Catalyst 3750-E and 3560-E Switch Software Configuration Guide, 12.2(35)SE2
Configuring Cisco IOS CNS Agents
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Configuring Cisco IOS CNS Agents

Table Of Contents

Configuring Cisco IOS CNS Agents

Understanding Cisco Configuration Engine Software

Configuration Service

Event Service

NameSpace Mapper

What You Should Know About the CNS IDs and Device Hostnames

ConfigID

DeviceID

Hostname and DeviceID

Using Hostname, DeviceID, and ConfigID

Understanding Cisco IOS Agents

Initial Configuration

Incremental (Partial) Configuration

Synchronized Configuration

Configuring Cisco IOS Agents

Enabling Automated CNS Configuration

Enabling the CNS Event Agent

Enabling the Cisco IOS CNS Agent

Enabling an Initial Configuration

Enabling a Partial Configuration

Displaying CNS Configuration


Configuring Cisco IOS CNS Agents


This chapter describes how to configure the Cisco IOS CNS agents on the Catalyst 3750-E and 3560-E switch. Unless otherwise noted, the term switch refers to a Catalyst 3750-E or 3560-E standalone switch and to a Catalyst 3750-E switch stack.


Note For complete configuration information for the Cisco Configuration Engine, see this URL on Cisco.com
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/netmgtsw/ps4617/tsd_products_support_series_home.html


This chapter consists of these sections:

Understanding Cisco Configuration Engine Software

Understanding Cisco IOS Agents

Configuring Cisco IOS Agents

Displaying CNS Configuration

Understanding Cisco Configuration Engine Software

The Cisco Configuration Engine is network management software that acts as a configuration service for automating the deployment and management of network devices and services (see Figure 4-1). Each Configuration Engine manages a group of Cisco devices (switches and routers) and the services that they deliver, storing their configurations and delivering them as needed. The Configuration Engine automates initial configurations and configuration updates by generating device-specific configuration changes, sending them to the device, executing the configuration change, and logging the results.

The Configuration Engine supports standalone and server modes and has these CNS components:

Configuration service (web server, file manager, and namespace mapping server)

Event service (event gateway)

Data service directory (data models and schema)

In standalone mode, the Configuration Engine supports an embedded Directory Service. In this mode, no external directory or other data store is required. In server mode, the Configuration Engine supports the use of a user-defined external directory.

Figure 4-1 Configuration Engine Architectural Overview

These sections contain this conceptual information:

Configuration Service

Event Service

What You Should Know About the CNS IDs and Device Hostnames

Configuration Service

The Configuration Service is the core component of the Cisco Configuration Engine. It consists of a configuration server that works with Cisco IOS CNS agents on the switch. The Configuration Service delivers device and service configurations to the switch for initial configuration and mass reconfiguration by logical groups. Switches receive their initial configuration from the Configuration Service when they start up on the network for the first time.

The Configuration Service uses the CNS Event Service to send and receive configuration change events and to send success and failure notifications.

The configuration server is a web server that uses configuration templates and the device-specific configuration information stored in the embedded (standalone mode) or remote (server mode) directory.

Configuration templates are text files containing static configuration information in the form of CLI commands. In the templates, variables are specified using lightweight directory access protocol (LDAP) URLs that reference the device-specific configuration information stored in a directory.

The Cisco IOS agent can perform a syntax check on received configuration files and publish events to show the success or failure of the syntax check. The configuration agent can either apply configurations immediately or delay the application until receipt of a synchronization event from the configuration server.

Event Service

The Cisco Configuration Engine uses the Event Service for receipt and generation of configuration events. The event agent is on the switch and facilitates the communication between the switch and the event gateway on the Configuration Engine.

The Event Service is a highly capable publish-and-subscribe communication method. The Event Service uses subject-based addressing to send messages to their destinations. Subject-based addressing conventions define a simple, uniform namespace for messages and their destinations.

