or switch to which the phone is connected is down and that the switch is not rebooting. Also make sure that there are no cable breaks.
Identifying Intermittent Network Outages
Intermittent network outages affect data and voice traffic differently. Your network might have been experiencing intermittent outages without detection. If so, data traffic can resend lost packets and verify that packets are received and transmitted. However, voice traffic cannot recapture lost packets. Rather than retransmitting a lost network connection, the phone resets and attempts to reconnect its network connection.
If you are experiencing problems with the voice network, you should investigate whether an existing problem is simply being exposed.
Verifying DHCP Settings
Follow this process to help determine if the phone has been properly configured to use DHCP:
1. Verify that you have properly configured the phone to use DHCP. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for more information.
2. Verify that the DHCP server has been set up properly.
3. Verify the DHCP lease duration. Cisco recommends that you set it to 8 days.
Cisco Unified IP Phones send messages with request type 151 to renew their DHCP address leases. If the DHCP server expects messages with request type 150, the lease will be denied, forcing the phone to restart and request a new IP address from the DHCP server.
Checking Static IP Address Settings
If the phone has been assigned a static IP address, verify that you have entered the correct settings. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for more information.
Verifying Voice VLAN Configuration
If the Cisco Unified IP Phone appears to reset during heavy network usage (for example, following extensive web surfing on a computer connected to same switch as phone), it is likely that you do not have a voice VLAN configured.
Isolating the phones on a separate auxiliary VLAN increases the quality of the voice traffic. See the “Understanding How the Cisco Unified IP Phone Interacts with the VLAN” section for details.
Verifying that the Phones Have Not Been Intentionally Reset
If you are not the only administrator with access to Cisco Unified Communications Manager, you should verify that no one else has intentionally reset the phones.
You can check whether a Cisco Unified IP Phone received a command from Cisco Unified Communications Manager to reset by looking at the Network Statistics screen. (For information about displaying this screen, see the “Network Statistics Screen” section.”) If the phone was recently reset one of these messages appears:
- Reset-Reset—Phone closed due to receiving a Reset/Reset from Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration.
- Reset-Restart—Phone closed due to receiving a Reset/Restart from Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration.
Eliminating DNS or Other Connectivity Errors
If the phone continues to reset, follow these steps to eliminate DNS or other connectivity errors:
Step 1 Use the Erase softkey to reset phone settings to their default values. See the “Resetting or Restoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone” section for details.
Step 2 Modify DHCP and IP settings:
a. Disable DHCP. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for instructions.
b. Assign static IP values to the phone. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for instructions. Use the same default router setting used for other functioning Cisco Unified IP Phones.
c. Assign TFTP server. See the “Network Configuration Menu” section for instructions. Use the same TFTP server used for other functioning Cisco Unified IP Phones.
Step 3 On the Cisco Unified Communications Manager server, verify that the local host files have the correct Cisco Unified Communications Manager server name mapped to the correct IP address.
Step 4 From Cisco Unified Communications Manager, choose System > Server and verify that the server is referred to by its IP address and not by its DNS name.
Step 5 From Cisco Unified Communications Manager, choose Device > Phone and verify that you have assigned the correct MAC address to this Cisco Unified IP Phone. For information about determining a MAC address, see the “Determining the MAC Address of a Cisco Unified IP Phone” section.
Step 6 Power cycle the phone.
Checking Power Connection
In most cases, a phone will restart if it powers up using external power but loses that connection and switches to PoE. Similarly, a phone may restart if it powers up using PoE and then gets connected to an external power supply.
Resetting or Restoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone
There are two methods for resetting or restoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone:
Performing a Basic Reset
Performing a basic reset of a Cisco Unified IP Phone provides a way to recover if the phone experiences an error and provides a way to reset or restore various configuration and security settings.
Table 9-3 describes the ways to perform a basic reset. You can reset a phone with any of these operations any time after the phone has started up. Choose the operation that is appropriate for your situation.
Table 9-3 Basic Reset Methods
From the Main screen, press Settings to displays the Settings menu, then press **#**.
Note This factory reset sequence also works from any other screen that does not accept user input.
Resets any user and network configuration changes that you have made but that the phone has not written to its Flash memory to previously-saved settings, then restarts the phone.
From the Settings menu, unlock phone options (see the “Unlocking and Locking Options” section). Choose Network Configuration, press the More softkey, then press the Erase softkey.
Resets user and network configuration settings to their default values, deletes the CTL file from the phone, and restarts the phone.
Performing a Factory Reset
When you perform a factory reset of the Cisco Unified IP Phone, the following information is erased or reset to its default value:
- CTL file—Erased
- User configuration settings—Reset to default values
- Network configuration settings—Reset to default values
- Call histories—Erased
- Locale information—Reset to default values
- Phone application—Erased (phone recovers by loading the term70.default.loads file or the term71.default.loads file, depending on the phone model)
Before you perform a factory reset, ensure that the following conditions are met:
- The phone must be on a DHCP-enabled network.
- A valid TFTP server must be set in DHCP option 150 or option 66 on the DHCP server.
- The term70.default.loads file or the term71.default.loads file and the files specified in that file should be available on the TFTP server that is specified by the DHCP packet.
To perform a factory reset of a phone, perform the following steps:
Step 1 Unplug the power cable from the phone and then plug it back in.
The phone begins its power up cycle.
Step 2 While the phone is powering up, and before the Speaker button flashes on and off, press and hold #.
Continue to hold # until each line button flashes on and off in sequence in amber.
Step 3 Release # and press 123456789*0#.
