Troubleshooting Guide for Cisco Unified Communications Manager
Troubleshooting Tools
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Troubleshooting Tools

Table Of Contents

Troubleshooting Tools

Cisco Unified Serviceability Troubleshooting Tools

Command Line Interface

CiscoWorks2000

System Log Management

Cisco Discovery Protocol Support

Simple Network Management Protocol Support

Sniffer Traces

Debugs

Cisco Secure Telnet

Packet Capture

Packet Capturing Overview

Configuration Checklist for Packet Capturing

Adding an End User to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users Group

Configuring Packet-Capturing Service Parameters

Configuring Packet Capturing in the Phone Configuration Window

Configuring Packet Capturing in Gateway and Trunk Configuration Windows

Packet-Capturing Configuration Settings

Analyzing Captured Packets

Common Troubleshooting Tasks, Tools, and Commands

Troubleshooting Tips

Verify Cisco Unified Communications Manager Services Are Running


Troubleshooting Tools


This section addresses the tools and utilities that you use to configure, monitor, and troubleshoot Cisco Unified Communications Manager and provides general guidelines for collecting information to avoid repetitive testing and recollection of identical data.


Note To access some of the URL sites that are listed in this document, you must be a registered user, and you must be logged in.


This section contains the following topics:

Cisco Unified Serviceability Troubleshooting Tools

Command Line Interface

CiscoWorks2000

Sniffer Traces

Debugs

Cisco Secure Telnet

Packet Capture

Common Troubleshooting Tasks, Tools, and Commands

Troubleshooting Tips

Verify Cisco Unified Communications Manager Services Are Running

Cisco Unified Serviceability Troubleshooting Tools

Refer to the Cisco Unified Serviceability Administration Guide for detailed information of the following different types of tools that Cisco Unified Serviceability provides to monitor and analyze the various Cisco Unified Communications Manager systems.

Table 2-1 Serviceability Tools 

Term
Definition

Real-Time Monitoring Tool (RTMT)

This term identifies a program in Serviceability that provides real-time information about Cisco Unified Communications Manager devices and performance counters as well as enables administrators to collect traces.

Performance counters can be system specific or Cisco Unified Communications Manager specific. Objects comprise the logical groupings of like counters for a specific device or feature, such as Cisco Unified IP Phones or Cisco Unified Communications Manager System Performance. Counters measure various aspects of system performance. Counters measure statistics such as the number of registered phones, calls that are attempted and calls in progress.

Alarms

Administrators use alarms to obtain run-time status and state of the Cisco Unified Communications Manager system. Alarms contain information about system problems such as explanation and recommended action.

Administrators search the alarm definitions database for alarm information. The alarm definition contains a description of the alarm and recommended actions.

Trace

Administrators and Cisco engineers use trace files to obtain specific information about Cisco Unified Communications Manager service problems. Cisco Unified Serviceability sends configured trace information to the trace log file. Two types of trace log files exist: SDI and SDL.

Every service includes a default trace log file. The system traces system diagnostic interface (SDI) information from the services and logs run-time events and traces to a log file.

The SDL trace log file contains call-processing information from services such as Cisco CallManager and Cisco CTIManager. The system traces the signal distribution layer (SDL) of the call and logs state transitions into a log file.

Note In most cases, you will only gather SDL traces when Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) requests you to do so.

Quality Report Tool

This term designates voice quality and general problem-reporting utility in Cisco Unified Serviceability.


Command Line Interface

Use the command line interface (CLI) to access the Cisco Unified Communications Manager system for basic maintenance and failure recovery. Obtain access to the system by either a hard-wired terminal (a system monitor and keyboard) or by performing a SSH session.

The account name and password get created at install time. You can change the password after install, but you never can change the account name.

A command represents a text instruction that caused the system to perform some function. Commands may be stand alone, or they can have mandatory or optional arguments or options.

A level comprises a collection of commands; for example, show designates a level, whereas show status specifies a command. Each level and command also includes an associated privilege level. You can execute a command only if you have sufficient privilege level.