NameSpace Mapper

The Configuration Engine includes the NameSpace Mapper (NSM) that provides a lookup service for managing logical groups of devices based on application, device or group ID, and event.

Cisco IOS devices recognize only event subject-names that match those configured in Cisco IOS software; for example, cisco.cns.config.load. You can use the namespace mapping service to designate events by using any desired naming convention. When you have populated your data store with your subject names, NSM changes your event subject-name strings to those known by Cisco IOS.

For a subscriber, when given a unique device ID and event, the namespace mapping service returns a set of events to which to subscribe. Similarly, for a publisher, when given a unique group ID, device ID, and event, the mapping service returns a set of events on which to publish.

What You Should Know About the CNS IDs and Device Hostnames

The Cisco Configuration Engine assumes that a unique identifier is associated with each configured switch. This unique identifier can take on multiple synonyms, where each synonym is unique within a particular namespace. The event service uses namespace content for subject-based addressing of messages.

The Configuration Engine intersects two namespaces, one for the event bus and the other for the configuration server. Within the scope of the configuration server namespace, the term ConfigID is the unique identifier for a device. Within the scope of the event bus namespace, the term DeviceID is the CNS unique identifier for a device.

Because the Configuration Engine uses both the event bus and the configuration server to provide configurations to devices, you must define both ConfigID and Device ID for each configured switch.

Within the scope of a single instance of the configuration server, no two configured switches can share the same value for ConfigID. Within the scope of a single instance of the event bus, no two configured switches can share the same value for DeviceID.

ConfigID

Each configured switch has a unique ConfigID, which serves as the key into the Configuration Engine directory for the corresponding set of switch CLI attributes. The ConfigID defined on the switch must match the ConfigID for the corresponding switch definition on the Configuration Engine.

The ConfigID is fixed at startup time and cannot be changed until the device restarts, even if the switch hostname is reconfigured.

DeviceID

Each configured switch participating on the event bus has a unique DeviceID, which is analogous to the switch source address so that the switch can be targeted as a specific destination on the bus. All switches configured with the cns config partial global configuration command must access the event bus. Therefore, the DeviceID, as originated on the switch, must match the DeviceID of the corresponding switch definition in the Configuration Engine.

The origin of the DeviceID is defined by the Cisco IOS hostname of the switch. However, the DeviceID variable and its usage reside within the event gateway adjacent to the switch.

The logical Cisco IOS termination point on the event bus is embedded in the event gateway, which in turn functions as a proxy on behalf of the switch. The event gateway represents the switch and its corresponding DeviceID to the event bus.

The switch declares its hostname to the event gateway immediately after the successful connection to the event gateway. The event gateway couples the DeviceID value to the Cisco IOS hostname each time this connection is established. The event gateway caches this DeviceID value for the duration of its connection to the switch.

Hostname and DeviceID

The DeviceID is fixed at the time of the connection to the event gateway and does not change even when the switch hostname is reconfigured.

When changing the switch hostname on the switch, the only way to refresh the DeviceID is to break the connection between the switch and the event gateway. Enter the no cns event global configuration command followed by the cns event global configuration command.

When the connection is re-established, the switch sends its modified hostname to the event gateway. The event gateway redefines the DeviceID to the new value.


Caution When using the Configuration Engine user interface, you must first set the DeviceID field to the hostname value that the switch acquires after-not before-you use the cns config initial global configuration command at the switch. Otherwise, subsequent cns config partial global configuration command operations malfunction.

Using Hostname, DeviceID, and ConfigID

In standalone mode, when a hostname value is set for a switch, the configuration server uses the hostname as the DeviceID when an event is sent on hostname. If the hostname has not been set, the event is sent on the cn=<value> of the device.

In server mode, the hostname is not used. In this mode, the unique DeviceID attribute is always used for sending an event on the bus. If this attribute is not set, you cannot update the switch.

These and other associated attributes (tag value pairs) are set when you run Setup on the Configuration Engine.


