Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G Administration Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.1(2) (SCCP and SIP)
An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone
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An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Table Of Contents

An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Understanding the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G

Accessing Phone Menus and Local Features

What Networking Protocols Are Used?

IPv6 Support on Cisco Unified IP Phones

What Features are Supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G?

Feature Overview

Configuring Telephony Features

Configuring Network Parameters Using the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Providing Users with Feature Information

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Overview of Supported Security Features

Understanding Security Profiles

Identifying Authenticated, Encrypted, and Protected Phone Calls

Establishing and Identifying Secure Conference Calls

Establishing and Identifying Protected Calls

Call Security Interactions and Restrictions

Supporting 802.1X Authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones

Overview

Required Network Components

Best Practices—Requirements and Recommendations

Security Restrictions

Overview of Configuring and Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

Configuring Cisco Unified IP Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Checklist for Configuring the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

Checklist for Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G


An Overview of the Cisco Unified IP Phone


The Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G is a full-featured telephone that provides voice communication over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Designed for users who are familiar with traditional key sets, they function much like digital business phones, allowing users to place and receive phone calls and to access features such as mute, hold, transfer, speed dial, call forward, and more. In addition, because Cisco Unified IP Phones are connected to your data network, they offer enhanced IP telephony features, including access to network information and services, and customizeable features and services. The phones also support security features that include file authentication, device authentication, signaling encryption, and media encryption.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G provides a pixel-based backlit display, 24 configurable line buttons, and a variety of other functions to meet the communications needs of business with moderate telephone traffic and specific call requirements. Dedicated hold, redial, and transfer keys facilitate call handling. Illuminated mute and speakerphone keys give a clear indication of speaker status.

A Cisco Unified IP Phone, like other network devices, must be configured and managed. These phones encode G.711a, G.711u, G.722, G.729a, G.729ab, iLBC, and decode G.711a, G.711u, G.722, iLBC, G.729, G.729a, G.729b, and G.729ab. These phones also support uncompressed wideband (16 bits, 16 kHz) audio.

This chapter includes the following topics:

Understanding the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G

Accessing Phone Menus and Local Features

What Networking Protocols Are Used?

What Features are Supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G?

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Overview of Configuring and Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones


Caution Using a cell, mobile, or GSM phone, or two-way radio in close proximity to a Cisco Unified IP Phone might cause interference. For more information, refer to the manufacturer's documentation of the interfering device.

Understanding the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G

Figure 1-1 shows the main components of the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G.

Figure 1-1 Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G

Table 1-1 describes the buttons on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G.

Table 1-1

1

Programmable buttons

Depending on configuration, programmable buttons provide access to phone lines (line buttons) and intercom lines, speed-dial numbers (speed-dial buttons, including the BLF speed-dial feature), web-based services (for example, a Personal Address Book button), call features (for example, Privacy, Conference), and local features (for example, Application menu, Headset, Settings).

Buttons illuminate to indicate status:

Green, steady—Active call

Green, flashing—Held call

Amber, steady—Privacy in use, whisper state (one-way audio for intercom call), DND, logged into Hunt Group, headset or other local feature enabled

Amber, flashing—Incoming call or reverting call

Red, steady—Remote line in use (shared line or BLF status)

Red, flashing—Remote call on hold

Line buttons are numbered 24-1 in descending order, alternating from left to right

By default, the top four buttons are configured as follows:

Line button 24—Displays the Application menu

Line button 23—Activates an optional headset

Line button 22—Displays the Directories menu

Line button 21—Accesses a voice messaging system

2

Paper label

Allows you to identify each button with line or feature information.

3

Soft keys

Engage the functions displayed on the corresponding tabs.

4

Hold button

Places calls on hold. Press the line button, flashing green or red, to retrieve a call on hold.

5

Transfer button

Connects a call to another number.

6

Redial button

Dials the last dialed number.

7

Keypad

Functions like a traditional telephone keypad.

8

Mute button

Toggles the microphone on or off. When the microphone is muted, the button is lit.

9

Volume button

Controls the handset, headset, and speakerphone volume (off-hook) and the ringer volume (on-hook).

10

Speaker button

Toggles the speakerphone on or off. When the speakerphone is on, the button is lit.

11

Handset

Functions like a traditional handset.

12

Handset indicator light

Flashes for an incoming call and remains on when there is a message waiting.

13

Phone screen

Displays information such as line/call status, phone number, and soft key labels.

14

Cisco Unified IP Phone model type

Shows the Cisco Unified IP Phone model number.

15

4-way navigation pad and Select button

Scrolls through text and selects features that are displayed on the screen. View directory numbers, lines, and features assigned to each line button. The Select button is at the center of the navigation pad.


Cisco Unified IP Phone Buttons

Accessing Phone Menus and Local Features

When the Cisco Unified IP Phone is registered with Cisco Unified Communications Manager, you access local features by pressing the line buttons that are configured for the features.

By default, line button 21 accesses a voice messaging system, line button 22 displays the Directories menu, line button 23 activates a headset, and line button 24 displays the Application menu. To change these programmable button assignments, use Cisco Communications Manager Administration. For additional information, see the "Modifying Phone Button Templates" section.

Be default, while a phone is starting up and before it registers with Cisco Unified Communications Manager, the last softkey on the right becomes the Settings softkey. By pressing this key, you can access the phone configuration menus. In this way, you can make configuration changes if needed to allow the phone to successfully complete its startup and registration process, and you can obtain information for troubleshooting.

There is an option in the phone configuration file that blocks access to phone settings. If the phone has previously registered and downloaded a configuration that blocks access to settings, the Settings softkey is not available. In this case, you must perform a factory reset of the phone to cause the Settings softkey to appear.

