Table Of Contents
Cisco Unified Communications Trusted Firewall Control-Version II
First Published: October 2, 2009
Cisco Unified Communications Trusted Firewall Control pushes intelligent services onto the network through a Trusted Relay Point (TRP) firewall. TRP is a Cisco IOS service feature, which is similar to the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) agent. Firewall traversal is accomplished using Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) on a TRP colocated with a Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express (Cisco Unified CME), Cisco Unified Border Element, and Media Termination Points (MTP).
.This release focuses on the following:
•Noncolocated firewall for UC SIP trunks
•Support Firewall traversal for Cisco Unified Border Element call flows in which the media flow through the Media Termination Points such as MTP, Transcoder, or Conference bridge with Trust Relay Point (TRP) enabled.
•Firewall traversal for additional Cisco Unified Border Element call flows using STUN.
Finding Feature Information in This Module
Your Cisco IOS software release may not support all of the features documented in this module. To reach links to specific feature documentation in this module and to see a list of the releases in which each feature is supported, use the "stun flowdata shared-secret" section on page 18.
Finding Support Information for Platforms and Cisco IOS and Catalyst OS Software Images
Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and Cisco IOS and Catalyst OS software image support. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to http://www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.
Prerequisites for Cisco Unified Communications Trusted Firewall Control
•Ensure that you have the correct platform to support this feature. Cisco Unified Communications Trusted Firewall Control is supported on the Cisco 1861, 2801, 2811, 2821, 2851, 3825, and 3845 platforms.
•Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)M
•All k9 images with voice support
•uc-base and securityk9 licenses on Cisco 29xx and 39xx platforms
Restrictions for Enhanced Firewall Traversal for Cisco Unified Communications using STUN
Cisco IOS Release 15.0(1)M implements firewall traversal for media using STUN on TRP and is supported on:
•Cisco Unified CME colocated with TRP
•Cisco Unified Border Element colocated with TRP
•Cisco Unified Media Termination Points colocated with TRP
•Cisco TDM-SIP Gateway colocated with TRP
TRP is supported for the following call control agents:
•Cisco Unified CME, Cisco Unified Border Element, Cisco TDM-SIP Gateway, and Cisco Unified Media Termination Points which are STUN-aware.
–TRP based Cisco IOS firewall traversal on line side of Cisco Unified CME
–Media flow around on Cisco Unified Border Element
•No prering support
–No guarantee that STUN open pinhole packet reaches the Cisco IOS firewall before the first RTP packet. Possible initial RTP packet drops at the Cisco IOS firewall.
•Cisco IOS firewall control session timeout
–ACLs or partial SIP-ALG must be configured on the Cisco IOS firewall to allow SIP signaling.
–The Cisco IOS firewall control sessions timeout if no SIP messages are exchanged.
–Timed out SIP over UDP sessions are re-established with the next SIP message (for example, BYE).
–Timed out SIP over TCP sessions are not re-established, causing subsequent SIP messages (for example, BYE) to be dropped.
Information About Enhanced Firewall Traversal for Cisco Unified Communications using STUN
Before you configure Enhanced Firewall Traversal using STUN, you should understand the following concepts:
Overview of Enhanced Firewall Traversal for Cisco Unified Communications using STUN
Enhanced Firewall Traversal using STUN pushes intelligent services into the network through Trust Relay Point (TRP).
This document provides information related to TRP based Firewall traversal solution. It includes topologies, configurations and show/debug commands on the call agents (Cisco Unified CME /
Cisco Unified Border Element / Cisco TDM-SIP Gateway / MTP).
The following are the benefits of the solution:
•Increased firewall performance while opening firewall ports in the media path dynamically when a VoIP call is made between two endpoints
•Simplification of firewall policy configuration and integration of firewall policy generation with call control
•Solution to the above two problems without compromising on network security
Firewall Traversal Design
TRP as Media Relay
Figure x: Firewall Traversal Solution:
This is a typical TRP based Trusted IOS Firewall Traversal deployment for an Enterprise. In this scenario, the Headquarters (HQ) has a Cisco Unified CM cluster located in the Datacenter. There are two SIP trunks, one to the WAN establishing SIP connectivity with the Branch Offices and the other to the Service Provide (SP) Network. An IOS Firewall is deployed at the edge of the WAN and SP Network. The TRP colocated with the MTP and Cisco Unified Border Element performs the firewall traversal for media over the WAN and SP Network respectively.
Each branch office has a SIP trunk to the WAN which establishes the SIP connectivity with other Branch Offices and the HQ. The branch office has an IOS Firewall deployed at the edge of the WAN.
In Branch Office A, the IOS Firewall is colocated with Cisco Unified CME, whereas in Branch Offices B and C, it is noncolocated. At each branch the TRP colocated with the Cisco Unified CME performs the firewall traversal for media.
Firewall traversal using STUN
Firewall traversal is used to build intelligence into the firewall so that it can open a port dynamically when it receives a STUN request for a media flow. This request is authenticated/authorized by the firewall to ensure that it opens pin-holes only for genuine calls.
Flowdata refers to CISCO-STUN-FLOWDATA, a comprehension-optional Cisco proprietary STUN attribute. If a STUN agent does not understand the attribute, the agent must ignore it. This attributes identifies an RTP or RTCP flow to the firewall and contains a Crypto Acceptance Token (CAT), which the firewall uses to authenticate the sender of the STUN message—the TRP. For more information, see RFC 5389.