You can press a key twice in a row, but if you press the keys out of sequence, the factory reset will not take place.
After you press these keys, the line buttons on the phone flash amber and then green, and the phone goes through the factory reset process. This process can take several minutes.
Do not power down the phone until it completes the factory reset process and the main screen appears.
Using the Quality Report Tool
The Quality Report Tool (QRT) is a voice quality and general problem-reporting tool for the Cisco Unified IP Phone. The QRT feature is installed as part of the Cisco Unified Communications Manager installation.
You can configure users’ Cisco Unified IP Phones with QRT. When you do so, users can report problems with phone calls by pressing the QRT softkey. This softkey is available only when the Cisco Unified IP Phone is in the Connected, Connected Conference, Connected Transfer, and/or OnHook states.
When a user presses the QRT softkey, a list of problem categories appears. The user selects the appropriate problem category, and this feedback is logged in an XML file. Actual information logged depends on the user selection, and whether the destination device is a Cisco Unified IP Phone.
For more information about using QRT, refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Features and Services Guide.
Monitoring the Voice Quality of Calls
To measure the voice quality of calls that are sent and received within the network, Cisco Unified IP Phones use these statistical metrics that are based on concealment events. The DSP plays concealment frames to mask frame loss in the voice packet stream.
- Concealment Ratio metrics—Show the ratio of concealment frames over total speech frames. An interval conceal ratio is calculated every 3 seconds.
- Concealed Second metrics—Show the number of seconds in which the DSP plays concealment frames due to lost frames. A severely “concealed second” is a second in which the DSP plays more than five percent concealment frames.
- MOS-LQK metrics—Use a numeric score to estimate the relative voice listening quality. The Cisco Unified IP Phone calculates the mean opinion score (MOS) for listening quality (LQK) based audible concealment events due to frame loss in the preceding 8 seconds, and includes perceptual weighting factors such as codec type and frame size.
MOS LQK scores are produced by a Cisco proprietary algorithm, Cisco Voice Transmission Quality (CVTQ) index. Depending on the MOS LQK version number, these scores might be compliant with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard P.564. This standard defines evaluation methods and performance accuracy targets that predict listening quality scores based on observation of actual network impairment.
Note Concealment ratio and concealment seconds are primary measurements based on frame loss while MOS LQK scores project a “human-weighted” version of the same information on a scale from 5 (excellent) to 1 (bad) for measuring listening quality.
Listening quality scores (MOS LQK) relate to the clarity or sound of the received voice signal. Conversational quality scores (MOS CQ such as G.107) include impairment factors, such as delay, that degrade the natural flow of conversation.
For information about configuring voice quality metrics for phones, refer to the “Phone Features” section in the “Cisco Unified IP Phone” chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.
You can access voice quality metrics from the Cisco Unified IP Phone by using the Call Statistics screen (see the “Call Statistics Screen” section) or remotely by using Streaming Statistics (see Chapter 8, “Monitoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone Remotely”).
Using Voice Quality Metrics
To use the metrics for monitoring voice quality, note the typical scores under normal conditions of zero packet loss, and use the metrics as a baseline for comparison.
It is important to distinguish significant changes from random changes in metrics. Significant changes are scores that change about 0.2 MOS or greater and persist in calls that last longer than 30 seconds. Conceal Ratio changes should indicate greater than 3 percent frame loss.
MOS LQK scores can vary based on the codec that the Cisco Unified IP Phone uses. The following codecs provide these maximum MOS LQK scores under normal conditions with zero frame loss:
- G.711 codec gives 4.5 score
- G.729A/ AB gives 3.8 score
- G.728/iLBC gives 3.9 score
Note ● CVTQ does not support wideband (7 kHz) speech codecs, as ITU has not defined the extension of the technique to wideband. Therefore, MOS scores that correspond to G.711 performance are reported for G.722 calls to allow basic quality monitoring, rather than not reporting an MOS score.
- Reporting G.711-scale MOS scores for wideband calls through the use of CVTQ allows basic quality classifications to be indicated as good/normal or bad/abnormal. Calls with high scores (approximately 4.5) indicate high quality/low packet loss, and lower scores (approximately 3.5) indicate low quality/high packet loss.
- Unlike MOS, the Conceal Ratio and Concealed Seconds metrics remain valid and useful for both wideband and narrowband calls.
A Conceal Ratio of zero indicates that the IP network is delivering frames and packets on time with no loss.
When you observe significant and persistent changes to metrics, use Table 9-4 for general troubleshooting information.
Table 9-4 Changes to Voice Quality Metrics
MOS LQK scores decrease significantly
Network impairment from packet loss or high jitter:
- Average MOS LQK decreases could indicate widespread and uniform impairment.
- Individual MOS LQK decreases indicate bursty impairment.
Cross-check with Conceal Ratio and Conceal Seconds for evidence of packet loss and jitter.
MOS LQK scores decrease significantly
- Check to see if the phone is using a different codec than expected (RxType and TxType).
- Check to see if the MOS LQK version changed after a firmware upgrade.
Conceal Ratio and Conceal Seconds increase significantly
- Network impairment from packet loss or high jitter.
Conceal Ratio is near or at zero, but the voice quality is poor
- Noise or distortion in the audio channel such as echo or audio levels.
- Tandem calls that undergo multiple encode/decode such as calls to a mobile network or calling card network.
- Acoustic problems coming from a speakerphone, handsfree mobile phone or wireless headset.
Check packet transmit (TxCnt) and packet receive (RxCnt) counters to verify that voice packets are flowing.
Note Voice quality metrics do not account for noise or distortion, only frame loss.