Note For more information about running the setup program on the Configuration Engine, see the Configuration Engine setup and configuration guide at this URL on Cisco.com:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/netmgtsw/ps4617/products_installation_and_configuration_guide_book09186a00803b59db.html


Understanding Cisco IOS Agents

The CNS event agent feature allows the switch to publish and subscribe to events on the event bus and works with the Cisco IOS agent. The Cisco IOS agent feature supports the switch by providing these features:

Initial Configuration

Incremental (Partial) Configuration

Synchronized Configuration

Initial Configuration

When the switch first comes up, it attempts to get an IP address by broadcasting a DHCP request on the network. Assuming there is no DHCP server on the subnet, the distribution switch acts as a DHCP relay agent and forwards the request to the DHCP server. Upon receiving the request, the DHCP server assigns an IP address to the new switch and includes the TFTP server IP address, the path to the bootstrap configuration file, and the default gateway IP address in a unicast reply to the DHCP relay agent. The DHCP relay agent forwards the reply to the switch.

The switch automatically configures the assigned IP address on interface VLAN 1 (the default) and downloads the bootstrap configuration file from the TFTP server. Upon successful download of the bootstrap configuration file, the switch loads the file in its running configuration.

The Cisco IOS agents initiate communication with the Configuration Engine by using the appropriate ConfigID and EventID. The Configuration Engine maps the Config ID to a template and downloads the full configuration file to the switch.

Figure 4-2 shows a sample network configuration for retrieving the initial bootstrap configuration file by using DHCP-based autoconfiguration.

Figure 4-2 Initial Configuration Overview

Incremental (Partial) Configuration

After the network is running, new services can be added by using the Cisco IOS agent. Incremental (partial) configurations can be sent to the switch. The actual configuration can be sent as an event payload by way of the event gateway (push operation) or as a signal event that triggers the switch to initiate a pull operation.

The switch can check the syntax of the configuration before applying it. If the syntax is correct, the switch applies the incremental configuration and publishes an event that signals success to the configuration server. If the switch does not apply the incremental configuration, it publishes an event showing an error status. When the switch has applied the incremental configuration, it can write it to NVRAM or wait until signaled to do so.

Synchronized Configuration

When the switch receives a configuration, it can defer application of the configuration upon receipt of a write-signal event. The write-signal event tells the switch not to save the updated configuration into its NVRAM. The switch uses the updated configuration as its running configuration. This ensures that the switch configuration is synchronized with other network activities before saving the configuration in NVRAM for use at the next reboot.

Configuring Cisco IOS Agents

The Cisco IOS agents embedded in the switch Cisco IOS software allow the switch to be connected and automatically configured as described in the "Enabling Automated CNS Configuration" section. If you want to change the configuration or install a custom configuration, see these sections for instructions:

Enabling the CNS Event Agent

Enabling the Cisco IOS CNS Agent

Enabling Automated CNS Configuration

To enable automated CNS configuration of the switch, you must first complete the prerequisites in Table 4-1. When you complete them, power on the switch. At the setup prompt, do nothing: The switch begins the initial configuration as described in the "Initial Configuration" section. When the full configuration file is loaded on your switch, you need to do nothing else.

Table 4-1 Prerequisites for Enabling Automatic Configuration 

Device
Required Configuration

Access switch

Factory default (no configuration file)

Distribution switch

IP helper address

Enable DHCP relay agent

IP routing (if used as default gateway)

DHCP server

IP address assignment

TFTP server IP address

Path to bootstrap configuration file on the TFTP server

Default gateway IP address

TFTP server

A bootstrap configuration file that includes the CNS configuration commands that enable the switch to communicate with the Configuration Engine

The switch configured to use either the switch MAC address or the serial number (instead of the default hostname) to generate the ConfigID and EventID

The CNS event agent configured to push the configuration file to the switch

CNS Configuration Engine

One or more templates for each type of device, with the ConfigID of the device mapped to the template.