How to Configure Firewall Traversal
The Cisco Unified Trusted Firewal Traversal can be configured using TRP. When you have Cisco Unified CM as the call control agent, enable TRP under the appropriate dspfarm profile. If you have Cisco Unified CME as the call control agent, enable TRP under the appropriate VoIP dial peer. For more information about enabling TRP on CUCM, refer to http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/voice_ip_comm/cucmbe/admin/7_1_2/ccmsys/a05media.html#wp1062136.
This section contains the following procedures:
Configuring Firewall Traversal
Perform these tasks to configure firewall traversal.
2. configure terminal
3. voice service voip
5. stun flowdata agent-id tag
6. stun flowdata shared-secret string
7. stun flowdata keepalive seconds
9. voice class stun-usage tag
10. stun usage firewall-traversal flowdata
12. dial peer voice tag voip
13. destination pattern tag
14. voice-class stun-usage tag
16. dspfarm Profile
17. Stun firewall-traversal flowdata
Configuration Examples for Trusted Firewall Traversal using STUN
This section provides the following sample configuration:Router#sh runBuilding configuration...Current configuration : 4446 bytes!version 12.4service timestamps debug datetime msecservice timestamps log datetime msec localtime show-timezoneno service password-encryptionservice internal!hostname CUBE1-3825!boot-start-markerboot system flash:c3825-adventerprisek9_ivs-mz.21aug08boot-end-marker!logging buffered 9999999no logging console!no aaa new-modelclock timezone IST 5no network-clock-participate slot 1!dot11 syslogip source-routeip cef!!!!no ip domain lookupno ipv6 cefmultilink bundle-name authenticated!!!!!voice-card 0!voice-card 1dsp services dspfarm!!!voice service voipallow-connections sip to sipstunstun flowdata agent-id 15 boot-count 1stun flowdata shared-secret 7 110A1016141D1B0D17393C2079616676stun flowdata catlife 70 keepalive 30sipmidcall-signaling passthru!voice class stun-usage 100stun usage firewall-traversal flowdata!voice class stun-usage 10000stun usage firewall-traversal flowdata!!!voice iec syslog!!!!!!license udi pid CISCO3825 sn FHK1029F0TBarchivelog confighidekeysno memory lite!!ip ftp username testip ftp password test123!!!!!interface Loopback0no ip address!interface GigabitEthernet0/0ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.0duplex autospeed automedia-type rj45no cdp enable!interface GigabitEthernet0/1no ip addressshutdownduplex autospeed automedia-type rj45no keepaliveno cdp enable!ip forward-protocol nd!ip http serverno ip http secure-server!ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 18.104.22.168ip route 22.214.171.124 255.255.255.0 126.96.36.199ip route 188.8.131.52 255.255.255.0 184.108.40.206ip route 220.127.116.11 255.255.255.255 18.104.22.168!!!control-plane!call treatment on!!mgcp fax t38 ecmmgcp behavior g729-variants static-pt!sccp local GigabitEthernet0/0sccp ccm 22.214.171.124 identifier 2 version 7.0sccp ccm 126.96.36.199 identifier 1 version 6.0sccp!sccp ccm group 1associate ccm 2 priority 1associate profile 100 register TRPMode2keepalive retries 1keepalive timeout 10switchover method immediateswitchback method immediate!dspfarm profile 100 conferencecodec g711ulawcodec g711alawcodec g729ar8codec g729abr8codec g729r8codec g729br8stun firewall-traversal flowdata <<< To enable mode 2 TRP>>>maximum sessions 5associate application SCCP!dspfarm profile 10 mtpcodec g711ulawshutdown!dial-peer voice 1 voipdestination-pattern 2...session protocol sipv2session target ipv4:188.8.131.52voice-class stun-usage 10000 <<< To enable mode 1 TRP>>>codec g711ulaw!dial-peer voice 2 voipdestination-pattern 9...session protocol sipv2session target ipv4:184.108.40.206codec g711ulaw!!!sip-uaprotocol mode ipv4!!telephony-servicesdspfarm units 1sdspfarm tag 1 mtp1234em logout 0:0 0:0 0:0max-ephones 10max-dn 10ip source-address 220.127.116.11 port 2000max-conferences 12 gain -6transfer-system full-consultcreate cnf-files version-stamp 7960 May 29 2008 11:57:23!alias exec t test stunalias exec dp show run | sec dialalias exec voice show run | sec voicealias exec route show run | sec routealias exec profile show run | sec dspfarm profilealias exec sccp show run | sec sccp!line con 0exec-timeout 0 0line aux 0line vty 0 4no logintransport input none!exception data-corruption buffer truncatescheduler allocate 20000 1000no process cpu autoprofile hogntp server 18.104.22.168end
The following sections provide references related to the Enhanced Firewall Traversal using STUN feature.
No new or modified standards are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature.
MIBs MIBs Link
No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature.
To locate and download MIBs for selected platforms, Cisco IOS releases, and feature sets, use Cisco MIB Locator found at the following URL:
No new or modified RFCs are supported by this feature, and support for existing RFCs has not been modified by this feature.
Feature Information for Enhanced Firewall Traversal using STUN
Table 1 lists the release history for this feature.
Not all commands may be available in your Cisco IOS software release. For release information about a specific command, see the command reference documentation.
Use Cisco Feature Navigator to find information about platform support and software image support. Cisco Feature Navigator enables you to determine which Cisco IOS, and Cisco IOS XE, software images support a specific software release, feature set, or platform. To access Cisco Feature Navigator, go to http://www.cisco.com/go/cfn. An account on Cisco.com is not required.
Note Table 1 lists only the Cisco IOS software release that introduced support for a given feature in a given Cisco IOS software release train. Unless noted otherwise, subsequent releases of that Cisco IOS software release train also support that feature.
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