For complete information on the Cisco Unified Communications Manager CLI command set, see the Cisco Unified Communications Operating System Administration Guide.

CiscoWorks2000

CiscoWorks2000 serves as the network management system of choice for all Cisco devices including Cisco Unified Communications Manager. Because CiscoWorks2000 is not bundled with Cisco Unified Communications Manager, you must purchase it separately. Use the following tools with CiscoWorks2000 for remote serviceability:

System Log Management

Cisco Discovery Protocol Support

Simple Network Management Protocol Support

Refer to the CiscoWorks2000 documentation for more information on CiscoWorks2000 at the following URL:

http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/rtrmgmt/cw2000/index.htm

System Log Management

Although it can be adapted to other network management systems, Cisco Syslog Analysis, which is packaged with CiscoWorks2000 Resource Manager Essentials, provides the best method to manage Syslog messages from Cisco devices.

Cisco Syslog Analyzer serves as the component of Cisco Syslog Analysis that provides common storage and analysis of the system log for multiple applications. The other major component, Syslog Analyzer Collector, gathers log messages from Cisco Unified Communications Manager servers.

These two Cisco applications work together to provide a centralized system logging service for Cisco Unified Communications Solutions.

Cisco Discovery Protocol Support

The Cisco Discovery Protocol Support enables discovery of Cisco Unified Communications Manager servers and management of those servers by CiscoWorks2000.

Simple Network Management Protocol Support

Network management systems (NMS) use SNMP, an industry-standard interface, to exchange management information between network devices. A part of the TCP/IP protocol suite, SNMP enables administrators to remotely manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan for network growth.

An SNMP-managed network comprises three key components: managed devices, agents, and network management systems.

A managed device designates a network node that contains an SNMP agent and resides on a managed network. Managed devices collect and store management information and make it available by using SNMP.

An agent, as network management software, resides on a managed device. An agent contains local knowledge of management information and translates it into a form that is compatible with SNMP.

A network management system comprises an SNMP management application together with the computer on which it runs. An NMS executes applications that monitor and control managed devices. An NMS provides the bulk of the processing and memory resources that are required for network management. The following NMSs share compatibility with Cisco Unified Communications Manager:

CiscoWorks2000

HP OpenView

Third-party applications that support SNMP and Cisco Unified Communications Manager SNMP interfaces

Sniffer Traces

Typically, you collect sniffer traces by connecting a laptop or other sniffer-equipped device on a Catalyst port that is configured to span the VLAN or port(s) (CatOS, Cat6K-IOS, XL-IOS) that contains the trouble information. If no free port is available, connect the sniffer-equipped device on a hub that is inserted between the switch and the device.


Tip To help facilitate reading and interpreting of the traces by the TAC engineer, Cisco recommends using Sniffer Pro software because it is widely used within the TAC.


Have available the IP/MAC addresses of all equipment that is involved, such as IP phones, gateways, Cisco Unified Communications Managers, and so on.

Debugs

The output from debug privileged EXEC commands provides diagnostic information about a variety of internetworking event that relate to protocol status and network activity in general.

Set up your terminal emulator software (such as HyperTerminal), so it can capture the debug output to a file. In HyperTerminal, click Transfer; then, click Capture Text and choose the appropriate options.

Before running any IOS voice gateway debugs, make sure that service timestamps debug datetime msec is globally configured on the gateway.


Note Avoid collecting debugs in a live environment during operation hours.


Preferably, collect debugs during non-working hours. If you must collect debugs in a live environment, configure no logging console and logging buffered. To collect the debugs, use show log.

Because some debugs can be lengthy, collect them directly on the console port (default logging console) or on the buffer (logging buffer). Collecting debugs over a Telnet session may impact the device performance, and the result could be incomplete debugs, which requires that you re-collect them.

To stop a debug, use the no debug all or undebug all commands. Verify that the debugs have been turned off by using the command show debug.