What Networking Protocols Are Used?

Cisco Unified IP Phones support several industry-standard and Cisco networking protocols required for voice communication. Table 1-2 provides an overview of the networking protocols that the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G supports.

Table 1-2 Supported Networking Protocols on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 

Networking Protocol
Purpose
Usage Notes

Bootstrap Protocol (BootP)

BootP enables a network device such as the Cisco Unified IP Phone to discover certain startup information, such as its IP address.

If you are using BootP to assign IP addresses to the Cisco Unified IP Phone, the BOOTP Server option shows "Yes" in the network configuration settings on the phone.

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

CDP is a device-discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco-manufactured equipment.

Using CDP, a device can advertise its existence to other devices and receive information about other devices in the network.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone uses CDP to communicate information such as auxiliary VLAN ID, per port power management details, and Quality of Service (QoS) configuration information with the Cisco Catalyst switch.

Cisco Peer-to-Peer Distribution Protocol (CPPDP)

CPPDP is a Cisco proprietary protocol that is used to form a peer-to-peer hierarchy of devices. CPPDP also is used to copy firmware or other files from peer devices to neighboring devices.

CPPDP is used by the Peer Firmware Sharing feature.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

DHCP dynamically allocates and assigns an IP address to network devices.

DHCP enables you to connect an IP phone into the network and have the phone become operational without your needing to manually assign an IP address or to configure additional network parameters.

DHCP is enabled by default. If disabled, you must manually configure the IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and a TFTP server on each phone locally.

Cisco recommends that you use DHCP custom option 150. With this method, you configure the TFTP server IP address as the option value. For additional supported DHCP configurations, refer to the "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol" chapter and the "Cisco TFTP" chapter in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTTP is the standard way of transferring information and moving documents across the Internet and the web.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use HTTP for the XML services and for troubleshooting purposes.

Cisco Unified IP Phones do not support the use of IPv6 addresses in the URL. You cannot use literal IPv6 addresses in the URL or hostname which maps to a IPv6 address.

IEEE 802.1X

The IEEE 802.1X standard defines a client-server-based access control and authentication protocol that restricts unauthorized clients from connecting to a LAN through publicly accessible ports.

Until the client is authenticated, 802.1X access control allows only Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) traffic through the port to which the client is connected. After authentication is successful, normal traffic can pass through the port.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone implements the IEEE 802.1X standard by providing support for the following authentication methods: EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, and EAP-MD5.

When 802.1X authentication is enabled on the phone, you should disable the PC port and voice VLAN. Refer to the "Supporting 802.1X Authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones" section for additional information.

Internet Protocol (IP)

IP is a messaging protocol that addresses and sends packets across the network.

To communicate using IP, network devices must have an assigned IP address, subnet, and gateway.

IP addresses, subnets, and gateways identifications are automatically assigned if you are using the Cisco Unified IP Phone with Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). If you are not using DHCP, you must manually assign these properties to each phone locally.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone supports concurrent IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Configure the IP addressing mode (IPv4 only, IPv6 only, and both IPv4 and IPv6) in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration. For more information, refer to the "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)" chapter in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Features and Services Guide.

Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)

LLDP is a standardized network discovery protocol (similar to CDP) that is supported on some Cisco and third-party devices.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone supports LLDP on the PC port.

Link Layer Discovery Protocol-Media Endpoint Devices (LLDP-MED)

LLDP-MED is an extension of the LLDP standard developed for voice products.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone supports LLDP-MED on the SW port to communicate information such as:

Voice VLAN configuration

Device discovery

Power management

Inventory management

For more information about LLDP-MED support, see the LLDP-MED and Cisco Discovery Protocol white paper:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk652/tk701/technologies_white_paper0900aecd804cd46d.shtml

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

RTP is a standard protocol for transporting real-time data, such as interactive voice and video, over data networks.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use the RTP protocol to send and receive real-time voice traffic from other phones and gateways.

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

RTCP works in conjunction with RTP to provide QoS data (such as jitter, latency, and round trip delay) on RTP streams.

RTCP is disabled by default, but you can enable it on a per phone basis using Cisco Unified Communications Manager. For more information, see the "Network Configuration Menu" section.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

SIP is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard for multimedia conferencing over IP. SIP is an ASCII-based application-layer control protocol (defined in RFC 3261) that can be used to establish, maintain, and terminate calls between two or more endpoints.

Like other VoIP protocols, SIP is designed to address the functions of signaling and session management within a packet telephony network. Signaling allows call information to be carried across network boundaries. Session management provides the ability to control the attributes of an end-to-end call.

You can configure the Cisco Unified IP Phone to use either SIP or Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP).

Cisco Unified IP Phones do not support the SIP protocol when the phones are operating in IPv6 address mode.

Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP)

SCCP includes a messaging set that allows communications between call control servers and endpoint clients such as IP Phones. SCCP is proprietary to Cisco Systems.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use SCCP for call control. You can configure the Cisco Unified IP Phone to use either SCCP or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

Session Description Protocol (SDP)

SDP is the portion of the SIP protocol that determines which parameters are available during a connection between two endpoints. Conferences are established by using only the SDP capabilities that are supported by all endpoints in the conference.

SDP capabilities, such as codec types, DTMF detection, and comfort noise, are normally configured on a global basis by Cisco Unified Communications Manager or Media Gateway in operation. Some SIP endpoints may allow these parameters to be configured on the endpoint itself.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

TCP is a connection-oriented transport protocol.

Cisco Unified IP Phones use TCP to connect to Cisco Unified Communications Manager and to access XML services.

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

TLS is a standard protocol for securing and authenticating communications.