Note For more information about running the setup program and creating templates on the Configuration Engine, see the Cisco Configuration Engine Installation and Setup Guide, 1.5 for Linux at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/netmgtsw/ps4617/products_installation_and_configuration_guide_book09186a00803b59db.html


Enabling the CNS Event Agent


Note You must enable the CNS event agent on the switch before you enable the CNS configuration agent.


Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable the CNS event agent on the switch:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

cns event {ip-address | hostname} [port-number] [backup] [init-retry retry-count] [keepalive seconds retry-count] [source ip-address]

Enable the event agent, and enter the gateway parameters.

For {ip-address | hostname}, enter either the IP address or the hostname of the event gateway.

(Optional) For port number, enter the port number for the event gateway. The default port number is 11011.

(Optional) Enter backup to show that this is the backup gateway. (If omitted, this is the primary gateway.)

(Optional) For init-retry retry-count, enter the number of initial retries before switching to backup. The default is 3.

(Optional) For keepalive seconds, enter how often the switch sends keepalive messages. For retry-count, enter the number of unanswered keepalive messages that the switch sends before the connection is terminated. The default for each is 0.

(Optional) For source ip-address, enter the source IP address of this device.

Note Though visible in the command-line help string, the encrypt and force-fmt1 keywords are not supported.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show cns event connections

Verify information about the event agent.

Step 5 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To disable the CNS event agent, use the no cns event {ip-address | hostname} global configuration command.

This example shows how to enable the CNS event agent, set the IP address gateway to 10.180.1.27, set 120 seconds as the keepalive interval, and set 10 as the retry count.

Switch(config)# cns event 10.180.1.27 keepalive 120 10

Enabling the Cisco IOS CNS Agent

After enabling the CNS event agent, start the Cisco IOS CNS agent on the switch. You can enable the Cisco IOS agent with these commands:

The cns config initial global configuration command enables the Cisco IOS agent and initiates an initial configuration on the switch.

The cns config partial global configuration command enables the Cisco IOS agent and initiates a partial configuration on the switch. You can then use the Configuration Engine to remotely send incremental configurations to the switch.

Enabling an Initial Configuration

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable the CNS configuration agent and initiate an initial configuration on the switch:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

cns config connect-intf interface-prefix [ping-interval seconds] [retries num]

Enter the connect-interface-config submode, and specify the interface for connecting to the Configuration Engine.

Enter the interface-prefix for the connecting interface. You must specify the interface type but need not specify the interface number.

(Optional) For ping-interval seconds, enter the interval between successive ping attempts. The range is 1 to 30 seconds. The default is 10 seconds.

(Optional) For retries num, enter the number of ping retries. The range is 1 to 30. The default is 5.

Step 3 

config-cli
or
line-cli

Enter config-cli to connect to the Configuration Engine through the interface defined in cns config connect-intf. Enter line-cli to connect to the Configuration Engine through modem dialup lines.

Note The config-cli interface configuration command accepts the special character & that acts as a placeholder for the interface name. When the configuration is applied, the & is replaced with the interface name. For example, to connect through FastEthernet0/1, the command config-cli ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 & generates the command ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 FastEthernet0/1.

Step 4 

exit

Return to global configuration mode.

Step 5 

hostname name

Enter the hostname for the switch.

Step 6 

ip route network-number

Establish a static route to the Configuration Engine whose IP address is network-number.

Step 7 

cns id interface num {dns-reverse | ipaddress | mac-address} [event]
or
cns id {hardware-serial | hostname | string string} [event]

Set the unique EventID or ConfigID used by the Configuration Engine.

For interface num, enter the type of interface-for example, Ethernet, Group-Async, Loopback, or Virtual-Template. This setting specifies from which interface the IP or MAC address should be retrieved to define the unique ID.

For {dns-reverse | ipaddress | mac-address} enter dns-reverse to retrieve the hostname and assign it as the unique ID, enter ipaddress to use the IP address, or enter mac-address to use the MAC address as the unique ID.