Cisco Secure Telnet

Cisco Secure Telnet allows Cisco Service Engineers (CSE) transparent firewall access to the Cisco Unified Communications Manager node on your site. Using strong encryption, Cisco Secure Telnet enables a special Telnet client from Cisco Systems to connect to a Telnet daemon behind your firewall. This secure connection allows remote monitoring and troubleshooting of your Cisco Unified Communications Manager nodes, without requiring firewall modifications.


Note Cisco provides this service only with your permission. You must ensure that a network administrator is available at your site to help initiate the process.


Packet Capture

This section contains information on the following topics:

Packet Capturing Overview

Configuration Checklist for Packet Capturing

Adding an End User to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users Group

Configuring Packet-Capturing Service Parameters

Configuring Packet Capturing in the Phone Configuration Window

Configuring Packet Capturing in Gateway and Trunk Configuration Windows

Packet-Capturing Configuration Settings

Analyzing Captured Packets

Packet Capturing Overview

Because third-party troubleshooting tools that sniff media and TCP packets do not work after you enable encryption, you must use Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration to perform the following tasks if a problem occurs:

Analyze packets for messages that are exchanged between Cisco Unified Communications Manager and the device (Cisco Unified IP Phone, Cisco Unified SIP IP Phone, Cisco IOS MGCP gateway, H.323 gateway, H.323/H.245/H.225 trunk, or SIP trunk).

Capture the Secure Real Time Protocol (SRTP) packets between the devices.

Extract the media encryption key material from messages and decrypt the media between the devices.


Tip Performing this task for several devices at the same time may cause high CPU usage and call-processing interruptions. Cisco strongly recommends that you perform this task when you can minimize call-processing interruptions.


For more information, see the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.

Configuration Checklist for Packet Capturing

Extracting and analyzing pertinent data includes performing the following tasks in Table 2-2:

Table 2-2 Configuration Checklist for Packet Capturing 

Configuration Steps
Procedures and Topics

Step 1 

Add end users to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users group.

Adding an End User to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users Group

Step 2 

Configure packet capturing service parameters in the Service Parameter Configuration window in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration; for example, configure the Packet Capture Enable service parameter.

Configuring Packet-Capturing Service Parameters

Step 3 

Configure packet capturing settings on a per-device basis in the Phone or Gateway or Trunk Configuration window.

Note Cisco strongly recommends that you do not enable packet capturing for many devices at the same time because this task may cause high CPU usage in your network.

Configuring Packet Capturing in the Phone Configuration Window

Configuring Packet Capturing in Gateway and Trunk Configuration Windows

Packet-Capturing Configuration Settings

Step 4 

Capture SRTP packets by using a sniffer trace between the affected devices.

Refer to the documentation that supports your sniffer trace tool.

Step 5 

After you capture the packets, set the Packet Capture Enable service parameter to False.

Configuring Packet-Capturing Service Parameters

Packet-Capturing Configuration Settings

Step 6 

Gather the files that you need to analyze the packets.

Analyzing Captured Packets

Step 7 

Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) analyzes the packets. Contact TAC directly to perform this task.

Analyzing Captured Packets

Adding an End User to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users Group

End users that belong to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users group can configure the Packet Capture Mode and Packet Capture Duration settings for devices that support packet capturing. If the user does not exist in the Standard Packet Sniffer Users group, the user cannot initiate packet capturing.

The following procedure, which describes how to add an end user to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users group, assumes that you configured the end user in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Procedure


Step 1 Find the user group, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Step 2 After the Find/List window displays, click the Standard Packet Sniffer Users link.

Step 3 Click the Add Users to Group button.

Step 4 Add the end user, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Step 5 After you add the user, click Save.


Configuring Packet-Capturing Service Parameters

To configure parameters for packet capturing, perform the following procedure:

Procedure


Step 1 In Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, choose System > Service Parameters.

Step 2 From the Server drop-down list box, choose an Active server where you activated the Cisco Unified CallManager service.

Step 3 From the Service drop-down list box, choose the Cisco CallManager (Active) service.

Step 4 Scroll to the TLS Packet Capturing Configuration pane and configure the packet capturing settings.


Tip For information on the service parameters, click the name of the parameter or the question mark that displays in the window.