When security is implemented, Cisco Unified IP Phones use the TLS protocol when securely registering with Cisco Unified Communications Manager.

For more information, refer to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

TFTP allows you to transfer files over the network.

On the Cisco Unified IP Phone, TFTP enables you to obtain a configuration file specific to the phone type.

TFTP requires a TFTP server in your network, which can be automatically identified from the DHCP server. If you want a phone to use a TFTP server other than the one specified by the DHCP server, you must manually assign TFTP server from the Network Configuration menu on the phone.

For more information, refer to the "Cisco TFTP" chapter in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

UDP is a connectionless messaging protocol for delivery of data packets.

Cisco Unified IP Phones transmit and receive RTP streams, which utilize UDP.


Related Topics

Understanding Interactions with Other Cisco Unified IP Communications Products

Understanding the Phone Startup Process

Network Configuration Menu

IPv6 Support on Cisco Unified IP Phones

The Cisco Unified IP Phone uses the internet protocol to provide voice communication over the network. Previous to Cisco Unified Communications Manager release 7.1, only the internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) was supported. Because it uses a 32-bit address, IPv4 cannot meet the increased demands for unique IP addresses for all devices that can connect to the internet. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is an updated version of the current Internet Protocol, IPv4. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address and provides end-to-end security capabilities, enhanced Quality of Service (QoS), and increased number of available IP addresses.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone supports IPv4 only addressing mode, IPv6 only addressing mode, as well as an IPv4/IPv6 dual stack addressing mode. In IPv4, you can enter each octet of the IP address on the phone in dotted decimal notation; for example, 192.240.22.5. In IPv6, you can enter each octet of the IP address in hexadecimal notation with each octet separated by a colon; for example, 2005:db8:0:1:ef8:9876:ba72:dc9a. The phone truncates and removes leading zeros when it displays the IPv6 address.

Cisco Unified IP Phones support both IPv4 and an IPv6 address transparently, so users can handle all calls on the phone to which they are accustomed. Cisco Unified IP Phones support the use of IPv6 only with Cisco Unified Communications Manager release 7.1 and only with the Skinny Call Control Protocol (SCCP).

Cisco Unified IP Phones do not support URLs with IPv6 addresses in the URL. This affects all IP Phone Service URLs, including services, directories, messages, help, and any restricted web services that require the phone to use the HTTP protocol to validate the credentials with the Authentication URL. If you configure Cisco Unified IP Phone services for Cisco Unified IP Phones, you must configure the phone and the servers that support the phone service with IPv4 addresses.

If you configure IPv6 Only as the IP Addressing Mode for phones that are running SIP, the Cisco TFTP service overrides the IP Addressing Mode configuration and uses IPv4 Only in the configuration file.

For more information on deploying IPv6 in your Cisco Unified Communications network, refer to the "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Features and Services Guide and Deploying IPv6 in Unified Communications Networks with Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.1.

Related Topic

Understanding Interactions with Other Cisco Unified IP Communications Products

Understanding the Phone Startup Process

Network Configuration Menu

What Features are Supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G?

The Cisco Unified IP Phone functions much like a digital business phone, allowing you to place and receive telephone calls. In addition to traditional telephony features, the Cisco Unified IP Phone includes features that enable you to administer and monitor the phone as a network device.

This section includes the following topics:

Feature Overview

Configuring Telephony Features

Configuring Network Parameters Using the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Providing Users with Feature Information

Feature Overview

Cisco Unified IP Phones provide traditional telephony functionality, such as call forwarding and transferring, redialing, speed dialing, conference calling, and voice messaging system access. Cisco Unified IP phones also provide a variety of other features. For an overview of the telephony features that the Cisco Unified IP Phone supports, see the "Telephony Features Available for the Phone" section.

As with other network devices, you must configure Cisco Unified IP Phones to prepare them to access Cisco Unified Communications Manager and the rest of the IP network. By using DHCP, you have fewer settings to configure on a phone, but if your network requires it, you can manually configure an IP address, TFTP server, subnet information, etc. For instructions on configuring the network settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phones, see Chapter 4 "Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone."

The Cisco Unified IP Phone can interact with other services and devices on your IP network to provide enhanced functionality. For example, you can integrate the Cisco Unified IP Phones with the corporate Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 3 (LDAP3) standard directory to enable users to search for co-workers contact information directly from their IP phones. You can also use XML to enable users to access information such as weather, stocks, quote of the day, and other web-based information. For information about configuring such services, see the "Configuring Corporate Directories" section and the "Setting Up Services" section.

Finally, because the Cisco Unified IP Phone is a network device, you can obtain detailed status information from it directly. This information can assist you with troubleshooting any problems users might encounter when using their IP phones. See Chapter 7 "Viewing Model Information, Status, and Statistics on the Cisco Unified IP Phone," for more information.

Related Topics

Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone

Configuring Features, Templates, Services, and Users

Troubleshooting and Maintenance

Configuring Telephony Features

You can modify certain settings for the Cisco Unified IP Phone from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration application. Use this graphical user interface to set up phone registration criteria and calling search spaces, to configure corporate directories and services, and to modify phone button templates, among other tasks. See the "Telephony Features Available for the Phone" section and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide for additional information.

For more information about the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration application, refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager documentation, including Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide. You can also use the context-sensitive help available within the application for guidance.

You can access the Cisco Unified Communications Manager documentation suite at this location:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/voicesw/ps556/tsd_products_support_series_home.html

You can access the complete Cisco Unified Communications Manager Business Edition documentation suite at this location:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps7273/tsd_products_support_series_home.html

Related Topic

Telephony Features Available for the Phone

Configuring Network Parameters Using the Cisco Unified IP Phone

You can configure parameters such as DHCP, TFTP, and IP settings on the phone itself. You can also obtain statistics about a current call or firmware versions on the phone.