(Optional) Enter event to set the ID to be the event-id value used to identify the switch.

For {hardware-serial | hostname| string string}, enter hardware-serial to set the switch serial number as the unique ID, enter hostname (the default) to select the switch hostname as the unique ID, or enter an arbitrary text string for string string as the unique ID.

Step 8 

cns config initial {ip-address | hostname} [port-number] [event] [no-persist] [page page] [source ip-address] [syntax-check]

Enable the Cisco IOS agent, and initiate an initial configuration.

For {ip-address | hostname}, enter the IP address or the hostname of the configuration server.

(Optional) For port-number, enter the port number of the configuration server. The default port number is 80.

(Optional) Enable event for configuration success, failure, or warning messages when the configuration is finished.

(Optional) Enable no-persist to suppress the automatic writing to NVRAM of the configuration pulled as a result of entering the cns config initial global configuration command. If the no-persist keyword is not entered, using the cns config initial command causes the resultant configuration to be automatically written to NVRAM.

(Optional) For page page, enter the web page of the initial configuration. The default is /Config/config/asp.

(Optional) Enter source ip-address to use for source IP address.

(Optional) Enable syntax-check to check the syntax when this parameter is entered.

Note Though visible in the command-line help string, the encrypt keyword is not supported.

Step 9 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 10 

show cns config connections

Verify information about the configuration agent.

Step 11 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

To disable the CNS Cisco IOS agent, use the no cns config initial {ip-address | hostname} global configuration command.

This example shows how to configure an initial configuration on a remote switch. The switch hostname is the unique ID. The Cisco Configuration Engine IP address is 172.28.129.22.

Switch(config)# cns config connect-intf serial ping-interval 1 retries 1
Switch(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip address negotiated
Switch(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli encapsulation ppp
Switch(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli ip directed-broadcast
Switch(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli no keepalive
Switch(config-cns-conn-if)# config-cli no shutdown
Switch(config-cns-conn-if)# exit
Switch(config)# hostname RemoteSwitch
RemoteSwitch(config)# ip route 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 11.11.11.1
RemoteSwitch(config)# cns id Ethernet 0 ipaddress
RemoteSwitch(config)# cns config initial 10.1.1.1 no-persist

Enabling a Partial Configuration

Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable the Cisco IOS agent and to initiate a partial configuration on the switch:

 
Command
Purpose

Step 1 

configure terminal

Enter global configuration mode.

Step 2 

cns config partial {ip-address | hostname} [port-number] [source ip-address]

Enable the configuration agent, and initiate a partial configuration.

For {ip-address | hostname}, enter the IP address or the hostname of the configuration server.

(Optional) For port-number, enter the port number of the configuration server. The default port number is 80.

(Optional) Enter source ip-address to use for the source IP address.

Note Though visible in the command-line help string, the encrypt keyword is not supported.

Step 3 

end

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Step 4 

show cns config stats
or
show cns config outstanding

Verify information about the configuration agent.

Step 5 

show running-config

Verify your entries.

Step 6 

copy running-config startup-config

(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.

To disable the Cisco IOS agent, use the no cns config partial {ip-address | hostname} global configuration command. To cancel a partial configuration, use the cns config cancel privileged EXEC command.

Displaying CNS Configuration

You can use the privileged EXEC commands in Table 4-2 to display CNS configuration information.

Table 4-2 Displaying CNS Configuration 

Command
Purpose

show cns config connections

Displays the status of the CNS Cisco IOS agent connections.

show cns config outstanding

Displays information about incremental (partial) CNS configurations that have started but are not yet completed.

show cns config stats

Displays statistics about the Cisco IOS agent.

show cns event connections

Displays the status of the CNS event agent connections.

show cns event stats

Displays statistics about the CNS event agent.

show cns event subject

Displays a list of event agent subjects that are subscribed to by applications.