Note For packet capturing to occur, you must set the Packet Capture Enable service parameter to True.


Step 5 For the changes to take effect, click Save.

Step 6 To continue packet-capturing configuration, see one of the following sections:

Configuring Packet Capturing in the Phone Configuration Window

Configuring Packet Capturing in Gateway and Trunk Configuration Windows


Configuring Packet Capturing in the Phone Configuration Window

After you enable packet capturing in the Service Parameter window, you can configure packet capturing on a per-device basis in the Phone Configuration window of Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration.

You enable or disable packet capturing on a per-phone basis. The default setting for packet capturing equals None.


Tip Cisco strongly recommends that you do not enable packet capturing for many phones at the same time because this task may cause high CPU usage in your network.

If you do not want to capture packets or if you completed the task, set the Packet Capture Enable service parameter to False.


To configure packet capturing for phones, perform the following procedure:

Procedure


Step 1 Before you configure the packet-capturing settings, see the "Configuration Checklist for Packet Capturing" section.

Step 2 Find the SIP or SCCP phone, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Step 3 After the Phone Configuration window displays, configure the troubleshooting settings, as described in Table 2-3.

Step 4 After you complete the configuration, click Save.

Step 5 In the Reset dialog box, click OK.


Tip Although Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration prompts you to reset the device, you do not need to reset the device to capture packets.



Additional Steps

Capture SRTP packets by using a sniffer trace between the affected devices.

After you capture the packets, set the Packet Capture Enable service parameter to False.

See the "Analyzing Captured Packets" section.

Configuring Packet Capturing in Gateway and Trunk Configuration Windows

The following gateways and trunks support packet capturing in Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration:

Cisco IOS MGCP gateways

H.323 gateways

H.323/H.245/H.225 trunks

SIP trunks


Tip Cisco strongly recommends that you do not enable packet capturing for many devices at the same time because this task may cause high CPU usage in your network.

If you do not want to capture packets or if you completed the task, set the Packet Capture Enable service parameter to False.


To configure packet-capturing settings in the Gateway or Trunk Configuration window, perform the following procedure:

Procedure


Step 1 Before you configure the packet-capturing settings, see the "Configuration Checklist for Packet Capturing" section.

Step 2 Perform one of the following tasks:

Find the Cisco IOS MGCP gateway, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Find the H.323 gateway, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Find the H.323/H.245/H.225 trunk, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Find the SIP trunk, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide.

Step 3 After the configuration window displays, locate the Packet Capture Mode and Packet Capture Duration settings.


Tip If you located a Cisco IOS MGCP gateway, ensure that you configured the ports for the Cisco IOS MGCP gateway, as described in the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration Guide. The packet-capturing settings for the Cisco IOS MGCP gateway display in the Gateway Configuration window for endpoint identifiers. To access this window, click the endpoint identifier for the voice interface card.


Step 4 Configure the troubleshooting settings, as described in Table 2-3.

Step 5 After you configure the packet-capturing settings, click Save.

Step 6 In the Reset dialog box, click OK.


Tip Although Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration prompts you to reset the device, you do not need to reset the device to capture packets.



Additional Steps

Capture SRTP packets by using a sniffer trace between the affected devices.

After you capture the packets, set the Packet Capture Enable service parameter to False.

See the "Analyzing Captured Packets" section.

Packet-Capturing Configuration Settings

Use Table 2-3, which describes the Packet Capture Mode and Packet Capture Duration settings, with the following sections:

Configuring Packet Capturing in the Phone Configuration Window

Configuring Packet Capturing in Gateway and Trunk Configuration Windows

Table 2-3 Packet-Capturing Configuration Settings

Setting
Description

Packet Capture Mode

This setting exists for troubleshooting encryption only; packet capturing may cause high CPU usage or call-processing interruptions. Choose one of the following options from the drop-down list box:

None—This option, which serves as the default setting, indicates that no packet capturing is occurring. After you complete packet capturing, Cisco Unified Communications Manager sets the Packet Capture Mode to None.