For more information about configuring features and viewing statistics from the phone, see Chapter 4 "Configuring Settings on the Cisco Unified IP Phone," and see Chapter 7 "Viewing Model Information, Status, and Statistics on the Cisco Unified IP Phone."

Providing Users with Feature Information

If you are a system administrator, you are likely the primary source of information for Cisco Unified IP Phone users in your network or company. To ensure that you distribute the most current feature and procedural information, familiarize yourself with Cisco Unified IP Phone documentation. Make sure to visit the Cisco Unified IP Phone web site:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/phones/ps379/tsd_products_support_
series_home.html

From this site, you can access various user guides, including wallet cards.

In addition to providing users with documentation, it is important to inform them about available Cisco Unified IP Phone features—including features specific to your company or network—and about how to access and customize those features, if appropriate.

For a summary of some of the key information that phone users need their system administrators to provide, see "Providing Information to Users Via a Website."

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Implementing security in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager system prevents identity theft of the phone and Cisco Unified Communications Manager server, prevents data tampering, and prevents call signaling and media stream tampering.

To alleviate these threats, the Cisco IP telephony network establishes and maintains authenticated and encrypted communication streams between a phone and the server, digitally signs files before they are transferred to a phone, and encrypts media streams and call signaling between Cisco Unified IP phones.

Table 1-3 shows where you can find additional information about security in this and other documents.

Table 1-3 Cisco Unified IP Phone and Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security
Topics 

Topic
Reference

Detailed explanation of security, including set up, configuration, and troubleshooting information for Cisco Unified Communications Manager and Cisco Unified IP Phones

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Security features supported on the Cisco Unified IP Phone

See the "Overview of Supported Security Features" section

Restrictions regarding security features

See the "Security Restrictions" section

Viewing a security profile name

See the "Understanding Security Profiles" section

Identifying phone calls for which security is implemented

See the "Identifying Authenticated, Encrypted, and Protected Phone Calls" section

Establishing and identifying conference calls for which security is implemented

See the "Establishing and Identifying Secure Conference Calls" section

TLS connection

See the "What Networking Protocols Are Used?" section

See the "Understanding Phone Configuration Files" section

Security and the phone startup process

See the "Understanding the Phone Startup Process" section

Security and phone configuration files

See the "Understanding Phone Configuration Files" section

Changing the TFTP Server 1 or TFTP Server 2 option on the phone when security is implemented

See the "Network Configuration Menu" section

Understanding security icons in the Unified CM 1 through Unified CM 5 options in the Device Configuration menu on the phone

See the "CallManager Configuration Menu" section

Items on the Security Configuration menu on the phone that you access from the Device Configuration menu on the phone

See the "Security Configuration Menu" section

Items on the Security Configuration menu on the phone that you access from the Settings menu on the phone

See the "Security Configuration Menu" section

Unlocking the CTL file

See the "CTL File Screen" section

Disabling access to a phone's web pages

See the "Disabling and Enabling Web Page Access" section

Troubleshooting

See the "Troubleshooting Cisco Unified IP Phone Security" section

Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Deleting the CTL file from the phone

See the "Resetting or Restoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section

Resetting or restoring the phone

See the "Resetting or Restoring the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section

802.1X Authentication for Cisco Unified IP Phones

See these sections:

"Supporting 802.1X Authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones" section

"802.1X Authentication and Status" section

"Troubleshooting Cisco Unified IP Phone Security" section


Overview of Supported Security Features

Table 1-4 provides an overview of the security features that the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G supports. For more information about these features and about Cisco Unified Communications Manager and Cisco Unified IP Phone security, refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.

For information about current security settings on a phone, look at the settings on the Security Configuration menus on the phone. For more information, see the "Security Configuration Menu" section and the "Security Configuration Menu" section.


Note Most security features are available only if a certificate trust list (CTL) is installed on the phone. For more information about the CTL, refer to "Configuring the Cisco CTL Client" chapter in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.


Table 1-4 Overview of Security Features 

Feature
Description

Image authentication

Signed binary files (with the extension .sbn) prevent tampering with the firmware image before it is loaded on a phone. Tampering with the image causes a phone to fail the authentication process and reject the new image.

Customer-site certificate installation

Each Cisco Unified IP Phone requires a unique certificate for device authentication. Phones include a manufacturing installed certificate (MIC), but for additional security, you can specify in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration that a certificate be installed by using the Certificate Authority Proxy Function (CAPF). Alternatively, you can install an LSC from the Security Configuration menu on the phone. See the "Configuring Security on the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section for more information.

Device authentication

Occurs between the Cisco Unified Communications Manager server and the phone when each entity accepts the certificate of the other entity. Determines whether a secure connection between the phone and a Cisco Unified Communications Manager should occur, and, if necessary, creates a secure signaling path between the entities using transport layer security (TLS) protocol. Cisco Unified Communications Manager will not register phones unless they can be authenticated by the Cisco Unified Communications Manager.

File authentication

Validates digitally signed files that the phone downloads. The phone validates the signature to make sure that file tampering did not occur after the file creation. Files that fail authentication are not written to Flash memory on the phone. The phone rejects such files without further processing.

Signaling Authentication

Uses the TLS protocol to validate that no tampering has occurred to signaling packets during transmission.

Manufacturing installed certificate

Each Cisco Unified IP Phone contains a unique manufacturing installed certificate (MIC), which is used for device authentication. The MIC is a permanent unique proof of identity for the phone, and allows Cisco Unified Communications Manager to authenticate the phone.