Batch Processing Mode—Cisco Unified Communications Manager writes the decrypted or nonencrypted messages to a file, and the system encrypts each file. On a daily basis, the system creates a new file with a new encryption key. Cisco Unified Communications Manager, which stores the file for seven days, also stores the keys that encrypt the file in a secure location. Cisco Unified Communications Manager stores the file in the PktCap virtual directory. A single file contains the time stamp, source IP address, source IP port, destination IP address, packet protocol, message length, and the message. The TAC debugging tool uses HTTPS, administrator username and password, and the specified day to request a single encrypted file that contains the captured packets. Likewise, the tool requests the key information to decrypt the encrypted file.

Tip Before you contact TAC, you must capture the SRTP packets by using a sniffer trace between the affected devices.

Packet Capture Duration

This setting exists for troubleshooting encryption only; packet capturing may cause high CPU usage or call-processing interruptions.

This field specifies the maximum number of minutes that is allotted for one session of packet capturing. The default setting equals 0, although the range exists from 0 to 300 minutes.

To initiate packet capturing, enter a value other than 0 in the field. After packet capturing completes, the value, 0, displays.


Analyzing Captured Packets

Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) analyzes the packets by using a debugging tool. Before you contact TAC, capture SRTP packets by using a sniffer trace between the affected devices. Contact TAC directly after you gather the following information:

Packet Capture File—https://<IP address or server name>/pktCap/pktCap.jsp?file=mm-dd-yyyy.pkt, where you browse into the server and locate the packet-capture file by month, date, and year (mm-dd-yyyy)

Key for the file—https://<IP address or server name>/pktCap/pktCap.jsp?key=mm-dd-yyyy.pkt, where you browse into the server and locate the key by month, date, and year (mm-dd-yyyy)

User name and password of end user that belongs to the Standard Packet Sniffer Users group

For more information, see the Cisco Unified Communications Manager Security Guide.

Common Troubleshooting Tasks, Tools, and Commands

This section provides a quick reference for commands and utilities to help you troubleshoot a Cisco Unified Communications Manager server with root access disabled. Table 2-4 provides a summary of the CLI commands and GUI selections that you can use to gather information troubleshoot various system problems.

Table 2-4 Summary of CLI Commands and GUI Selections 

Information
Linux Command
Serviceability GUI Tool
CLI commands

CPU usage

top

RTMT

Go to View tab and select Server > CPU and Memory

Processor CPU usage:

show perf query class Processor

Process CPU Usage for all processes:

show perf query counter Process "% CPU Time"

Individual process counter details (including CPU usage)

show perf query instance <Process task_name>

Process state

ps

RTMT

Go to View tab and select Server > Process

show perf query counter Process "Process Status"

Disk usage

df/du

RTMT

Go to View tab and select Server > Disk Usage

show perf query counter Partition
"% Used"

or show perf query class Partition

Memory

free

RTMT

Go to View tab and select Server > CPU and Memory

show perf query class Memory

Network status

netstats

 

show network status

Reboot server

reboot

Log in to Platform Web page on the server

Go to Restart > Current Version

utils system restart

Collect Traces/logs

Sftp, ftp

RTMT

Go to Tools tab and select Trace > Trace & Log Central

List file: file list

Download files: file get

View a file: file view


Table 2-5 provides a list of common problems and tools to use to troubleshoot them.

Table 2-5 Troubleshooting Common Problems with CLI Commands and GUI Selections 

Task
GUI Tool
CLI commands

Accessing the database

none

Log in as admin and use any of the following show commands:

show tech database

show tech dbinuse

show tech dbschema

show tech devdefaults

show tech gateway

show tech locales

show tech notify

show tech procedures

show tech routepatterns

show tech routeplan

show tech systables

show tech table

show tech triggers

show tech version

show tech params*

To run a SQL command, use the run command:

run <sql command>

Freeing up disk space

Note You can only delete files from the Log partition.

Using the RTMT client application, go to the Tools tab and select Trace & Log Central > Collect Files.