Secure SRST reference

After you configure a SRST reference for security and then reset the dependent devices in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, the TFTP server adds the SRST certificate to the phone cnf.xml file and sends the file to the phone. A secure phone then uses a TLS connection to interact with the SRST-enabled router.

Media encryption

Uses SRTP to ensure that the media streams between supported devices proves secure and that only the intended device receives and reads the data. Includes creating a media master key pair for the devices, delivering the keys to the devices, and securing the delivery of the keys while the keys are in transport.

Signaling encryption

Ensures that all SCCP signaling messages that are sent between the device and the Cisco Unified Communications Manager server are encrypted.

CAPF (Certificate Authority Proxy Function)

Implements parts of the certificate generation procedure that are too processing-intensive for the phone, and it interacts with the phone for key generation and certificate installation. The CAPF can be configured to request certificates from customer-specified certificate authorities on behalf of the phone, or it can be configured to generate certificates locally.

Security profiles

Defines whether the phone is nonsecure, authenticated, encrypted or protected. See the "Understanding Security Profiles" section for more information.

Encrypted configuration files

Lets you ensure the privacy of phone configuration files.

Optional disabling of the web server functionality for a phone

You can prevent access to a phone's web page, which displays a variety of operational statistics for the phone.

Phone hardening

Additional security options, which you control from Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration:

Disabling PC port

Disabling Gratuitous ARP (GARP)

Disabling PC Voice VLAN access

Disabling access to the Setting menus, or providing restricted access that allows access to the User Preferences menu and saving volume changes only

Disabling access to web pages for a phone.

Note You can view current settings for the PC Port Disabled, GARP Enabled, and Voice VLAN enabled options by looking at the phone's Security Configuration menu. For more information, see the "Device Configuration Menu" section.

802.1X Authentication

The Cisco Unified IP Phone can use 802.1X authentication to request and gain access to the network. See the "Supporting 802.1X Authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones" section for more information.


Related Topics

Understanding Security Profiles

Identifying Authenticated, Encrypted, and Protected Phone Calls

Establishing and Identifying Secure Conference Calls

Supporting 802.1X Authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones

Security Restrictions

Device Configuration Menu

Understanding Security Profiles

Cisco Unified IP Phones that support Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.0 use a security profile, which defines whether the phone is nonsecure, authenticated, or encrypted. For information about configuring the security profile and applying the profile to the phone, refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.

To view the security mode that is set for the phone, look at the Security Mode setting in the Security Configuration menu. For more information, see the "Security Configuration Menu" section.

Related Topics

Identifying Authenticated, Encrypted, and Protected Phone Calls

Establishing and Identifying Secure Conference Calls

Security Restrictions

Device Configuration Menu

Identifying Authenticated, Encrypted, and Protected Phone Calls

When security is implemented for a phone, you can identify authenticated or encrypted phone calls by icons on the screen on the phone. You can also determine if the connected phone is secure and protected if a security tone plays at the beginning of the call.

In an authenticated call, all devices participating in the establishment of the call are authenticated by the Cisco Unified Communications Manager. When a call in progress is authenticated, the call progress icon to the right of the call duration timer in the phone screen changes to this icon:

In an encrypted call, all devices participating in the establishment of the call are authenticated by the Cisco Unified Communications Manager. In addition, call signaling and media streams are encrypted. An encrypted call offers a high level of security, providing integrity and privacy to the call. When a call in progress is being encrypted, the call progress icon to the right of the call duration timer in the phone screen changes to this icon: .


Note If the call is routed through non-IP call legs, for example, PSTN, the call may be nonsecure even though it is encrypted within the IP network and has a lock icon associated with it.


In a protected call, a security tone plays at the beginning of a call to indicate that the other connected phone is also receiving and transmitting encrypted audio and video (if video is involved). If your call is connected to a non-protected phone, the security tone does not play.


Note Protected calling is supported for connections between two phones only. Some features, such as conference calling, shared lines, Extension Mobility, and Join Across Lines are not available when protected calling is configured. Protected calls are not authenticated.


Related Topic

Understanding Security Features for Cisco Unified IP Phones

Understanding Security Profiles

Establishing and Identifying Secure Conference Calls

Security Restrictions

Establishing and Identifying Secure Conference Calls

You can initiate a secure conference call and monitor the security level of participants. A secure conference call is established using this process:

1. A user initiates the conference from a secure phone (encrypted or authenticated security mode).

2. Cisco Unified Communications Manager assigns a secure conference bridge to the call.

3. As participants are added, Cisco Unified Communications Manager verifies the security mode of each phone (encrypted or authenticated) and maintains the secure level for the conference.

4. The phone displays the security level of the conference call. A secure conference displays (encrypted) or (authenticated) icon to the right of "Conference" on the phone. If the icon displays, the conference is not secure.


Note There are interactions, restrictions, and limitations that affect the security level of the conference call depending on the security mode of the participants' phones and the availability of secure conference bridges. See Table 1-5 and Table 1-6 for information about these interactions.


Establishing and Identifying Protected Calls

A protected call is established when your phone, and the phone on the other end, is configured for protected calling. The other phone can be in the same Cisco IP network, or on a network outside the IP network. Protected calls can only be made between two phones. Conference calls and other multiple-line calls are not supported.

A protected call is established using this process:

1. A user initiates the call from a protected phone (protected security mode).

2. The phone displays the icon (encrypted) on the phone screen. This icon indicates that the phone is configured for secure (encrypted) calls, but this does not mean that the other connected phone is also protected.

3. A security tone plays if the call is connected to another protected phone, indicating that both ends of the conversation are encrypted and protected. If the call is connected to a non-protected phone, then the secure tone is not played.