Choose the criteria to select the files you want to collect, then check the option Delete Files. This will delete the files on the Cisco Unified Communications Manager server after downloading the files to your PC.

file delete

Viewing core files

You cannot view the core files; however, you can download the Core files by using the RTMT application and selecting Trace & Log Central > Collect Crash Dump.

Core [options..]

Rebooting the Cisco Unified Communications Manager server

Log in to Platform on the server and go to Restart > Current Version.

utils system restart

Changing debug levels for traces

Log in to Cisco Unified Serviceability Administration at https://<server_ipaddress>:8443/ ccmservice/ and choose Trace > Configuration.

set trace enable [Detailed, Significant, Error, Arbitrary, Entry_exit, State_Transition, Special] [syslogmib, cdpmib, dbl, dbnotify]

Looking at netstats

none

show network status


Troubleshooting Tips

The following tips may help you when you are troubleshooting the Cisco Unified Communications Manager.


Tip Check the release notes for Cisco Unified Communications Manager for known problems. The release notes provide descriptions and workaround solutions for known problems.



Tip Know where your devices are registered.


Each Cisco Unified Communications Manager log traces files locally. If a phone or gateway is registered to a particular Cisco Unified Communications Manager, the call processing gets done on that Cisco Unified Communications Manager if the call is initiated there. You will need to capture traces on that Cisco Unified Communications Manager to debug a problem.

A common mistake involves having devices that are registered on a subscriber server but are capturing traces on the publisher server. These trace files will be nearly empty (and definitely will not have the call in them).

Another common problem involves having Device 1 registered to CM1 and Device 2 registered to CM2. If Device 1 calls Device 2, the call trace occurs in CM1, and, if Device 2 calls Device 1, the trace occurs in CM2. If you are troubleshooting a two-way calling issue, you need both traces from both Cisco Unified Communications Managers to obtain all the information that is needed to troubleshoot.


Tip Know the approximate time of the problem.


Multiple calls may have occurred, so knowing the approximate time of the call helps TAC quickly locate the trouble.

You can obtain phone statistics on a Cisco Unified IP Phone 79xx by pressing the i or ? button twice during an active call.

When you are running a test to reproduce the issue and produce information, know the following data that is crucial to understanding the issue:

Calling number/called number

Any other number that is involved in the specific scenario

Time of the call


Note Remember that time synchronization of all equipment is important for troubleshooting.


If you are reproducing a problem, make sure to choose the file for the timeframe by looking at the modification date and the time stamps in the file. The best way to collect the right trace means that you reproduce a problem and then quickly locate the most recent file and copy it from the Cisco Unified Communications Manager server.


Tip Save the log files to prevent them from being overwritten.


Files will get overwritten after some time. The only way to know which file is being logged to is to choose View >Refresh on the menu bar and look at the dates and times on the files.

Verify Cisco Unified Communications Manager Services Are Running

Use the following procedure to verify which Cisco CallManager services are active on a server.

Procedure


Step 1 From Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, choose Navigation > Cisco Unified Serviceability.

Step 2 Choose Tools > Service Activation.

Step 3 From the Servers column, choose the desired server.

The server that you choose displays next to the Current Server title, and a series of boxes with configured services displays.

Activation Status column displays either Activated or Deactivated in the Cisco CallManager line.

If the Activated status displays, the specified Cisco CallManager service remains active on the chosen server.

If the Deactivated status displays, continue with the following steps.

Step 4 Check the check box for the desired Cisco CallManager service.

Step 5 Click the Update button.

The Activation Status column displays Activated in the specified Cisco CallManager service line.

The specified service now shows active for the chosen server.


Perform the following procedure if the Cisco CallManager service has been in activated and you want to verify if the service is currently running.

Procedure


Step 1 From Cisco Unified Communications Manager Administration, choose Navigation > Cisco Unified Serviceability.

The Cisco Unified Communications Manager Serviceability window displays.

Step 2 Choose Tools > Control Center - Feature Services.

Step 3 From the Servers column, choose the server.

The server that you chose displays next to the Current Server title, and a box with configured services displays.

The Status column displays which services are running for the chosen server.