Note Protected calling is supported for conversations between two phones. Some features, such as conference calling, shared lines, Cisco Extension Mobility, and Join Across Lines are not available when protected calling is configured.


Call Security Interactions and Restrictions

Cisco Unified Communications Manager checks the phone security status when conferences are established and changes the security indication for the conference or blocks the completion of the call to maintain integrity and also security in the system. Table 1-5 provides information about changes to call security levels when using Barge.

Table 1-5 Call Security Interactions When Using Barge

Initiator's Phone Security Level
Feature Used
Call Security Level
Results of Action

Non-secure

Barge

Encrypted call

Call barged and identified as non-secure call

Secure (encrypted)

Barge

Authenticated call

Call barged and identified as authenticated call

Secure (authenticated)

Barge

Encrypted call

Call barged and identified as authenticated call

Non-secure

Barge

Authenticated call

Call barged and identified as non-secure call


Table 1-6 provides information about changes to conference security levels depending on the initiator's phone security level, the security levels of participants, and the availability of secure conference bridges.

Table 1-6 Security Restrictions with Conference Calls 

Initiator's Phone Security Level
Feature Used
Security Level of Participants
Results of Action

Non-secure

Conference

Encrypted or authenticated

Non-secure conference bridge

Non-secure conference

Secure (encrypted or authenticated)

Conference

At least one member is non-secure

Secure conference bridge

Non-secure conference

Secure (encrypted)

Conference

All participants are encrypted

Secure conference bridge

Secure encrypted level conference

Secure (authenticated)

Conference

All participants are encrypted or authenticated

Secure conference bridge

Secure authenticated level conference

Non-secure

Conference

Encrypted or authenticated

Only secure conference bridge is available and used

Non-secure conference

Secure (encrypted or authenticated)

Conference

Encrypted or authenticated

Only non-secure conference bridge is available and used

Non-secure conference

Secure (encrypted or authenticated)

Conference

Secure or encrypted

Conference remains secure

When one participant tries to Hold the call with MOH, the MOH does not play

Secure (encrypted)

Join

Encrypted or authenticated

Secure conference bridge

Conference remains secure (encrypted or authenticated)

Non-secure

cBarge

All participants are encrypted

Secure conference bridge

Conference changes to non-secure

Non-secure

MeetMe

Minimum security level is encrypted

Initiator receives message "Device Not Authorized", call rejected.

Secure (encrypted)

MeetMe

Minimum security level is authenticated

Secure conference bridge

Conference accepts encrypted and authenticated calls

Secure (encrypted)

MeetMe

Minimum security level is non-secure

Only secure conference bridge available and used

Conference accepts all calls


Supporting 802.1X Authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones

These sections provide information about 802.1X support on the Cisco Unified IP Phone:

Overview

Required Network Components

Best Practices—Requirements and Recommendations

Overview

Cisco Unified IP phones and Cisco Catalyst switches have traditionally used Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) to identify each other and to determine parameters such as VLAN allocation and inline power requirements. However, CDP is not used to identify any locally attached PCs; therefore, Cisco Unified IP Phones provide an EAPOL pass-through mechanism, whereby a PC locally attached to the IP phone may pass through EAPOL messages to the 802.1X authenticator in the LAN switch. This capability prevents the IP phone from having to act as the authenticator, yet allows the LAN switch to authenticate a data end point prior to accessing the network.

In conjunction with the EAPOL pass-through mechanism, Cisco Unified IP Phones provide a proxy EAPOL-Logoff mechanism. If the locally attached PC is disconnected from the IP phone, the LAN switch would not see the physical link fail, because the link between the LAN switch and the IP phone is maintained. To avoid compromising network integrity, the IP phone sends an EAPOL-Logoff message to the switch on behalf of the downstream PC, which triggers the LAN switch to clear the authentication entry for the downstream PC.

The Cisco Unified IP phones contain an 802.1X supplicant in addition to the EAPOL pass-through mechanism. This supplicant allows network administrators to control the connectivity of IP phones to the LAN switch ports. The current release of the phone 802.1X supplicant uses the EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, and EAP-MD5 options for network authentication.

Required Network Components

Support for 802.1X authentication on Cisco Unified IP Phones requires several components, including:

Cisco Unified IP Phone—The phone acts as the 802.1X supplicant, which initiates the request to access the network.

Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS) (or other third-party authentication server)—The authentication server and the phone must both be configured with a shared secret that is used to authenticate the phone.

Cisco Catalyst Switch (or other third-party switch)—The switch must support 802.1X so, it can act as the authenticator and pass the messages between the phone and the authentication server. When the exchange is completed, the switch grants or denies the phone access to the network.

Best Practices—Requirements and Recommendations

Enable 802.1X Authentication—If you want to use the 802.1X standard to authenticate Cisco Unified IP Phones, make sure that you have properly configured the other components before enabling it on the phone. See the "802.1X Authentication and Status" section for more information.

Configure PC Port—The 802.1X standard does not take into account the use of VLANs and thus recommends that only a single device be authenticated to a specific switch port. However, some switches (including Cisco Catalyst switches) support multi-domain authentication. The switch configuration determines whether you can connect a PC to the phone PC port.

Enabled—If you are using a switch that supports multi-domain authentication, you can enable the PC port and connect a PC to it. In this case, Cisco Unified IP Phones support proxy EAPOL-Logoff to monitor the authentication exchanges between the switch and the attached PC. For more information about IEEE 802.1X support on the Cisco Catalyst switches, refer to the Cisco Catalyst switch configuration guides at:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/tsd_products_support_series_home.html

Disabled—If the switch does not support multiple 802.1X-compliant devices on the same port, you should disable the PC Port when 802.1X authentication is enabled. See the "Security Configuration Menu" section for more information. If you do not disable this port and subsequently attempt to attach a PC to it, the switch will deny network access to both the phone and the PC.

Configure Voice VLAN—Because the 802.1X standard does not account for VLANs, you should configure this setting based on the switch support.

Enabled—If you are using a switch that supports multi-domain authentication, you can continue to use the voice VLAN.

Disabled—If the switch does not support multi-domain authentication, disable the Voice VLAN and consider assigning the port to the native VLAN. See the "Security Configuration Menu" section for more information.

Enter MD5 Shared Secret—If you disable 802.1X authentication or perform a factory reset on the phone, the previously configured MD5 shared secret is deleted. See the "802.1X Authentication and Status" section for more information.

Security Restrictions

A user cannot barge into an encrypted call if the phone that is used to barge is not configured for encryption. When barge fails in this case, a reorder tone (fast busy tone) plays on the phone on which the user initiated the barge.

If the initiator phone is configured for encryption, the barge initiator can barge into an authenticated or nonsecure call from the encrypted phone. After the barge occurs, Cisco Unified Communications Manager classifies the call as nonsecure.

If the initiator phone is configured for encryption, the barge initiator can barge into an encrypted call, and the phone indicates that the call is encrypted.

A user can barge into an authenticated call, even if the phone that is used to barge is nonsecure. The authentication icon continues to appear on the authenticated devices in the call, even if the initiator phone does not support security.

Overview of Configuring and Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

When deploying a new IP telephony system, system administrators and network administrators must complete several initial configuration tasks to prepare the network for IP telephony service. For information and a checklist for setting up and configuring a complete Cisco IP telephony network, refer to the "System Configuration Overview" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide.

After you have set up the IP telephony system and configured system-wide features in Cisco Unified Communications Manager, you can add IP phones to the system.

The following topics provide an overview of procedures for adding Cisco Unified IP Phones to your network:

Configuring Cisco Unified IP Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

Configuring Cisco Unified IP Phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

To add phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, you can use:

Auto-registration

Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration

Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)

BAT and the Tool for Auto-Registered Phones Support (TAPS)

For more information about these choices, see the "Adding Phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Database" section.

For general information about configuring phones in Cisco Unified Communications Manager, refer to the "Cisco Unified IP Phone" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide and the "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Checklist for Configuring the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G in Cisco Unified Communications Manager

Table 1-7 provides an overview and checklist of configuration tasks for the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration. The list presents a suggested order to guide you through the phone configuration process. Some tasks are optional, depending on your system and user needs. For detailed procedures and information, refer to the sources in the list.

Table 1-7 Checklist for Configuring the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G in Cisco Unified Communications Manager 

Task and Purpose
For More Information

1.

Gather the following information about the phone:

Phone Model

MAC address

Physical location of the phone

Name or user ID of phone user

Device pool

Partition, calling search space, and location information

Number of lines and associated directory numbers (DNs) to assign to the phone

Cisco Unified Communications Manager user to associate with the phone

Phone usage information that affects phone button template, softkey template, phone features, IP Phone services, or phone applications

Provides list of configuration requirements for setting up phones.

Identifies preliminary configuration that you need to perform before configuring individual phones, such as phone button templates or softkey templates.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Guide,
"Cisco Unified IP Phone" chapter.

See the "Telephony Features Available for the Phone" section.

2.

Customize phone button templates (if required).

Lets you assign speed dials and features to programmable line buttons to meet user needs.

You must specify a service URL with an IPv4 address.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide,
"Phone Button Template Configuration" chapter.

See the "Modifying Phone Button Templates" section.

3.

Add and configure the phone by completing these required fields in the Phone Configuration window:

Phone type

MAC address

Device pool

Button template

Product Specific Configuration

Softkey template (if customized)

Adds the device with its default settings to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter.

4.

Add and configure directory numbers (lines) on the phone by completing these required fields in the Directory Number Configuration window.

Directory number(s)

Partition

Multiple Calls and Call Waiting

Call Forwarding and Pickup (if used)

Voice Messaging (if used)

Adds primary and secondary directory numbers and features associated with directory numbers to the phone.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Directory Number Configuration" chapter.

See the "Telephony Features Available for the Phone" section.

5.

Customize softkey templates.

Adds, deletes, or changes order of softkey features that display on the phone.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide,
"Softkey Template Configuration" chapter.

See the "Configuring Softkey Templates" section.

6.

Configure speed-dial buttons and assign speed-dial numbers (optional).

Adds speed-dial buttons and numbers.

Note Users can change speed-dial settings on their phones by using Cisco Unified CM.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter, "Configuring Speed-Dial Buttons" section.

7.

Configure Cisco Unified IP Phone services and assign services (optional).

Provides IP Phone services.

Note Users can add or change services on their phones by using Cisco Unified CM.

You must specify a service URL with an IPv4 address.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Services Configuration" chapter.

See the "Setting Up Services" section.

8.

Assign services to phone buttons (optional).

Provides single button access to an IP phone service or URL.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "Cisco Unified IP Phone Configuration" chapter, "Adding a Cisco Unified IP Phone Service to a Phone Button" section.

9.

Add user information by configuring required fields:

Name (last)

User ID

Password (for Cisco Unified CM web pages)

PIN (for use with Extension Mobility and Personal Directory)

Adds user information to the global directory for Cisco Unified Communications Manager.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "End User Configuration" chapter.

See the "Adding Users to Cisco Unified Communications Manager" section.

If your company uses a a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory to store information on users, you can install and configure Cisco Unified Communications to use your existing LDAP directory, refer to the "Configuring Corporate Directories" section.

10.

Add a user to a user group.

Assigns users a common list of roles and permissions that apply to all users in a user group. Administrators can manage user groups, roles, and permissions to control the level of access (and, therefore, the level of security) for system users.

Refer to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "User Group Configuration" chapter, "Adding Users to a User Group" section.

11.

Associate a user with a phone (optional).

Provides users with control over their phone such as forwarding calls or adding speed-dial numbers or services.

Note Some phones, such as those in conference rooms, do not have an associated user.

Refer to Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide, "End User Configuration" chapter, "Associating Devices to a User" section.

Installing Cisco Unified IP Phones

After you have added the phones to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager database, you can complete the phone installation. You (or the phone users) can install the phone at the users's location. The Cisco Unified IP Phone Installation Guide, which is available on Cisco.com, provides directions for connecting the phone handset, cables, and other accessories.


Note Before you install a phone, even if it is new, upgrade the phone to the current firmware image. For information about upgrading, refer to the Readme file for your phone, which is located at:

http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/ip-7900ser


After the phone is connected to the network, the phone startup process begins, and the phone registers with Cisco Unified Communications Manager. To finish installing the phone, configure the network settings on the phone depending on whether you enable or disable DHCP service.

If you used auto-registration, you need to update the specific configuration information for the phone such as associating the phone with a user, changing the button table, or directory number.

Checklist for Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G

Table 1-8 provides an overview and checklist of installation tasks for the Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G. The list presents a suggested order to guide you through the phone installation. Some tasks are optional, depending on your system and user needs. For detailed procedures and information, refer to the sources in the list.

Table 1-8 Checklist for Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phones 7931G 

Task and Purpose
For More Information

1.

Choose the power source for the phone:

Power over Ethernet (PoE)

External power supply

Determines how the phone receives power.

See the "Providing Power to the Phone" section.

2.

Assemble the phone, adjust phone placement, and connect the network cable.

Locates and installs the phone in the network.

See the "Installing the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section.

See the "Securing the Phone with a Cable Lock" section.

3.

Monitor the phone startup process.

Verifies that phone is configured properly.

See the "Verifying the Phone Startup Process" section.

4.

If you are configuring the network settings on the phonefor an IPv4 network, you can set up an IP address for the phone by either using DHCP or manually entering an IP address.

Using DHCP—To enable DHCP and allow the DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address to the Cisco Unified IP Phone and direct the phone to a TFTP server, choose Settings > Network Configuration> IPv4 Configuration and:

To enable DHCP, set DHCP Enabled to Yes. DHCP is enabled by default.

To use an alternate TFTP server, set Alternate TFTP Server to Yes, and enter the IP address for the TFTP Server.

Note Consult with the network administrator if you need to assign an alternative TFTP server instead of using the TFTP server assigned by DHCP.

Without DHCP—You must configure the IP address, subnet mask, TFTP server, and default router locally on the phone, choose Settings > Network Configuration> IPv4 Configuration:

To disable DHCP and manually set an IP address:

a. To disable DHCP, set DHCP Enabled to No.

b. Enter the static IP address for phone.

c. Enter the subnet mask.

d. Enter the default router IP addresses.

e. Set Alternate TFTP Server to Yes, and enter the IP address for TFTP Server 1.

You must also enter the domain name where the phone resides by Choosing Settings > Network Configuration.

The Cisco Unified IP Phone supports having both IPv4 and an IPv6 address concurrently. You can configure Cisco Unified Communications Manager to support IPv4 addresses only, IPv6 addresses only, or support both IPv4/IPv6 addresses.

See the "Configuring Startup Network Settings" section.

See the "Network Configuration Menu" section.

5.

If you are configuring the network settings on the phone for an IPv6 network, you can set up an IP address for the phone by either using DHCP or manually entering an IP address.

Using DHCP—To enable DHCP and allow the DHCP server to automatically assign an IP address to the Cisco Unified IP Phone and direct the phone to a TFTP server, choose Settings > Network Configuration> IPv6 Configuration and:

To enable DHCPv6,set DHCPv6 Enabled to Yes. DHCPv6 is enabled by default.

To use an alternate TFTP server, set IPv6 Alternate TFTP Server to Yes, and enter the IP address for IPv6 TFTP Server 1.

Note Consult with the network administrator if you need to assign an alternative TFTP server instead of using the TFTP server assigned by DHCP.

Without DHCP—You must configure the IP address, subnet mask, TFTP server, and default router locally on the phone; choose Settings > Network Configuration> IPv6 Configuration:

To disable DHCP and manually set an IP address:

a. To disable DHCPv6, set DHCPv6 Enabled to No.

b. Enter the static IP address for phone.

c. Enter the IPv6 prefix length.

d. Set IPv6 Alternate TFTP Server to Yes, and enter IP address for IPv6 TFTP Server 1.

You must also enter the domain name where the phone resides by Choosing Settings > Network Configuration.

Note The Cisco Unified IP Phone supports having both IPv4 and an IPv6 address concurrently. You can configure Cisco Unified Communications Manager to support IPv4 addresses only, IPv6 addresses only, or support both IPv4/IPv6 addresses.

See the "Configuring Startup Network Settings" section.

See the "Network Configuration Menu" section.

6.

Set up security on the phone.

Provides protection against data tampering threats and identity theft of phones.

See the "Configuring Security on the Cisco Unified IP Phone" section.

7.

Make calls with the Cisco Unified IP Phone.

Verifies that the phone and features work correctly.

Refer to Cisco Unified IP Phone 7931G Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.0 or later.

8.

Provide information to end users about how to use their phones and how to configure their phone options.

Ensures that users have adequate information to successfully use their Cisco Unified IP Phones.

See "Providing Information to Users Via a Website."